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Blackstone, William Firmatus, William Holman Hunt, William I of Bures, William I of Guelders and Jülich, William I, Landgrave of Lower Hesse, William II Jordan, William II Longespée, William II, Lord of Béthune, William III of Mâcon, William IV of Saint Omer, William IV, Count of Nevers, William IX, Duke of Aquitaine, William Kurelek, William Prowting Roberts, William the Old, William V of Montpellier, William V of Saint Omer, William Wilde, Willibald, World Day of Peace, World tour of Ulysses S. Grant, Wurmbrand-Stuppach, Yaakov Abuhatzeira, Ye Olde Trip to Jerusalem, Yecapixtla, Yeghishe Tourian of Jerusalem, Yehuda Ashlag, Yevgeny Golubinsky, Yisroel Halpern, Yitzchok Sternhartz, Yohanna Barnaba Abdallah, Yosef Tunkel, Zealot Temple Siege, Zealots, Zeira, Zeno brothers, Zerubbabel, Zionism, Zundel Salant, Zvi Hirsch Kalischer, Zwiefalten Abbey, 1095, 1212, 1217, 1270s, 1274, 1291, 12th century, 1840s, 1844, 1858 in art, 1890, 1890 in archaeology, 2014 in Vatican City, 327, 384, 441, 565, 7th Portuguese India Armada (Almeida, 1505). Expand index (1606 more) » « Shrink index
"A land without a people for a people without a land" is a widely cited phrase associated with the movement to establish a Jewish homeland in Palestine during the 19th and 20th centuries.
A Letter of Mary is the third in the Mary Russell mystery series of novels by Laurie R. King.
A Rare Benedictine: The Advent of Brother Cadfael is a collection of three short stories by Ellis Peters, featuring her medieval detective, Brother Cadfael, first published in 1988.
The Abbey of the Minoresses of St.
Abbot, meaning father, is an ecclesiastical title given to the male head of a monastery in various traditions, including Christianity.
Abraham ben Samuel Abulafia (אברהם בן שמואל אבולעפיה) was the founder of the school of "Prophetic Kabbalah".
Abraham ben Yechiel-Michel Catz Ha Cohen of Lask (Yechiel-Michel was the grandson of the martyr Yechiel-Michel Ha Cohen of Nemirov).
Abraham I of Jerusalem (Armenian: Աբրահամ Ա.) was the first Armenian Patriarch of Jerusalem serving the Armenian Patriarchate of Jerusalem founded in 638 by the Armenian Apostolic Church in the Holy Land.
Abraham ben Meir Ibn Ezra (אַבְרָהָם אִבְּן עֶזְרָא or ראב"ע; ابن عزرا; also known as Abenezra or Aben Ezra, 1089–c.1167) was one of the most distinguished Jewish biblical commentators and philosophers of the Middle Ages.
Ibrahim (ʾIbrāhīm), known as Abraham in the Hebrew Bible, is recognized as a prophet and messenger in Islam of God.
Abraham Ben Alexander Ha-Kohen of Kalisk (1741–1810) was a prominent Chassidic rabbi of the 3rd generation of Chassidic leaders.
Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865.
Abraham Moses Luncz (December 9, 1854–1918) was a Russian scholar and editor born at Kovno, Russia.
Abraham Rapoport (Schrenzel) was a Polish Talmudist; born at Lemberg (currently Lviv, Ukraine) in 1584; died in 1651 (June 7); son of Rabbi Israel Jehiel Rapoport of Cracow and son-in-law of R. Mordecai Schrenzel of Lemberg.
The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as Abrahamism, are a group of Semitic-originated religious communities of faith that claim descent from the practices of the ancient Israelites and the worship of the God of Abraham.
Acheiropoieta (Medieval Greek: ἀχειροποίητα, "made without hand"; singular acheiropoieton) — also called Icons Made Without Hands (and variants) — are Christian icons which are said to have come into existence miraculously, not created by a human.
Adar (אֲדָר; from Akkadian adaru) is the sixth month of the civil year and the twelfth month of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar, roughly corresponding to the month of March in the Gregorian calendar.
Adelardo Cattaneo (died before October 1214) was an Italian cardinal and bishop.
Adelheid von Rothschild (also Adélaïde de Rothschild, 19 August 1853 – 22 June 1935) was a member of the prominent Rothschild family.
Aderald (died 1004) was a canon and archdeacon of Troyes, France, when he led a pilgrimage to the Holy Land.
The Ades Synagogue, (בית הכנסת עדס), also known as the Great Synagogue Ades of the Glorious Aleppo Community, located in Jerusalem's Nachlaot neighborhood, was established by Syrian immigrants in 1901.
Adomnán or Adamnán of Iona (Adamnanus, Adomnanus; 624 – 704), also known as Eunan, was an abbot of Iona Abbey (679–704), hagiographer, statesman, canon jurist, and saint.
Afonso de Albuquerque, Duke of Goa (1453 – 16 December 1515) (also spelled Aphonso or Alfonso), was a Portuguese general, a "great conqueror",, Vol.
Age of Empires II: The Age of Kings is a real-time strategy video game developed by Ensemble Studios and published by Microsoft.
Aglow International is an interdenominational organization of Christian women and men.
Agnes Baldwin Alexander (1875–1971) was an American author and a member of the Bahá'í Faith.
Agnes I (1170 - in 1192 or 1193 in Mailly), Countess of Nevers, Auxerre and Tonnerre (1185-1192), daughter of Guy, Count of Nevers, Auxerre and Tonnerre, and Mathilde de Burgundy, dame of Montpensier.
Agnes of France, renamed Anna (1171 – after 1204) was a Byzantine Empress by marriage to Alexios II Komnenos and Andronikos I Komnenos.
Aicard of Marseilles (1040 – 1113), also known as Aicard of Arles or simply Aicard, was the Archbishop of Arles from 1070 to 1080 and again from 1107 to his death.
Aimé Vingtrinier (31 July 1812 – 8 April 1903) was a French printer, writer, amateur historian, figure of the 19th-century scholar.
Aimery of Lusignan (Aimericus; before 11551 April 1205), erroneously referred to as Amalric or Amaury in earlier scholarship, was the first King of Cyprus, reigning from 1196 to his death.
Alajos Hauszmann (born as Alois Hausmann, June 9, 1847 – July 31, 1926) was an Austro-Hungarian architect, professor, and member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
Alamut (الموت, meaning "eagle's nest") was a mountain fortress located in Alamut region in the South Caspian province of Daylam near the Rudbar region in Persia, approximately 100 km (60 mi) from present-day Tehran.
Alan de Neville (sometimes Alan de Neuville;Crouch Reign of King Stephen p. 153 died c. 1176) was an English nobleman and administrator who held the office of chief forester under King Henry II of England.
Albert of Aix(-la-Chapelle) or Albert of Aachen (floruit circa AD 1100), historian of the First Crusade, was born during the later part of the 11th century, and afterwards became canon (priest) and custos (guardian) of the church of Aachen.
Saint Albert of Jerusalem (Albertus Hierosolymitanus, also Blessed Albert, Albert of Vercelli or Alberto Avogadro; died 14 September 1214) was a canon lawyer.
Albert the Bear (Albrecht der Bär; Adelbertus, Adalbertus, Albertus; 1100 – 18 November 1170) was the first Margrave of Brandenburg (as Albert I) from 1157 to his death and was briefly Duke of Saxony between 1138 and 1142.
Alberto Gori, OFM (ألبيرتو جوري; 9 February 1889 in San Piero Agliana, Italy – 25 November 1970 in Jerusalem, West Bank) was a Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem and Custodian of the Holy Land.
The Albigensian Crusade or the Cathar Crusade (1209–1229) was a 20-year military campaign initiated by Pope Innocent III to eliminate Catharism in Languedoc, in southern France.
Alcácer do Sal is a municipality in Portugal, located in Setúbal District.
Aldfrith (Early Modern Irish: Flann Fína mac Ossu; Latin: Aldfrid, Aldfridus; died 14 December 704 or 705) was king of Northumbria from 685 until his death.
Alexander Susskind ben Moses of Grodno was a kabbalist of the eighteenth century.
The Alexandria Process is a process of active dialogue between religious leaders (Christian, Jewish and Muslim) in the Holy Land to build understanding and work towards peace.
Alfonso (Alphonsus) Salmerón (8 September 1515 – 13 February 1585) was a Spanish biblical scholar, a Catholic priest, and one of the first Jesuits.
Alfonso I (1073/10747 September 1134), called the Battler or the Warrior (el Batallador), was the king of Aragon and Pamplona from 1104 until his death in 1134.
"Aliyah" is the twenty-fifth and final episode of the sixth season of the American police procedural drama NCIS, and the 138th episode overall.
All Hallows-by-the-Tower, also previously dedicated to St Mary the Virgin and sometimes known as All Hallows Barking, is an ancient Anglican church on Byward Street in the City of London, overlooking the Tower of London.
Almogavars (almogávares, almugávares, almogàvers and almogávares) is the name of a class of soldier from many Christian Iberian kingdoms in the later phases of the Reconquista, during the 13th and 14th centuries.
Aloysius Viktor Stepinac (Alojzije Viktor Stepinac, 8 May 1898 – 10 February 1960) was a Croatian prelate of the Catholic Church and war criminal.
Alphonse Marie Louis de Prat de Lamartine, Knight of Pratz (21 October 179028 February 1869), was a French writer, poet and politician who was instrumental in the foundation of the Second Republic and the continuation of the Tricolore as the flag of France.
Altaïr Ibn-La'Ahad (الطائر ابن لا أحد, meaning "The Bird, Son of None") is a fictional character from the Assassin's Creed series of games, a master assassin active during the Third Crusade at Holy Land on 1191.
Alternative Tourism Group (ATG) and Study Center is a Palestinian NGO based in Beit Sahour (Bethlehem).
Amadigi di Gaula (HWV 11) is a "magic" opera in three acts, with music by George Frideric Handel.
Amahl and the Night Visitors is an opera in one act by Gian Carlo Menotti with an original English libretto by the composer.
Amalfi Cathedral (Duomo di Amalfi; Cattedrale di Sant'Andrea) is a 9th-century Roman Catholic cathedral in the Piazza del Duomo, Amalfi, Italy.
Amalric, Lord of Tyre, also called Amalric of Lusignan or Amaury de Lusignan (c. 1272 – June 5, 1310, in Nicosia) was a prince and statesman of the House of Lusignan, a younger son of King Hugh III of Cyprus and Isabella of the House of Ibelin.
The American Colony was a colony established in Jerusalem in 1881 by members of a Christian utopian society led by Anna and Horatio Spafford.
The American Palestine Line was a steamship company, formed in 1924 in the U.S., for the purpose of providing direct passenger service from New York to Palestine.
The American–German Colony (המושבה האמריקאית–גרמנית, HaMoshava HaAmerika'it–Germanit) is a residential neighborhood in the southern part of Tel Aviv-Yafo, Israel.
Amram ben Diwan (died 1782, Ouazzane, Morocco) was a venerated 18th-century rabbi whose tomb has become the site of an annual pilgrimage.
An der Etsch und im Gebirge (German for 'On the Etsch and in the Mountains') was a bailiwick (Ballei) of the Teutonic Order, created about 1260 and headquartered in Bolzano (Bozen), now in the Italian province of South Tyrol, comprising several commandries in the former County of Tyrol and the adjacent Bishopric of Trent.
Anarg Heinrich zu Wildenfels (c. 1490 – 1539), also named Anarg von Wildenfels zu Schönkirchen und Ronneburg, was a court administrator, Protestant reformer, and hymnwriter.
Anastasia Dimitrova (Анастасия Димитрова) (12 May 1815 – 1894) was the first Bulgarian female teacher of the National Revival period.
Metropolitan Anastasius (secular name Alexander Alexeyevich Gribanovsky, Александр Алексеевич Грибановский; August 6, 1873 - May 22, 1965) was a hierarch of the Russian Orthodox Church and the second First Hierarch of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia.
Ancient history is the aggregate of past events, "History" from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the post-classical history.
Andrew II (II., Andrija II., Ondrej II., Андрій II; 117721 September 1235), also known as Andrew of Jerusalem, was King of Hungary and Croatia between 1205 and 1235.
Andrew III of Vitré (c. 1150 † 9 June 1210 or 1211) was Baron de Vitré from 1173 to 1210/11.
Andrew of Hungary (András; 12101233 or 1234) was Prince of Halych between 1227 and 1229, and between 1231 and 1233 or 1234, and Prince of Zvenyhorod in 1226.
Andrew Joseph Ostrowski (born November 7, 1966) is an American freelance writer, author, and media personality.
Andrew Thomson (1814 at Sanquhar – 1901) was a British biographer, well known for his books on the lives of pre-eminent ministers, and for his book on his travels in the Holy Land and noted for his preface to the Scottish poet, Robert Pollok's "Tales of the Covenanters".
Angela Merici, or Angela de Merici (21 March 1474 – 27 January 1540), was an Italian religious educator, who is honoured as a saint by the Catholic Church.
The Angevin Empire (L'Empire Plantagenêt) is a collective exonym referring to the possessions of the Angevin kings of England, who also held lands in France, during the 12th and 13th centuries.
The Anglican-German Bishopric in Jerusalem was an episcopal see founded in Jerusalem in the nineteenth century by joint agreement of the Anglican Church of England and the united Evangelical Church in Prussia.
Christianity has not generally practised aniconism, or the avoidance or prohibition of types of images, but has had an active tradition of making and venerating images of God and other religious figures.
The Bible names over 120 species of animals by current interpretive standards.
Anita Frances Mason (born 1942) is an English novelist, best known as a former Booker Prize nominee.
Anjou (Andegavia) is a historical province of France straddling the lower Loire River.
Anna Jagiellon (12 March 1476 – 12 August 1503), was a Polish princess member of the Jagiellonian dynasty and by marriage Duchess of Pomerania.
Anna May-Rychter (1864–1955) was an early 20th century realist painter best remembered for her watercolors of the Holy Land.
The Piacenza Pilgrim or the Anonymous Pilgrim of Piacenza, was a sixth-century Christian pilgrim from Piacenza in northern Italy who traveled to the Holy Land at the height of Byzantine rule in the 570s and wrote a narrative of his pilgrimage.
Anorexia mirabilis literally means "miraculous lack of appetite".
Anselm (died 1148) was a medieval bishop of London whose election was quashed by Pope Innocent II.
Anthony le Flamenc (Antoine le Flamenc, Antonio Fiammengo, Antonius Flamengo, Αντώνιος Λε Φλαμά) was an early 14th-century Frankish knight and lord of Karditsa (now Akraifnio) in the region of Boeotia, in the Duchy of Athens.
Patriarch Moran Mor Anthony III Peter Khoraish (September 20, 1907, Ain Ebel, Lebanon - died on August 19, 1994, Beirut, Lebanon), (or Antonios Boutros Khoraish, Antoine Pierre Khreich, Khraish, Khoraiche, أنطونيوس الثالث بطرس خريش), was the 75th Maronite Patriarch of Antioch and the Whole Levant from 1975 until his resignation in 1986, and a cardinal of the Catholic Church.
Anti-Zionism is opposition to Zionism.
Antiochian Greek Christians, also known as Rûm, are an Arabic-speaking ethnoreligious Christian group from the Levant region.
Antiochus of Palestine, also known as Antiochus the Monk, was a 7th-century monk and an author of the Pandektes, a collection of moral sentences.
Gregory VIII (died 1137), born Mauritius Burdinus (Maurice Bourdin), was antipope from 10 March 1118 until 22 April 1121.
Antoine Régnault (16th century) was a French merchant and bourgeois from Paris, as well as a writer.
Antonio Franco (born Puglianello, Italy, 24 March 1937) is a Vatican diplomat.
Sefer Zerubavel, also called the Book of Zerubbabel or the Apocalypse of Zerubbabel, is a medieval Hebrew apocalypse written at the beginning of the 7th century in the style of biblical visions (e.g. Daniel, Ezekiel) placed into the mouth of Zerubbabel, the last descendant of the Davidic line to take a prominent part in Israel's history, who laid the foundation of the Second Temple in the 6th century BCE.
In Catholicism, an apostolic see is any episcopal see whose foundation is attributed to one or more of the apostles of Jesus.
Apostolos Andreas Monastery (Apostolos Andreas Manastırı; Απόστολος Ανδρέας) is a monastery situated just south of Cape Apostolos Andreas, the north-easternmost point of the island of Cyprus, in Rizokarpaso in the Karpass Peninsula.
Appointment with Death is a 1988 British mystery film made by Golan-Globus Productions and produced and directed by Michael Winner.
Arab Christians (مسيحيون عرب Masīḥiyyūn ʿArab) are Arabs of the Christian faith.
Arculf (later 7th century) was a Frankish Bishop who toured the Levant in around 680.
Arghun Khan a.k.a. Argon (Mongolian Cyrillic: Аргун хан; c. 1258 – 7 March 1291) was the fourth ruler of the Mongol empire's Ilkhanate, from 1284 to 1291.
Fra Armando Pierucci (born 3 September 1935 in Moie, Italy) is a Franciscan musician.
Zakarid Armenia (Զաքարյան Հայաստան Zakaryan Hayastan), was an Armenian principality between 1201 and 1360, ruled by the Mkhargrdzeli-Zakarian dynasty.
The Armenian Catholic Patriarchal Exarchate of Jerusalem and Amman (colloquially Jerusalem of the Armenians) is the missionary pre-diocesan jurisdiction of the Armenian Catholic Church sui iuris (Eastern Catholic, Armenian Rite in Armenian language) in the Holy Land (Palestine/Israel) and (Trans)Jordan.
The Armenian Patriarchate of Jerusalem also known as the Armenian Patriarchate of Sts.
Like most communities of the Armenian Diaspora, the Armenian-Cypriot community is predominantly Armenian Apostolic (about 95%).
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
Armenians in Cyprus or Armenian-Cypriots (Կիպրահայեր, Αρμενοκύπριοι, Kıbrıs Ermenileri) are ethnic Armenians who live in Cyprus.
The Armenians in the Middle East are mostly concentrated in Iran, Lebanon, Cyprus, Syria, Jordan, and Palestine, although well-established communities exist in Iraq, Egypt, Turkey, and other countries of the area.
Arn – The Knight Templar (Arn - Tempelriddaren) is an epic film based on Jan Guillou's trilogy about the fictional Swedish Knight Templar Arn Magnusson.
Arnulf de Montgomery (born c.1066; died 1118×1122) was an Anglo-Norman magnate.
Around the World in 80 Treasures is a 10 episode art and travel documentary series by the BBC, presented by Dan Cruickshank, and originally aired in February, March, and April 2005.
Arsenije III Čarnojević (Арсеније III Чарнојевић, 1633 – 27 October 1706) was the Archbishop of Peć and Serbian Patriarch from 1674 to his death in 1706.
Arsenios the Cappadocian (Greek: Ὅσιος Ἀρσένιος ὁ Καππαδόκης 1840–1924) was born around 1840 in Kephalochori, one of the six Christian villages of the region of Pharasa of Cappadocia an early center of the Eastern Christianity.
Crusader Art is mainly viewed as a mixture of western and eastern art traditions which is due primarily to many different backgrounds of the artists.
Arthur James Balfour, 1st Earl of Balfour, (25 July 184819 March 1930) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1902 to 1905.
Arthur I (Arzhur Iañ; Arthur Ier de Bretagne) (29 March 1187 – probably 1203) was 4th Earl of Richmond and Duke of Brittany between 1196 and 1203.
Arthur Penrhyn Stanley, (13 December 1815 – 18 July 1881), known as Dean Stanley, was an English churchman and academic.
Arthur-Ali Rhoné (14 March 1836 – 7 June 1910) was a wealthy amateur French Arabist and Egyptologist.
Ashkelon (also spelled Ashqelon and Ascalon; help; عَسْقَلَان) is a coastal city in the Southern District of Israel on the Mediterranean coast, south of Tel Aviv, and north of the border with the Gaza Strip.
Assassin's Creed is an action-adventure video game developed by Ubisoft Montreal and published by Ubisoft.
Order of Assassins or simply Assassins (أساسين asāsīn, حشاشین Hashâshīn) is the common name used to refer to an Islamic sect formally known as the Nizari Ismailis.
The Holy Land Association (Associazione di Terra Santa, or ATS) is the non-governmental charitable organisation of the Custody of the Holy Land.
Atyusz (also Oghuz or Ochuz) was the name of a gens (Latin for "clan"; nemzetség in Hungarian) in the Kingdom of Hungary, several prominent secular dignitaries came from this kindred.
Austorc de Segret or Austau de Segret (fl. 1270) was an Auvergnat troubadour with only one surviving sirventes, "No sai quim so, tan sui desconoissens".
An autobiography (from the Greek, αὐτός-autos self + βίος-bios life + γράφειν-graphein to write) is a self-written account of the life of oneself.
Avesgaud (Latin Avesgaudus) (died c. 1036) was a French nobleman, a member of the powerful House of Bellême and was the Bishop of Le Mans from 997 until his death.
The Avignon Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1376 during which seven successive popes resided in Avignon (then in the Kingdom of Arles, part of the Holy Roman Empire, now in France) rather than in Rome.
Avrohom Yaakov Friedman (October 28, 1820Friedman, Yisroel. The Golden Dynasty: Ruzhin, the royal house of Chassidus. Jerusalem: The Kest-Lebovits Jewish Heritage and Roots Library, 2nd English edition, 2000, p. 21. – September 12, 1883) was the first Rebbe of the Sadigura Hasidic dynasty.
Aya Tekla Church (Ἁγία Θέκλα, Hagia Thékla; Aya Tekla Kilisesi), also known as Aya Thecla or Aya Thekla, is a ruined historic church of the Byzantine period.
Izz al-Din AybakThe name Aybeg or Aibak or Aybak is a combination of two Turkic words, "Ay".
Aylesford is a village and civil parish on the River Medway in Kent, 4 miles NW of Maidstone in England.
Blessed Álvaro del Portillo y Diez de Sollano (11 March 1914 – 23 March 1994) was a Spanish engineer and Roman Catholic bishop.
Öljeitü, Oljeitu, Olcayto or Uljeitu, Öljaitu, Ölziit (Öljeitü Ilkhan, Өлзийт хаан), also known as Muhammad Khodabandeh (محمد خدابنده - اولجایتو, khodābandeh from Persian meaning the "slave of God" or "servant of God"; 1280 – December 16, 1316), was the eighth Ilkhanid dynasty ruler from 1304 to 1316 in Tabriz, Iran.
Örvar-Oddr (Old Norse Örvar-Oddr, "Arrow-Odd" or "Arrow's Point") is a legendary hero about whom an anonymous Icelander wrote a fornaldarsaga in the latter part of the 13th century.
Þórðr Sjáreksson was an 11th-century Icelandic skald.
Back in Line is an album by British folk rock band Steeleye Span.
Bagimonds Roll was a roll used for taxation in Scotland.
The Bailiwick of Utrecht of the Teutonic Order (Ridderlijke Duitse Orde Balije van Utrecht) is a charity based in Utrecht, Netherlands.
Baldwin II, also known as Baldwin of Bourcq or Bourg (Baudouin; died 21 August 1131), was Count of Edessa from 1100 to 1118, and King of Jerusalem from 1118 until his death.
Baldwin of Forde or FordSharpe Handlist of Latin Writers pp.
Balsall Preceptory in Warwickshire was a manor that was given to the Knights Templars in recognition of their service in the Crusades.
Balthasar Walther (1558 – c. 1631) was a Silesian physician and Christian Kabbalist of German ethnicity.
Bargil Pixner (March 23, 1921 – April 5, 2002) was an ethnically German Italian monk of the Order of Saint Benedict, Biblical scholar and archaeologist, and Benedictine authority on the Dead Sea Scrolls.
Barletta is a city, comune and capoluogo together with Andria and Trani of Apulia, in south eastern Italy.
The title Baron Ferrers of Chartley was created on 6 February 1299 for John de Ferrers, son of Robert de Ferrers, 6th Earl of Derby.
Barthélémy de Maraclée was Lord of Maraclea, also known as Khrab Marqiya, a small coastal Crusader town and a castle in the Levant, between Tortosa and Baniyas (Buluniyas).
Blessed Bartholomew di Braganca (or Bartholomew of Vicenza) (c. 1200 – 1 July 1271) was an Italian Dominican friar and bishop.
Grand Rabbi Baruch Yehoshua Yerachmiel Rabinovich (1914–1997), was born into a distinguished chassidic dynasty, and succeeded to the title Munkacser Rebbe.
Basil Hayden's is the lightest bodied bourbon whiskey in the family of Jim Beam small batch bourbons produced by Beam Suntory.
The Basilica della Santa Casa (Basilica of the Holy House) is a shrine of Marian pilgrimage in Loreto, Italy.
The Basilica of Sant'Eustorgio is a church in Milan in northern Italy, which is in the Basilicas Park city park.
The Basilica of the Holy Blood (Heilig-Bloedbasiliek, Basilique du Saint-Sang) is a Roman Catholic basilica in Bruges, Belgium.
Bata Kindai Amgoza ibn LoBagola (1877–1947) was an early 20th-century American impostor and entertainer who presented an exoticized identity as a native of Africa, when in reality he was born Joseph Howard Lee in Baltimore, Maryland.
Batanaea or Batanea (the Hellenized/Latinised form of Bashan) was an area of the Biblical Holy Land, north-east of the Jordan River, to the west of Trachonitis.
The Battle of Ain Jalut (Ayn Jalut, in Arabic: عين جالوت, the "Spring of Goliath", or Harod Spring, in Hebrew: מעין חרוד) took place in September 1260 between Muslim Mamluks and the Mongols in the southeastern Galilee, in the Jezreel Valley, in the vicinity of Nazareth, not far from the site of Zir'in.
The Battle of Alnwick (1174) is one of two battles fought near the town of Alnwick, in Northumberland, England.
The Battle of Beroia (modern Stara Zagora) was fought in 1122 between the Pechenegs and the Byzantine Empire under Emperor John II Komnenos (r. 1118–1143) in what is now Bulgaria.
The Battle of Chios was a naval battle fought off the shore of the eastern Aegean island of Chios between a Latin Christian—mainly Hospitaller—fleet and a Turkish fleet from the Aydinid emirate.
The Battle of Constantinople in 1147 was a large-scale clash between the forces of the Byzantine Empire and the German crusaders of the Second Crusade, led by Conrad III of Germany, fought on the outskirts of the Byzantine capital, Constantinople.
The Battle of Didgori was fought between the armies of the Kingdom of Georgia and the Great Seljuq Empire at the narrow place of Didgori, 40 km west of the Tbilisi, on August 12, 1121.
The second Battle of Dorylaeum took place near Dorylaeum in October 1147, during the Second Crusade.
The Battle of Hattin took place on 4 July 1187, between the Crusader states of the Levant and the forces of the Ayyubid sultan Salah ad-Din, known in the West as Saladin.
The Battle of Holmengrå (Norwegian: Slaget ved Holmengrå) was a naval battle fought on 12 November 1139 near the island Holmengrå south of Hvaler, between the forces of the child kings Sigurd Haraldsson and Inge Haraldsson on the one side, and on the other side the pretender Sigurd Slembe and his ally King Magnus the Blind (by Sigurd's claim his nephew).
The Battle of Iconium (sometimes referred as the Battle of Konya) took place on May 18, 1190 during the Third Crusade, in the expedition of Frederick Barbarossa to the Holy Land.
The Battle of Jaffa took place during the Crusades, as one of a series of campaigns between the army of Sultan Saladin (Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb) and the Crusader forces led by King Richard I of England (known as Richard the Lionheart).
The Battle of Pontlevoy was fought on 6 July 1016 between the forces of Fulk III of Anjou and Herbert I of Maine on one side and Odo II of Blois on the other.
The Battle of Qatwan was fought in September 1141 between the Qara Khitai and the Seljuq Empire and its vassal-state the Kara-Khanids.
The Battle on the Ice (Ледовое побоище, Ledovoye poboish'ye); Schlacht auf dem Eise; Jäälahing; Schlacht auf dem Peipussee) was fought between the Republic of Novgorod led by prince Alexander Nevsky and the crusader army led by the Livonian branch of the Teutonic Knights on April 5, 1242, at Lake Peipus. The battle is notable for having been fought largely on the frozen lake, and this gave the battle its name. The battle was a significant defeat sustained by the crusaders during the Northern Crusades, which were directed against pagans and Eastern Orthodox Christians rather than Muslims in the Holy Land. The Crusaders' defeat in the battle marked the end of their campaigns against the Orthodox Novgorod Republic and other Slavic territories for the next century. The event was glorified in Sergei Eisenstein's historical drama film Alexander Nevsky, released in 1938, which created a popular image of the battle often mistaken for the real events. Sergei Prokofiev turned his score for the film into a concert cantata of the same title, with "The Battle on the Ice" being its longest movement.
Béla III (III., Bela III, Belo III; 114823 April 1196) was King of Hungary and Croatia between 1172 and 1196.
Béla IV (1206 – 3 May 1270) was King of Hungary and Croatia between 1235 and 1270, and Duke of Styria from 1254 to 1258.
Bălți Steppe (Stepa Bălțului), also Beltsy Steppe (Бельцкая степь) is a hilly area with few trees (apart from those near rivers Dniestr, Răut and numerous lakes and creeks), dominated by agriculturally cultivated land, and occasionally by grasses and shrubs, in the northern part of Moldova.
Bělá Castle (Hrad Dolní Bělá) is a castle located in the Plzeň Region of the Czech Republic.
Błonia Park is a vast meadow with an area of 48 hectares directly adjacent to the historic centre of the city of Kraków, Poland.
The BBC Television Shakespeare is a series of British television adaptations of the plays of William Shakespeare, created by Cedric Messina and broadcast by BBC Television.
Behold the Man (1969) is a science fiction novel by British writer Michael Moorcock.
Bellebranche Abbey (Abbaye de Bellebranche) is a former Cistercian monastery located in Saint-Brice, Mayenne, France, founded in 1152 and suppressed during the French Revolution.
Ben-Hur: A Tale of the Christ is a novel by Lew Wallace published by Harper and Brothers on November 12, 1880, and considered "the most influential Christian book of the nineteenth century".
Benedict (Benedek; died November 1276) was a Hungarian prelate in the second half of the 13th century, who served as Archbishop-elect of Esztergom from 1274 until his death.
Benjamin of Tudela (בִּנְיָמִין מִטּוּדֶלָה,; بنيامين التطيلي;‎ Tudela, Kingdom of Navarre, 1130Castile, 1173) was a medieval Jewish traveler who visited Europe, Asia, and Africa in the 12th century.
Saint Bercharius (Bererus; Berchaire) (636 – March 28, 696) was abbot of Hautvillers in Champagne.
Berengaria of Navarre (Berengela, Berenguela, Bérengère; 1165–1170 – 23 December 1230) was Queen of England as the wife of Richard I of England.
Bermudo Pérez de Traba (died 1168), the eldest son of Count Pedro Fróilaz de Traba and his first wife Urraca Fróilaz, was a member of the most important medieval lineage in Galicia.
Bernard of Clairvaux, O.Cist (Bernardus Claraevallensis; 109020 August 1153) was a French abbot and a major leader in the reform of Benedictine monasticism that caused the formation of the Cistercian order.
Berthold of Calabria (Berthold de Malifaye; Bertoldus Calabriensis; died 1195) was a Norman French crusader who established a hermit colony on Mount Carmel in 1185.
Bertram de Verdun was the name of several members of the Norman family of Verdun, native of Avranchin.
Bertran d'Alamanon, also spelled de Lamanon or d'Alamano (fl. 1229–1266), was a Provençal knight and troubadour, and an official, diplomat, and ambassador of the court of the Count of Provence.
Bertrand of Toulouse (or Bertrand of Tripoli) (died 1112) was count of Toulouse, and was the first count of Tripoli to rule in Tripoli itself.
Beth Hamedrash Hagodol New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission (February 28, 1967), p.107, p.22or Beth Hamidrash Hagadol, Beth Hamedrash Hagadol, Beth Midrash Hagadol (בֵּית הַמִּדְרָש הַגָּדוֹל, "Great Study House") is an Orthodox Jewish congregation that for over 120 years was located in a historic building at 60–64 Norfolk Street between Grand and Broome Streets in the Lower East Side neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City.
Bethlem Royal Hospital, also known as St Mary Bethlehem, Bethlehem Hospital and Bedlam, is a psychiatric hospital in London.
Biblical archaeology involves the recovery and scientific investigation of the material remains of past cultures that can illuminate the periods and descriptions in the Bible, be they from the Old Testament (Tanakh) or from the New Testament, as well as the history and cosmogony of the Judeo-Christian religions.
The Prince-Bishopric of Trent or Bishopric of Trent for short is a former ecclesiastical principality roughly corresponding to the present-day Northern Italian autonomous province of Trentino.
Bjarmaland (also spelt Bjarmland and Bjarmia; Latin: Biarmia or Byarmia; Old English: Beormaland) was a territory mentioned in Norse sagas since the Viking Age and in geographical accounts until the 16th century.
The term Black Madonna or Black Virgin refers to statues or paintings of the Blessed Virgin Mary in which she, and often the infant Jesus, are depicted with black or dark skin.
Bloodgood Haviland Cutter (1817–1906), a descendant of the Haviland family, was a prominent and colorful figure in late nineteenth century Long Island, New York.
The Bocholt Cross (Bocholter Kreuz) is a forked crucifix in St. George's Church in Bocholt, in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia and dates to the early 14th century.
Bogislaw II (– 23 January 1220) was Duke of Pomerania-Stettin from 1187 until his death.
Bohemond VI (–1275), also known as Bohemond the Fair (Bohémond le Beau), was the Prince of Antioch and Count of Tripoli from 1251 until his death.
Bohuslav Hasištejnský z Lobkovic (1461 – 11 November 1510) was a Czech nobleman, writer and humanist of old Bohemian family (later the princes) of Lobkovic.
Bolesław I the Tall (Bolesław I Wysoki) (b. 1127 – d. Leśnica, 7 or 8 December 1201) was a Duke of Wroclaw from 1163 until his death in 1201.
Saint Bonfilius (c. 1040 – c. 1125) was an Italian saint.
The Book of Prophecies (in Spanish, El Libro de las Profecías) is a compilation of apocalyptical religious revelations written by Christopher Columbus towards the end of his life, probably with the assistance of his friend, the Carthusian monk Gaspar Gorricio.
Borgo Santa Lucia, or simply Santa Lucia (italian for Saint Lucy), is an historical rione of Naples, Italy.
Boris (Borisz; 1114 1154), also known as Boris Kalamanos (Βορίσης Καλαμάνος, Борис Коломанович) was a claimant to the Hungarian throne in the middle of the.
The Bowers Museum is an art museum located in Orange County, California.
Bows Against the Barons is a 1934 children's novel by British author Geoffrey Trease, based on the legend of Robin Hood.
Starting in the 12th century, the Margraviate, later Electorate, of Brandenburg was in conflict with the neighboring Duchy of Pomerania over frontier territories claimed by them both, and over the status of the Pomeranian duchy, which Brandenburg claimed as a fief, whereas Pomerania claimed Imperial immediacy.
Brethren is a novel written by Robyn Young set in the ninth and last crusade.
Brindisi (Brindisino: Brìnnisi; Brundisium; translit; Brunda) is a city in the region of Apulia in southern Italy, the capital of the province of Brindisi, on the coast of the Adriatic Sea.
The British Museum, located in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history, art and culture.
The Department of the Middle East, numbering some 330,000 works, forms a significant part of the collections of the British Museum, and the world's largest collection of Mesopotamian antiquities outside Iraq.
The Brotherhood of the Holy Sepulchre, or the Holy Community of the All-Holy Sepulchre, is an Eastern Orthodox monastic fraternity guarding the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and other Christian holy places in the Holy Land, founded in its present form during the British Mandate in Palestine (1920-1948).
Bruno Forte (born 1 August 1949) is an Italian Roman Catholic theologian and ecclesiastic, currently Archbishop of Chieti-Vasto.
Father Bruno Hussar (5 May 1911 – 8 February 1996) was the founder of ''Neve Shalom'' / ''Wahat al-Salam'', which means "Oasis of Peace," an Arab/Jewish village dedicated to coexistence.
The Brunswick Lion (Braunschweiger Löwe) is a monument and the best-known landmark in the German city of Braunschweig (Brunswick).
Budic of Nantes was Count of Nantes from 1005 to his death in 1038.
Frater Burchardus de Monte Sion or Burchard of Mount Sion in English and Burchard de Mont Sion in French also wrongly called Brocard or Bocard, was a German priest, Dominican friar, pilgrim and author probably from Magdeburg in northern Germany, who travelled to the Middle East at the end of the 13th century and wrote his book which under the title Descriptio Terrae Sanctae or "Description of the Holy Land" is of "extraordinary importance".
Burchard von Schwanden (also Burkhard; died 1310) was the 12th Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, serving from 1282 or 1283-1290.
Burton Lazars is a village two miles south-east of Melton Mowbray in Leicestershire having a population of c.450 in 2015.
The Byzantine army of the Komnenian era or Komnenian army was the force established by Byzantine emperor Alexios I Komnenos during the late 11th/early 12th century, and perfected by his successors John II Komnenos and Manuel I Komnenos during the 12th century.
During the 12th century, the civilization of the Byzantine Empire experienced a period of intense change and development.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
The Byzantine Empire or Byzantium is a term conventionally used by historians to describe the Greek ethnic and speaking Roman Empire of the Middle Ages, centered on its capital of Constantinople.
Byzantine silk is silk woven in the Byzantine Empire (Byzantium) from about the fourth century until the Fall of Constantinople in 1453.
A Byzantine–Mongol alliance occurred during the end of the 13th and the beginning of the 14th century between the Byzantine Empire and the Mongol Empire.
The Byzantine–Ottoman wars were a series of decisive conflicts between the Ottoman Turks and Byzantines that led to the final destruction of the Byzantine Empire and the rise of the Ottoman Empire.
Brother Cadfael is the main fictional character in a series of historical murder mysteries written between 1977 and 1994 by the linguist-scholar Edith Pargeter under the name "Ellis Peters".
Caffaro di Rustico da Caschifellone (1080 – c. 1164) was a statesman, diplomat, admiral and historian of the Republic of Genoa.
Calega Panzano, Panzan, or Panza (1229/1230 – after 1313) was a Genoese merchant, politician and man of letters.
Calvary is the hill in Jerusalem where, according to tradition, Jesus was crucified, or a set of religious edifices imitating it, often constructed on hills, sometimes called Sacred Mount or Sacred Mountain.
Calvin Kingsley (8 September 1812 – 6 April 1870) was an American bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church elected in 1864.
Cambusnethan House, or Cambusnethan Priory, in North Lanarkshire, Scotland, was designed by James Gillespie Graham and completed in 1820.
Camillo Agrippa (died 1595?) was a noted fencer, architect, engineer and mathematician of the Renaissance.
The Canons Regular of the Holy Sepulchre were a Catholic religious order of canons regular of the Rule of Saint Augustine said to have been founded in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem, then the capital of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, recognised in 1113 by Papal bull of Pope Paschal II.
A caphar was a toll, or duty imposed by the Turks on the Christian merchants who carried or sent merchandise from Aleppo to Jerusalem.
Saint Caprasius, sometimes Caprasius of Lérins (Caprais) (died 430) was a hermit who lived in Lérins, Provence.
Carlo I Malatesta (June 1368 – 13 September 1429) was an Italian condottiero during the Wars in Lombardy and lord of Rimini, Fano, Cesena and Pesaro.
Carol Mujokoro (born Carol Chivengwa) is a Zimbabwean Christian/gospel music artist and pastor.
Carrickmacross is a town in County Monaghan, Ireland.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Catholic ecumenical councils include 21 councils over a period of some 1900 years.
The Catholic Police Guild (CPG) of England & Wales was founded in 1914 as the Metropolitan and City Catholic Police Guild.
Albania, usually referred to as Caucasian Albania for disambiguation with the modern state of Albania (the endonym is unknownRobert H. Hewsen. "Ethno-History and the Armenian Influence upon the Caucasian Albanians", in: Samuelian, Thomas J. (Ed.), Classical Armenian Culture. Influences and Creativity. Chicago: 1982, pp. 27-40.Bosworth, Clifford E.. Encyclopædia Iranica.), is a name for the historical region of the eastern Caucasus, that existed on the territory of present-day republic of Azerbaijan (where both of its capitals were located) and partially southern Dagestan.
Cecil John Rhodes PC (5 July 1853 – 26 March 1902) was a British businessman, mining magnate and politician in southern Africa who served as Prime Minister of the Cape Colony from 1890 to 1896.
The Chaldean Catholic Territory Dependent on(or Patriarchal Dependency of) the Patriarch of Jerusalem is a missionary pre-diocesan jurisdiction of the Chaldean Catholic Church sui iuris (Eastern Catholic: Chaldean Rite, Syriac language) covering the Holy land (Palestine and Israel).
Chardon de Croisilles or de Reims (fl. 1220–45) was an Old French trouvère and possibly an Occitan troubadour.
Charles Alexander Johns (1811–1874) was a 19th-century British botanist and educator who was the author of a long series of popular books on natural history.
Charles Henry Parrish (April 18, 1859 – May 8, 1931) was a minister and educator in Lexington and Louisville, Kentucky.
General Sir Charles Warren, (7 February 1840 – 21 January 1927) was an officer in the British Royal Engineers.
The Chautauqua Institution is a non-profit education center and summer resort for adults & youth located on 750 acres (3 km²) in Chautauqua, New York, 17 miles (27 km) northwest of Jamestown in the southwestern part of New York State.
Châtillon-sur-Marne is a commune in the Marne department in north-eastern France.
Chess Crusade is a video game of the board game genre developed in 2008 by Slam Games.
Children of Jerusalem is a series of 7 documentary films directed by Beverly Shaffer, a Canadian filmmaker, between 1991 and 1996.
The Children's Crusade was a disastrous popular crusade by European Christians to regain the Holy Land from the Muslims, said to have taken place in 1212.
Chorazin (Korazim; also Karraza, Kh. Karazeh, Chorizim, Kerazeh, Korazin) was an ancient village in northern Galilee, two and a half miles from Capernaum on a hill above the northern shore of the Sea of Galilee.
Christ Church (כנסיית המשיח) is a Protestant-Anglican church located in the town of Nazareth, Israel.
The Anglican Church of Christ Church, Vienna is located in central Vienna, Jaurèsgasse 17-19, off the Rennweg.
Christian Barnekow (24 January 1556 – 21 February 1612) was a Danish noble man, extensive traveller and diplomat.
Christian monasticism is the devotional practice of individuals who live ascetic and typically cloistered lives that are dedicated to Christian worship.
Christianity has a strong tradition of pilgrimages, both to sites relevant to the New Testament narrative (especially in the Holy Land) and to sites associated with later saints or miracles.
Christian symbolism is the use of symbols, including archetypes, acts, artwork or events, by Christianity.
Christian tourism is a subcategory of religious tourism which is geared towards Christians.
Christian Zionism is a belief among some Christians that the return of the Jews to the Holy Land and the establishment of the state of Israel in 1948 were in accordance with Bible prophecy.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
The relationship between Christianity and politics is a historically complex subject and a frequent source of disagreement throughout the history of Christianity, as well as in modern politics between the Christian right and Christian left.
Christianity is one of the recognized religions in Israel and is practiced, as of December 2016, by more than 169,000 Israeli citizens (about 2.0% of the population).
Jordan contains some of the oldest Christian communities in the world, Christians having resided in Jordan after the crucifixion of Jesus Christ early in the 1st century AD.
Christianity in the 11th century is marked primarily by the Great Schism of the Church, which formally divided the State church of the Roman Empire into Eastern (Greek) and Western (Latin) branches.
Christianity in the 12th century was marked by a continuation of the Crusades, namely with the Second Crusade in the Holy Land.
Bibliothèque Nationale de France --> The Eastern Roman (Byzantine) imperial church headed by Constantinople continued to assert its universal authority.
Christianity in the 14th century consisted of an end to the Crusades and a precursor to Protestantism.
Christianity in the 2nd century was largely the time of the Apostolic Fathers who were the students of the apostles of Jesus, though there is some overlap as John the Apostle may have survived into the 2nd century and Clement of Rome is said to have died at the end of the 1st century.
The Western (Latin) and Eastern (Greek) divisions of Christianity began to take on distinctive shape in 7th century Christianity.
The Christianization of Iberia (ქართლის გაქრისტიანება kartlis gakrist'ianeba) refers to the spread of Christianity in an early 4th century by the sermon of Saint Nino in an ancient Georgian kingdom of Kartli, known as Iberia in Classical antiquity, which resulted in declaring it as a state religion by then-pagan King Mirian III of Iberia.
Gottlob Christoph Jonathan Hoffmann (December 2, 1815 – December 8, 1885) was born in Leonberg in the Kingdom of Württemberg, Germany.
Christopher Costigan (12 May 1810 - 26 August 1835) was an Irish priest noted for his geographical exploration of the Jordan River and the Dead Sea.
Church architecture of England refers to the architecture of buildings of Christian churches in England.
The Church of Our Lady of Loreto (Kościół Matki Boskiej Loretańskiej) is an ornate church in Praga, a district of Warsaw, Poland, on the east bank of the Vistula River.
The Church of the Beatitudes (כנסיית הר האושר) is a Roman Catholic church located by the Sea of Galilee near Tabgha and Capernaum in Israel.
The Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Bazylika Grobu Bożego) in Miechów, Poland, is a 14th-century Gothic basilica, with a nave and two aisles, incorporating some 13th-century Romanesque stonework.
The Church of the Multiplication of the Loaves and Fish, shortened to the Church of the Multiplication, is a Roman Catholic church located at Tabgha, on the northwest shore of the Sea of Galilee in Israel.
The Church of the Nativity, also Basilica of the Nativity (كَنِيسَةُ ٱلْمَهْد; Βασιλική της Γεννήσεως; Սուրբ Ծննդյան տաճար; Basilica Nativitatis) is a basilica located in Bethlehem in the West Bank.
The Church of the Primacy of Saint Peter is a Franciscan church located in Tabgha, Israel, on the northwest shore of the Sea of Galilee.
The Lutheran Church of the Redeemer is the second Protestant church in Jerusalem (the first being Christ Church near Jaffa Gate).
The Church of the Seat of Mary, Greek: Ecclesia Kathismatis, from Kathisma "Seat", which is also the name mostly used in literature, was a 5th-century Byzantine church in the Holy Land, located between Jerusalem and Bethlehem.
The Church of the Visitation (formerly Abbey Church of St John in the Woods) in Ein Karem, Jerusalem, honors the visit paid by the Virgin Mary, the mother of Jesus, to Elizabeth, the mother of John the Baptist.
City Line (הקו העירוני, Pronounced: HaKav HaIroni) is the name given to a segment of the Green Line that divided the city of Jerusalem from 1948 to 1967.
A legend that the Georgian royal Bagrationi dynasty were of a Hebrew origin and descended from the David dates back to the family's appearance on the Georgian soil in the latter half of the eight century.
Clan Blackadder is a Scottish clan.
The Douglases are an ancient clan or noble house from the Scottish Lowlands.
Clan Galbraith is a Scottish clan.
Clan Logan is a Scottish clan; two distinct branches of Clan Logan exist, one Highland and the other in Lowland which descends from Sir Robert Logan of Restalrig who married a daughter of Robert II and, in 1400, became Admiral of Scotland.
Clan Sinclair (Clann na Ceàrda) is a Highland Scottish clan who held lands in the north of Scotland, the Orkney Islands, and the Lothians.
Saint Clare of Assisi (July 16, 1194 – August 11, 1253, born Chiara Offreduccio and sometimes spelled Clair, Claire, etc.) is an Italian saint and one of the first followers of Saint Francis of Assisi.
Clarel: A Poem and Pilgrimage in the Holy Land (1876) is an epic poem by American writer Herman Melville, originally published in two volumes.
Clonmel is the county town and largest settlement of County Tipperary, Ireland.
Cloughjordan, officially Cloghjordan, is a town in County Tipperary in Ireland.
A coat of arms is a heraldic visual design on an escutcheon (i.e., shield), surcoat, or tabard.
The coat of arms of the city of Paris (French: Blason de Paris), in its current form, dates back to 1358.
The personal papal coat of arms of Pope Benedict XVI was designed by Archbishop Andrea Cordero Lanza di Montezemolo (who was later created a Cardinal) soon after the papal election in 2005.
Saint Coloman of Stockerau (Colmán; Colomannus; died 18 October 1012) was an Irish saint.
Coloman the Learned, also the Book-Lover or the Bookish (Könyves Kálmán; Koloman; Koloman Učený; 10703February 1116) was King of Hungary from 1095 and King of Croatia from 1097 until his death.
The Colony of Aden or Aden Colony (مستعمرة عدن) was a British Crown colony from 1937 to 1963 located in the south of contemporary Yemen.
Columba Marmion, OSB, born Joseph Aloysius Marmion (April 1, 1858 – January 30, 1923) was a Roman Catholic Benedictine Irish monk and the third Abbot of Maredsous Abbey in Belgium.
This article attempts to summarize and illustrate selected notable representative critical reaction to and commentary on the book Palestine: Peace Not Apartheid (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2006) by former president Jimmy Carter, which has been highly controversial.
The Congregation of Our Lady of Sion (Congrégation de Notre-Dame de Sion, abbreviated by its members as N.D.S.) is composed of two Roman Catholic religious congregations founded in Paris, France.
Conon (3 June 1139 – 28 March 1236) was a Basilian abbot at Naso, Sicily.
The Conquest of Santarém took place on 15 March 1147, when the troops of the Kingdom of Portugal under the leadership of Afonso I of Portugal captured the Almoravid city of Santarém.
Margrave Conrad II of Lusatia, also known as Margrave Konrad II of Landsberg (before 1159 – 6 May 1210), was a member of the House of Wettin.
Conrad III (1093 – 15 February 1152) was the first King of Germany of the Hohenstaufen dynasty.
Conrad of Bavaria (Konrad von Bayern; Corrado di Baviera) (c. 1105 – 17 March 1126 or 1154) was a Cistercian monk, the son of Henry the Black, Duke of Bavaria.
Conrad of Piacenza, T.O.S.F. (Corrado, 1290 – 19 February 1351), was an Italian penitent and hermit of the Third Order of St. Francis, who is venerated as a saint.
Conrad Schick Library is a small research library located at Christ Church in Jerusalem, Israel.
Constance of France (1078 – 14 September 1125) was the daughter of King Philip I of France and Bertha of Holland.
Constance Winifred Savery (31 October 1897 – 2 March 1999) was a British author of fifty novels and children's books, as well as many short stories and articles.
Constantine of Kostenets (Konstantin Kostenechki; born ca. 1380, died after 1431), also known as Constantine the Philosopher (Константин Филозоф), was a medieval Bulgarian scholar, writer and chronicler, who spent most of his life in the Serbian Despotate.
The Consulate General of France in Jerusalem (Consulat Général de France à Jérusalem) began its tumultuous history in the early 17th century.
The cope (known in Latin as pluviale 'rain coat' or cappa 'cape') is a liturgical vestment, more precisely a long mantle or cloak, open in front and fastened at the breast with a band or clasp.
The Cornaro Atlas (Egerton MS 73) is an extensive Venetian collection (c. 1489) of nautical charts and tracts, currently held by the British Library.
Coughton is a small village located between Studley to the North and Alcester, to the South, in the county of Warwickshire, England.
The Council of Clermont was a mixed synod of ecclesiastics and laymen of the Catholic Church, called by Pope Urban II and held from 18 to 28 November 1095 at Clermont, Auvergne, at the time part of the Duchy of Aquitaine.
The Council of Jamnia, presumably held in Yavneh in the Holy Land, was a hypothetical late 1st-century council at which the canon of the Hebrew Bible was formerly believed to have been finalized and which may also have been the occasion when the Jewish authorities decided to exclude believers in Jesus as the Messiah from synagogue attendance, as referenced by interpretations of in the New Testament.
The Council of Vienne was the fifteenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church that met between 1311 and 1312 in Vienne.
Count of Diois / Dyois is a title of nobility, originally in French peerage.
The Count of Toulouse was the ruler of Toulouse during the 8th to 13th centuries.
Counter-castles (Trutzburg or Trotzburg) were built in the Middle Ages to counter the power of a hostile neighbour or as a siege castle, i.e. a fortified base from which attacks could be launched on a nearby enemy castle.
The County of Flanders (Graafschap Vlaanderen, Comté de Flandre) was a historic territory in the Low Countries.
The County of Valentinois was a fiefdom within Dauphiné Viennois (formerly in southeast France at Italy) and was a part of the Holy Roman Empire from 1032 until the sixteenth century.
Covenant-breaker is a term used by Bahá'ís to refer to a person who has been excommunicated from the Bahá'í community for the act of covenant-breaking, roughly defined as active opposition to the Bahá'í Faith from a current member.
A crescent shape (British English also) is a symbol or emblem used to represent the lunar phase in the first quarter (the "sickle moon"), or by extension a symbol representing the Moon itself.
The Crimean War (or translation) was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia.
Criticism of the Catholic Church includes the observations made about the current or historical Catholic Church, in its actions, teachings, omissions, structure, or nature.
Cross In Hand is a small village outside Heathfield town to its west, in the Wealden District situated in East Sussex.
Crucifixions and crucifixes have appeared in the arts and popular culture from before the era of the pagan Roman Empire.
The Crusade of 1101 was a minor crusade of three separate movements, organized in 1100 and 1101 in the successful aftermath of the First Crusade.
The Crusade of 1197, also known as the Crusade of Henry VI (Kreuzzug Heinrichs VI.) or the German Crusade (Deutscher Kreuzzug) was a crusade launched by the Hohenstaufen emperor Henry VI in response to the aborted attempt of his father, Emperor Frederick Barbarossa during the Third Crusade in 1189–90.
The Crusade of the Poor was an unauthorised military expedition—one of the so-called "popular crusades"—undertaken in the spring and summer of 1309 by members of the lower classes from England, Brabant, northern France and the German Rhineland.
The Crusader states, also known as Outremer, were a number of mostly 12th- and 13th-century feudal Christian states created by Western European crusaders in Asia Minor, Greece and the Holy Land, and during the Northern Crusades in the eastern Baltic area.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
The Crusades trilogy is a series of novels about the fictional character of Arn Magnusson.
The Fratres Cruciferi (cross-bearing brethren) are a Roman Catholic religious order.
Cultural Zionism (צִיּוֹנוּת רוּחָנִית, translit. Tsiyonut ruchanit) is a strain of the concept of Zionism that values creating a Jewish state with its own secular Jewish culture and history, including language and historical roots, rather than other Zionist ideas such as political Zionism.
The Custody of the Holy Land (Latin: Custodia Terræ Sanctæ) is a custodian priory of the Franciscan order in Jerusalem, founded as Province of the Holy Land in 1217 by Saint Francis of Assisi, who also founded the Franciscan Order.
Cyprus-Polish relations are foreign relations between Cyprus and Poland.
Damanhur (دمنهور,; Egyptian: Dmỉ-n-Ḥr.w ; Ⲡⲓϯⲙⲓⲛ̀ϩⲱⲣ; Ἑρμοῦ πόλις μικρά) is a city in Lower Egypt, and the capital of the Beheira Governorate.
Damour river or (Nahr Al Damour) is a coastal river in the Mount Lebanon Governorate in Lebanon.
Daniel "Dan" Gibson (born 1956) is a self-published Canadian author studying the early history of Arabia and Islam.
Daniel Hansen Ludlow (March 17, 1924 – February 14, 2009) was a professor of religion at Brigham Young University (BYU) in Provo, Utah.
Daniel "Danny" Seaman (born 1961) is an Israeli media professional and former civil servant, mainly active in the fields of foreign service and public diplomacy (hasbara).
Daniel the Traveller (or Daniel the Pilgrim or Daniel of Kiev, Даниил Паломник), was the first travel writer from Kievan Rus.
Saint Daniele Comboni (15 March 1831 – 10 October 1881) was an Italian Roman Catholic bishop who served in the missions in Africa and was the founder of both the Comboni Missionaries of the Heart of Jesus and the Comboni Missionary Sisters.
The David Baazov Museum of History of Jews of Georgia is a principal museum of the Jewish history and culture in Tbilisi, Georgia.
David Epley (March 2, 1931 – June 28, 2009) was a minister who broadcast his weekly Christian TV show across the United States in the 1970s and 1980s, after initially gaining recognition through his regular daily broadcasts on more than fifty radio stations.
The biblical David (Dā’ūd or Dāwūd), who was, according to the Hebrew Bible, the second king of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah, reigning in –970 BCE, is also venerated in Islam as a prophet and messenger of God, and as a righteous, divinely-anointed monarch of the ancient United Kingdom of Israel, which itself is revered in Islam.
David O. Dykes (born January 16, 1953) is the Senior Pastor at Green Acres Baptist Church in Tyler, Texas and the author of several Christian books.
David of Ashby (fl. 1260 – 1275) was an English-born Dominican friar who was sent from the Holy Land city of Acre to the Mongol ruler Hulagu in 1260, by the Papal legate Thomas Agni de Lentino.
David Roberts RA (24 October 179625 November 1864) was a Scottish painter.
De locis sanctis (Concerning sacred places) was composed by the Irish monk Adomnán, a copy being presented to King Aldfrith of Northumbria in 698.
The De Piro family, a former Maltese noble family, is a Maltese family of European origins which settled in Malta upon the end of the crusades.
The De Triplici Statu Mundi (About the three states of the world) is a minor work that deals with Eschatology.
The following events occurred in December 1963.
The Della Torre (or Torriani) were an Italian noble family who rose to prominence in Lombardy during the 12th-14th centuries, until they held the lordship of Milan before being ousted by the Visconti.
Saint Demetrios of Thessaloniki (Άγιος Δημήτριος της Θεσσαλονίκης) is a Christian martyr of the early 4th century AD.
Desiderius (Dezső; died 1228) was a prelate in the Kingdom of Hungary in the 12th and 13th centuries, who served as Bishop of Csanád (now Cenad in Romania) between 1202 and 1228.
The Destruction of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre 1009 refers to the destruction of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, churches, synagogues, torah scrolls and other religious artifacts and buildings in and around Jerusalem, which was ordered on 28 September 1009.
The Deutsche Orient-Gesellschaft (German Oriental Society), abbreviated DOG, is a German voluntary association based in Berlin dedicated to the study of the Near East.
The Old Testament is the first section of the two-part Christian Biblical canon; the second section is the New Testament.
Devotional objects (also, devotional articles, devotional souvenirs, devotional artifacts) are religious souvenirs (figurines, pictures, votive candles, books, amulets, and others), owned and carried by the faithful, who see them as imbued with spiritual values, and use them for votive offering.
A devotional medal is a medal issued for religious devotion most commonly associated with Roman Catholic faith, but sometimes used by adherents of the Orthodox and Anglican denominations.
The Dictum of Kenilworth, issued on 31 October 1266, was a pronouncement designed to reconcile the rebels of the Barons' War with the royal government of England.
Several spellings of his names (James, Jacob; Laines, Laynez, Lainez) are in use and some of them can be found in other Wikipedia articles Diego Laynez, S.J. (sometimes spelled Laínez) (Spanish: Diego Laynez), born in 1512 (Almazán, Spain) and died on 19 January 1565 (Rome), was a Spanish Jesuit priest and theologian of Jewish descent, and the second Superior General of the Society of Jesus.
Bistumswappen of Passau.Diepold Count von Berg, also: Theobald, (ca. 1140, - 3 November 1190 in Akkon) was the 11th Bishop of Passau from 1172 to 1190.
The Diocese of Lydda is one of the oldest and most significant Bishoprics of the early Christian Church in the Holy Land, faded under Persian and Arab-Islamic rule, was revived by the Crusaders and remains a Latin Catholic titular see.
Dirk III (also called Dirik or Theodoric) was Count of Holland from 993 to 27 May 1039, until 1005 under regency of his mother.
Dirk VI of Holland (c. 11145 August 1157), also known as Dietrich in German, Thierry in French, and Theodoric in English, was Count of Holland between 1121 and 1157, at first, during his minority, under the regency of his mother Petronilla.
Domenico Michiel was the 35th Doge of Venice.
Dominic from the kindred Miskolc (Miskolc nembeli Domokos; died before 1207) was a Hungarian lord, who served as Judge royal between 1188 and 1193.
Domus Galilaeae or House of Galilee (בית הגליל), located on the peak of Mount of Beatitudes, above and north of Capernaum and the Sea of Galilee, is a Christian meeting place used for seminars and conventions, run by the Neocatechumenal Way.
The House of El Douaihy (also "Al Douaihy" in some cases Doueihy, Douaihi, Doueihi, Dowaihi, Duayhe, Duwayhi', Dwaihy, الدويهي, De Douai), is an important Lebanese and Levantine noble family of French origins of which can be traced up until the 7th century.
A 'Drowning-pit', 'Drowning pool' or 'Murder-hole' was a pit or well dug for the purpose of specifically executing females under Scottish feudal laws.
The Priory Church of St Peter with its monastery (Dunstable Priory) was founded in 1132 by Henry I for Augustinian Canons in Dunstable, Bedfordshire, England.
The Dutch Republic Lion (also known as States Lion) was the badge of the Union of Utrecht, the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands and is a precursor of the current coat of arms of the Kingdom the Netherlands.
Early Byzantine mosaics in the Middle East are a group of Christian mosaics created between the 4th and the 8th centuries in ancient Syria, Palestine and Egypt when the area belonged to the Byzantine Empire.
Early Christianity (generally considered the time period from its origin to the First Council of Nicaea in 325) spread from the Eastern Mediterranean throughout the Roman Empire and beyond.
The earliest known world maps date to classical antiquity, the oldest examples of the 6th to 5th centuries BCE still based on the flat Earth paradigm.
East Asian Jewish communities have existed for many years.
Eastern Christian Monasticism is the life followed by monks and nuns of the Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, the Church of the East and Eastern Catholicism.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
The region around the city of Braga, in modern Portugal, was an important centre for the spreading of Christendom in the Iberian Peninsula.
Venice, which is situated at the far end of the Adriatic Sea, gained large scale profit of the adjacent middle European markets.
An edict of toleration is a declaration, made by a government or ruler and states, that members of a given religion will not be persecuted for engaging in their religious practices and traditions.
Ednyfed Fychan (1170 – 1246), full name Ednyfed Fychan ap Cynwrig, was a Welsh warrior who became seneschal to the Kingdom of Gwynedd in Northern Wales, serving Llywelyn the Great and his son Dafydd ap Llywelyn.
Edward I (17/18 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), also known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots (Malleus Scotorum), was King of England from 1272 to 1307.
Edward Musgrave Blaiklock (6 July 1903 – 26 October 1983) was chair of classics at the University of Auckland from 1947 to 1968, and champion of Christian apologetic literature in New Zealand from the 1950s until his death in 1983.
Edward Thomas Daniell (5 June 1804 – 24 September 1842) was an English landscape painter and etcher.
Edward Troye (born 12 July, 1808 in Lausanne, Switzerland - died 25 July, 1874 in Georgetown, Kentucky), was a painter of American Thoroughbred horses.
Edwin Forrest Sweet (November 21, 1847 – April 2, 1935) was a politician from the U.S. state of Michigan.
Egeria, Etheria or Aetheria was a woman, widely regarded to be the author of a detailed account of a pilgrimage to the Holy Land.
Egyptology (from Egypt and Greek -λογία, -logia. علم المصريات) is the study of ancient Egyptian history, language, literature, religion, architecture and art from the 5th millennium BC until the end of its native religious practices in the 4th century AD.
The Eighth Crusade was a crusade launched by Louis IX of France against the city of Tunis in 1270.
Eilat (help; 'aylaat or 'aylat, also 'Um 'al-Rashrash) is Israel's southernmost city, a busy port and popular resort at the northern tip of the Red Sea, on the Gulf of Aqaba.
The ancient El Ghriba Synagogue (كنيس الغريبة), also known as the Djerba Synagogue, is located on the Tunisian island of Djerba.
Eleanor of Aquitaine (Aliénor d'Aquitaine, Éléonore,; 1124 – 1 April 1204) was queen consort of France (1137–1152) and England (1154–1189) and duchess of Aquitaine in her own right (1137–1204).
Eli Smith (1801–1857) was an American Protestant Missionary and scholar, born at Northford, Conn. He graduated from Yale in 1821 and from Andover Theological Seminary in 1826.
Not to be confused with Elizabeth of Vermandois, Countess of Leicester Elisabeth of Vermandois also known as Isabelle Mabile or Isabelle de Vermandois (1143 – Arras 28 March 1183) was ruling Countess of Vermandois from 1168 to 1182, and also Countess of Flanders by marriage to Philip I, Count of Flanders.
Blessed Elisabetta Sanna (full name Elisabetta Sanna Porcu) (23 April 1788 – 17 February 1857) was an Italian Roman Catholic from Codrongianos Province of Sassari who was an active member of both the Secular Franciscan Order and the Union of the Catholic Apostolate.
Eliza Newton Woolsey Howland (1826 – 1917) was an American author and the wife of Union Army officer Joseph Howland.
Elizabeth Anne Finn (1825–1921) was a British writer and the wife of James Finn, British Consul in Jerusalem, in Ottoman Palestine between 1846 and 1863.
Elton on the Hill is a small Nottinghamshire village and civil parish in the Vale of Belvoir.
The Emirate of Bari was a short-lived Islamic state ruled by non-Arab mawali.
Emma of Hauteville (fl. c. 1080–c. 1120) was a daughter of Robert Guiscard and Alberada of Buonalbergo.
Emmanuel d'Alzon (August 30, 1810 – November 21, 1880) was a leading figure of the Church in France in the 19th century.
Count Engelbert I of Berg (d. July 1189 in Serbia) ruled the County of Berg from 1160 to 1189.
The English Defence League (EDL) is a far-right and counter-jihadist street-based social movement and pressure group in the United Kingdom.
Enno I of East Frisia, count of East Frisia (1 June 1460 – Friedeburg, 19 February 1491) was the eldest son of Ulrich I of East Frisia and Theda Ukena, of a chiefly East Frisian family.
Enrique Gómez Carrillo (February 27, 1873 in Guatemala City – November 29, 1927 in Paris) was a Guatemalan literary critic, writer, journalist and diplomat, and the second husband of the Salvadoran-French writer and artist Consuelo Suncin de Sandoval-Cardenas, later Consuelo Suncin, comtesse de Saint Exupéry, who in turn was his third wife; he had been previously married to intellectual Aurora Caceres and Spanish actress Raquel Meller.
Enrique Simonet Lombardo (February 2, 1866 – April 20, 1927) was a Spanish painter.
Entrée d'Espagne or L'Entrée d'Espagne or Entrée en Espagne (English: "Entry to Spain" or "Entering Spain") is a 14th-century Geneviève Hasenohr and Michel Zink, eds.
Ephraim Deinard (1846–1930) was one of the greatest Hebrew "bookmen" of all time.
Erhard Reuwich (Reeuwijk) was a Dutch artist, as a designer of woodcuts, and a printer, who came from Utrecht but then worked in Mainz.
Eric I (– 10 July 1103), also known as Eric the Good, (Erik Ejegod), was King of Denmark following his brother Olaf I Hunger in 1095.
Saint Erlembald (or Erlembaldo Cotta) (Sanctus Herlembaldus in Latin) (died 15 April 1075) was the political and military leader of the movement known as the pataria in Milan, a movement to reform the clergy and the church in the Ambrosian diocese.
Erlend Haraldsson was joint Earl of Orkney from 1151–1154.
Erling Skakke (1115 – 18 June 1179) was a Norwegian Jarl during the 12th century.
Ermengarde or Erembourg of Maine, also known as Erembourg de la Flèche (died 1126), was Countess of Maine and the Lady of Château-du-Loir from 1110 to 1126.
Ermengol (or Armengol) II (died 1038), called the Pilgrim, was the Count of Urgell from 1011 to his death.
Estragon (affectionately Gogo; he tells Pozzo his name is Adam) is one of the two main characters from Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot.
Ethiopian historiography embodies the ancient, medieval, early modern and modern disciplines of recording the history of Ethiopia, including both native and foreign sources.
Etrog (אֶתְרוֹג, plural: etrogim) is the yellow citron or Citrus medica used by Jewish people during the week-long holiday of Sukkot, as one of the four species.
Euphrosyne of Polotsk (or Polatsk, Połack) (1104–1167) was the granddaughter of a prince of Polotsk, Vseslav, and daughter of Prince Svyatoslav of Polotsk.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Eusebius of Cremona was a 5th century monk, pre-congregational saint, and disciple of Jerome.
Eustace I Garnier, also known as Eustace Grenier or Eustace Granarius (died on 15 June 1123), was lord of Caesarea from before 1110, and lord of Sidon from 1110 to his death.
Eva Bacharach (c. 1580 in Prague – 1651 in Sofia) was a Hebraist and rabbinical scholar.
Arthur Evelyn St.
Everard I of Breteuil (died 12 February 1066), son of Gilduin, Count of Breteuil and Viscount of Chartres, and his wife Emmeline.
Exodus is a 1960 epic film on the founding of the modern State of Israel.
Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds is an early study of crowd psychology by Scottish journalist Charles Mackay, first published in 1841.
Eystein Magnusson (Old Norse: Eysteinn Magnússon, Norwegian: Øystein Magnusson; c. 1088 – 29 August 1123) was King of Norway (as Eystein I) from 1103 to 1123 together with his brothers Sigurd the Crusader and Olaf Magnusson, although since Olaf died before adulthood, only Eystein and Sigurd were effective rulers of the country.
Ezra Stiles (December 10, 1727 – May 12, 1795) was an American academic and educator, a Congregationalist minister, theologian and author.
The 'Ezra-Nama (عزرا نامه) is a Persian versification of the book of Ezra containing midrashic and Iranian legends composed by the Judeo-Persian Shahin.
"Fairest Lord Jesus", also known as "Beautiful Savior", is a Christian hymn.
The Fairy Flag (Scottish Gaelic: Am Bratach Sìth) is an heirloom of the chiefs of Clan MacLeod.
The Fall of Ruad in 1302–3 was one of the culminating events of the Crusades in the Eastern Mediterranean.
The Fall of Tripoli was the capture and destruction of the Crusader state, the County of Tripoli (in what is modern-day Lebanon), by the Muslim Mamluks.
Falquet (or Folquet) de Romans (fl. 1215–1233) was the most famous troubadour attached to the court of Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, where he garnered a high reputation despite the fact that his career began as a jongleur.
The False Waldemar, also known as the Wrong Woldemar († 1356 in Dessau) was an impostor who from 1348 to 1350 was invested with the Mark Brandenburg by Charles IV.
The navy of the Fatimid Caliphate was one of the most developed early Muslim navies and a major force in the central and eastern Mediterranean in the 10th–12th centuries.
The Feast of the Swans was a chivalric celebration of the knighting of 267 men at Westminster Abbey on 22 May 1306.
Fernando Díaz (floruit 1071–1106) was a Spanish nobleman and military leader in the Kingdom of León, the most powerful Asturian magnate of the period.
Feudalism in the Holy Roman Empire was a politico-economic system of relationships between liege lords and enfeoffed vassals (or feudatories) that formed the basis of the social structure within the Holy Roman Empire during the High Middle Ages.
The Fifth Crusade (1217–1221) was an attempt by Western Europeans to reacquire Jerusalem and the rest of the Holy Land by first conquering the powerful Ayyubid state in Egypt.
Filippo Giustini (May 8, 1852 – March 18, 1920) was an Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church.
First aid is the assistance given to any person suffering a sudden illness or injury, with care provided to preserve life, prevent the condition from worsening, or to promote recovery.
The First Council of Lyon (Lyon I) was the thirteenth ecumenical council, as numbered by the Catholic Church, taking place in 1245.
The First Crusade (1095–1099) was the first of a number of crusades that attempted to recapture the Holy Land, called for by Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont in 1095.
Flavia Domitilla, daughter of Domitilla the Younger by an unknown father, perhaps Quintus Petillius Cerialis, had the same name as her mother and her grandmother Domitilla the Elder.
Flóra Majthényi (28 July 1837 - 18 May 1915) was a Hungarian poet.
Sir William Matthew Flinders Petrie, FRS, FBA (3 June 1853 – 28 July 1942), commonly known as Flinders Petrie, was an English Egyptologist and a pioneer of systematic methodology in archaeology and preservation of artifacts.
Florence Louisa Barclay (2 December 1862 – 10 March 1921) was an English romance novelist and short story writer.
The foreign exchange market (Forex, FX, or currency market) is a global decentralized or over-the-counter (OTC) market for the trading of currencies.
The Foreign policy of the Russian Empire covers Russian foreign relations down to 1917.
The fortifications of the town of Rhodes are shaped like a defensive crescent around the medieval town and consist mostly in a modern fortification composed of a huge wall made of an embankment encased in stone, equipped with scarp, bastions, moat, counterscarp and glacis.
The Four Holy Cities is the collective term in Jewish tradition applied to the cities of Jerusalem, Hebron, Safed and, later, Tiberias, the four main centers of Jewish life after the Ottoman conquest of Israel.
François Savary de Brèves (1560, Melay – 22 April 1628, Paris) was a French ambassador of the 16th and 17th centuries as well as an Orientalist.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
The Kingdom of France in the Middle Ages (roughly, from the 9th century to the middle of the 15th century) was marked by the fragmentation of the Carolingian Empire and West Francia (843–987); the expansion of royal control by the House of Capet (987–1328), including their struggles with the virtually independent principalities (duchies and counties, such as the Norman and Angevin regions) that had developed following the Viking invasions and through the piecemeal dismantling of the Carolingian Empire and the creation and extension of administrative/state control (notably under Philip II Augustus and Louis IX) in the 13th century; and the rise of the House of Valois (1328–1589), including the protracted dynastic crisis of the Hundred Years' War with the Kingdom of England (1337–1453) compounded by the catastrophic Black Death epidemic (1348), which laid the seeds for a more centralized and expanded state in the early modern period and the creation of a sense of French identity.
France–Asia relations span a period of more than two millennia, starting in the 6th century BCE with the establishment of Marseille by Greeks from Asia Minor, and continuing in the 3rd century BCE with Gaulish invasions of Asia Minor to form the kingdom of Galatia and Frankish Crusaders forming the Crusader States.
Francesco Suriano (1445-after 1481) was an Italian monk of the Franciscan order, who wrote a guide for travel to the Holy Land.
Francesco Uguccione (or François Hugotion de Aguzzoni) († 14 July 1412) was the Archbishop of Bordeaux from 1384 until his death.
Francis Arundale (9 August 1807 – 9 September 1853) was an English architectural draughtsman.
Francis Egerton, 1st Earl of Ellesmere KG, PC (1 January 1800 – 18 February 1857), known as Lord Francis Leveson-Gower until 1833, was a British politician, writer, traveller and patron of the arts.
Saint Francis of Assisi (San Francesco d'Assisi), born Giovanni di Pietro di Bernardone, informally named as Francesco (1181/11823 October 1226), was an Italian Catholic friar, deacon and preacher.
Francisco Quaresmio or Quaresmi (4 April 1583 – 25 October 1650), better known by his Latin name Franciscus Quaresmius, was an Italian writer and Orientalist.
The Blessed Frédéric Janssoone, O.F.M., (also known as Blessed Frederic of Ghyvelde) (19 November 1838, Ghyvelde, France — 4 August 1916, Montreal, Canada) was a French-born Franciscan friar and Catholic priest who worked in France, Egypt, Palestine and Quebec, where he died.
Frederick William Foy (March 27, 1921December 22, 2010) was an American radio and television announcer and actor, who used Fred Foy as his professional name.
Frederick II, Duke of Legnica (Fryderyk II Legnicki) (12 February 1480 – 17 September 1547), also known as the Great of Legnica (Legnicki Wielki), was a Duke of Legnica from 1488 (until 1495 and 1505 with his brothers), of Brzeg from 1521.
Frederick II (1090 – 6 April 1147), called the One-Eyed, was Duke of Swabia from 1105 until his death, the second from the Hohenstaufen dynasty.
Frederick III (17 January 1463 – 5 May 1525), also known as Frederick the Wise (German Friedrich der Weise), was Elector of Saxony from 1486 to 1525.
Frederick III (21 September 1415 – 19 August 1493), was Holy Roman Emperor from 1452 until his death.
Frederick William Faber C.O. (28 June 1814 – 26 September 1863) was a noted English hymn writer and theologian, who converted from Anglicanism to the Catholic priesthood.
Friedrich XII, Count of Hohenzollern, nickname Friedrich the Oettinger (before 1401 – 1443) was a German nobleman.
Freedom of religion is the freedom to practice religion, change one's religion, mix religions, or to be irreligious.
Frisian participation in the Crusades is attested from the very beginning of the First Crusade, but their presence is only felt substantially during the Fifth Crusade.
The Friso-Hollandic Wars, also called Frisian-Hollandic Wars (Fries-Hollandse Oorlogen, West Frisian: Frysk-Hollânske oarloggen), were a series of short medieval wars (ranging from single battles to entire campaigns) consisting of the attempts made by the counts of Holland to conquer the free Frisian territories, which lay to the north and east of their domain.
Charles Fulton Oursler (January 22, 1893 – May 24, 1952) was an American journalist, playwright, editor and writer.
Gaius Julius Alexander Berenicianus (Γαίος Ιούλιος Αλέξανδρος Βερενικιανός., about 75 – about 150) was a Cilician Prince and second-born son to King Gaius Julius Alexander and Queen Julia Iotapa of Cetis.
Galeotto I Malatesta (1299–1385) was an Italian condottiero, who was lord of Rimini, Fano, Ascoli Piceno, Cesena and Fossombrone.
Garnier de Traînel (or Traisnel; died 14 April 1205) was the bishop of Troyes from 1193 until his death.
Gasper Grima (c.1680–1745) was a minor Maltese mediaeval philosopher who specialised mainly in metaphysics and logic.
Saint Gaudentius (San Gaudenzio di Brescia; died 410) was Bishop of Brescia from 387 until 410, and was a theologian and author of many letters and sermons.
Géza II (II.; Gejza II; Gejza II; 113031 May 1162) was King of Hungary and Croatia from 1141 to 1162.
Góra Kalwaria is a town on the Vistula River in the Mazovian Voivodship, Poland, about southeast of Warsaw.
The Göksu (Turkish for "blue water" also called Geuk Su, Goksu Nehri; medieval Latin: Saleph, Ancient Greek: Καλύκαδνος Calycadnus) is a river on the Taşeli plateau (Turkey).
The colonies of the Republic of Genoa were a series of economic and trade posts in the Mediterranean and Black Seas.
The Genoese Navy (Marineria Genovese), also known as the Genoese Fleet, was the naval contingent of the Republic of Genoa's military.
The Genoese occupation of Rhodes refers to the period between 1248 and late 1249/early 1250 during which the city of Rhodes and parts of the island were under Genoese control.
Geoffrey II of Villehardouin (Geoffroi de Villehardouin) (c. 1195- after May 6, 1246) was the third prince of Achaea (c. 1229-1246).
Geoffrey IV (died August 1190), called the Younger (French Geoffroy le Jeune), was the Lord of Joinville from 1188 until his death on the Third Crusade two years later.
Geoffrey of Langley was an English knight and ambassador of the 13th century.
Geoffroy du Breuil of Vigeois was a 12th-century French chronicler, trained at the Benedictine abbey of Saint-Martial of Limoges, the site of a great early library.
Located in Eastern Europe, Moldova is bordered on the west and southwest by Romania and on the north, south, and east by Ukraine.
Corvette Captain Georg Ludwig Ritter von Trapp (4 April 1880 – 30 May 1947), was an Austro-Hungarian Navy officer.
George Azar (born February 3, 1959 in Philadelphia) is a Lebanese American photojournalist and documentary filmmaker.
Sir George Grove, CB (13 August 1820 – 28 May 1900) was an English writer on music, known as the founding editor of Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians.
George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th Earl of Aberdeen, (28 January 178414 December 1860), styled Lord Haddo from 1791 to 1801, was a British politician, diplomat and landowner, successively a Tory, Conservative and Peelite, who served as Prime Minister from 1852 until 1855 in a coalition between the Whigs and Peelites, with Radical and Irish support.
George V the Brilliant (გიორგი V ბრწყინვალე, Giorgi V Brtskinvale; also translated as the Illustrious, or Magnificent; 1286/1289–1346) was King of Georgia from 1299 to 1302 and again from 1314 until his death.
George William Allan,, (January 9, 1822 – July 24, 1901), was a Canadian lawyer and politician.
The Georgian Golden Age (tr) describes a historical period in the High Middle Ages, spanning from roughly the late 11th to 13th centuries, during which the Kingdom of Georgia reached the peak of its power and development.
A number of wars between the Kingdom of Georgia and the Seljuk Empire were fought from 1075 until 1203 when the last Seljuk invasion of Georgian territory was defeated.
Gerard or Gerard Sagredo (Gellért; Gerardo di Sagredo; 23 April 977/1000 – 24 September 1046) was the first Bishop of Csanád in the Kingdom of Hungary from around 1030 to his death.
Saint Gerard of Lunel (Gérard de Lunel) (San Gerio, Girio) (ca. 1275—1298), also known as Roger of Lunel and as Saint Géri (Gerius), was a French saint.
Blessed Gerard of Villamagna (1174 - 13 May 1242) - known also as Gerard Mecatti and Gerard of Monza - was an Italian Roman Catholic professed member from the Order of Saint John and the Third Order of Saint Francis.
The German Colony (HaMoshava HaGermanit) (המושבה הגרמנית) was established in Haifa in 1868 by the German Templers.
Germans (немци, nemtsi or германци, germantsi) are a minority ethnic group in Bulgaria (Bulgarien).
Gerontissa Gavrielia (Elder Gabriela), also known as Mother Gavrielia (15 October 1897 – 28 March 1992) was a Greek Orthodox nun, known for her care of the poor and sick.
Gertrude of Aldenberg, O.Praem., (c. October 1227 – 13 August 1297) was the daughter of St.
Gervais, Count of Rethel (fl. 11th century) was a French archbishop and nobleman.
Gervase of Bazoches, also known as Gervaise (died May 1108), was Prince of Galilee from 1105 or 1106 to his death.
Giacomo Giuseppe Beltritti (December 23, 1910—November 1, 1992) was an Italian prelate of the Roman Catholic Church.
Giandomenico Martoretta (Mileto 15151560s?) was an Italian Renaissance composer.
Gilbert de Clare, 6th Earl of Hertford, 7th Earl of Gloucester, 3rd Lord of Glamorgan, 9th Lord of Clare (2 September 1243 – 7 December 1295) was a powerful English noble.
Gilbert de Lacy (died after 1163) was a medieval Anglo-Norman baron in England, the grandson of Walter de Lacy who died in 1085.
Gilbert Haven (September 19, 1821 – January 3, 1880) was a Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church, elected in 1872.
Sir Gilbert Talbot of Grafton, KG (1452 – 16 August 1517 or 19 September 1518) was an English Tudor knight, a younger son of John Talbot, 2nd Earl of Shrewsbury and 2nd Earl of Waterford, and Elizabeth Butler.
Gilbert Whitehand (also Gilbert with the White Hand) is a member of Robin Hood's Merry Men about whom next to nothing is known.
Gilles le Vinier (died 1252) was a trouvère from a middle-class family of Arras.
Giorgos Hatzinasios (also spelled Hadjinasios; Γιώργος Χατζηνάσιος,; born 19 January 1942) is a Greek songwriter and composer.
Giovanni Francesco Gemelli Careri (1651–1725) was a seventeenth-century Italian adventurer and traveler.
Gerard I (Girard in French and Catalan, Gerardo in Spanish), called Guinard, was the count of Roussillon from 1102 to his murder in 1113.
Giraut de Bornelh (c. 1138 – 1215), whose first name is also spelled Guiraut and whose toponym as de Borneil or de Borneyll, was a troubadour connected to the castle of the viscount of Limoges.
The Global Anglican Future Conference (GAFCON) was a seven-day conference of conservative Anglican bishops and leaders held in Jerusalem from 22 to 29 June 2008 to address the growing controversy of the divisions in the Anglican Communion, the rise of secularism, as well as concerns with HIV/AIDS and poverty.
The Global Community (GC) is the fictional world government/state described in the ''Left Behind'' series by Tim LaHaye and Jerry B. Jenkins.
This is a glossary of terms used in Christianity.
God's Country and God's Own Country are terms that have been used to describe various countries and regions around the world, usually areas that are sparsely populated, with wide expanses of nature.
Saint Godelieve (also known as Godeleva, Godeliève, Godelina) (Sint-Godelieve) (1052 – 6 July 1070) is a Flemish saint.
Godfrey of Bouillon (18 September 1060 – 18 July 1100) was a Frankish knight and one of the leaders of the First Crusade from 1096 until its conclusion in 1099.
Grace Episcopal Church located at 1011 North 7th Street in Sheboygan, Wisconsin, is an Anglo-Catholic parish of the Episcopal Church, part of the Diocese of Fond du Lac.
Gracia Mendes Nasi (1510-1569), was one of the wealthiest Jewish women of Renaissance Europe.
During the Middle Ages, the Gran Tavola (Italian for "Great Table") was the largest Sienese bank,de Roover, Raymond A., and Larson, Henrietta M. 1999.
Grand Master (Magister generalis; Großmeister) is a title of the supreme head of various orders, including chivalric orders such as military orders and dynastic orders of knighthood.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija), also known as Raška (Serbian Cyrillic: Рашка, Rascia) was a Serb medieval state that comprised parts of what is today Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and southern Dalmatia, being centred in the region of Raška (hence its exonym).
Grandson Castle (Château de Grandson) is a medieval castle in the Swiss municipality of Grandson in the canton of Vaud.
Saint Gratus of Aosta (San Grato di Aosta, Saint Grat d'Aoste) (d. September 7, c. AD 470) was a bishop of Aosta and is the city's patron saint.
The gray wolf (Canis lupus), also known as the timber wolf,Paquet, P. & Carbyn, L. W. (2003).
The Great Academy of Paris (Midrash HaGadol d'Paris) was a 13th-century Talmudic academy in Acre, established by Rabbi Jehiel of Paris.
Great Continental Railway Journeys is a British television documentary series presented by Michael Portillo.
The Great Jubilee in 2000 was a major event in the Roman Catholic Church, held from Christmas Eve (December 24), 1999 to Epiphany (January 6), 2001.
Greccio is an old hilltown and comune of the province of Rieti in the Italian region of Lazio, overhanging the Rieti valley on a spur of the Monti Sabini, a sub-range of the Apennines, about by road northwest of Rieti, the nearest large town.
The Greek citron variety of Citrus medica (κιτριά, אתרוג קורפו or יְוָנִי) was botanically classified by Adolf Engler as the "variety etrog".
The Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch, also known as the Antiochian Orthodox Church (Πατριαρχεῖον Ἀντιοχείας, Patriarcheîon Antiocheías; بطريركية أنطاكية وسائر المشرق للروم الأرثوذكس, Baṭriyarkiyya Anṭākiya wa-Sāʾir al-Mashriq li'l-Rūm al-Urthūdhuks), is an autocephalous Greek Orthodox Church within the wider communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity.
The Eastern Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem (Πατριαρχεῖον Ἱεροσολύμων, Patriarcheîon Hierosolýmōn) or Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem (كنيسة الروم الأرثوذكس في القدس Kanisatt Ar-rum al-Urtudoks fi al-Quds, literally Rûm/Roman Orthodox Church of Jerusalem), and officially called simply the Patriarchate of Jerusalem, is an autocephalous Church within the wider communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity.
The Greek Orthodox Church of the Annunciation, also known as the Church of St.
The Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem or Eastern Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem, officially Patriarch of Jerusalem, is the head bishop of the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem, ranking fourth of nine Patriarchs in the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Gregorio Antonio Maria Salviati (1722–1794) was an Italian Roman Catholic cardinal.
The Guaramid Dynasty or Guramiani (გურამიანი) was the younger branch of the Chosroid royal house of Iberia (Kartli, eastern Georgia).
Guglielmo Embriaco (Latin Guillermus Embriacus, Genoese Ghigærmo de ri Embrieghi, English William the Drunkard; born c. 1040), was a Genoese merchant and military leader who came to the assistance of the Crusader States in the aftermath of the First Crusade.
Guilhem d'Autpol or Daspol (fl. 1265–1270) was a troubadour from Hautpoul in the Languedoc.
Guilhem or Guillem Fabre was a troubadour and burgher from Narbonne.
Guillem or Guilhem Figueira or Figera was a Languedocian jongleur and troubadour from Toulouse active at the court of the Emperor Frederick II in the 1230s.
Guillaume de Sonnac (died 6 April 1250) was Grand Master of the Knights Templar from 1247 to 1250.
Guillaume Postel (25 March 1510 – 6 September 1581) was a French linguist, astronomer, Cabbalist, diplomat, professor, and religious universalist.
The so-called Gunthertuch (‘Gunther's shroud’) is a Byzantine silk tapestry which represents the triumphal return of a Byzantine Emperor from a victorious campaign.
Gustav Bauernfeind (4 September 1848, Sulz am Neckar - 24 December 1904, Jerusalem) was a German painter, illustrator and architect of partly Jewish origin.
In common parlance, "guttural R" is the phenomenon whereby a rhotic consonant (an "R-like" sound) is produced in the back of the vocal tract (usually with the uvula) rather than in the front portion thereof and thus as a guttural consonant.
Guy I (died 1095) was the second lord of Bray and the second lord of Montlhéry (Latin: Monte Leterico).
Guy II of Dampierre (died 18 January 1216) was constable of Champagne, and Lord of Dampierre, Bourbon and Montluçon.
Guy of Lusignan (c. 1150 – 18 July 1194) was a French Poitevin knight, son of Hugh VIII of the Lusignan dynasty.
Guy of Warwick, or Gui de Warewic, is a legendary English hero of Romance popular in England and France from the 13th to 17th centuries.
Guy,(- 1176), was count of Nevers and Auxerre.
Prodan Gligorijević, known simply as Hadži-Prodan (Хаџи-Продан Глигоријевић; 1760–1825) was a Serbian voivode (military commander) in the First Serbian Uprising of the Serbian Revolution, then the Greek War of Independence, against the Ottoman Empire.
Hadži-Ruvim (Хаџи-Рувим; 19 April 1752 – 29 January 1804), born Rafailo Nenadović (Рафаило Ненадовић), was a Serbian Orthodox archimandrite (superior abbot) of the Bogovađa Monastery, near Lajkovac, who was part of a plot to overthrow the Dahije, renegade Janissaries that had taken control of the Sanjak of Smederevo.
Hagarism: The Making of the Islamic World is a 1977 book about the early history of Islam by the historians Patricia Crone and Michael Cook.
Haile Malakot (1824 – 9 November 1855) was Negus of Shewa, a historical region of Ethiopia, from 12 October 1847 until his death.
Haile Selassie I (ቀዳማዊ ኃይለ ሥላሴ, qädamawi haylä səllasé,;, born Ras Tafari Makonnen, was Ethiopia's regent from 1916 to 1930 and emperor from 1930 to 1974.
Haim Arlosoroff (February 23, 1899 – June 16, 1933; also Arlozorov; חיים ארלוזורוב) was a Zionist leader of the Yishuv during the British Mandate for Palestine, prior to the establishment of Israel, and head of the Political Department of the Jewish Agency.
Hajji (sometimes spelled Hadji, Haji, Alhaji, Al hage, Al hag or El-Hajj) is a title which is originally given to a Muslim person who has successfully completed the Hajj to Mecca.
Hallgarten is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Bad Kreuznach district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
The halukka or chalukah (חלוקה) was an organized collection and distribution of charity funds for Jewish residents of the Holy Land.
Harald Sigurdsson (– 25 September 1066), given the epithet Hardrada (harðráði, modern Norwegian: Hardråde, roughly translated as "stern counsel" or "hard ruler") in the sagas, was King of Norway (as Harald III) from 1046 to 1066.
Lady Harriet Kavanagh (13 October 1799 – 14 July 1885) was an Irish artist, traveller, and antiquarian, described as a "woman of high culture and of unusual artistic power." She is thought to be the first Irish female traveller to Egypt.
Hartmann von An der Lan-Hochbrunn, O.F.M., (21 December 1863 – 6 December 1914) was an Austrian Friar Minor and Catholic priest, who worked as a composer, organist and conductor.
Hartwig of Uthlede (died 3 November 1207) was a German nobleman who – as Hartwig II – Prince-Archbishop of Bremen (1185–1190 and de facto again 1192–1207) and one of the originators of the Livonian Crusade.
Hatzis or Chatzis (Χατζής) is a Greek surname with the female version being Hatzi or Chatzi (Χατζή).
Hayton of Corycus (also Hethum, Het'um, and variants; in Armenian known as Հեթում Պատմիչ Hetʿowm Patmičʿ "Hethum the Historian"; c.1240 - c.1310-1320) was a medieval Armenian nobleman, monk and historiographer.
Hazen Adelbert Brattain (also known as H. A. Brattain; September 2, 1864 – September 21, 1930) was an American rancher, banker, and a state legislator from the state of Oregon.
Heinrich Bünting (1545 – 1606) was a Protestant pastor and theologian.
Heinrich von Hohenlohe (died 15 July 1249) was the seventh Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, serving between 1244 and 1249.
Saint Heliodorus (Sant'Eliodoro; died c. 390 AD) was the first bishop of Altinum (Altino) in the 4th century.
The Helmet of Constantine was a helmet or form of helmet worn by the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great, now lost, which featured in his imperial iconography.
Sir Henri-Gustave Joly de Lotbinière, (December 5, 1829 – November 16, 1908) served as the fourth Premier of the Canadian province of Quebec, a federal Cabinet minister, and the seventh Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia.
Henrietta Szold (December 21, 1860 – February 13, 1945) was a U.S. Jewish Zionist leader and founder of Hadassah, the Women's Zionist Organization of America.
Henrique Cymerman Benarroch (born 1959) is an Israeli journalist of Portuguese and Spanish origin who works as a correspondent in the Middle East for SIC, La Vanguardia and Mediaset España, among others.
Henry Duquerry (c.1750-1804) was a leading Irish barrister and politician of the late eighteenth century.
Henry H. Holt (March 27, 1831 – 1898) was a politician from the U. S. state of Michigan.
Henry I, Lord of Mecklenburg (nicknamed the Pilgrim, – 2 January 1302) ruled Mecklenburg from 1264 to 1275 and from 1299 until his death.
Henry IV (1195 – 25 February 1247) was the duke of Limburg and count of Berg from 1226 to his death.
Henry IV, Part 1 is a history play by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written no later than 1597.
Henry IX of Lubin (Henryk IX lubiński; 1369 – between 9 January 1419 and 10 July 1420), was a Duke of Brzeg (Brieg) during 1399–1400 with his brother and since 1400, Duke of Lubin (Lüben), Chojnów (Haynau) and Oława (Ohlau).
Henry of Sandomierz (Henryk Sandomierski) (ca. 1131 – 18 October 1166) was a Duke of Sandomierz since 1138 (titulary) or 1146 (formally) until his death.
Henry the Lion (Heinrich der Löwe; 1129/1131 – 6 August 1195) was a member of the Welf dynasty and Duke of Saxony, as Henry III, from 1142, and Duke of Bavaria, as Henry XII, from 1156, the duchies of which he held until 1180.
Count Henry the Younger of Stolberg (4 January 1467 in Stolberg – 16 December 1508 in Cologne), was Lord of Wernigerode and stadtholder of Friesland.
Henry Canova Vollam Morton (known as H. V. Morton), (26 July 1892 – 18 June 1979) was a journalist and pioneering travel writer from Lancashire, England.
Field Marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, (24 June 1850 – 5 June 1916), was a senior British Army officer and colonial administrator who won notoriety for his imperial campaigns, most especially his scorched earth policy against the Boers and his establishment of concentration camps during the Second Boer War, and later played a central role in the early part of the First World War.
Herman Melville (August 1, 1819 – September 28, 1891) was an American novelist, short story writer, and poet of the American Renaissance period.
Hermann von Salza (or Hermann of Salza; c. 1165 – March 20, 1239) was the fourth Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, serving from 1210 to 1239.
The Hermitage of Santa María de La Piscina (Spanish: Ermita de Santa María de La Piscina) is a hermitage located in San Vicente de la Sonsierra, La Rioja, Spain.
Hervey de Glanvill (fl. c. 1140–50) was an Anglo-Norman nobleman and military leader.
Hierotopy (from ἱερός, sacred + τόπος, place, space) is the creation of sacred spaces viewed as a special form of human creativity and also a related academic field where specific examples of such creativity are studied.
The High Middle Ages, or High Medieval Period, was the period of European history that commenced around 1000 AD and lasted until around 1250 AD.
The Hilandar Monastery (Манастир Хиландар,, Μονή Χιλανδαρίου) is the Serbian Orthodox monastery in Mount Athos in Greece.
Archimandrite Ilarion (Иларио́н, – 29 May, 2008) was a priest of the Russian Orthodox Church.
Hildegund (died 1188) was a German woman who lived under the name Joseph disguised as a male in a monastery.
Armenians have a long history in Cyprus, with the first confirmed presence of Armenians on the island dating back to 578 AD, during the reign of Byzantine Emperor Justin II.
The history of Europe covers the peoples inhabiting Europe from prehistory to the present.
The first written records for the history of France appeared in the Iron Age.
The history of Greece encompasses the history of the territory of the modern nation state of Greece as well as that of the Greek people and the areas they inhabited and ruled historically.
During this period Harringay emerged from the mist of prehistory as a thickly forested area of southern England.
Hungary is a country in Central Europe whose history under this name dates to the Early Middle Ages, when the Pannonian Basin was conquered by the Hungarians (Magyars), a semi-nomadic people who had migrated from Eastern Europe.
Modern Israel is roughly located on the site of the ancient kingdoms of Israel and Judah.
During its long history, Jerusalem has been attacked 52 times, captured and recaptured 44 times, besieged 23 times, and destroyed twice.
Jerusalem was conquered by the Christian First Crusade in 1099, after it had been under the Muslim rule for 450 years.
The history of Jerusalem during the Middle Ages is generally one of decline; beginning as a major city in the Byzantine Empire, Jerusalem prospered during the early centuries of Muslim control (640–969), but under the rule of the Fatimid caliphate (late 10th to 11th centuries) its population declined from about 200,000 to less than half that number by the time of the Christian conquest in 1099.
The history of Lebanon covers the history of the modern Republic of Lebanon and the earlier emergence of Greater Lebanon under the French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon, as well as the previous history of the region, covered by the modern state.
The early domes of the Middle Ages, particularly in those areas recently under Byzantine control, were an extension of earlier Roman architecture.
The history of Palestine is the study of the past in the region of Palestine, generally defined as a geographic region in the Southern Levant between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River (where Israel and Palestine are today), and various adjoining lands.
The Kingdom of Portugal in the 15th century was the first European power to begin building a colonial empire.
History of responsa in Judaism spans a period of 1,700 years.
Sugar is a common part of human life.
Tattooing has been practiced across the globe since at least Neolithic times, as evidenced by mummified preserved skin, ancient art and the archaeological record.
The following article describes the history of the Azores.
This history of the Byzantine Empire covers the history of the Eastern Roman Empire from late antiquity until the Fall of Constantinople in 1453 AD.
The history of the Catholic Church begins with Jesus Christ and His teachings (c. 4 BC – c. AD 30), and the Catholic Church is a continuation of the early Christian community established by Jesus.
The Jewish community of Brody (district city in Lviv region of western Ukraine) was one of the oldest and most well-known Jewish communities in the western part of Ukraine (and formerly in Austrian Empire / Poland up to 1939).
The history of the Jews in England goes back to the reign of William I where the first written record of Jewish settlement in England dates from 1070.
There was a Jewish presence in Oman for many centuries, however, the Jewish community of the country is no longer in existence.
The history of Jews in Saudi Arabia refers to the Jewish history in the areas that are now within the territory of Saudi Arabia.
The history of the Jews in Speyer reaches back over 1,000 years.
The modern history of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) does not reveal a current population of Jews.
The Knights Templar were the elite fighting force of their day, highly trained, well-equipped and highly motivated; one of the tenets of their religious order was that they were forbidden from retreating in battle, unless outnumbered three to one, and even then only by order of their commander, or if the Templar flag went down.
The Mediterranean Sea was the central superhighway of transport, trade and cultural exchange between diverse peoples encompassing three continents: Western Asia, North Africa, and Southern Europe.
Home to the Cradle of Civilization, the Middle East (usually interchangeable with the Near East) has seen many of the world's oldest cultures and civilizations.
The history of the Netherlands is the history of seafaring people thriving on a lowland river delta on the North Sea in northwestern Europe.
The Military Order of Christ (previously Ordem dos Cavaleiros de Nosso Senhor Jesus Cristo "Order of the Knights of Our Lord Jesus Christ") was founded in 1318 as the continuation of the Knights Templar of Tomar, following the suppression of the Templars in 1312.
The history of the world is the history of humanity (or human history), as determined from archaeology, anthropology, genetics, linguistics, and other disciplines; and, for periods since the invention of writing, from recorded history and from secondary sources and studies.
Western civilization traces its roots back to Europe and the Mediterranean.
Zakynthos (Ζάκυνθος, Zante to the Italians, is a Greek island in the Ionian Sea. It is the third largest of the Ionian Islands. Today, Zakynthos is a separate regional unit of the Ionian Islands region, and its only municipality. It covers an area of and its coastline is roughly in length. The name, like all similar names ending in -nthos, is pre-Mycenaean or Pelasgian in origin. In Greek mythology the island was said to be named after Zakynthos, the son of a legendary Arcadian chief Dardanus. Zakynthos is a now tourist destination, with an international airport served by charter flights from northern Europe. The history of Zakynthos is long and complex, even by Greek standards. After the fall of the Byzantine Empire, it has been held by Naples, the Ottoman Turks, Venice, the French, Russians, British, Italians and Germans.
A Hodegetria (Ὁδηγήτρια, literally: "She who shows the Way"; Russian: Одигитрия), or Virgin Hodegetria, is an iconographic depiction of the Theotokos (Virgin Mary) holding the Child Jesus at her side while pointing to Him as the source of salvation for humankind.
The Staufer, also known as the House of Staufen, or of Hohenstaufen, were a dynasty of German kings (1138–1254) during the Middle Ages.
There are sites, which are mentioned or referred to in the Quran, that are considered holy to Islam.
The Holy Face of Lucca (Volto Santo di Lucca) is a venerated wooden corpus (body) of a crucifix in Lucca, Italy.
The Holy Land refers to the land of Israel, sacred to Judaism, Christianity and Islam.
Holy places are sites that religions considers to be of special religious significance.
The Holy See has maintained relations with Palestine since before 1948.
The Holy Thorn Reliquary was probably created in the 1390s in Paris for John, Duke of Berry, to house a relic of the Crown of Thorns.
Holy Trinity Church (Kościół Trójcy Świętej) is an historic church of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Chicago located at 1118 North Noble Street.
Holy Warrior is the second novel of the eight-part Outlaw Chronicles series by British writer of historical fiction, Angus Donald, released on 22 July 2010 through Little, Brown and Company.
The Holy Week in Braga is the most imposing, attractive and famous among all in Portugal, and the most important tourist and religious event in the city of Braga.
Holyrood Church (or Holy Rood Church) was one of the original five churches serving the old walled town of Southampton, England.
The House of Châtillon was a notable French family, with origins in the 9th century and surviving until 1762.
The House of Ibelin was a noble family in the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem in the 12th century.
The house of Limburg Stirum (or Limburg-Styrum), which adopted its name in the 12th century from the sovereign county of Limburg an der Lenne in what is now Germany, is one of the oldest families in Europe.
The House of Lusignan was a royal house of French origin, which at various times ruled several principalities in Europe and the Levant, including the kingdoms of Jerusalem, Cyprus, and Armenia, from the 12th through the 15th centuries during the Middle Ages.
Sir Hugh de Paduinan (1140 – 1189) was a Scoto-Norman baron, Knight Templar and progenitor of the Clan Houston.
Hugh VIII the Old of Lusignan or Hugh III of La Marche (French: Hugues le Vieux) was the eldest son of Hugh VII and of Sarrasine or Saracena de Lezay.
Hugues de Payens or Payns (1070 – 24 May 1136) was the co-founder and first Grand Master of the Knights Templar.
Humbert II de la Tour-du-Pin (1312 – 4 May 1355) was the Dauphin of the Viennois from 1333 to 16 July 1349.
Humphrey (IV) de Bohun (1204 – 24 September 1275) was 2nd Earl of Hereford and 1st Earl of Essex, as well as Constable of England.
The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Plantagenet, rulers of the Kingdom of England, against the House of Valois, over the right to rule the Kingdom of France.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
Hydatius, also spelled Idacius (c. 400 – c. 469), bishop of Aquae Flaviae in the Roman province of Gallaecia (almost certainly the modern Chaves, Portugal, in the modern district of Vila Real) was the author of a chronicle of his own times that provides us with our best evidence for the history of Hispania (that is, the Iberian Peninsula in Roman times) in the 5th century.
Ian David Patrick Macpherson, 3rd Baron Strathcarron (born 31 March 1949 in London, England) is a British peer, Baron Strathcarron of Banchor and inherited the title on the death of his father David William Anthony Blyth Macpherson, 2nd Baron Strathcarron on 31 August 2006.
Ḥájí Mírzá Muḥammad-Taqí (died 1917), known as Ibn-i-Abhar (ابن ابهر), was an eminent follower of Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith.
Saint Ignatius of Loyola (Ignazio Loiolakoa, Ignacio de Loyola; – 31 July 1556) was a Spanish Basque priest and theologian, who founded the religious order called the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) and became its first Superior General.
Ilfeld is a village and a former municipality in the district of Nordhausen, in Thuringia, Germany.
Archimandrite Ilya Denisov (22 January 1893 in Saint Petersburg, Russian Empire – 7 September 1971 in Chicago, United States) was a Russian Greek-Catholic priest.
Ilya Yefimovich Repin (p; Ilja Jefimovitš Repin; r; – 29 September 1930) was a Russian realist painter.
The Immovable Ladder (סולם הסטטוס קוו, lit. "The status quo ladder") (السُّلَّم الثَّابِت, lit. "The stationary ladder") is a wooden ladder located above the entrance, under the window of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in the Old City of Jerusalem.
In multiplicibus curis was an encyclical given by Pope Pius XII on 24 October 1948 at Castel Gandolfo, near Rome, in the tenth year of his pontificate.
Alphabetical list of Eastern Christianity-related articles on English Wikipedia.
This is an alphabetical list of topics related to Islam, the history of Islam, Islamic culture, and the present-day Muslim world, intended to provide inspiration for the creation of new articles and categories.
Zadok · ZAKA · Zealot · Zebah · Zechariah (Hebrew prophet) · Zechariah Ben Jehoiada · Zechariah of Israel · Zefat · Zephaniah · Zikhron Ya'akov · Zion · Zion Mule Corps · Zionism · Zionology · Zohar Jewish history Jewish history topics Category:Judaism-related lists.
The Indian wolf (Canis lupus pallipes) is a subspecies of grey wolf that ranges from Southwest Asia to the Indian Subcontinent.
Inherit the Earth is director Yaky Yosha's first documentary feature.
Inspiration, Please! was an American game show that aired on the Odyssey Channel (now the Hallmark Channel) from October 1, 1995 until 1998.
The Interfaith Encounter Association (IEA) is an Israeli-based non-profit organization.
Isaac Komnenos or Comnenus (Ἰσαάκιος Κομνηνός, Isaakios Komnēnos; 16 January 1093 – after 1152) was the third son of Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos (r. 1081–1118) and Empress Irene Doukaina.
Isaac La Peyrère, also known as Isaac de La Peyrère or Pererius (1596–1676), was a Marrano French Millenarian theologian and formulator of the Pre-Adamite hypothesis.
From the time of the Muhammad, the final prophet of Islam, many Muslim states and empires have been involved in warfare.
Islam is a major religion in Palestine, being the religion of the majority of the Palestinian population.
Islamic calligraphy is the artistic practice of handwriting and calligraphy, based upon the alphabet in the lands sharing a common Islamic cultural heritage.
Islamicjerusalem Studies is a field of Study offered by several academic colleges and universities that focuses on the region of the Holy Land from an Islamic perspective.
Isola di San Clemente (San Clemente Island) is a small island in the Venetian Lagoon in Italy.
The Isra and Mi'raj (الإسراء والمعراج) are the two parts of a Night Journey that, according to Islam, Muhammad took during a single night around the year 621 CE.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Israel is a country in the Middle East.
The origins of Israeli printmaking can be found in the Hebrew-Palestinian print from the second half of the 19th century.
Istifan al-Duwayhi (اسطفانوس الثاني بطرس الدويهي / ALA-LC: Isṭifānūs al-thānī Buṭrus al-Duwayhī; Etienne Douaihi; Stephanus Dovaihi; Stefano El Douaihy; August 2, 1630 – May 3, 1704) was the 57th Patriarch of the Maronite Church, serving from 1670 until his death.
An itinerarium (plural: itineraria) was an Ancient Roman road map in the form of a listing of cities, villages (''vici'') and other stops, with the intervening distances.
The Itinerarium Burdigalense ("Bordeaux Itinerary") — also known as the Itinerarium Hierosolymitanum ("Jerusalem Itinerary") — is the oldest known Christian itinerarium.
Ivanhoe is an historical novel by Sir Walter Scott, first published in 1820 in three volumes and subtitled A Romance.
Ivanhoe is a 1913 American silent adventure/drama film starring King Baggot, Leah Baird, Herbert Brenon, Evelyn Hope, and Walter Craven.
Ivanhoe, the Norman Swordsman (La spada normanna) is a 1971 peplum film directed by Roberto Mauri.
Saint Ivo (also known as Ives) was a Cornish bishop and hermit, and became the eponymous saint of St Ives, Huntingdonshire.
Iyar (אִייָר or אִיָּר, Standard Iyyar Tiberian ʾIyyār; from Akkadian ayyaru, meaning "Rosette; blossom") is the eighth month of the civil year (which starts on 1 Tishrei) and the second month of the ecclesiastical year (which starts on 1 Nisan) on the Hebrew calendar.
Jacint Verdaguer i Santaló (May 17, 1845 – June 10, 1902) was a catalan writer, regarded as one of the greatest poets of Catalan literature and a prominent literary figure of the Renaixença, a cultural revival movement of the late Romantic era.
Jacinto Vera y Durán (3 July 1813 - 6 May 1881) was a Uruguayan Roman Catholic prelate who served as the first Bishop of Montevideo.
Jack J. Clark (September 23, 1879 – April 12, 1947) was an American director and actor of the early motion picture industry.
Jacob Taets van Amerongen (1542 - 4 December 1612) was a land commander of the Utrecht-based order of Teutonic Knights in what are now the Netherlands.
Jacob Ulfeldt (25 June 1567 – 25 June 1630) was a Danish diplomat and explorer and chancellor of King Christian IV of Denmark.
Jacob van Maerlant (c. 1230–40 – c. 1288–1300) was the greatest Flemish poet of the 13th century and one of the most important Middle Dutch authors during the Middle Ages.
Jacques de Molay (c. 1243 – 18 March 1314), also spelt "Molai",Demurger, pp.
Jacques de Vitry (Jacobus de Vitriaco, c. 1160/70 – 1 May 1240) was a French canon regular who was a noted theologian and chronicler of his era.
Jakob Böhme (1575 – 17 November 1624) was a German philosopher, Christian mystic, and Lutheran Protestant theologian.
James Graham (1806–1869) was a Scottish photographer who took some of the earliest images of the Holy Land, where he was sent as lay secretary for the London Society for Promoting Christianity Amongst the Jews.
James I the Conqueror (Jaume el Conqueridor, Chaime lo Conqueridor, Jacme lo Conquistaire, Jaime el Conquistador; 2 February 1208 – 27 July 1276) was King of Aragon, Count of Barcelona, and Lord of Montpellier from 1213 to 1276; King of Majorca from 1231 to 1276; and Valencia from 1238 to 1276.
James I (late July 139421 February 1437), the youngest of three sons, was born in Dunfermline Abbey to King Robert III and his wife Annabella Drummond.
James Koppel Gutheim (November 15, 1817 – May 11, 1886) was the rabbi of Congregation Shangarai Chasset of New Orleans.
James Lockhart of Lee and Carnwath, Count Lockhart-Wishart (Wischeart) of the Holy Roman Empire (1727 – 6 February 1790) was a Scottish aristocrat with a successful military career.
James Calder Macphail (21 February 1821 – 12 February 1908) was a Scottish Free Church minister and Gaelic tutor.
James' Journey to Jerusalem (מסעות ג'יימס בארץ הקודש) is a 2003 Israeli film directed by Ra'anan Alexandrowicz and produced by Renen Schorr.
Jan Amor Tarnowski (Latin: Joannes Tarnovius; 1488 – 16 May 1561) was a Polish nobleman, knight, military commander, military theoretician, and statesman of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland.
Jan van Eyck (before c. 1390 – 9 July 1441) was an Early Netherlandish painter active in Bruges.
Jan van Scorel (1 August 1495 – 6 December 1562) was a Dutch painter, who played a leading role in introducing aspects of Italian Renaissance painting into Dutch and Flemish Renaissance painting.
The following events occurred in January 1964.
Jaroslav Thayer Folda III (b. 25 July 1940 Baltimore, Md.) is a medievalist, in which field he is a Haskins Medal winner; he is a scholar in the history of the art of the Crusades and the N. Ferebee Taylor Professor of the History of Art at the University of North Carolina.
Jayme Alaric de Perpignan was an ambassador sent by Pope Clement IV and James I of Aragon to the Mongol ruler Abaqa Khan in 1267.
Jean de l'Ours or John the Bear, John of the Bear, John-of-the-Bear, John Bear, is the leading character in the French folktale Jean de l'Ours classed as Type 301B in the Aarne-Thompson system; it can also denote any tale of this type.
Jean III de Werchin (1374 – 25 October 1415), called the Good (le Bon), was a knight errant and poet from the County of Hainaut in the Holy Roman Empire.
Jean I de Grailly (died c. 1301) was the seneschal of the Duchy of Gascony from 1266 to 1268, of the Kingdom of Jerusalem from about 1272 until about 1276, and of Gascony again from 1278 until 1286 or 1287.
Jean II de Giblet (died 1315) was a Christian prince of the House of Giblet, an area of the Holy Land, in the 13th-14th century.
Jean II Le Maingre (in Old French, Jehan le Meingre), called Boucicaut (August 28, 1366 — June 21, 1421) was marshal of France and a knight renowned for his military skill.
Jeanne Forain (1865–1954) was a French painter and sculptor.
Jehan de Braine (c. 1200 – 1240) was, jure uxoris, the Count of Mâcon and Vienne from 1224 until his death.
Jerome (Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος; c. 27 March 347 – 30 September 420) was a priest, confessor, theologian, and historian.
Jerotej Račanin (Јеротеј Рачанин; likely the area of Bajina Bašta, c. 1650-Velika Remeta, after 1727) was a Serbian writer and copyist of church manuscripts and books.
For Christians, Jerusalem's role in first-century Christianity, during the ministry of Jesus and the Apostolic Age, as recorded in the New Testament, gives it great importance, in addition to its role in the Old Testament, the Hebrew Bible.
Since the 10th century BCE Jerusalem has been the holiest city, focus and spiritual center of the Jews.
The Jerusalem Talmud (תַּלְמוּד יְרוּשַׁלְמִי, Talmud Yerushalmi, often Yerushalmi for short), also known as the Palestinian Talmud or Talmuda de-Eretz Yisrael (Talmud of the Land of Israel), is a collection of Rabbinic notes on the second-century Jewish oral tradition known as the Mishnah.
Jesús Rueda Ambrosio (born 19 February 1987) is a Spanish professional footballer who plays for Cypriot club APOEL FC as a central defender or defensive midfielder.
Jewish Christians, also Hebrew Christians or Judeo-Christians, are the original members of the Jewish movement that later became Christianity.
The Jewish hat also known as the Jewish cap, Judenhut (German) or Latin pilleus cornutus ("horned skullcap"), was a cone-shaped pointed hat, often white or yellow, worn by Jews in Medieval Europe and some of the Islamic world.
In Judaism, "chosenness" is the belief that the Jews, via descent from the ancient Israelites, are the chosen people, i.e. chosen to be in a covenant with God.
Joachim of Fiore, also known as Joachim of Flora and in Italian Gioacchino da Fiore (c. 1135 – 30 March 1202), was an Italian theologian and the founder of the monastic order of San Giovanni in Fiore.
Joan of Acre (April 1272 – 23 April 1307) was an English princess, a daughter of King Edward I of England and Queen Eleanor of Castile.
Joan of Kent (29 September 1328 – 7 August 1385), known to history as The Fair Maid of Kent, was the mother of King Richard II of England, whom she bore to her third husband Edward, the Black Prince, son and heir of King Edward III.
Joanikije I (Јоаникије I) was the fifth Archbishop of Serbs, serving from 1272 to 1276.
Joanikije II (Јоаникије II; 1337– d. 1354) was the Serbian Archbishop (1338–1346) and first Serbian Patriarch (1346–1354).
Job (Jób; died 1 February 1204) was a Hungarian prelate at the turn of the 12th and 13th centuries, who served as Bishop of Vác from 1181 to 1183, and as Archbishop of Esztergom from 1185 until his death.
Johan and Peewit (Johan et Pirlouit) is a Belgian comics series created by Peyo.
Johan Storm Munch (21 October 1827 – 13 August 1908) was a Norwegian minister who served as pastor to pioneer Lutheran churches in southern Wisconsin from 1855-1859 before returning to Norway and becoming a popular evangelist.
John Ashworth (8 July 1813 – 26 January 1875) was an English preacher, manufacturer, and author.
John Bērziņš (Епископ Иоанн, born Pēteris Bērziņš or Pyotr Leonodovich Berzin, Пётр Леонидович Берзинь; born 16 March 1956, Cooma, NSW, Australia) is bishop of Caracas and South America for the Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia (ROCOR) and head of the church's Old-Rite parishes.
John Cabell Breckinridge (January 16, 1821 – May 17, 1875) was an American lawyer, politician, and soldier.
John Chase Lord, DD, AM (9 August 1805 – 21 January 1877) was an American Presbyterian minister, lawyer, writer, and poet well known for his involvement in the nativist and anti-Catholic movements in Upstate New York during the mid-1800s.
John Denver Faris (born January 18, 1951) is an American Chorbishop of the Syriac Maronite Church of Antioch, serving the Maronite Catholic Eparchy of Saint Maron of Brooklyn, headquartered in Brooklyn, New York.
John de Mowbray, 1st Earl of Nottingham, 5th Baron Mowbray, 6th Baron Segrave (1 August 1365 - 12 January 1383), was an English peer.
John de Mowbray, 4th Baron Mowbray (24 June 1340 – 19 October 1368) was an English peer.
John de Vere, 12th Earl of Oxford (23 April 1408 – 26 February 1462), was the son of Richard de Vere, 11th Earl of Oxford (1385?–15 February 1417), and his second wife, Alice Sergeaux (1386–1452).
John Douglas Woodward (July 12, 1846 – June 5, 1924), usually simply J.D. or Douglas Woodward, was an American landscape artist and illustrator.
John Edward Page (February 25, 1799 – October 14, 1867) was an early leader in the Latter Day Saint movement.
John fitz Richard (died 11 October 1190 at Acre) was an Anglo-Norman soldier and nobleman, and constable of the Earls of Chester.
John Holland, 1st Duke of Exeter KG (c. 1352 – 16 January 1400) also 1st Earl of Huntingdon, was an English nobleman, a half-brother of King Richard II (1377–1399), to whom he remained strongly loyal.
Sir John Howard (c.1366-1437), of Wiggenhall in Norfolk, was an English landowner, soldier, courtier, administrator and politician.
John III, Lord of Polanen (– 3 November 1378 in Breda) was Lord of Polanen, Lord of De Lek and Lord of Breda.
John III of Egmont (or Egmond) (Hattem, April 3, 1438 – Egmond, August 21, 1516) was first Count of Egmont, Lord of Baer, Lathum, Hoogwoude, Aarstwoude, Purmerend, Purmerland and Ilpendam, and Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland and West-Friesland.
John James Murphy PP (1796 - 1883) was an Irish archdeacon.
Sir John Marmion, Baron Marmion of Winteringham was an Anglo-Norman baron who represented Lincolnshire in Parliament and fought in the Wars of Scottish Independence.
John of Brienne (1170 – 27 March 1237), also known as John I, was King of Jerusalem from 1210 to 1225 and Latin Emperor of Constantinople from 1229 to 1237.
John of Palatinate-Mosbach (1 August 1443 - 4 October 1486, Jerusalem) was a prince of the house of Wittelsbach and Dompropst or canon of Augsburg Cathedral and Regensburg Cathedral.
John of Thebes was a monk who was born in Egypt around the year 440–450 CE.
John of Wildeshausen, O.P., also called Johannes Teutonicus (c. 1180 – 4 November 1252) was a German Dominican friar, who was made a bishop in Bosnia and later the fourth Master General of the Dominican Order.
John Patrick Farrelly (March 15, 1856 – February 12, 1921) was an American prelate of the Roman Catholic Church.
The John Paul II Center for Interreligious Dialogue is an academic center that serves to build bridges between religious traditions, particularly between Catholic Christian and Jewish pastoral and academic leaders.
John Philip Newman (1 September 1826 – 5 July 1899) was an American Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church, elected in 1888.
John Robins (fl. 1650–1652) was an English Ranter and plebeian prophet.
John Russell, 1st Earl Russell, (18 August 1792 – 28 May 1878), known by his courtesy title Lord John Russell before 1861, was a leading Whig and Liberal politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom on two occasions during the early Victorian era.
John Tiptoft, 1st Earl of Worcester KG (8 May 1427 – 18 October 1470) was an English nobleman and scholar, Lord High Treasurer, Lord High Constable and Deputy Governor of Ireland.
John Tristan (8 April 1250 - 3 August 1270) was a French prince of the Capetian dynasty.
John Zeller (1830–1902), also known by his German name Johannes Zeller, was a 19th-century Protestant missionary in Ottoman Palestine.
John (János; died November 1223) was a prelate in the Kingdom of Hungary in the 12th and 13th centuries.
Johnie Cock (also Johnny O'Breadisley) is the 114th Child Ballad, existing in several variants.
Joppa is a former town and current planning region of Harford County, Maryland.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
Jordan (Giordano da Clivio) was the Archbishop of Milan from 1 January 1112 to his death on 4 October 1120.
Jordan Bonel, sometimes also de Confolens (fl. late 12th century), was a troubadour from western Aquitaine about whom very little is definitively known except that he was associated with the court of Alfonso II of Aragon.
Josaphat Park (Parc Josaphat, Josaphatpark) is a public park designed by Edmond Galoppin of Melsbroek.
St. Jose Maria Rubio (22 July 1864 – 2 May 1929) was a Spanish Jesuit, known as the Apostle of Madrid by the Bishop of Madrid.
Joseph Louis Bernardin (April 2, 1928 – November 14, 1996) was an American Cardinal of the Catholic Church.
Joseph Howland (December 3, 1834 in New York City – March 31, 1886 in Menton, Alpes-Maritimes, France) was a Union Army officer during the American Civil War, politician and philanthropist.
Yūsuf ibn Yaʿqūb ibn Is-ḥāq ibn Ibrāhīm (يُـوسـف ابـن يَـعـقـوب ابـن إِسـحـاق ابـن إِبـراهـيـم) is a Nabi (نَـبِي, Prophet) mentioned in the Qurʾān, the scripture of Islam, and corresponds to Joseph (son of Jacob), a character from the Tanakh, the Jewish religious scripture, and the Christian Bible, who was estimated to have lived in the 16th century BCE.
Joseph ben Ephraim Karo, also spelled Yosef Caro, or Qaro (1488 – March 24, 1575, 13 Nisan 5335 A.M.), was author of the last great codification of Jewish law, the Shulchan Aruch, which is still authoritative for all Jews pertaining to their respective communities.
Joseph of Exeter was a twelfth-century Latin poet from Exeter, England.
Joshua ben Aaron Zeitlin (October 10, 1823, in Kiev – January 11, 1888, in Dresden), was the Jewish and Russian scholar and philanthropist.
Joshua ben Alexander HaCohen Falk (1555 – 29 March 1614) was a Polish Halakhist and Talmudist, best known as the author of the Beit Yisrael commentary on the Arba'ah Turim as well as Sefer Me'irat Enayim (סמ"ע) on Shulkhan Arukh.
Joshua Prawer (יהושע פרַאוֶור; November 22, 1917 – April 30, 1990) was a notable Israeli historian and a scholar of the Crusades and Kingdom of Jerusalem.
The Joshua Roll is a Byzantine illuminated manuscript of highly unusual format, probably of the 10th century Macedonian Renaissance,"The 10th-century Joshua Roll is interesting as an example of Byzantine illuminated manuscript that shows the tenacious influence of Greco-Roman painting." Excerpted from Encyclopædia Britannica.
Journey from Bohemia to the Holy Land, by way of Venice and the Sea is a travel book written by Kryštof Harant, a Czech nobleman and published in 1608.
Judah Halevi (also Yehuda Halevi or ha-Levi; יהודה הלוי and Judah ben Shmuel Halevi; يهوذا اللاوي; 1075 – 1141) was a Spanish Jewish physician, poet and philosopher.
Judas Cyriacus (Cyriacus of Ancona, Cyriacus of Jerusalem, Quiriacus, Quiricus, Kyriakos) (Quirico, Ciriaco) (d. ca. AD 360) is the patron saint of Ancona, Italy.
Judeo-nazarenism is a new term in the study of early Christianity.
Judith, Lady Montefiore (née Barent Cohen; 20 February 1784 – 1 October 1862) was a British linguist, musician, travel writer, and philanthropist.
Juliusz Słowacki (23 August 1809 – 3 April 1849) was a Polish Romantic poet.
Kahanism is an extremist Jewish ideology based on the views of Rabbi Meir Kahane, founder of the Jewish Defense League and the Kach party in Israel.
Kairos Palestine is an organization primarily known for its issuance in Bethlehem in December 2009 of the Kairos Palestine document, full title of which is "A moment of truth: A word of faith, hope, and love from the heart of Palestinian suffering", a call by a number of Palestinian Christians to Christians around the world to help fight the Israeli occupation.
Kalán from the kindred Bár-Kalán (Bár-Kalán nembeli Kalán, Calanus Coelius or Juvencius Coelius; died late 1218) was a prelate and royal official in the Kingdom of Hungary at the turn of the 12th and 13th centuries.
The Kalem Company was an early American film studio founded in New York City in 1907.
The Kalopedis Family are jewelers from Cyprus who specialize in traditional Greek Byzantine style icons and ecclesiastical art, found in Orthodox churches.
Kanai (קנאי, plural: kana'im, קנאים) is a term for a zealot or fanatic.
Karbala (كَرْبَلَاء, Karbalā’, Persian: کربلاء) is a city in central Iraq, located about southwest of Baghdad, and a few miles east of Lake Milh.
Karen Armstrong, (born 14 November 1944) is a British author and commentator of Irish Catholic descent known for her books on comparative religion.
Karl Joseph Alter (August 18, 1885 – August 23, 1977) was an American clergyman of the Roman Catholic Church.
Kazimierz Nycz (born 1 February 1950) is a Polish prelate, a Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church.
Keith Marischal is a Scottish Baronial Country house lying in the parish of Humbie, East Lothian, Scotland.
Kelso High School is a secondary school in Kelso, Scotland, under the control of the Scottish Borders Council.
Khirbat Al-Burj or Burj Binyamina is a structure in the Sharon Plain 1 km south of Binyamina is named.
The Kingdom of Georgia (საქართველოს სამეფო), also known as the Georgian Empire, was a medieval Eurasian monarchy which emerged circa 1008 AD.
Kingdom of Heaven is a 2005 epic historical drama film directed and produced by Ridley Scott and written by William Monahan.
The Kingdom of Hungary came into existence in Central Europe when Stephen I, Grand Prince of the Hungarians, was crowned king in 1000 or 1001.
The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem was a crusader state established in the Southern Levant by Godfrey of Bouillon in 1099 after the First Crusade.
Knightfall is a historical fiction drama television series created by Don Handfield and Richard Rayner for the History channel.
The Order of Knights of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem (Ordo Fratrum Hospitalis Sancti Ioannis Hierosolymitani), also known as the Order of Saint John, Order of Hospitallers, Knights Hospitaller, Knights Hospitalier or Hospitallers, was a medieval Catholic military order.
The Hospitallers of St Thomas of Canterbury at Acre, usually called the Knights of St Thomas was a Christian military order of the Catholic Church.
Knights of the Temple: Infernal Crusade is an action-adventure video game released in 2004 by Starbreeze Studios.
The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Salomonici), also known as the Order of Solomon's Temple, the Knights Templar or simply as Templars, were a Catholic military order recognised in 1139 by papal bull Omne Datum Optimum of the Holy See.
The history of the Knights Templar in England began when the French nobleman Hughes de Payens, the founder and Grand Master of the order of the Knights Templar, visited the country in 1128 to raise men and money for the Crusades.
Kollel Shomrei haChomos (כולל שומרי החומות) is a financial charity institute or kollel set up to support the community of Hungarian-Jews who emigrated to the Holy Land, hence it is called by many the Hungarian Kollel.
Koroni or Corone (Κορώνη) is a town and a former municipality in Messenia, Peloponnese, Greece.
Kryštof Harant of Polžice and Bezdružice (Kryštof Harant z Polžic a Bezdružic, 1564 – June 21, 1621) was a Czech nobleman, traveler, humanist, soldier, writer and composer.
The Krymchaks (Krymchak: sg. кърымчах -, pl. кърымчахлар -) are Jewish ethno-religious communities of Crimea derived from Turkic-speaking adherents of Orthodox Judaism.
Saint Kuksha of Odessa, born Kosma Velichko (in selo Harbuzynka, Kherson Governorate, Russian Empire – December 24, 1964 in Odessa, USSR), is a modern saint canonized by the Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate) in 1995.
Kupath Rabbi Meir Baal HaNess Kolel Polen, known also by the initials Kupat RaMBaN, is a charity organization founded in 1796 in Poland by the Torah leaders of European Jewry.
L'armata Brancaleone (known in English-speaking countries as For Love and Gold or The Incredible Army of Brancaleone) is an Italian comedy movie released in 1966, written by the famous duo Age & Scarpelli and directed by Mario Monicelli.
La magicienne (The Sorceress) is a grand opera in five acts composed by Fromental Halévy.
Ladislaus I from the kindred Kán (Kán nembeli (I.) László; died after 1247) was a powerful Hungarian baron, who held several secular positions during the reign of kings Andrew II and Béla IV.
Ladislaus I or Ladislas I, also Saint Ladislaus or Saint Ladislas (I or Szent László; Ladislav I.; Svätý Ladislav I; Władysław I Święty; 1040 – 29 July 1095) was King of Hungary from 1077 and King of Croatia from 1091.
Lady Franklin's Revenge: A True Story of Ambition, Obsession and the Remaking of Arctic History is a non-fiction book by Canadian historian and writer Ken McGoogan.
Lalibela (ላሊበላ) is a town in Amhara Region, northern Ethiopia famous for monolithic rock-cut churches.
Sir Lancelot du Lac (meaning Lancelot of the Lake), alternatively also written as Launcelot and other spellings, is one of the Knights of the Round Table in the Arthurian legend.
The Land of Israel is the traditional Jewish name for an area of indefinite geographical extension in the Southern Levant.
It is generally agreed by historians that Jesus and his disciples primarily spoke Aramaic (Jewish Palestinian Aramaic), the common language of Judea in the first century AD, most likely a Galilean dialect distinguishable from that of Jerusalem.
Lars (Laurentius) Cavallin (15 August 1940 – 18 June 2017 in Borås, Västra Götaland County) was a Swedish priest and Roman Catholic theologian and writer.
Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem (Patriarchatus Latinus Hierosolymitanus) is the title of the see of Catholic Archbishop of Jerusalem.
Laurence Oliphant (3 August 1829 – 23 December 1888) was a South African-born British author, traveller, diplomat and Christian mystic.
Lǫgmaðr Guðrøðarson was a late eleventh-century King of the Isles, whose rise, reign, and fall from power are obscure.
The LDS edition of the Bible is a version of the Bible published by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) in English, Spanish and Portuguese.
Le Breuil-Benoît Abbey (Brolium Benedicti, Abbaye Notre-Dame du Breuil-Benoît) is a former Cistercian abbey in Marcilly-sur-Eure in the Eure department of Upper Normandy, France.
Le Morte d'Arthur (originally spelled Le Morte Darthur, Middle French for "the death of Arthur") is a reworking of existing tales by Sir Thomas Malory about the legendary King Arthur, Guinevere, Lancelot, Merlin, and the Knights of the Round Table.
Col. Leavitt Hunt (1831–February 16, 1907) was a Harvard-educated attorney and photography pioneer who was one of the first people to photograph the Middle East.
Lehava (Flame, למניעת התבוללות בארץ הקודש LiMniat Hitbolelut B'eretz HaKodesh; "Prevention of Assimilation in the Holy Land") is a Jewish far-right organization based in Israel that strictly opposes Jewish assimilation, objecting to personal relationships between Jews and non-Jews.
Leonardo Sandri (born 18 November 1943) is an Argentine Cardinal of the Catholic Church.
Leopold V (1157 – 31 December 1194), known as the Virtuous (der Tugendhafte), a member of the House of Babenberg, was Duke of Austria from 1177 and Duke of Styria from 1192 until his death.
Les Jonquerets-de-Livet is a former commune in the Eure department in Normandy, France.
Leszek the White (Leszek Biały; ca. 1184/85 – 24 November 1227) was Prince of Sandomierz and High Duke of Poland during 1194–1198, 1199, 1206–1210 and 1211–1227.
Levantine archaeology is the archaeological study of the Levant.
Lewis Wallace (April 10, 1827February 15, 1905) was an American lawyer, Union general in the American Civil War, governor of the New Mexico Territory, politician, diplomat, and author from Indiana.
Lewis de Beaumont (died 1333) was Bishop of Durham during the last half of the First War of Scottish Independence.
Saint Lietbertus (Lietbert, Libert, Liberat) of Brakel (or of Cambrai, de Lessines) (ca. 1010–1076) was bishop of Cambrai from 31 March 1051 to 28 September 1076.
Life was an American magazine that ran regularly from 1883 to 1972 and again from 1978 to 2000.
Limassol (Λεμεσός; Limasol or Leymosun) is a city on the southern coast of Cyprus and capital of the eponymous district.
Limoges enamel has been produced at Limoges, in south-western France, over several centuries up to the present.
Lisbon (Lisboa) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 552,700, Census 2011 results according to the 2013 administrative division of Portugal within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2.
This is a list of animals whose names appear in the Bible.
This list of characters from the Assassin's Creed franchise contains only characters that are considered part of Assassin's Creed canon.
The following is a list of usurpers in the Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantine Empire, from the start of the reign of Arcadius in 395 to the fall of Constantinople in 1453.
This is a list of the wars or external conflicts fought during the history of the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire (330–1453).
As for May 31, 2018, the Catholic Church in its entirety comprises 3,160 ecclesiastical jurisdictions, including over 645 archdioceses and 2,236 dioceses, as well as apostolic vicariates, apostolic exarchates, apostolic administrations, apostolic prefectures, military ordinariates, personal ordinariates, personal prelatures, territorial prelatures, territorial abbacies and missions ''sui juris'' around the world.
List of characters and names, mentioned in the Quran.
The list Christian holy sites in the Holy Land outlines sites within cities located in the Holy Land that are regarded as having a special significance to Christians, usually by association with Jesus or other persons mentioned in the New Testament.
A Christian movement is a theological, political, or philosophical interpretation of Christianity that is not generally represented by a specific church, sect, or denomination.
This is a list of sites notable as destinations of Christian pilgrimage, sorted by region and by (modern) country.
The Divine Comedy by Dante Alighieri is a long allegorical poem in three parts (or canticas): the Inferno (Hell), Purgatorio (Purgatory), and Paradiso (Paradise), and 100 cantos, with the Inferno having 34, Purgatorio having 33, and Paradiso having 33 cantos.
This is a complete list of the 149 Puffin Story Books published for children from 1941 to 1960 by Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, England.
The Egged Bus Cooperative is the largest bus company in Israel, and one of the largest in the world.
Découvertes Gallimard is a French encyclopaedic collection of illustrated pocket books published by Éditions Gallimard since 1986.
This is a list of women who explored or travelled the world in a pioneering way.
List of Consuls in Jerusalem, Jaffa, Haifa and Eilat from German states.
This article is a list of heads of state who have survived assassination attempts.
Historical earthquakes is a list of significant earthquakes known to have occurred prior to the beginning of the 20th century.
The following is a list of notable trees from around the world.
Not all territorial disputes are irredentist, although they are often couched in irredentist rhetoric to justify and legitimise such claims both internationally and within the country.
With their military mission and extensive financial resources, the Knights Templar funded a large number of building projects around Europe and the Holy Land, many structures remain standing today.
The following is a list of massacres that have occurred in Palestine prior to the establishment of the British Mandate for Palestine.
This article lists some but by no means all of the oldest known church buildings in the world.
Operas set against the background of the medieval Crusades can be found in the earliest examples of the art form and continue to be written into the 21st century.
During his reign, Pope John Paul II ("The Pilgrim Pope") made 104 foreign trips, more than all previous popes combined.
The list of pastoral visits of Pope Paul VI details the travels of the first pope to leave Italy since 1809, representing the first ever papal pilgrimage to the Holy Land and the first papal visit to the Americas, to Africa, Oceania and Asia.
List of survivors of unsuccessful assassination attempts, listed chronologically.
This chronological list of popes corresponds to that given in the Annuario Pontificio under the heading "I Sommi Pontefici Romani" (The Supreme Pontiffs of Rome), excluding those that are explicitly indicated as antipopes.
This article provides an incomplete list and broad overview of significant religious sites and places of spiritual importance throughout the world.
Austria was ruled by the House of Babenberg until 1246 and by the House of Habsburg from 1282 to 1918.
Of the first historically verifiable rulers of Frisia, whether they are called dukes or kings, the last royal dynasty below is established by the chronicles of Merovingian kings of the Franks, with whom they were contemporaries.
This list of dukes and grand dukes of Mecklenburg dates from the origins of the German princely state of Mecklenburg's royal house in the High Middle Ages to the monarchy's abolition at the end of World War I. Strictly speaking, Mecklenburg’s princely dynasty was descended linearly from the princes (or kings) of a Slavic tribe, the Obotrites, and had its original residence in a castle (Mecklenburg) in Dorf Mecklenburg (Mikelenburg) close to Wismar.
This is a list of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll.
This list of wars by death toll includes death toll estimates of all deaths that are either directly or indirectly caused by war.
The Livonian Chronicle of Henry (Heinrici Cronicon Lyvoniae) or Henry's chronicle of Livonia is a document in Latin describing historic events in Livonia (roughly corresponding to today's inland Estonia and north of Latvia) and surrounding areas from 1180 to 1227.
Llanafan Fawr is a civil community and ecclesiastical parish in the former cantref of Buellt (Builth) and historic county of Brecknockshire in Wales.
Longobards in Italy: Places of Power (568–774 A.D.) is seven groups of historic buildings that reflect the achievements of the Germanic tribe of the Lombards (also referred to as Longobards), who settled in Italy during the sixth century and established a Lombard Kingdom which ended in 774 A.D. The groups comprise monasteries, church buildings, and fortresses and became UNESCO World Heritage Sites in June 2011 as they testify "to the Lombards' major role in the spiritual and cultural development of Medieval European Christianity".
Longpré-les-Corps-Saints is a commune in Somme department in Hauts-de-France in northern France.
Longquan celadon (龍泉青瓷) is a type of green-glazed Chinese ceramic, known in the West as celadon or greenware, produced from about 950 to 1550.
Lorenzo Cozza (March 31, 1654 – January 19, 1729) was an Italian friar Minor Observantist, Roman Catholic Cardinal and theologian.
Louis Cheikho, لويس شيخو, born Rizqallâh Cheikho (1859–1927) was a Jesuit chaldean priest, Orientalist and Theologian.
Louis Félicien Joseph Caignart de Saulcy (19 March 1807 – 4 November 1880), better known as simply Félicien or Félix de Saulcy, was a French numismatist, Orientalist, and archaeologist.
Louis II of Brieg; (1380/85 – 30 May 1436), was a Duke of Brzeg (Brieg) from 1399 (until 1400 with his older brother as a co-ruler) and Duke of Legnica from 1413.
Louis III, Count Palatine of the Rhine (Ludwig III.) (23 January 1378 – 30 December 1436, Heidelberg), was an Elector Palatine of the Rhine from the house of Wittelsbach in 1410–1436.
Louis III, Landgrave of Thuringia, nicknamed Louis the Pious or Louis the Mild (1151/2 – 16 October 1190, in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, near Cyprus) was a German nobleman.
Louis IV the Saint (Ludwig IV.; 28 October 1200 – 11 September 1227), a member of the Ludovingian dynasty, was Landgrave of Thuringia and Saxon Count palatine from 1217 until his death.
Louis IX (25 April 1214 – 25 August 1270), commonly known as Saint Louis, was King of France and is a canonized Catholic and Anglican saint.
Louis Martin (22 August 1823 – 29 July 1894) and Marie-Azélie "Zélie" Guérin Martin (23 December 1831 – 28 August 1877) were two married Roman Catholic French laypeople and the parents of five Roman Catholic nuns, including Thérèse of Lisieux, a Carmelite nun who was canonized as a saint of the Catholic Church in 1925.
Louis V, called the Brandenburger (May 1315 – 18 September 1361), a member of the House of Wittelsbach, ruled as Margrave of Brandenburg (as Louis I) from 1323 to 1351 and as Duke of Bavaria from 1347 until his death.
Louis VI (c.1081 – 1 August 1137), called the Fat (le Gros) or the Fighter (le Batailleur), was King of the Franks from 1108 until his death (1137).
Louis-François Cassas, born on June 3, 1756, was a distinguished French landscape painter, sculptor, architect, archeologist and antiquary born at Azay-le-Ferron, in the Indre Department of France.
Louis-Nazaire Bégin (January 10, 1840 – July 18, 1925) was a Canadian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church.
Lourdes (Lorda in Occitan) is a small market town lying in the foothills of the Pyrenees.
Lucia (died aft. 1292 or ca 1299) was the last countess of Tripoli, a Crusader state in the Levant.
Lucien Whiting Powell (1846–1930) was a renowned landscape painter who gave the village of Airmont, Virginia its name for its scenic westward views.
Lucy M. Boston (1892–1990), born Lucy Maria Wood, was an English novelist who wrote for children and adults, publishing her work entirely after the age of 60.
Luigi Walter Moretti (2 January 1907 – 14 July 1973) was an Italian architect.
Lynda Baquero (born January 16, 1967) is an American correspondent for WNBC news in New York City.
Blessed Małgorzata Szewczyk (1828 – 5 June 1905) - in religious Łucja - was a Polish professed religious and the foundress of the Daughters of the Sorrowful Mother of God – or Seraphic Sisters; she was also a member of the Third Order of Saint Francis.
Mabel Martin Wyrick (9 March 1913 – 12 October 2003) was an American writer.
The Macmillan Bible Atlas is a book on the geography, civilizations and cartography of the Holy Land.
The Madaba Map (also known as the Madaba Mosaic Map) is part of a floor mosaic in the early Byzantine church of Saint George at Madaba, Jordan.
In the folklore of the early United States, a madstone was a special medicinal substance that, when pressed into an animal bite, was believed to prevent rabies by drawing the "poison" out.
Maid Marian (or Marion) is the love interest of the legendary outlaw Robin Hood in English folklore.
Moses ben Maimon (Mōšeh bēn-Maymūn; موسى بن ميمون Mūsā bin Maymūn), commonly known as Maimonides (Μαϊμωνίδης Maïmōnídēs; Moses Maimonides), and also referred to by the acronym Rambam (for Rabbeinu Mōšeh bēn Maimun, "Our Rabbi Moses son of Maimon"), was a medieval Sephardic Jewish philosopher who became one of the most prolific and influential Torah scholars of the Middle Ages.
Father John Maitland Moir (1924–2013) was a priest and priest of the Orthodox Church of St Andrew in Edinburgh and founder of several Orthodox communities in Scotland.
Maksas Soloveičikas (19 November 1883 in Kaunas – 1957 in Tel Aviv) was a Russian-born Lithuanian Zionist activist, journalist, and a politician.
Maksim I Skopljanac (Максим I Скопљанац) (died 29 October 1680) was a Archbishop of Peć and Serbian Patriarch between 1655 and 1674.
Malachi Brendan Martin (Irish: Maolsheachlainn Breandán Ó Máirtín; July 23, 1921 – July 27, 1999), occasionally writing under the pseudonym Michael Serafian, was an Irish Catholic priest and writer on the Catholic Church.
Malkiel (also spelled Malchiel) Ashkenazi (Hebrew: מלכיאל אשכנזי) was a Sephardic rabbi and leader of the Jewish community in Hebron in 1540.
Maltbie Davenport Babcock (August 3, 1858 – May 18, 1901) was a noted American clergyman and writer of the 19th century.
The Manor of Kilmainham was a manor encompassing the village of Kilmainham in County Dublin, Ireland, just outside the city of Dublin.
Manuel I Komnenos (or Comnenus; Μανουήλ Α' Κομνηνός, Manouēl I Komnēnos; 28 November 1118 – 24 September 1180) was a Byzantine Emperor of the 12th century who reigned over a crucial turning point in the history of Byzantium and the Mediterranean.
Maraclea, also known as Khrab Marqiya or Maraqîya, was a small coastal Crusader town and a castle in the Levant, between Tortosa and Baniyas (Buluniyas).
Marc Zakharovich Chagall (born Moishe Zakharovich Shagal; 28 March 1985) was a Russian-French artist of Belarusian Jewish origin.
The following events occurred in March 1927.
Margaret Athy, religious patron, fl.
Margaret of Beverley (c.1150 – c.1215) also known as Margaret of Jerusalem, was a Christian pilgrim during the 1180s–1190s in the Holy Land.
Margaret of France (Marguerite, Margit; 1157 – 18 September 1197) was queen of England by marriage to Henry the Young King, and queen of Hungary and Croatia by marriage to Béla III of Hungary.
Margaritus of Brindisi (also Margarito; Italian Margaritone or Greek Megareites or Margaritoni: c. 1149 – 1197), called "the new Neptune", was the last great ammiratus ammiratorum (Grand Admiral) of Sicily.
Margery Kempe (c. 1373 – after 1438) was an English Christian mystic, known for writing through dictation The Book of Margery Kempe, a work considered by some to be the first autobiography in the English language.
Marguerite de Sablé, Dame de Sablé (c.1179 – after June 1238), was a French noblewoman and one of the wealthiest heiresses in the counties of Anjou and Maine.
Maria Valtorta (14 March 1897 – 12 October 1961) was a Roman Catholic Italian writer and poet, considered by many to be a mystic.
Saint Mariam Baouardy, O.C.D. (مريم بواردي, or Mary of Jesus Crucified, 5 January 1846 – 26 August 1878), was a Discalced Carmelite nun of the Melkite Greek Catholic Church.
Marie of Champagne (– 29 August 1204) was the first Latin Empress of Constantinople by marriage to Emperor Baldwin I. She acted as regent of Flanders during the absence of her spouse from 1202 until 1204.
The maritime republics (repubbliche marinare) of the Mediterranean Basin were thalassocratic city-states which flourished in Italy and Dalmatia during the Middle Ages.
The Archeparchy of Haifa and the Holy Land (in Latin: Archieparchia Ptolemaidensis Maronitarum in the Holy Land) is a branch of the Maronite Church immediately subject to the Patriarch of Antioch of the Maronites.
Maronite Catholic Patriarchal Exarchate of Jerusalem and Palestine is an exarchate of the Maronite Patriarchate of the Maronite Church immediately subject to the Patriarchate of Antioch of the Maronites.
The Maronite Church (الكنيسة المارونية) is an Eastern Catholic sui iuris particular church in full communion with the Pope and the Catholic Church, with self-governance under the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches.
Marshall Jewell (October 20, 1825February 10, 1883) was a manufacturer, pioneer telegrapher, telephone entrepreneur, world traveler, and political figure who served as 44th and 46th Governor of Connecticut, the U.S. Minister to Russia, the 25th United States Postmaster General, and Republican Party National Chairman.
Saint Martin of Braga (in Latin Martinus Bracarensis, 520–580 AD) was an archbishop of Bracara Augusta in Gallaecia (now Braga in Portugal), a missionary, a monastic founder, and an ecclesiastical author.
Mary Grace Quackenbos Humiston (née Winterton) (1871-1948) was the first female Special Assistant United States Attorney.
Countess Mary von Waldersee (3 October 1837 – 4 July 1914), born Mary Esther Lee, was an American-born philanthropist in Germany.
Matthew 4:25 is the twenty-fifth, and final, verse of the fourth chapter of the Gospel of Matthew in the New Testament.
Matthew 5:5 is the fifth verse of the fifth chapter of the Gospel of Matthew in the New Testament.
Matthew Simpson (21 June 1811 – 18 June 1884) was an American bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church, elected in 1852 and based mostly in Chicago.
Maurice Noël Léon Couve de Murville (27 June 1929 – 3 November 2007) was the seventh Roman Catholic Archbishop of Birmingham from 25 March 1982 until his retirement on 12 June 1999, having formerly been a priest of the Diocese of Arundel and Brighton and chaplain of Fisher House, Cambridge.
Maurice (Latin Mauritius, Italian Maurizio) was the cardinal-bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina from between 1095 and 1099 until 1102.
Maximilien Louis Hubert Egon Vincent Marie Joseph, Freiherr (Baron) von Fürstenberg-Stammheim also Maximilian Kardinal von Fürstenberg (23 October 1904 – 22 September 1988) was a cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church and was Prefect of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches.
Mécia Lopes de Haro (c.1215–1270) was a Castilian/Biscayan noblewoman, the wife successively of count Álvaro Pérez de Castro and of King Sancho II of Portugal.
Münchwald is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Bad Kreuznach district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
The Mediterranean Conference Centre (MCC, Dar il-Mediterran għall-Konferenzi) is a conference centre in Valletta, Malta.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Megiddo (מְגִדּוֹ، المجیدو) is a kibbutz in northern Israel.
Meir Auerbach (1815–1878) was president of the Jewish court at Koło, and author of "Imrei Bina" (Words of Wisdom).
Melancthon Williams Jacobus Sr. (19 September 1816 – 28 October 1876) was an American Presbyterian minister and writer.
Charles-Jean-Melchior de Vogüé (18 October 1829 – 10 November 1916) was a French archaeologist, diplomat, and member of the Académie française in seat 18.
Melisende (born before 1177) was the hereditary Lady of Arsuf from 1177 and the second wife of the powerful nobleman John of Ibelin, the lord of Beirut (1179–1236), who led the opposition to Emperor Frederick II when he tried to impose his authority in the Kingdom of Jerusalem and the Kingdom of Cyprus.
Melisende de Lusignan, Princess of Antioch (1200 Holy Land- after 1249), was the youngest daughter of Queen Isabella I of Jerusalem by her fourth and last marriage to King Amalric II of Jerusalem.
The Melkite (Greek) Catholic Church (كنيسة الروم الملكيين الكاثوليك) is an Eastern Catholic Church in full communion with the Holy See as part of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Menahem Shemuel Halevy (1884–1940) was a prominent Iranian Rabbi of the early 20th century.
Empress Menen Asfaw (Baptismal name Walatta Giyorgis) (26 Magabit 1881 Ethiopian Calendar, 3 April 1889 Gregorian Calendar – 15 February 1962) was the Empress consort of the Ethiopian Empire.
Mercadier (died 1200) was a famous Occitan warrior of the 12th century, and the leader of a group of mercenaries in the service of Richard I, King of England.
Merchant Prince is a turn-based 4X strategy video game franchise set in the Republic of Venice during the Renaissance.
Meron Benvenisti (מירון בנבנשתי, born April 21, 1934) is an Israeli political scientist who was Deputy Mayor of Jerusalem under Teddy Kollek from 1971 to 1978, during which he administered East Jerusalem and served as Jerusalem's Chief Planning Officer.
Messina (Sicilian: Missina; Messana, Μεσσήνη) is the capital of the Italian Metropolitan City of Messina.
Methoni (Μεθώνη, Modone, Modon) is a village and a former municipality in Messenia, Peloponnese, Greece.
Mexican mask-folk art refers to the making and use of masks for various traditional dances and ceremony in Mexico.
Michael Davitt (Mícheál Mac Dáibhéid; 25 March 184630 May 1906) was an Irish republican and agrarian campaigner who founded the Irish National Land League.
Blessed Michelina of Pesaro, T.O.S.F., (1300 - 1356) was an Italian Roman Catholic Franciscan tertiary who was later beatified.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Middle East Peace Facilitation Act of 1993 (P.L. 102-125, S.1418) was signed by President Bill Clinton on October 28, 1993, a month after the signing of the Oslo Accords, an agreement between Israel and the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO).
Prince Mikołaj Krzysztof Radziwiłł (Mikalojus Kristupas Radvila Našlaitėlis) (2 Augustus 1549 – 28 February 1616) and nicknamed "the Orphan" (Sierotka, Našlaitėlis), was a Polish-Lithuanian nobleman (szlachcic), Ordynat of Nieśwież from 1586, Court Marshal of Lithuania from 1569, Grand Marshal of Lithuania from 1579, castellan of Trakai from 1586, voivode of Trakai Voivodeship from 1590, voivode of Vilnius Voivodeship from 1604 and governor of Šiauliai.
The military history of Norway commences before the Viking age with the internal wars fought between regional kings to obtain the supreme kingship of the whole of Norway.
The military history of the Crusader states begins with the formation of the County of Edessa in 1097 and ends with the loss of Ruad in 1302, the last Christian stronghold in the Holy Land.
A military order (Militaris ordinis) is a chivalric order with military elements.
The Betlemitani or Military order of cross-bearers with the red star on a blue field was a military order active in the 12th to 15th centuries.
The Militia or Order of the (Holy) Faith of Jesus Christ (Militia Jesu Christi) was an ephemeral military order founded in Languedoc in or shortly before 1221.
A mince pie is a sweet pie of British origin, filled with a mixture of dried fruits and spices called "mincemeat", that is traditionally served during the Christmas season in the English-speaking world, excluding the USA.
Minor basilica (Basilica minor, Basilicæ minores in plural) is a title given to some Roman Catholic church buildings.
Misa del Gallo (Spanish for "rooster's mass", also Misa de los Pastores, "shepherd's mass;" Portuguese: Missa do Galo) is a name for the Roman Catholic Mass celebrated around midnight of Christmas Eve and sometimes in the days immediately preceding Christmas.
Mistero buffo ("Comical Mystery Play") is Dario Fo's solo pièce célèbre, performed across Europe, Canada and Latin America from 1969 to 1999.
Mleh I (Մլեհ), also Meleh I, (before 1120 – Sis, May 15, 1175) was the eighth lord of Armenian Cilicia or “Lord of the Mountains” (1170–1175).
Modern Hebrew is phonetically simpler than Biblical Hebrew and has fewer phonemes, but it is phonologically more complex.
Modimolle, formerly Nylstroom, is a town located near the southern edge of the Waterberg Massif in Limpopo province, South Africa.
Mog, also Moch or Mok (died after 1210) was a powerful Hungarian lord in the Kingdom of Hungary, who served as Palatine of Hungary three times.
Molfetta (Molfettese: Melfétte) is a city located in the northern side of province Bari, Apulia, southern Italy.
The Monastery of Saint Anthony is a Coptic Orthodox monastery standing in an oasis in the Eastern Desert of Egypt, in the southern part of the Suez Governorate.
A money changer is a person or organisation whose business is the exchange of coins or currency of one country, for that of another.
Mongol Armenia or Ilkhanid Armenia refers to the period in which both Armenia (during its union with the Kingdom of Georgia) and the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia became tributary and vassal to the Mongol Empire (the later Ilkhanate) in the 1230s.
Mongol elements in Western medieval art can be seen in European works of art ranging from the 13th to the 15th century.
The Mongol invasion of Europe in the 13th century was the conquest of Europe by the Mongol Empire, by way of the destruction of East Slavic principalities, such as Kiev and Vladimir. The Mongol invasions also occurred in Central Europe, which led to warfare among fragmented Poland, such as the Battle of Legnica (9 April 1241) and in the Battle of Mohi (11 April 1241) in the Kingdom of Hungary. The operations were planned by General Subutai (1175–1248) and commanded by Batu Khan (1207–1255) and Kadan (d. 1261). Both men were grandsons of Genghis Khan; their conquests integrated much European territory to the empire of the Golden Horde. Warring European princes realized they had to cooperate in the face of a Mongol invasion, so local wars and conflicts were suspended in parts of central Europe, only to be resumed after the Mongols had withdrawn.
Montabaur is a town and the district seat of the Westerwaldkreis in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
Montfort (מבצר מונפור, Mivtzar Monfor; Arabic: Qal'at al-Qurain or Qal'at al-Qarn - "Castle of the Little Horn" or "Castle of the Horn") is a ruined Crusader castle in the Upper Galilee region in northern Israel, about northeast of the city of Haifa and south of the border with Lebanon.
The Monza ampullae form the largest collection of a specific type of Early Medieval pilgrimage ampullae or small flasks designed to hold holy oil from pilgrimage sites in the Holy Land related to the life of Jesus.
The Duomo of Monza (Italian: Duomo di Monza) often known in English as Monza Cathedral is the main religious building of Monza, near Milan, in northern Italy.
Mor Dodo was the Syriac Orthodox Bishop of Tagrit from 589 until his death in 609.
The Mormaer of Caithness was a vassal title mostly held by members of the Norwegian nobility based in Orkney from the Viking Age until 1350.
This is a chronology of Mormonism.
A mosaic is a piece of art or image made from the assemblage of small pieces of colored glass, stone, or other materials.
Mosesמֹשֶׁה, Modern Tiberian ISO 259-3; ܡܘܫܐ Mūše; موسى; Mωϋσῆς was a prophet in the Abrahamic religions.
Moses ha-Levi ha-Nazir was a rabbi of the 17th-century.
Sir Moses Haim Montefiore, 1st Baronet, FRS (24 October 1784 – 28 July 1885) was a British financier and banker, activist, philanthropist and Sheriff of London.
Moshe Castel (משה קסטל; 1909 – December 12, 1991) was an Israeli painter.
Moshe Chaim Luzzatto (משה חיים לוצאטו, also Moses Chaim, Moses Hayyim, also Luzzato) (1707 in Padua – 16 May 1746 in Acre (26 Iyar 5506)), also known by the Hebrew acronym RaMCHaL (or RaMHaL), was a prominent Italian Jewish rabbi, kabbalist, and philosopher.
Mount Nebo (جبل نيبو Jabal Nībū; הַר נְבוֹ Har Nevo) is an elevated ridge in Jordan, approximately above sea level, mentioned in the Hebrew Bible as the place where Moses was granted a view of the Promised Land.
Mount Tabor (جبل الطور, Jabal aṭ-Ṭūr; Latin: Itabyrium, Koine Greek: Όρος Θαβώρ, "Oros Thabor") is located in Lower Galilee, Israel, at the eastern end of the Jezreel Valley, west of the Sea of Galilee.
The Protestant Mount Zion Cemetery (a.k.a., Jerusalem Mount Zion Protestant Cemetery, Zionsfriedhof; בית הקברות הפרוטסטנטי בהר ציון.) on Mount Zion in Jerusalem, Israel is a cemetery owned by the Anglican Church Missionary Trust Association Ltd., London, represented by the Episcopal Church in Jerusalem and The Middle East.
Mujīr al-Dīn al-'Ulaymī (Arabic: مجير الدين العليمي) ‎(1456–1522), often simply Mujir al-Din, was a Jerusalemite qadi and Palestinian historian whose principal work chronicled the history of Jerusalem and Hebron in the Middle Ages.
Muqaddas (مقدس) is an Arabic word meaning "sanctified".
The Muristan (from Persian Bimārestān بیمارستان meaning "hospital") is a complex of streets and shops in the Christian Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem.
The Museum of the Order of St John in Clerkenwell, London, tells the story of the Venerable Order of Saint John from its roots as a pan-European Order of Hospitaller Knights founded in Jerusalem during the Crusades, to its present commitment to providing first aid and care in the community through the St John Ambulance Brigade and running an Ophthalmic Hospital in Jerusalem.
The Music of Apulia has had some glorious history as well as some very hard times.
Muslim supporters of Israel are Muslims who support self-determination for the Jewish people, and a homeland for them in the State of Israel.
Moses ben Nahman (מֹשֶׁה בֶּן־נָחְמָן Mōšeh ben-Nāḥmān, "Moses son of Nahman"; 1194–1270), commonly known as Nachmanides (Ναχμανίδης Nakhmanídēs), and also referred to by the acronym Ramban and by the contemporary nickname Bonastruc ça Porta (literally "Mazel Tov near the Gate", see wikt:ca:astruc), was a leading medieval Jewish scholar, Sephardic rabbi, philosopher, physician, kabbalist, and biblical commentator.
Grand Rabbi Naftali Tzvi Halberstam (ר' נפתלי הלברשטאם) (1931-2005) was the Grand Rebbe of Bobov from August 2000 until March 2005.
Nahum Slouschz (נחום סלושץ) (November 1872- died December 1966), was a Russian-born Israeli writer, translator and archaeologist.
Naim Stifan Ateek (Na`īm `Ateeq) (born in the Palestinian village of Beisan in 1937) is a Palestinian priest in the Anglican Communion and founder of the Sabeel Ecumenical Liberation Theology Center in Jerusalem.
Najib Nassar (January 1, 1865 – December 28, 1947) was a Palestinian journalist.
Georgia is the Western exonym for the nation in the Caucasus natively known as Sakartvelo (საქართველო). The Russian exonym is Gruziya (Грузия).
Naphtali Cohen (1649–1718), also known as Naphtali HaKohen Katz, was a Russo-German rabbi and kabalist born in Ostrowo in Ukraine.
Nat(h)an Friedland was a rabbi and member of the H'bat Tsion (Coming of Zion) movement, one of the fathers of the movement for settling the Land of Israel.
The navy of the Order of Saint John, also known as the Maltese Navy after 1530, was the first navy of a chivalric order.
Nazaré is a town and a municipality in subregion Oeste and Leiria District, in historical Estremadura province of Portugal.
Near Eastern Archaeology (sometimes known as Middle Eastern archaeology) is a regional branch of the wider, global discipline of archeology.
Nelson Glueck (June 4, 1900 – February 12, 1971) was an American rabbi, academic and archaeologist.
Neo-Byzantine architecture in the Russian Empire emerged in the 1850s and became an officially endorsed preferred architectural style for church construction during the reign of Alexander II of Russia (1855–1881), replacing the Russo-Byzantine style of Konstantin Thon.
The Neocatechumenal Way, also known as the Neocatechumenate, NCW or, colloquially, The Way, is a charism within the Catholic Church dedicated to Christian formation.
Neophytos of Cyprus, Saint Neophytos, Neophytos the Recluse (1134–1214) was a Cypriot Orthodox monk, priest, and sometime hermit, whose writings preserved history of the early crusades.
Netley Abbey is a ruined late medieval monastery in the village of Netley near Southampton in Hampshire, England.
The New Church of the Theotokos was a Byzantine church erected by the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I (r. 527–565) in Jerusalem.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
The New Testament narrative of the life of Jesus refers to a number of locations in the Holy Land and a Flight into Egypt.
The medieval lost town of Newtown Jerpoint is just west of the Cistercian Jerpoint Abbey, near Thomastown, County Kilkenny, Ireland.
Nicasius (Nicasio, Nicaise) of Sicily (also known as Nicasio Burgio, Nicasius de Burgo, Nicasio Camuto de Burgio, Nicasius Martyr, Nicasius of Jerusalem) (1135 – 1187) is venerated as a martyr in the Catholic Church.
Frà Niccolò da Poggibonsi (Nicolaus de Podiobonito) was a Franciscan friar of the 14th century who made a famous pilgrimage to the Holy Land in 1345–50, which he described in Italian in his Libro d'oltramare.
Niccolò III d'Este (9 November 1383 – 26 December 1441) was Marquess of Ferrara from 1393 until his death.
Niccolò Marini (20 August 1843 – 27 July 1923) was an Italian Cardinal of the Catholic Church who served as secretary of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches from 1917 to 1922, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1916.
Nicholas I Garai (Garai I Miklós, Nikola I Gorjanski) (c. 132525 July 1386) was a most influential officeholder under king Louis I and queen Mary of Hungary.
Nicholas II of Saint Omer was the lord of half of Thebes in Frankish Greece from 1258 to his death in 1294.
Nicholas III, Lord of Mecklenburg (after 1230 – 8 June 1289 or 1290) was from 1264 to 1289 Lord of Mecklenburg.
Nicholas Tavelic (Croatian: Nikola Tavelić) was a Franciscan missionary who died a martyr's death in Jerusalem on November 14, 1391, a Croatian friar.
Nick Knight (born Nicholas de Brabant) is the main character of the Canadian television series Forever Knight, and its precursor 1989 television movie Nick Knight.
Nicola de la Haie (died 1230), of Swaton in Lincolnshire, (also written de la Haye) was an English landowner and administrator who inherited from her father not only lands in both England and Normandy but also the posts of hereditary sheriff of Lincolnshire and hereditary constable of Lincoln Castle.
Nicolae Bălan (April 27, 1882 – August 6, 1955) was an Austro-Hungarian-born Romanian cleric, a metropolitan bishop of the Romanian Orthodox Church.
Nicosia (Λευκωσία; Lefkoşa) is the largest city on the island of Cyprus.
The Night Attack at Târgoviște (Atacul de noapte de la Târgovişte, Tirgovişte Baskını) was a battle fought between forces of Vlad III the Impaler of Wallachia and Mehmed II of the Ottoman Empire on Thursday, June 17, 1462.
Nil Sorsky (Нил Сорский, also Nilus of Sora and Nil Sorski; birth name: Nikolai Maikov (Николай Майков) (c. 1433–1508) became a leader of a tendency in the medieval Russian Orthodox Church known as the "Non-possessors" which opposed ecclesiastic landownership. The Russian Orthodox Church venerates Nil Sorsky as a saint, marking his feast day on the anniversary of his repose on May 7.
The Nimrod Fortress or Nimrod Castle (قلعة الصبيبة Qal'at al-Subeiba, "Castle of the Large Cliff", later Qal'at Namrud, "Nimrod's Castle"; מבצר נמרוד, Mivtzar Nimrod, "Nimrod's Fortress") is a medieval Ayyubid castle situated on the southern slopes of Mount Hermon, on a ridge rising about 800 m (2600 feet) above sea level.
Nine Worthies of London is a book by Richard Johnson, the English romance writer, written in 1592.
The Ninth Crusade, which is sometimes grouped with the Eighth Crusade, is commonly considered to be the last major medieval Crusade to the Holy Land.
Nisan (or Nissan; נִיסָן, Standard Nisan Tiberian Nîsān) on the Assyrian calendar is the first month, and on the Hebrew calendar is the first month of the ecclesiastical year and the seventh month (eighth, in leap year) of the civil year.
Normandy (Normandie,, Norman: Normaundie, from Old French Normanz, plural of Normant, originally from the word for "northman" in several Scandinavian languages) is one of the 18 regions of France, roughly referring to the historical Duchy of Normandy.
North Baddesley is a large village and civil parish in Hampshire, England.
The Northern Crusades or Baltic Crusades were religious wars undertaken by Catholic Christian military orders and kingdoms, primarily against the pagan Baltic, Finnic and West Slavic peoples around the southern and eastern shores of the Baltic Sea, and to a lesser extent also against Orthodox Christian Slavs (East Slavs).
The Norwegian Crusade, led by Norwegian King Sigurd I, was a crusade or a pilgrimage (sources differ) that lasted from 1107 to 1111, in the aftermath of the First Crusade.
The Nuseibeh Clan (عائلة نسيبة; alternatively spelt Nussaiba, and Nusseibeh) is the oldest Muslim dynasty in Jerusalem.
O Jerusalem is the fifth book in the Mary Russell series by Laurie R. King.
The O'Neill dynasty (Ó Néill) is a group of families, ultimately all of Irish Gaelic origin, that have held prominent positions and titles in Ireland and elsewhere.
The Oakland California Temple (formerly the Oakland Temple) is the 15th constructed and 13th operating temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church).
Oakworth Hall is located in Oakworth, West Yorkshire, England.
The following events occurred in October 1912.
October 19 - Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar - October 21 All fixed commemorations below celebrated on November 2 by Eastern Orthodox Churches on the Old Calendar.
Old East Slavic or Old Russian was a language used during the 10th–15th centuries by East Slavs in Kievan Rus' and states which evolved after the collapse of Kievan Rus'.
The Old synagogues of Tiberias are a group of synagoues situated in the old city of Tiberias, Israel, that date form the 18th and 19th centuries.
Saint Olegarius Bonestruga (from Germanic Oldegar, Ollegarius, Oligarius, Oleguer, Olegario; 1060 – 6 March 1137) was the Bishop of Barcelona from 1116 and Archbishop of Tarragona from 1118 until his death.
Olivier lo Templier (fl. 1269) was a Knight Templar and troubadour probably from Catalonia.
Onofre Jarpa Labra (12 June, 1849 – 15 February, 1940) was a Chilean landscape painter in the Romantic style, and an essayist on various artistic topics.
An open world in video games is a virtual world in which the player can explore and approach objectives freely, as opposed to a world with more linear gameplay.
The Order of Hermes is a fictional mystical group of wizards in the role-playing game Ars Magica by Atlas Games, set in Mythic Europe.
The Order of Hospitaller Canons Regular of St Stephen or Stephanites was a religious institution set up by King Géza II of Hungary (1141–1162).
The Order of Mountjoy (Orden de Monte Gaudio) was a military order during the crusades.
The Order of Saint James of Altopascio (Ordine di San Giacomo d'Altopascio or Ordine dei Frati Ospitalieri di San Jacopo), also called the Knights of the Tau (Cavalieri del Tau) or Hospitallers of Saint James, was a military order, perhaps the earliest Christian institution to combine the protection and assistance of pilgrims, the staffing of hospitals, and a military wing.
The Bailiwick of Brandenburg of the Chivalric Order of Saint John of the Hospital at Jerusalem (Balley Brandenburg des Ritterlichen Ordens Sankt Johannis vom Spital zu Jerusalem), commonly known as the Order of Saint John or the Johanniter Order (German: Johanniterorden), is the German Protestant branch of the Knights Hospitaller, the oldest surviving chivalric order, which generally is considered to have been founded in Jerusalem in the year 1099 AD.
The Military and Hospitaller Order of Saint Lazarus of Jerusalem (Latin: Ordo Militaris et Hospitalis Sancti Lazari Hierosolymitani) is a Christian ecumenical lay order statuted in 1910 by a council of Catholics in Paris, France, initially under the protection of Patriarch Cyril VIII Jaha of the Melkite Greek Catholic Church.
The Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus (Ordine dei Santi Maurizio e Lazzaro) is a Roman Catholic dynastic order of knighthood bestowed by the House of Savoy, founded in 1572 by Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy, through amalgamation approved by Pope Gregory XIII of the Order of Saint Maurice, founded in 1434, with the medieval Order of Saint Lazarus, founded circa 1119, considered its sole legitimate successor.
The Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem (Ordo Equestris Sancti Sepulcri Hierosolymitani, OESSH), also called Order of the Holy Sepulchre or Knights of the Holy Sepulchre, is a Roman Catholic order of knighthood under the protection of the Holy See.
Orientalism in early modern France refers to the interaction of pre-modern France with the Orient, and especially the cultural, scientific, artistic and intellectual impact of these interactions, ranging from the academic field of Oriental studies to Orientalism in fashions in the decorative arts.
Orlando Bonsignori (died 1273) was an Italian banker from Siena.
Oshibana is the art of using pressed flowers and other botanical materials to create an entire picture from these natural elements.
Osman III (عثمان ثالث ‘Osmān-i sālis;‎ 2/3 January 1699 – 30 October 1757) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1754 to 1757.
Oswald von Wolkenstein (1376 or 1377, presumably in Castle Schöneck in Kiens – August 2, 1445 in Merano) was a poet, composer and diplomat.
Otto von Botenlauben or Botenlouben (1177, Henneberg – before 1245, near Bad Kissingen), the Count of Henneberg from 1206, was a German minnesinger, Crusader and monastic founder.
Ottokar I, also Otakar (died 29 March 1075) was count in the Bavarian Chiemgau and Margrave of Styria from 1056 until his death.
Our Lady of Mount Carmel is the title given to the Blessed Virgin Mary in her role as patroness of the Carmelite Order.
Our Lady of Nourieh, Saydet el Nourieh in Arabic, is a Marian shrine in Hamat, Lebanon.
Our Lady of Sion School is an inter-denominational, independent school for male and female students, founded in 1862 and located in Worthing, West Sussex, on the south coast of England.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to religion: Religion – organized collection of beliefs, cultural systems, and world views that relate humanity to an order of existence.
On January 11, 1858, the Jaffa Colonists - part of the American Agricultural Mission to assist local residents in agricultural endeavors in Ottoman Palestine - were brutally attacked, creating an international incident at the beginnings of U.S. presence in the Levant.
Outremer (outre-mer, meaning "overseas") was a general name used for the Crusader states; it originated after victories of Europeans in the First Crusade and was applied to the County of Edessa, the Principality of Antioch, the County of Tripoli, and especially the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
Pacentro is a comune of 1279 inhabitants of the province of L'Aquila in Abruzzo, Italy.
Paladino Gondola (1423–1472) was a Ragusan diplomat and merchant, a member of noble Gondola noble family.
The Palästinalied ("Palestine Song", also known as Kreuzlied "Song of the Cross") is a song written in the early 13th century by Walther von der Vogelweide, the most celebrated lyric poet of Middle High German literature.
Palestine usually refers to.
Palestine (فلسطين,,; Παλαιστίνη, Palaistinē; Palaestina; פלשתינה. Palestina) is a geographic region in Western Asia.
The Palestine Exploration Fund is a British society based in London.
Palestine Park is a scale model of the Holy Land, including cities, hills, rivers, and seas, in approximately correct geographical relation on the grounds of Chautauqua Institution in Chautauqua, New York.
The Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society, also known as PPTS, was a text publication society, which specialised in publishing editions and translations of medieval texts relevant to the history of pilgrimage to the Holy Land.
Palestinian Christians (مسيحيون فلسطينيون) are Christian citizens of the State of Palestine.
The Palestinian community in Chile (فلسطينيو تشيلي) is believed to be the largest Palestinian community outside of the Arab world.
Palestinian rabbis encompasses all rabbis who lived in the region known as Palestine up till modern times, but most significantly refers to the early Jewish sages who dwelled in the ancient Holy Land and compiled the Mishna and its later commentary, the Jerusalem Talmud.
The palm branch is a symbol of victory, triumph, peace, and eternal life originating in the ancient Near East and Mediterranean world.
The Palm of Jerusalem is an award of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre, a Roman Catholic Papal order of knighthood of the Holy See.
Palman (Serbian Cyrillic: Палман, Palmanus; fl. 1310-1363) was a German noble (dominus), knight, and mercenary commander of the Alemannic Guard in the Serbian Imperial army of one of the most prolific European rulers of its time, Dušan the Mighty (r.1331–1355).
Palmerstown is a civil parish and suburb in South Dublin, Ireland.
Panagia Ekatontapiliani (literally the church with one hundrend doors) or Panagia Katapoliani is a historic Byzantine church complex in Parikia town, on the island of Paros in Greece.
Pandolfo III Malatesta (c. 1369 – October 3, 1427) was an Italian condottiero and lord of Fano, a member of the famous House of Malatesta.
Papal income tax was first leveled in 1199 by Pope Innocent III, originally requiring all Catholic clergy to pay one-fortieth of their ecclesiastical income annually in support of the Crusades.
Papal supremacy is the doctrine of the Roman Catholic Church that the Pope, by reason of his office as Vicar of Christ and as pastor of the entire Christian Church, has full, supreme, and universal power over the whole Church, a power which he can always exercise unhindered: that, in brief, "the Pope enjoys, by divine institution, supreme, full, immediate, and universal power in the care of souls." The doctrine had the most significance in the relationship between the church and the temporal state, in matters such as ecclesiastic privileges, the actions of monarchs and even successions.
Paros (Πάρος; Venetian: Paro) is a Greek island in the central Aegean Sea.
Passage fee is a donation given by a newly dubbed knight in celebration of his investiture into the knighthood.
Pastwatch: The Redemption of Christopher Columbus (1996) is the first science fiction novel in a proposed Pastwatch series by Orson Scott Card.
The Patriarchal Order of the Holy Cross of Jerusalem is a Catholic honorific lay order and ecclesiastical decoration founded by Patriarch Maximos V Hakim of the Melkite Greek Catholic Church in 1979, with seat in the Old City of Jerusalem.
As a highly celebrated saint in both the Western and Eastern Christian churches, Saint George is connected with a large number of patronages throughout the world, and his iconography can be found on the flags and coats of arms of a number of cities and countries.
Paul Nabil El-Sayah (in Arabic: بولس نبيل الصياح, born on 26 December 1939 in Ain El-Kharroubé, Lebanon) is an Archeparch of the Maronite Church and Curial Bishop of the Maronite Catholic Patriarchate of Antioch.
Paul Stagg Coakley (born June 3, 1955) is an American prelate of the Roman Catholic Church.
The relationship between Paul the Apostle and Second Temple Judaism continues to be the subject of much scholarly research, as it is thought that Paul played an important role in the relationship between Christianity and Judaism as a whole.
Paul-Henry de Belvèze (11 March 1801 – 8 February 1875) was a French sailor who was given the mission by Napoleon III's government of renewing commercial relations with Canada.
Saint Paula of Rome (AD 347–404) was an ancient Roman saint and early Desert Mother.
Pázmány Péter Catholic University is a private university of the Catholic Church in Hungary, recognized by the state.
Pedro Fernández de Castro, also known as Pedro Fernández de Fuentecalada (b. 1184), was the first Grand Master of the Order of Santiago and the founder of the Monastery of Santa Cruz de Valcárcel.
Pedro Tafur (or Pero Tafur) (c. 1410 – c. 1484) was a traveler, historian and writer from Castile (modern day Spain).
A pentapolis (from Greek πεντα- penta-, "five" and πόλις polis, "city") is a geographic and/or institutional grouping of five cities.
Pierino Ronald "Perry" Como (May 18, 1913 – May 12, 2001) was an American singer and television personality.
Persecution of Eastern Orthodox Christians is the persecution faced by church, clergy and adherents of the Eastern Orthodox Church (Orthodox Christianity) because of religious beliefs and practices.
Persecution of Muslims is the religious persecution inflicted upon followers of Islamic faith.
Peter de Honestis (c. 1049 – 29 March 1119) was born at Ravenna.
Peter de Preaux, known in his time in the Old French language as Pierre de Préaux, (died 1212) was a Norman knight in the service of the Angevin kings of England.
Saint Peter Faber (Pierre Lefevre or Favre, Pedro Fabro, Petrus Faver) (13 April 1506 – 1 August 1546) was the first Jesuit priest and theologian, who was also a co-founder of the Society of Jesus.
Peter I of Cyprus or Pierre I de Lusignan (9 October 1328 – 17 January 1369) was King of Cyprus and titular King of Jerusalem from his father's abdication on 24 November 1358 until his own death in 1369.
Peter of Blois (Petrus Blesensis) was a French cleric, theologian, poet and diplomat.
Peter of Brixey (Pierre de Brixey, Brixei, Peter, Petrus von Brixey) (died 1192) was Bishop of Toul from 1167 to 1192, and a supporter of the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa in the late twelfth-century phase of the Investiture Controversy, one of the few bishops of Lorraine to do so.
Peter the Hermit (also known as Cucupeter, Little Peter or Peter of Amiens; 1050 – 8 July 1115) was a priest of Amiens and a key figure during the First Crusade.
Infante D. Pedro, Duke of Coimbra KG (Peter), (9 December 1392 – 20 May 1449) was a Portuguese ''infante'' (prince) of the House of Aviz, son of King John I of Portugal and his wife Philippa of Lancaster, daughter of John of Gaunt.
Blessed Pey Berland (or Peyberland, from Pierre Berland; c. 1380 – January 1458) was the Archbishop of Bordeaux from 1430 until his abdication, during a pivotal time in the history of the city and of Gascony.
The Pharisees were at various times a political party, a social movement, and a school of thought in the Holy Land during the time of Second Temple Judaism.
Philip of Alsace (1143 – 1 August 1191) was count of Flanders from 1168 to 1191.
Philip of Artois (1358 – 16 June 1397, Micalizo), son of John of Artois, Count of Eu, and Isabeau of Melun, was Count of Eu from 1387 until his death, succeeding his brother Robert.
Philip of the Blessed Trinity (born at Malaucene, near Avignon, 1603; died at Naples, 28 February 1671) was a French Discalced Carmelite theologian and missionary.
Count Philipp I of Hanau-Münzenberg, nicknamed Philipp the Younger, (20 September 1449, at Windecken Castle – 26 August 1500) was a son of Count Reinhard III of Hanau and Countess Palatine Margaret of Mosbach.
Philippa of Champagne, Lady of Ramerupt and of Venizy (c. 1197 – 20 December 1250) was the third daughter of Queen Isabella I of Jerusalem and Henry II, Count of Champagne.
New Martyr Archimandrite Philoumenos (Hasapis) of Jacob's Well (Greek: Φιλούμενος Χασάπης; Φιλούμενος ο Κύπριος; or Φιλούμενος Ορουντιώτης), 15 October 1913 – 29 November 1979, was the Igumen of the Greek Orthodox monastery of Jacob's Well, near the city of Samaria, now called Nablus (Neapolis), in the West Bank.
A phrase book or phrasebook is a collection of ready-made phrases, usually for a foreign language along with a translation, indexed and often in the form of questions and answers.
Picot of Cambridge (c. 1022–after 1090) was a Norman landowner and Sheriff of Cambridgeshire.
Picturesque Palestine, Sinai, and Egypt was a lavishly illustrated set of books published by D. Appleton & Co. in the early 1880s based on their phenomenally successful Picturesque America and Picturesque Europe series.
Pierre Loti (pseudonym of Louis Marie-Julien Viaud; 14 January 1850 – 10 June 1923) was a French naval officer and novelist, known for his exotic novels.
Pierre-Gustave-Gaspard Joly de Lotbinière (born February 5, 1798 in Frauenfeld, Switzerland, died June 8, 1865 in Paris) was a French businessman and amateur daguerreotypist, married to a Canadian seigneuress.
Pietro Casola (1427 – November 6, 1507) was a Catholic Canon, born to a noble Italian family in Milan.
Pietro della Valle (2 April 1586 – 21 April 1652) was an Italian composer, musicologist, and author who traveled throughout Asia during the Renaissance period.
Pietro Vesconte (fl. 1310–1330) was a Genoese cartographer and geographer.
Pilgermann is a 1983 novel by Russell Hoban, set in the Middle Ages and depicting the journey of a Jew across Europe and Northern Africa on his way to the Holy Land.
A pilgrim (from the Latin peregrinus) is a traveler (literally one who has come from afar) who is on a journey to a holy place.
A pilgrimage is a journey or search of moral or spiritual significance.
Pio Taofinu'u, S. M. (December 8, 1923 – January 19, 2006) was a Roman Catholic cardinal and Archbishop of Samoa-Apia.
Pisa is a city in the Tuscany region of Central Italy straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea.
The Place Jean-Jaurès, a.k.a. La Plaine, is a historic square in Marseille, Bouches-du-Rhône, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France.
Poggio Sannita is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Isernia in the Italian region Molise, located about northwest of Campobasso and about northeast of Isernia.
Polish cuisine is a style of cooking and food preparation originating in or widely popular in Poland.
Pope Clement IV (Clemens IV; 23 November 1190 – 29 November 1268), born Gui Foucois (Guido Falcodius; Guy de Foulques or Guy Foulques) and also known as Guy le Gros (French for "Guy the Fat"; Guido il Grosso), was bishop of Le Puy (1257–1260), archbishop of Narbonne (1259–1261), cardinal of Sabina (1261–1265), and Pope from 5 February 1265 until his death.
Pope Clement X (Clemens X; 13 July 1590 – 22 July 1676), born Emilio Bonaventura Altieri, was Pope from 29 April 1670 to his death in 1676.
Pope Gregory IX Gregorius IX (born Ugolino di Conti; c. 1145 or before 1170 – 22 August 1241), was Pope from 19 March 1227 to his death in 1241.
Pope Gregory X (Gregorius X; – 10 January 1276), born Teobaldo Visconti, was Pope from 1 September 1271 to his death in 1276 and was a member of the Secular Franciscan Order.
Pope Honorius II (9 February 1060 – 13 February 1130), born Lamberto Scannabecchi,Levillain, pg.
Pope Honorius III (1150 – 18 March 1227), born as Cencio Savelli, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 18 July 1216 to his death in 1227.
Pope Innocent III (Innocentius III; 1160 or 1161 – 16 July 1216), born Lotario dei Conti di Segni (anglicized as Lothar of Segni) reigned from 8 January 1198 to his death in 1216.
Pope John Paul II (Ioannes Paulus II; Giovanni Paolo II; Jan Paweł II; born Karol Józef Wojtyła;; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 to 2005.
Pope John XXI (Ioannes XXI; – 20 May 1277), born Peter Juliani (Petrus Iulianus; Pedro Julião), was Pope from 8 September 1276 to his death in 1277.
Pope Paul VI (Paulus VI; Paolo VI; born Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini; 26 September 1897 – 6 August 1978) reigned from 21 June 1963 to his death in 1978.
Pope Pius XII (Pio XII), born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli (2 March 18769 October 1958), was the Pope of the Catholic Church from 2 March 1939 to his death.
Pope Sergius IV (970 – 12 May 1012) was Pope and the ruler of the Papal States from 31 July 1009 to his death in 1012.
Pope Urban II (Urbanus II; – 29 July 1099), born Odo of Châtillon or Otho de Lagery, was Pope from 12 March 1088 to his death in 1099.
Poppo von Babenberg (c. 986 – 16 June 1047) was the Archbishop of Trier from 1016 to his death.
Saint Poppo (Deinze, 977 – Marchiennes, 25 January 1048) was a knight of noble descent who turned to a monastic life after experiencing a spiritual conversion.
The Romanesque style of architecture was introduced in Portugal between the end of the 11th and the beginning of the 12th century.
Post miserabile (Sadly, after) was a papal bull issued by Pope Innocent III on 15 August 1198 calling for the Fourth Crusade in the Holy Land.
Post-classical history (also called the Post-Antiquity era, Post-Ancient Era, or Pre-Modern Era) is a periodization commonly used by the school of "world history" instead of Middle Ages (Medieval) which is roughly synonymous.
The postage stamps and postal history of Palestine emerges from its geographic location as a crossroads amidst the empires of the ancient Near East, the Levant and the Middle East.
This is a survey of the postage stamps and postal history of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta. The Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes, and of Malta, otherwise known as the Sovereign Military Order of Malta or SMOM is a Roman Catholic order based in Rome, Italy.
Prè (pron.) is a neighbourhood in the old town of the Italian city of Genoa.
Pre-Islamic Arabia refers to the Arabian Peninsula prior to the rise of Islam in the 630s.
The Presentation of Jesus at the Temple is an early episode in the life of Jesus, describing his presentation at the Temple in Jerusalem in order to officially induct him into Judaism, that is celebrated by many Christian Churches on the holiday of Candlemas.
Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale (Albert Victor Christian Edward; 8 January 1864 – 14 January 1892), was the eldest child of the Prince and Princess of Wales (later King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra) and grandson of the reigning British monarch, Queen Victoria.
Álmos (Slovak, Almoš; 1070 or 1075, – 1 September 1127 or possibly in 1129) was a Hungarian prince, the son of King Géza I of Hungary and brother of King Coloman.
Admiral of the Fleet Louis Alexander Mountbatten, 1st Marquess of Milford Haven, (24 May 1854 – 11 September 1921), formerly Prince Louis Alexander of Battenberg, was a British naval officer and German nobleman related to the British royal family.
Promised Land, as described in the Bible, is the land promised by God to Abraham and his descendants.
Protectorate of Missions is a term for the right of protection exercised by a Christian power in an 'infidel' (e.g. Muslim) country with regard to the persons and establishments of the missionaries.
The Prussian Crusade was a series of 13th-century campaigns of Roman Catholic crusaders, primarily led by the Teutonic Knights, to Christianize the pagan Old Prussians.
The Prussian Union of Churches (known under multiple other names) was a major Protestant church body which emerged in 1817 from a series of decrees by Frederick William III of Prussia that united both Lutheran and Reformed denominations in Prussia.
The Prussian uprisings were two major and three smaller uprisings by the Prussians, one of the Baltic tribes, against the Teutonic Knights that took place in the 13th century during the Prussian Crusade.
Przecław Lanckoroński (Предслав Лянцкоронський) of Brzezie of Zadora coat of arms (died 10 June 1531) was a notable member of the Polish szlachta, a knight often identified as the first hetman of the Cossacks in service of Poland, as well as a landowner and starost of Chmielnik, title awarded in modern Ukraine.
Przemysł II (also given in English and Latin as Premyslas or Premislaus or less properly Przemysław; 14 October 1257 – 8 February 1296), was the Duke of Poznań from 1257–1279, of Greater Poland from 1279–1296, of Kraków from 1290–1291, and Gdańsk Pomerania (Pomerelia) from 1294–1296, and then King of Poland from 1295 until his death.
Pseudo-Kufic, or Kufesque, also sometimes Pseudo-Arabic, is a style of decoration used during the Middle Ages or the Renaissance, consisting of imitations of the Arabic Kufic script, or sometimes Arabic cursive script, made in a non-Arabic context: "Imitations of Arabic in European art are often described as pseudo-Kufic, borrowing the term for an Arabic script that emphasizes straight and angular strokes, and is most commonly used in Islamic architectural decoration".
Pseudoarchaeology—also known as alternative archaeology, fringe archaeology, fantastic archaeology, or cult archaeology—refers to interpretations of the past from outside of the archaeological science community, which reject the accepted datagathering and analytical methods of the discipline.
Pub names are used to identify and differentiate pubs in the United Kingdom.
Saint Aelia Pulcheria (Πουλχερία; 19 January 398 or 399 – July 453) was Regent of the Byzantine Empire during the minority of her brother Theodosius II, and empress by marriage to Marcian.
Q-D-Š is a triconsonantal Semitic root meaning "sacred, holy", derived from a concept central to ancient Semitic religion.
Quarto Cagnino is a district ("quartiere") of Milan, Italy, part of the Zone 7 administrative division of the city.
The Queen of Angels Foundation is an association of lay faithful of the Roman Catholic Church dedicated to fostering devotion to Mary, Mother of Jesus.
Quek Swee Hwa (born 1941) is a Singaporean pastor and theologian.
Akiba ben Yosef (עקיבא בן יוסף, c. 50–135 CE) also known as Rabbi Akiva, was a tanna of the latter part of the first century and the beginning of the second century (the third tannaitic generation).
Raimon de Cornet (also spelled Ramon de Cornet) (fl. 1324–1340) was a fourteenth-century Toulousain priest, friar, grammarian, poet, and troubadour.
Saint Rainerius (c. 1115/1117 – 1160) is the patron saint of Pisa and of travellers.
Raj Bhavan (translation: Government House) is a residential palace and fort situated in Dona Paula, Goa which serves as the official residence of the Governor of Goa.
Ralph of Coucy, (c. 1134 – 1191), lord of Coucy, lord of Marle, La Fère, Crécy (sur-Serre), Vervins, Pinon, Landouzy (la-Ville), and Fontaine (lès-Vervins).
Raoul of Merencourt (also called Ralph or Radulphus) was Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem from 1214 to 1224.
Robert Josias "Raphael" Morgan was a Jamaican-American Orthodox priest of the Ecumenical Patriarchate, designated as the "Priest-Apostolic to America and the West Indies" (Ιεραποστολος), later the founder and superior of the Order of the Cross of Golgotha, and thought to be the first Black Orthodox cleric in America.
Rap(p)aport, Rap(p)oport or Rapa Porto (רפפורט) is a family name from an Italian (Jewish) Kohenitic pedigree.
Saint Rasso of Andechs (also Rasso of Grafrath, Graf Ratt, Ratho, Grafrath, Rasso von Andechs) (ca. 900-953) was a Bavarian count and military leader, pilgrim, and saint.
Raymond II (Raimundus; 1116 – 1152) was count of Tripoli from 1137 to 1152.
Blessed Raymond of Capua, O.P., (ca. 1330 – 5 October 1399) was a leading member of the Dominican Order and served as its Master General from 1380 until his death.
The 2010 Copiapó mining accident occurred when the San Jose Mine near to Copiapó, Chile, collapsed, leaving 32 miners of Chilean nationality and one Bolivian miner trapped inside about 700 metres (over 2000 feet) below the surface.
Rechabites are a biblical clan, the descendants of Rechab through Jehonadab.
Regensburg (Castra-Regina;; Řezno; Ratisbonne; older English: Ratisbon; Bavarian: Rengschburg or Rengschburch) is a city in south-east Germany, at the confluence of the Danube, Naab and Regen rivers.
Sir Reginald FitzUrse (1145 – 1173) was one of the four knights who murdered Thomas Becket in 1170.
Reineldis (also Reinhild, Reinaldes, Rainelde among others; c. 630 – c. 700) was a saint of the 7th century, martyred by the Huns.
In religion, a relic usually consists of the physical remains of a saint or the personal effects of the saint or venerated person preserved for purposes of veneration as a tangible memorial.
The study of religion and video games is a subfield of digital religion, which the American scholar of communication, Heidi Campbell, defines as “Religion that is constituted in new ways through digital media and cultures.” (Campbell, 2012, p. 3).
Religion in Israel is a central feature of the country and plays a major role in shaping Israeli culture and lifestyle.
The Mongol empire was eventually consumed by Islam.
Religious fanaticism is uncritical zeal or with an obsessive enthusiasm related to one's own, or one's group's, devotion to a religion – a form of human fanaticism which could otherwise be expressed in one's other involvements and participation, including employment, role, and partisan affinities.
As the Roman Republic, and later the Roman Empire, expanded, it came to include people from a variety of cultures, and religions.
The city of Jerusalem is significant in a number of religious traditions, including the Abrahamic religions Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, which consider it a holy city.
The religious views of Abraham Lincoln are a matter of interest among scholars and the public.
A religious war or holy war (bellum sacrum) is a war primarily caused or justified by differences in religion.
Religious Zionism (צִיּוֹנוּת דָּתִית, translit. Tziyonut Datit, or Dati Leumi "National Religious", or Kippah seruga, literally, "knitted skullcap") is an ideology that combines Zionism and Orthodox Judaism.
The Reliquary Cross is a small (29.8 × 12.5 cm) French metalwork sculpture dated c. 1180, now in The Cloisters museum in New York.
Renard II, also spelled Reynald, Raynald, Rainard or Renaud (born 1170s, died 1234), was the count, or lord, of Dampierre-le-Château in the Astenois.
Renaud is an opera by Antonio Sacchini, first performed on 28 February 1783 by the Académie Royale de Musique at the Théâtre de la Porte Saint-Martin in Paris.
Renaud de Montauban (also spelled Renaut, Renault, Italian: Rinaldo di Montalbano, Dutch: Reinout van Montalba(e)n) was a fictional hero and knight who was introduced to literature in a 12th-century Old French chanson de geste known as Les Quatre Fils Aymon ("The Four Sons of Aymon") (frequently referred to simply as Renaud de Montauban).
Replicas of the Jewish Temple are scale models or authentic buildings that attempt to replicate the Temple of Solomon, Second Temple and Herod's Temple in Jerusalem.
The Republic of Pisa (Repubblica di Pisa) was a de facto independent state centered on the Tuscan city of Pisa during the late 10th and 11th centuries.
The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century.
Restoring Courage was a campaign announced on May 2011 by media personality Glenn Beck featuring a media event that took place in Jerusalem, on August 24, 2011, "to stand with the Jewish people".
Retsina (Ρετσίνα) is a Greek white (or rosé) resinated wine, which has been made for at least 2000 years.
Riah Hanna Abu El-Assal (رياح حنا أبو العسل,, ריאח אבו אלעסל; born 6 November 1937 in Nazareth) is an Israeli Palestinian Anglican bishop, who was the Bishop in Jerusalem from 1997 to 2007.
Ricaut Bonomel (En Ricatz Honomel in one chansonnier) was a Knight Templar and troubadour in the Holy Land around the time of the Eighth Crusade.
Riccoldo da Monte di Croce or Ricoldo of Monte Croce (Pennini, that is "son of Pennino"; Ricoldus de Monte Crucis), 1243 – 1320, was an Italian Dominican monk, travel writer, missionary, and Christian apologist.
Richard de Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick, Count of Aumale, KG (25 or 28 January 1382Christine Carpenter, 'Beauchamp, Richard, thirteenth earl of Warwick (1382–1439)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004. – 30 April 1439) was an English medieval nobleman and military commander.
Richard de Camville (died 1191) was an English crusader knight, and one of Richard the Lionheart's senior commanders during the Third Crusade.
Richard (Riccardo) Filangieri (c.1195–1254/63) was an Italian nobleman who played an important part in the Sixth Crusade in 1228–9 and in the War of the Lombards from 1229–43, where he was in charge of the forces of Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, battling forces on the other side, local barons first led by John of Ibelin, the Old Lord of Beirut.
Sir Richard le Breton (fl. 1170) (or Richard de Brito) was one of the four knights who in 1170 murdered Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury.
Richard of Devizes (fl. late 12th century), English chronicler, was a monk of St Swithin's house at Winchester.
Richard of Ingworth was a Franciscan preacher who was influential in introducing the order to England.
Sir Richard Reynell (d.pre-1213) (alias Reinell, Reynolds, etc), of Pitney (anciently Pyttney, Peteneya, eyc) in the county of Somerset, Sheriff of Devon in 1191-4, was a knight who lived during the successive reigns of King Henry II (1154-1189) and of his sons King Richard I (1189-1199) and King John (1199-1216).
The planetary systems of stars other than the Sun and the Solar System are a staple element in much science fiction.
Rob Morris was a prominent American poet and Freemason.
For the Missouri politician, see Robert A. Young. Robert A. Young (1824-1902) was an American minister of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South.
Robert Bartlett, FBA, FRSE (born 27 November 1950 in Streatham) is an English historian and medievalist.
Robert Curthose (3 February 1134), sometimes called Robert II or Robert III, was the Duke of Normandy from 1087 until 1106 and an unsuccessful claimant to the throne of the Kingdom of England.
Robert de Boron (also spelled in the manuscripts "Bouron", "Beron") was a French poet of the late 12th and early 13th centuries who is most notable as the author of the poems Joseph d'Arimathe and Merlin.
Robert de Thweng (c. 1205 – c. 1268) was a noble who rebelled against the church authorities in Yorkshire, England.
Robert Harry Smith (October 30, 1932 - March 16, 2006) was a Lutheran clergyman, theologian, prolific author and lecturer on the Bible's New Testament, and dean of a Lutheran seminary in exile in the early 1980s.
Robert Howard, Knight, (1385—1436), of Stoke by Nayland, Suffolk.
Robert II (c. 1065 – 5 October 1111) was Count of Flanders from 1093 to 1111.
Robert III, the Bellicose (Ruprecht der Streitbare; died 1191), was co-Count of Nassau between 1160 and 1191.
Robert Lisle Lindsey, also known as Bob Lindsey (1917–1995), founded together with David Flusser the Jerusalem School of Synoptic Research.
Robert Markham is a prolific American wargame designer.
Robert McGhee was a prominent Church of Scotland minister who championed the evangelical movement in Scotland throughout the second half of the 20th century.
Robert of Courtenay (Robert de Courtenay), born (– 1239 Palestine) was lord of Champignelles and grandson of Louis VI of France.
Robert I (11 July 1274 – 7 June 1329), popularly known as Robert the Bruce (Medieval Gaelic: Roibert a Briuis; modern Scottish Gaelic: Raibeart Bruis; Norman French: Robert de Brus or Robert de Bruys; Early Scots: Robert Brus; Robertus Brussius), was King of Scots from 1306 until his death in 1329.
Robert Walerand (died 1273), was Justiciar to King Henry III (1216–1272).
Robert Willoughby, 6th Baron Willoughby de Eresby, KG (c.1385 – 25 July 1452) was an English baron and soldier in the Hundred Years' War.
Robert (Róbert; died 1 November 1239) was a French-born prelate in the Kingdom of Hungary in the first decades of the 13th century.
Rodrigo Díaz de los Cameros (fl. 1212–1221) was a Castilian magnate and one of the earliest Galician-Portuguese troubadours.
Sir Roger de Mowbray (–1188) was an Anglo-Norman magnate, described by Horace Round as.
The role of Christianity in civilization has been intricately intertwined with the history and formation of Western society.
Romain Sardou (born 6 January 1974) is a French novelist born in Boulogne-Billancourt, Hauts-de-Seine.
The Archbishop of Nazareth is a former residential Metropolitan see, first in the Holy Land, then in Apulian exile in Berletta (southern Italy), which had a Latin and a Maronite successor as titular sees, the first merged into Berletta, the second suppressed.
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Braga (Archidioecesis Bracarensis) is an archdiocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in Portugal.
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Bethléem à Clamecy was a crusader bishopric in residential exile with see at Clamecy, Nièvre in Burgundy, eastern France, made exempt (i.e. directly subject to the Holy see, not part of any (French) ecclesiastical province).
Roman of Le Puy, also known as Romanus of Puy (Romanus de Podio), was the first lord of Oultrejordain in the Kingdom of Jerusalem from around 1120 to around 1126.
The Roma people have a number of distinct populations, the largest being the Roma and the Iberian Calé or Caló, who reached Anatolia and the Balkans about the early 12th century, from a migration out of northwestern India beginning about 600 years earlier.
Ronald Mark Blomberg (born August 23, 1948), nicknamed Boomer, is an American former professional baseball player and minor league manager.
Rozenkwit is a very old Germanic family name whose origins date back to the eleventh century in the Lower Lorraine, the western area of the German Kingdom which bordered onto the Netherlands (County of Flanders).
Rudolph II, Count Palatine of Tübingen (died 1 November 1247) was Count Palatine of Tübingen and Vogt of Sindelfingen.
The Russian Compound (מִגְרַשׁ הָרוּסִים, Migraš ha-Rusim, المسكوبية, al-Muskubīya) is one of the oldest districts in central Jerusalem, featuring a large Russian Orthodox church and several former pilgrim hostels, some of which are used as Israeli government buildings (such as the Moscovia Detention Centre) and for the Museum of Underground Prisoners.
Russian Guatemalans are Guatemalan citizens who have Russian ancestry, full or partial.
The Russian Orthodox Ecclesiastical Mission in Jerusalem was founded in the 19th century to serve as a representation of the Russian Orthodox Church to the Jerusalemite Orthodox Church and to oversee the facilities caring for the thousands of pilgrims then flocking to the Holy Land from the Russian Empire.
Russian Orthodox properties in Palestine refers to real-estate owned by the Russian Orthodox Church (ROC) in Israel and the West Bank.
Ruth Kark (רות קרק) is an Israeli scholar and Professor of Geography at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
Rabbi Sa'adiah ben Yosef Gaon (سعيد بن يوسف الفيومي / Saʻīd bin Yūsuf al-Fayyūmi, Sa'id ibn Yusuf al-Dilasi, Saadia ben Yosef aluf, Sa'id ben Yusuf ra's al-Kull; רבי סעדיה בן יוסף אלפיומי גאון' or in short:; alternative English Names: Rabeinu Sa'adiah Gaon ("our Rabbi Saadia Gaon"), RaSaG, Saadia b. Joseph, Saadia ben Joseph or Saadia ben Joseph of Faym or Saadia ben Joseph Al-Fayyumi; 882/892 – 942) was a prominent rabbi, Jewish philosopher, and exegete of the Geonic period who was active in the Abbasid Caliphate.
Sabbatai Zevi (other spellings include Shabbetai Ẓevi, Shabbeṯāy Ṣeḇī, Shabsai Tzvi, and Sabetay Sevi in Turkish) (August 1, 1626 – c. September 17, 1676) was a Sephardic ordained Rabbi, though of Romaniote origin and a kabbalist, active throughout the Ottoman Empire, who claimed to be the long-awaited Jewish Messiah.
The House of the Saboulin Bollena (or Sebolin, or Sabolin) is one of the oldest French aristocratic families, from the old feudal nobility of Provence.
The Sacro Monte di Graglia is one of the numerous devotional places around the Italian Alps and it houses the Santuario di Nostra Signora di Loreto, one of the four major sanctuaries of the Biellese territory.
Giovanni d' Enrico, ''Ecce Homo ''(detail of the crowd calling for crucifixion), 1608-9. The Sacred Mountain of Varallo (Sacro Monte di Varallo) is a Sacro Monte ("sacred mountain", a type of mountainside Christian devotional complex) overlooking the town of Varallo Sesia in the province of Vercelli, Piedmont, northern Italy.
Safe conduct is the situation in time of international conflict or war where one state, a party to such conflict, issues to a person, usually an enemy state's subject, a pass or document to allow the enemy alien to traverse its territory without harassment, bodily harm, or fear of death.
Saint Afan of Builth (Sant Afan Buellt; Avanus) was an early 6th-century Welsh bishop, martyr, and saint.
Saint Ernest (died 1148) was the abbot of the Benedictine Zwiefalten Abbey at Zwiefalten, Germany from 1141 to 1146.
Saint Margaret of England (died 1192) was born in Hungary to an Englishwoman who was related to Thomas Becket, the murdered Archbishop of Canterbury.
Saint Nicholas (Ἅγιος Νικόλαος,, Sanctus Nicolaus; 15 March 270 – 6 December 343), also called Nikolaos of Myra or Nicholas of Bari, was Bishop of Myra, in Asia Minor (modern-day Demre, Turkey), and is a historic Christian saint.
Saint Nicholas' Day, observed on December 6 in Western Christian countries and Romania, December 5 in the Netherlands and December 19 in Eastern Christian countries, is the feast day of Saint Nicholas.
Oddone Frangipane (1040 – 23 March 1127), also known as Saint Ottone, was a Benedictine monk and a hermit.
Saint Paul's Catholic Church is a parish of the Roman Catholic Church This parish is located in Worthington, Iowa, and is part of the Archdiocese of Dubuque.
Saint Reparata (Santa Reparata, Sainte Réparate) was a Catholic virgin and martyr of the third century AD, possibly mythical, of Caesarea, Roman Province of Palestine.
Saint Sava (Свети Сава / Sveti Sava,, 1174 – 14 January 1236), known as The Enlightener, was a Serbian prince and Orthodox monk, the first Archbishop of the autocephalous Serbian Church, the founder of Serbian law, and a diplomat.
Saint-Antonin-Noble-Val (Sant Antonin in Occitan) is a commune in the Tarn-et-Garonne department in the Occitanie region in southern France.
Salim Mansur is an Associate Professor of Political Science at the University of Western Ontario in Canada.
Samagar, also Cemakar, was a Mongol general of the Il-Khan ruler Abaqa Khan (1234–1282), mentioned as leading a Mongol invasion force in 1271, in attempted coordination with the Ninth Crusade.
Samer Raimouny, (Ph.D. International Relations) (Arabic: سامر الريموني) is an Anglophone Jordanian poet and a campaigner for child rights.
Samuel Gobat (26 January 1799 – 11 May 1879), was a Swiss Calvinist who became an Anglican missionary in Africa and was the Protestant Bishop of Jerusalem from 1846 until his death.
Samuel of Nehardea or Samuel bar Abba (Hebrew: שמואל or שמואל ירחינאה) was a Jewish Talmudist who lived in Babylonia, known as an Amora of the first generation; son of Abba bar Abba and head of the Yeshiva at Nehardea.
San Bevignate is a church in Perugia, Umbria, central Italy.
The Church of San Clemente (Chiesa di San Clemente) is a church built in 1131 and located on San Clemente Island, in the Venetian Lagoon.
San Francesco del Deserto is an island in the Venetian Lagoon in Véneto, Italy, with a surface of some 4 ha.
San Giacomo della Spada ("Saint James of the Sword") is a Catholic church in Alcamo, in the province of Trapani, adjoning it there was the Hospice of Pilgrims.
San Giacomo Scossacavalli (San Giacomo a Scossacavalli) was a church in Rome important for historical and artistic reasons.
San Vivaldo Monastery is a Roman Catholic convent, church, and sanctuary complex located outside of the town of Montaione, region of Tuscany, Italy.
Sancho VII (Antso VII.a; 1157 - 7 April 1234) called the Strong (Azkarra, el Fuerte) was King of Navarre from 1194 until his death in 1234.
Sansepolcro, formerly Borgo Santo Sepolcro, is a town and comune founded in the 11th century, located in the Italian Province of Arezzo in the eastern part of the region of Tuscany.
The Abbey of Sansepolcro was an Italian Benedictine monastery established in the 11th-century in the town of Sansepolcro in Tuscany, which soon became a Camaldolese monastery.
The Cathedral of Sansepolcro (Italian: Duomo di Sansepolcro; officially a co-cathedral) is a Catholic church in Sansepolcro, Tuscany, central Italy.
The Basilica of the Holy Cross in Jerusalem or Basilica di Santa Croce in Gerusalemme, (Basilica Sanctae Crucis in Hierusalem) is a Roman Catholic minor basilica and titular church in rione Esquilino, Rome, Italy.
Santa Maria de Montserrat is a Benedictine abbey located on the mountain of Montserrat, in Monistrol de Montserrat, in Catalonia, Spain.
The Basilica of Saint Praxedes (Basilica Sanctae Praxedis, Basilica di Santa Prassede all’Esquillino), commonly known in Italian as Santa Prassede, is an ancient titular church and minor basilica in Rome, Italy, located near the papal basilica of Saint Mary Major.
Santiago de Compostela is the capital of the autonomous community of Galicia, in northwestern Spain.
The Santo Bambino of Aracoeli ("Holy Boy of Aracoeli"), sometimes known as the Bambino Gesù di Aracoeli ("Child Jesus of Aracoeli") is a 15th-century Roman Catholic devotional wooden image enshrined in the titular Basilica of Santa Maria in Aracoeli, depicting the Child Jesus swaddled in golden fabric, wearing a crown, and adorned with various gemstones and jewels donated by devotees.
The Basilica of St.
The Monastery of Santo Toribio de Liébana is a Roman Catholic monastery located in the district of Liébana, near Potes in Cantabria, Spain.
Sarepta (near modern, Lebanon) was a Phoenician city on the Mediterranean coast between Sidon and Tyre, also known biblically as Zarephath.
Sarona was a German Templer colony established in Ottoman Palestine in 1871.
The Scapular of Our Lady of Mount Carmel (also known as the Brown Scapular) is the habit of the both Carmelite Order and the Discalced Carmelite Order, both of which have Our Lady of Mount Carmel as their patroness.
The Sclaveni (in Latin) or (in Greek) were early Slavic tribes that raided, invaded and settled the Balkans in the Early Middle Ages and eventually became known as the ethnogenesis of the South Slavs.
The Scottish or Lowland Scottish gravestone is unique to the north of the British Isles.
The Seamless Robe of Jesus (also known as the Holy Robe, the Holy Tunic, the Honorable Robe, and the Chiton of the Lord) is the robe said to have been worn by Jesus during or shortly before his crucifixion.
Members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints believe that there will be a Second Coming of Jesus Christ to the earth sometime in the future.
The Second Council of Lyon was the fourteenth ecumenical council of the Catholic Church, convoked on 31 March 1272 and convened in Lyon, France, in 1274.
The Second Crusade (1147–1149) was the second major crusade launched from Europe.
Seder Olam Rabbah (סדר עולם רבה, "The Great Order of the World") is a 2nd-century CE Hebrew language chronology detailing the dates of biblical events from the Creation to Alexander the Great's conquest of Persia.
The Sedlec Ossuary (Kostnice v Sedlci) is a small Roman Catholic chapel, located beneath the Cemetery Church of All Saints (Czech: Hřbitovní kostel Všech Svatých), part of the former Sedlec Abbey in Sedlec, a suburb of Kutná Hora in the Czech Republic.
Seekers of the Sky (Искатели неба) is a series of two novels written by the popular Russian science fiction and fantasy writer Sergey Lukyanenko.
The Seljuk Empire (also spelled Seljuq) (آل سلجوق) was a medieval Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim empire, originating from the Qiniq branch of Oghuz Turks.
The Harvard Semitic Museum was founded in 1889, and moved into its present location at 6 Divinity Avenue in Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 1903.
Semyon Arkadyevich Bagdasarov (Семён Арка́дьевич Багдаса́ров; born November 20, 1954 in Margilan, Uzbek SSR) is a pro-Armenian Russian politician and member of the State Duma of the Russian Federation.
The Serbian Orthodox Church (Српска православна црква / Srpska pravoslavna crkva) is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Christian Churches.
A sermon is an oration, lecture, or talk by a member of a religious institution or clergy.
Seth Cook Rees (August 6, 1854 to May 22, 1933) was a leading figure in the “holiness movement," co-founding the International Holiness Union and Prayer League, and, following a schism with the Church of the Nazarene, founding the Pilgrim Holiness Church, a forerunner of the Wesleyan Church.
Seven Kilometers from Jerusalem or "7 Km da Gerusalemme" is a film about a Milanese ad exec having a midlife crisis who makes a pilgrimage to the Holy Land.
Shajar al-Durr (Arabic: شجر الدر, "Tree of Pearls") (Royal name: al-Malika `Aṣmat ad-Dīn Umm-Khalīl Shajar ad-Durr (Arabic: الملكة عصمة الدين أم خليل شجر الدر) (nicknamed: أم خليل, Umm Khalil; mother of Khalil)) (? – 28 April 1257, Cairo) was the second Muslim woman (after Razia Sultana of Delhi) to become a monarch in Islamic history.
The Shapell Manuscript Foundation (SMF) is a non-profit independent educational organization dedicated to research and the collection of historical documents and original manuscripts.
Shaqaqi (also is written as shaghaghi) is an Azerbaijani tribe of Kurdish origins.
Sharafat (شرفات) is a Palestinian neighborhood in East Jerusalem.
Shaw and Crompton is a town and civil parish within the Metropolitan Borough of Oldham, in Greater Manchester, England.
The Shepherds' Crusade of 1251 was a popular crusading movement in northern France aimed at rescuing King Louis IX during the Seventh Crusade.
"Sheriff Got Your Tongue?" is the second episode of the 2006 Robin Hood television series, made by Tiger Aspect Productions for BBC One.
Shklow (Шклоў,; Škłoŭ; Шклов, Shklov; שקלאָוו, Shklov, Szkłów) is a town in Mogilev Region, Belarus, located north of Mogilev on the Dnieper river.
Sicarius of Brantôme or Sicarius of Bethlehem (Sicaire de Brantôme, Sicaire de Bethléem) was a child saint who was venerated from the time of Charlemagne onwards as one of the victims of the Massacre of the Innocents by Herod the Great,Jean Du Puy, L'Etat de l'Eglise du Périgord depuis le christianisme (Daloy, 1629), Original from Lyon Public Library (Bibliothèque jésuite des Fontaines).
Sidon's Sea Castle (Arabic: قلعة صيدا البحرية Kalaat Saida al-Bahriya) was built by the crusaders in the thirteenth century as a fortress of the holy land.
The Siege of Acre (also called the Fall of Acre) took place in 1291 and resulted in the loss of the Crusader-controlled city of Acre to the Mamluks.
The Siege of Acre of 1799 was an unsuccessful French siege of the Ottoman-defended, walled city of Acre (now Akko in modern Israel) and was the turning point of Napoleon's invasion of Egypt and Syria.
The Siege of Damascus took place between 24 July and 29 July 1148, during the Second Crusade.
The 1244 Siege of Jerusalem took place after the Sixth Crusade, when the Khwarezmians conquered the city on July 15, 1244.
The Siege of Kerak took place in 1183, with Saladin's forces attacking and being repelled from the Crusader stronghold.
The Siege of Lisbon, from 1 July to 25 October, 1147, was the military action that brought the city of Lisbon under definitive Portuguese control and expelled its Moorish overlords.
The Siege of Tbilisi was the successful siege of the city of Tbilisi, capital of the Emirate of Tbilisi, by the Georgians under King David IV, which ended in 1122.
The Siege of Tyre took place from November 12, 1187 to January 1, 1188.
The Siege of Zara or Siege of Zadar (Opsada Zadra, Zára ostroma; 10–24 November 1202) was the first major action of the Fourth Crusade and the first attack against a Catholic city by Catholic crusaders.
Sigurd I Magnusson (c. 1090 – 26 March 1130), also known as Sigurd the Crusader (Old Norse: Sigurðr Jórsalafari, Norwegian: Sigurd Jorsalfar), was King of Norway from 1103 to 1130.
The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.
Sima ben Salomon Babovich (Karayce: Сима Бабович - Sima Babovich) (1790–1855) was a first Hakham of the Russian Crimean Karaites, one of the early figures in the Crimean Karaites movement.
Simcha Jacobovici (born April 4, 1953) is an Israeli-Canadian film director, producer, freelance journalist, and writer.
Simon de Crépy (c. 1047 – 1081) was Count of Amiens, of the Vexin and of Valois from 1074 until 1077.
Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester (– 4 August 1265), also called Simon de Munford and sometimes referred to as Simon V de Montfort to distinguish him from other Simons de Montfort, was a French-English nobleman who inherited the title and estates of the earldom of Leicester in England.
Sir Symon Locard, 2nd of Lee (1300–1371) was a Scottish knight who fought in the Wars of Scottish Independence.
Simon Alan Reeve (born 21 July 1972) is a British author and television presenter, currently based in London.
Sintra is a municipality in the Grande Lisboa subregion (Lisbon Region) of Portugal, considered part of the Portuguese Riviera.
Sir Degrevant is a Middle English romance from the early fifteenth century.
Sir Perceval of Galles is a Middle English Arthurian verse romance whose protagonist, Sir Perceval, made his debut in medieval literature well over a hundred years before the composition of this work; in Chrétien de Troyes' final poem, the twelfth-century Old French Conte del Graal.
Sisnando (or Sesnando) Davides (also Davídez, Davídiz, or Davidiz, and sometimes just David; died 25 August 1091) was a Mozarab nobleman and military leader of the Reconquista, born in Tentúgal, near Coimbra.
The Sixth Crusade started in 1228 as an attempt to regain Jerusalem.
Skulen (or rarely Skolen) Hasidic dynasty was founded by Rav Eliezer Zusia Portugal.
The Society of St John the Evangelist (SSJE) is an Anglican religious order for men.
Soffredo (died 14 December 1210, Pistoia) was an Italian cardinal.
Sophie of Thuringia (20 March 1224 – 29 May 1275) was the second wife and only Duchess consort of Henry II, Duke of Brabant and Lothier.
Sophie of Winzenburg (1105 in Winzenburg, near Hanover – 6 or 7 July 1160 in Brandenburg an der Havel) was the first Margravine of Brandenburg.
Sophronius (c. 560 – March 11, 638; Σωφρόνιος) was the Patriarch of Jerusalem from 634 until his death.
The Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes and of Malta (Supremus Ordo Militaris Hospitalis Sancti Ioannis Hierosolymitani Rhodius et Melitensis), also known as the Sovereign Military Order of Malta (SMOM) or the Order of Malta, is a Catholic lay religious order traditionally of military, chivalrous and noble nature.
A spaniel is a type of gun dog.
The split of early Christianity and Judaism took place during the first centuries CE.
St Donat's Castle (Castell Sain Dunwyd), St Donats, Wales, is a medieval castle in the Vale of Glamorgan, about to the west of Cardiff, and about to the east of Llantwit Major.
St Helena's Church, Thoroton is a parish church in the Church of England in Thoroton, Nottinghamshire.
St Laurence's Church, Ludlow is a parish church in the Church of England in Ludlow.
St Mary the Virgin is the Church of England parish church of Lytchett Matravers in Dorset.
Saint Padarn's Church is a parish church of the Church in Wales, and the largest mediaeval church in mid-Wales.
Palestine (فلسطين), officially the State of Palestine (دولة فلسطين), is a ''de jure'' sovereign state in the Middle East claiming the West Bank (bordering Israel and Jordan) and Gaza Strip (bordering Israel and Egypt) with East Jerusalem as the designated capital, although its administrative center is currently located in Ramallah.
The Stations of the Cross or the Way of the Cross, also known as the Way of Sorrows or the Via Crucis, refers to a series of images depicting Jesus Christ on the day of his crucifixion and accompanying prayers.
The status quo of the Holy Land sites is an understanding among religious communities with respect to nine shared religious sites in Jerusalem and Bethlehem.
Stavrovouni Monastery (Ιερά Μονή Σταυροβουνίου) is a Greek Orthodox monastery which stands on the top of a hill called Stavrovouni (Greek: Σταυροβούνι) in Cyprus; it is sometimes simply known as Stavrovouni.
Stedingen is an area north of Bremen in the delta of the Weser river in north-western Germany.
Stefan Nemanja (Serbian Cyrillic: Стефан Немања,; 1113 – 13 February 1199) was the Grand Prince (Veliki Župan) of the Serbian Grand Principality (also known as Rascia) from 1166 to 1196.
Stefan Radoslav (Стефан Радослав; ~1192 – after 1235), also known as Stephanos Doukas (Στέφανος Δούκας) was the King of Serbia from 1228 to 1233.
Stefan Vladislav (Стефан Владислав,; – after 1264) was the King of Serbia from 1234 to 1243.
Sten Svantesson Bielke, also Steno Bielke, (1598 – 2 AprilÖhman (2005), p.213 1638)Wild (2000), p.63Giese (2003), p.85 was a statesman of the Swedish Empire.
Stephen Crabb (born 20 January 1973) is a British politician of the Conservative Party serving as the Member of Parliament (MP) for Preseli Pembrokeshire since the 2005 general election.
Stephen du Perche (1137/8–1169) was the chancellor of the Kingdom of Sicily (1166–68) and Archbishop of Palermo (1167–68) during the early regency of his cousin, the queen dowager Margaret of Navarre (1166–71).
Stephen I, also known as King Saint Stephen (Szent István király; Sanctus Stephanus; Štefan I. or Štefan Veľký; 975 – 15 August 1038 AD), was the last Grand Prince of the Hungarians between 997 and 1000 or 1001, and the first King of Hungary from 1000 or 1001 until his death in 1038.
Stephen (II) from the kindred Báncsa (Báncsa nembeli (II.) István; died 1278) was a Hungarian prelate in the 13th century, who served as Archbishop of Kalocsa from 1266 until his death.
Stephen III (István, Stjepan, Štefan; summer of 11474 March 1172) was King of Hungary and Croatia between 1162 and 1172.
Stewart Binns is a British author and filmmaker who has produced many BAFTA, Grierson and Peabody award-winning documentaries.
Frank Stewart Farrar (28 June 1916 – 7 February 2000), who always went by the name of Stewart Farrar, was an English screenwriter, novelist and prominent figure in the Neopagan religion of Wicca, which he devoted much of his later life to propagating with the aid of his seventh wife, Janet Farrar, and then his friend Gavin Bone as well.
A study Bible is an edition of the Bible prepared for use by a serious student of the Bible.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
Superfantozzi is an Italian film from 1986.
Supremacism is an ideology of domination and superiority: it states that a particular class of people is superior to others, and that it should dominate, control, and subjugate others, or is entitled to do it.
Susan Abulhawa (born June 3, 1970) is a Palestinian American writer and human rights activist.
Susan Arnold Elston Wallace (December 25, 1830 – October 1, 1907) was an American author and poet from Crawfordsville, Indiana.
Sweyn Godwinson (Swegen Godƿinson) (1020 – 1052), also spelled Swein, was the eldest son of Earl Godwin of Wessex, and brother of Harold II of England.
Syria Palaestina was a Roman province between 135 AD and about 390.
The Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch (ʿĪṯo Suryoyṯo Trišaṯ Šubḥo; الكنيسة السريانية الأرثوذكسية), or Syriac Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East, is an Oriental Orthodox Church with autocephalous patriarchate established in Antioch in 518, tracing its founding to St. Peter and St. Paul in the 1st century, according to its tradition.
Saint Szymon of Lipnica (c. 1437 – 18 July 1482) was a Polish Roman Catholic priest and a professed member from the Order of Friars Minor.
A T and O map or O-T or T-O map (orbis terrarum, orb or circle of the lands; with the letter T inside an O), is a type of medieval world map, sometimes also called a Beatine map or a Beatus map because one of the earliest known representations of this sort is attributed to Beatus of Liébana, an 8th-century Spanish monk.
Colonel Thomas Edward Lawrence, (16 August 1888 – 19 May 1935) was a British archaeologist, military officer, diplomat, and writer.
Taber is a town in southern Alberta, Canada within the Municipal District of Taber.
Tadeusz Rychter (c. 1873 in Lviv – 1943 in Warsaw) was a Polish early twentieth-century artist best remembered for his watercolors of the Holy Land.
Tamar the Great (თამარი) (1160 – 18 January 1213) reigned as the Queen of Georgia from 1184 to 1213, presiding over the apex of the Georgian Golden Age.
Tancred; or, The New Crusade (1847) is a novel by Benjamin Disraeli, first published by Henry Colburn in three volumes.
Tancred Tancredi (1185 – 9 September 1241), also called Tancred of Siena, was an Italian ecclesiastic, a missionary, one of the first generation of Dominican friars, and a personal friend of Dominic of Osma.
Tarring and feathering is a form of public torture and humiliation used to enforce unofficial justice or revenge.
Tarshish (תַּרְשִׁישׁ) occurs in the Hebrew Bible with several uncertain meanings, most frequently as a place (probably a large city or region) far across the sea from the Land of Israel and Phoenicia (Tarshish is currently the name of a village in Mount Lebanon District in Lebanon).
The Sioni Cathedral of the Dormition is a Georgian Orthodox cathedral in Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia.
Tebnine (تبنين Tibnīn, also Romanized Tibnine) is a Lebanese town spread across several hills (ranging in altitude from 700m to 800m (2,275 ft to 2,600 ft) above sea level) located about east of Tyre (Lebanon), in the heart of what is known as "Jabal Amel" or the mountain of "Amel".
Tel Megiddo (מגידו; مجیدو, Tell al-Mutesellim, "The Tell of the Governor") is an ancient city whose remains form a tell (archaeological mound), situated in northern Israel near Kibbutz Megiddo, about 30 km south-east of Haifa.
Telesphorus of Cosenza (or Theophorus, Theolophorus) was a name assumed by one of the pseudo-prophets during the time of the Western Schism.
The Templar of Tyre (French: Le Templier de Tyr) is the name of a medieval historian and also of the document he wrote in the 14th century, the third and largest section of the Gestes des Chiprois.
Temple (Tempel) is a small village in the parish of Blisland on Bodmin Moor in Cornwall, England, UK.
The Temple Society (Tempelgesellschaft) is a German Protestant sect with roots in the Pietist movement of the Lutheran Church.
Tenth of Tevet (עשרה בטבת, Asarah BeTevet), the tenth day of the Hebrew month of Tevet, is a fast day in Judaism.
The Terra Sancta Chapel (הקפלה טרה סנטה) or Chapel of Terra Sancta is the name of a religious building affiliated to the Catholic Church that is located inside the educational complex of the Terra Sancta College located at Paris Square, Jerusalem, Israel.
A Territory Dependent on the Patriarch is a low-ranking, pre-diocesan type of Eastern Catholic jurisdiction, directly dependent on the Patriarch who heads a rite-specific Particular Church sui iuris, but not part of his or any ecclesiastical province (compare Latin exempt status), and in Rome depenent on the Congregation for the Oriental Churches.
The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem (official names: Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum, Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus der Heiligen Maria in Jerusalem), commonly the Teutonic Order (Deutscher Orden, Deutschherrenorden or Deutschritterorden), is a Catholic religious order founded as a military order c. 1190 in Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem.
A text publication society is a learned society which publishes (either as its sole function, or as a principal function) scholarly editions of old works of historical or literary interest, or archival documents.
That Extraordinary Day (/ Taj neobičan dan) is a science fiction novel written by Predrag Vukadinović.
Théodule Charles Devéria (1 July 1831 – 31 January 1871) was a French photographer and Egyptologist who lived in the 19th century.
The Adventures of Robin Hood is a 1938 American Technicolor swashbuckler film from Warner Bros., produced by Hal B. Wallis and Henry Blanke, directed by Michael Curtiz and William Keighley, that stars Errol Flynn, Olivia de Havilland, Basil Rathbone, and Claude Rains.
The Adventures of Sir Prancelot was a children's animated television programme written and produced by John Ryan for the John Ryan Studios company.
The Book of Khalid (1911) is a novel by Arab-American writer Ameen Rihani.
The Boomer Bible is a book written by R. F. Laird.
The Cantos by Ezra Pound is a long, incomplete poem in 116 sections, each of which is a canto.
The Charge of the Light Brigade is a 1968 British DeLuxe Color war film made by Woodfall Film Productions in Panavision and distributed by United Artists, depicting parts of the Crimean War and the eponymous charge.
The Cloisters is a museum in Fort Tryon Park in Washington Heights, Upper Manhattan, New York City specializing in European medieval architecture, sculpture and decorative arts, with a focus on the Romanesque and Gothic periods.
The Crusade and Death of Richard I is a mid-13th century Anglo-Norman prose chronicle by an anonymous author.
The Crusaders (original title: Crociati) is a 2001 Italian television mini-series written by Andrea Porporati and directed by Dominique Othenin-Girard.
The Crusades is a 1935 American historical adventure film produced and directed by Cecil B. DeMille, and originally released by Paramount Pictures.
The Enchanted Bluff is a short story by Willa Cather.
The Eternal Light was an American radio and television program on the NBC Radio Network, produced in conjunction with the Jewish Theological Seminary, that was broadcast between 1944 and 1989.
The First Crusade was the Christian military campaign to reconquer Jerusalem and the Holy Land.
"The Fleshy Part of the Thigh" is the 69th episode of the HBO original series, The Sopranos, and the fourth of the show's sixth season.
The Four Sons of Aymon (Quatre fils Aymon, De Vier Heemskinderen, Die Vier Haimonskinder), sometimes also referred to as Renaud de Montauban (after its main character) is a medieval tale spun around the four sons of Duke Aymon: the knight Renaud de Montauban (also spelled Renaut, Renault, Rinaldo di Montalbano, Reinout van Montalbaen), his brothers Guichard, Allard and Richardet, their magical horse Bayard (Baiardo), their adventures and revolt against the emperor Charlemagne.
The German Association of the Holy Land (German:, or) is a Roman Catholic organisation, which aims to strengthen the relationship between Christians in Germany and the Holy Land.
The Holy Land is a concept album, the third gospel album and 30th overall album by country singer Johnny Cash, released on Columbia Records in 1969.
The Holy Sepulchre is a Norman round church in Sheep Street, Northampton, England.
The Illusionist is a 1983 novel written by English author Anita Mason.
The Innocents Abroad, or The New Pilgrims' Progress is a travel book by American author Mark Twain published in 1869 which humorously chronicles what Twain called his "Great Pleasure Excursion" on board the chartered vessel Quaker City (formerly) through Europe and the Holy Land with a group of American travelers in 1867.
The Kings' Crusade (formerly Lionheart: Kings' Crusade) is a real-time strategy video game with elements of role-playing.
The Knightly Tale of Gologras and Gawain (also commonly spelt Golagros and Gawane) is a Middle Scots Arthurian romance written in alliterative verse of 1362 lines, known solely from a printed edition of 1508 in the possession of the National Library of Scotland.
The Law of Civilization and Decay is a book written by Brooks Adams in 1895.
The Mandelbaum Gate is a novel written by Scottish author Muriel Spark published in 1965.
The Naked Archaeologist is a television show produced for VisionTV in Canada and History International in the US, that is hosted and prepared by the Emmy Award–winning journalist Simcha Jacobovici together with Avri Gilad.
The Procession to Calvary is an oil-on-panel by the Netherlandish Renaissance artist Pieter Bruegel the Elder of Christ carrying the Cross set in a large landscape, painted in 1564.
The Relic (Portuguese: A Relíquia) is a novel written by the Portuguese writer José Maria de Eça de Queirós (1845-1900) and published in 1887.
The Remnant is a Traditionalist Catholic newspaper published twice a month in the United States.
The Saracen is a two-part novel written by Robert Shea.
The Shadow of Death is a religious painting by William Holman Hunt, on which he worked from 1870 to 1873, during his second trip to the Holy Land.
The Three Marys or Maries is a term referring to the women mentioned in the canonical gospels narratives of the Crucifixion and the Resurrection, several of whom were, or have been considered by Christian tradition, to have been named Mary (a very common name for Jewish women of the period).
The Unholy Pilgrim is a historical novel, written by R.F. Tapsell and published in 1968, which is set in turbulent 13th-century Europe during the High Middle Ages, and follows the adventures of Tancred of Varville.
Theobald I (Thibaut, Teobaldo; 30 May 1201 – 8 July 1253), also called the Troubadour and the Posthumous, was Count of Champagne (as Theobald IV) from birth and King of Navarre from 1234.
Theobald of Provins, O.S.B. Cam. (Saint Thibaut, Thibault, Thiébaut) (1033–1066) was a French hermit and saint.
Theodore the Martyr was the name of a number of Christian saints.
Theodosios (Hanna) of Sebastia (born 1965) is the Archbishop of Sebastia from the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem.
Theodosius II (Θεοδόσιος Β΄), lay surname Christianopoulos (Χριστιανόπουλος) served as Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople during the period 1769-1773.
Theodosius of Sinai (Теодосий Синаитски), (Теодосиј Синаитски), was a Bulgarian priest, writer and printer.
The theory of Kashmiri descent from the lost tribes of Israel posits that the Kashmiri people of India and Pakistan originally descended from the Ten Lost Tribes.
Thierry d'Orca (French: Thierry d'Orgue or Their d'Orguenes, Latin: Theodoricus de Orca, before 1174-1207) was Lord of Arsuf for marriage in the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
Thierry de Loos (alternatively, Dietrich von Los) was a Franco-Flemish nobleman who took part in the Fourth Crusade and afterwards became prominent within the Latin Empire.
Thierry of Termonde (also Terremonde or Tenremonde, died in 1206 in Rusion) was lord of Adelon for marriage in the Kingdom of Jerusalem, and constable of Latin Empire of Constantinople.
Theoderic (Diederik, Thierry, Dietrich; – January 17, 1168), commonly known as Thierry of Alsace, was the fifteenth count of Flanders from 1128 to 1168.
The Third Aliyah (Hebrew: העלייה השלישית, HaAliyah HaShlishit) refers to the third wave—or aliyah—of modern Zionist immigration to Palestine from Europe.
The Third Crusade (1189–1192), was an attempt by European Christian leaders to reconquer the Holy Land following the capture of Jerusalem by the Ayyubid sultan, Saladin, in 1187.
If built, the Third Temple (בית המקדש השלישי, Beit haMikdash haShlishi, literally: The House, the Holy, the Third) would be the third Jewish temple in Jerusalem after Solomon's Temple and the rebuilt Second Temple.
Thomas Becket (also known as Saint Thomas of Canterbury, Thomas of London, and later Thomas à Becket; (21 December c. 1119 (or 1120) – 29 December 1170) was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1162 until his murder in 1170. He is venerated as a saint and martyr by both the Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion. He engaged in conflict with Henry II, King of England, over the rights and privileges of the Church and was murdered by followers of the king in Canterbury Cathedral. Soon after his death, he was canonised by Pope Alexander III.
Thomas (Tamás; died November 1224) was a Hungarian prelate in the first half of the 13th century, who served as Bishop of Eger from 1217 to 1224, then briefly Archbishop of Esztergom in 1224.
Thomas (I) from the kindred Monoszló (Monoszló nembeli (I.) Tamás; died between 1231 and 1237) was a Hungarian noble, who served as Ban of Slavonia from 1228 to 1229.
Thomas Obicini of Novara (Tomasso Obicini da Novara; 1585– 7 November 1632) was a Franciscan friar, originally from Novara, Italy.
Thomas of Maurienne (died before 720) was the first abbot of the Abbey of Farfa, which he founded between 680 and c.700.
Thomas Wolsey (c. March 1473 – 29 November 1530; sometimes spelled Woolsey or Wulcy) was an English churchman, statesman and a cardinal of the Catholic Church.
The Throne of Charlemagne (Karlsthron or Aachener Königsthron, "Royal Throne of Aachen") is a throne erected in the 790s by Charlemagne, as one of the fittings of his palatine chapel in Aachen (today's Aachen Cathedral) and placed in the Octagon of the church.
Tierra Santa is the Spanish term for Holy Land.
Time of Favor (in Hebrew, Ha-hesder) is Israeli writer-director Joseph Cedar's 2000 debut film, starring Aki Avni.
Time periods in the region of Palestine summarizes the major time periods in the history of the region of Palestine/Land of Israel, and notes the major events in each time period.
The purpose of this timeline is to give a detailed account of Christianity from the beginning of the current era (AD) to the present.
The Timeline of Eastern Orthodoxy in North America represents timeline of the historical development of religious communities, institutions and organizations of Eastern Orthodox Christianity in North America.
This is a timeline of English history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in England and its predecessor states.
This is a timeline of major events in the History of Jerusalem; a city that had been fought over sixteen times in its history.
This is a timeline of the presence of Orthodoxy in Greece.
This is a timeline of the presence of Orthodoxy in Greece.
The timeline of religion is a chronological catalogue of important and noteworthy religious events in pre-historic and modern times.
As traditionally the oldest form of Christianity, along with the ancient or first millennial Orthodox Church, the non-Chalcedonian or Oriental Churches and the Church of the East, the history of the Roman Catholic Church is integral to the history of Christianity as a whole.
This timeline represents major events in the region of Palestine, which at different times during human habitation included a diverse number of people, cultures, religions and nations while being a part of several major empires and an important trade link between Europe and North African coast in the west and Asia and India in the East.
Note: All dates are Common Era. The following is a timeline of the major events during the Middle Ages, a time period in human history mostly centered on Europe, which lies between classical antiquity and the modern era.
This is a partial timeline of Zionism in the modern era, since the start of the 16th century.
Timkat (Amharic: ጥምቀት which means "baptism") (also spelled Timket, or Timqat) is the Ethiopian Orthodox celebration of Epiphany.
The Timna Valley is located in southern Israel in the southwestern Arava/Arabah, approximately north of the Gulf of Aqaba and the city of Eilat.
Tkon is a municipality in Croatia in the Zadar County.
Tobias Cohn or Tobias Kohn (in Hebrew, Toviyyah ben Moshe ha-Kohen, Tuvia Harofeh - Tuvia the doctor; in Polish, Tobiasz Kohn) (also referred to as Toviyah Kats) (1652-1729) was a Polish-Jewish physician of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
Marvil Thomas "Tom" Shaw III (August 28, 1945October 17, 2014) was an Episcopal bishop.
Tomasz Młodzianowski (coat of arms Dąbrowa) (born 21 December 1622 near Ciechanów, died 3 or 9 October 1686 in Wolbrom) was a Polish Jesuit, preacher and writer.
Tomb of Absalom (Transl. Yad Avshalom; literally Absalom's Shrine), also called Absalom's Pillar, is an ancient monumental rock-cut tomb with a conical roof located in the Kidron Valley in Jerusalem.
The Tomb of Lazarus is a traditional spot of pilgrimage located in the West Bank town of al-Eizariya, traditionally identified as the biblical village of Bethany, on the southeast slope of the Mount of Olives, some 2.4 km (1.5 miles) east of Jerusalem.
Tomier and Palaizi (or Palazi) were two knights and troubadours from Tarascon, possibly brothers, and frequent comrades and co-composers (fl. 1199–1226).
Tommaso Ugi di Siena was a 14th-century Italian adventurer, native of the city of Siena in Italy.
Tortosa is the capital of the comarca of Baix Ebre, in Catalonia, Spain.
A touch piece is a coin or medal believed to cure disease, bring good luck, influence people's behaviour, carry out a specific practical action, etc.
Jordan (/ˈdʒɔːrdən/; Arabic: الْأُرْدُنّ‎ Al-‘Urdunn al.ʔur.dunn), officially The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (Arabic: المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية‎ Al-Mamlakah Al-Urdunnīyah Al-Hāshimīyah), is a sovereign Arab state in the Middle East.
The Treaty of Constantinople or Istanbul was signed on 13 July 1700 between the Tsardom of Russia and the Ottoman Empire.
The Treaty of Falaise was an agreement made in December 1174 between the captive William I, King of Scots, and Henry II, King of England.
The Treaty of Tarascon was an accord between Pope Nicholas IV, Philip IV of France, Charles II of Naples, and Alfonso III of Aragón that was intended to end the Aragonese Crusade, an episode in the War of the Sicilian Vespers.
The Knights Templar trace their beginnings to the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem in when eight Christian knights, under the auspices of King Baldwin II and the Patriarch Warmund, were given the task of protecting pilgrims on the roads to Jerusalem, which they did for nine years until elevated to a military order at the Council of Troyes in 1129.
The True Cross is the name for physical remnants which, by a Christian Church tradition, are said to be from the cross upon which Jesus was crucified.
Tulliallan (Gaelic tulach-aluinn, 'Beautiful knoll') was an estate in Perthshire, Scotland, near to Kincardine, and a parish.
During the period of the Crusades, turcopoles (also "turcoples" or "turcopoli"; from the τουρκόπουλοι, "sons of Turks") were locally recruited mounted archers and light cavalry employed by the Christian states of the Eastern Mediterranean.
The two-gospel hypothesis is that the Gospel of Matthew was written before the Gospel of Luke, and that both were written earlier than the Gospel of Mark.
Typikon (or typicon, typica; Τυπικόν, "that of the prescribed form"; Slavonic: Тvпико́нъ Typikonə or Оуставъ, ustavə) is a liturgical book which contains instructions about the order of the Byzantine Rite office and variable hymns of the Divine Liturgy.
Ubaldo Lanfranchi (died 19 June 1207) was an Italian Catholic archbishop.
Ugrin from the kindred Csák (Csák nembeli Ugrin; died 1204) was a Hungarian prelate at the turn of the 12th and 13th centuries, who served as Bishop of Győr from 1188 to 1204, then briefly Archbishop-elect of Esztergom in 1204.
Ugrin Csák (Hugolin, Ugolin) was archbishop of Kalocsa (Kalocza, Kalocsa-Bacs), Hungary (88 km south of Budapest) from 1219 until his death at the Battle of Mohi (Sajó River) on April 11, 1241.
Saint Ulrich of Zell, also known as Wulderic, sometimes of Cluny or of Regensburg (1029 – 1093), was a Cluniac reformer of Germany, abbot, founder and saint.
Ulv Galiciefarer (also known as Galicieulv (Galiciwolf) c. 1010), aka Jarl Galizur-Ulfric was a Danish jarl, a Viking chieftain who became famous for his raids, looting and pillaging the lands of Galicia in the early eleventh century, perhaps in 1028 or 1048, during the reign of Bermudo III and Ferdinand I of Leon.
Umm ar-Rasas (أم الرّصاص) (Kastrom Mefa'a, Kastron Mefa'a) is located 30 km southeast of Madaba, which is the capital city of the Madaba Governorate in central Jordan.
The Umm Leisun inscription (უმმ ლეისუნის წარწერა) is the Georgian language limestone tombstone slab inscription written in the Georgian Asomtavruli script which was discovered in 2002, after the renewal of 1996 excavation, at a Georgian monastery of the Byzantine period, in the neighborhood of Umm Leisun, 4.5 km southeast of the Old City of Jerusalem, found in a burial crypt under the polychrome mosaic floor.
A universal history is a work aiming at the presentation of the history of humankind as a whole, coherent unit.
In the Middle Ages, the term universal powers referred to the Holy Roman Emperor and the Pope.
Created in December 1949, the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) is a relief and human development agency which supports more than 5 million registered Palestinian refugees, and their descendants, who fled or were expelled from their homes during the 1948 Palestine war as well as those who fled or were expelled during and following the 1967 Six Day war.
Uppland Runic Inscription 1144 or U 1144 is the Rundata catalog designation of a Viking Age memorial runestone in a churchyard that is located five kilometers southwest of Tierp, Uppsala County, Sweden, which was in the historic province of Uppland.
Ursula Merkin (1919–2006) was a German-born American philanthropist.
Valerio of Bierzo (or Valerius of Bierzo; c. 630–c. 695Liz Herbert McAvoy, (2010), Anchoritic Traditions of Medieval Europe, page 93. Boydell & Brewer) was an ascetic hermit and monk from the Bierzo region of Visigothic Spain.
Valerio Rocco Orlando (born in 1978 in Milan, Italy) is an Italian artist and filmmaker.
Valhalla Rising is a 2009 English-language Danish adventure drama film directed by Nicolas Winding Refn, co-written by Refn and Roy Jacobsen, and starring Mads Mikkelsen.
Vallombrosa is a Benedictine abbey in the comune of Reggello (Tuscany, Italy), about 30 km south-east of Florence, in the Apennines, surrounded by forests of beech and firs.
Van Nest is a working-class neighborhood geographically located in the east Bronx borough of New York City in the United States.
The Varangian Guard (Τάγμα τῶν Βαράγγων, Tágma tōn Varángōn) was an elite unit of the Byzantine Army, from the 10th to the 14th centuries, whose members served as personal bodyguards to the Byzantine Emperors.
The Venetian Crusade of 1122–24 was an expedition to the Holy Land launched by the Republic of Venice that succeeded in capturing Tyre.
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
The Via Crucis to the Cruz del Campo (Vía Crucis a la Cruz del Campo) in Seville, Andalusia, Spain is believed to be Spain's only Via Crucis that runs through the streets of a city.
The Via Dolorosa (Latin for "Way of Grief," "Way of Sorrow," "Way of Suffering" or simply "Painful Way"; Hebrew: ויה דולורוזה; طريق الآلام) is a street within the Old City of Jerusalem, believed to be the path that Jesus walked on the way to his crucifixion.
Victor Guérin (15 September 1821 – 21 September 1891) was a French intellectual, explorer and amateur archaeologist.
Victorian painting refers to the distinctive styles of painting in the United Kingdom during the reign of Queen Victoria (1837–1901).
Vincent of Beauvais (Vincentius Bellovacensis or Vincentius Burgundus; 1184/1194 – c. 1264) was a Dominican friar at the Cistercian monastery of Royaumont Abbey, France.
The Virgin of Miracles or Saint Mary of La Rábida (Virgen de los Milagros or Santa María de la Rábida) is a religious Roman Catholic image venerated at the La Rabida Monastery in the city of Palos de la Frontera (Huelva, Spain).
Virginia Vallejo García (born 26 August 1949) is a Colombian author, journalist, television director, anchorwoman, media personality, socialite, and political asylee in the United States of America.
Visual arts in Israel refers to plastic art created in the Land of Israel/Palestine region, from the later part of the 19th century until today, or art created by Israeli artists.
Vittoria Colonna (April 1492 – 25 February 1547), marchioness of Pescara, was an Italian noblewoman and poet.
Vsevolod Leonidovich Roshko (in French Vsevolod Rochcau, 23 May 1917, Moscow, Russian Empire - 13 December 1984, Jerusalem, Israel) was a priest of the Russian Catholic Church of the Byzantine rite, the church historian, missionary, a member of Russian apostolate and leader of Russian diaspora.
Waiting for Godot is a play by Samuel Beckett, in which two characters, Vladimir (Didi) and Estragon (Gogo), wait for the arrival of someone named Godot who never arrives, and while waiting they engage in a variety of discussions and encounter three other characters.
Walcott is a small village and civil parish on the North Norfolk coast in England between Mundesley and Happisburgh.
Sir Waldemar Mordechai Wolff Haffkine, CIE (Мордехай-Вольф Хавкин) (15 March 1860 – 26 October 1930) was a bacteriologist from the Russian Empire whose career was blighted in Russia because he refused to convert from Judaism to Russian Orthodox Christianity.
Walo II (Galon II de Beaumont) (*1060; † 1098) was a viscount of Chaumont-en-Vexin and a constable of King Philip I of France.
Walram I of Nassau (French: Valéran) (c. 1146–1198) was the first (legally titled) Count of Nassau, reigning from 1154 to 1198.
Walsingham was a popular Elizabethan ballad tune.
Walter de Hereford was a holder of the feudal title Baron Bergavenny or Lord Abergavenny in the Welsh Marches in the mid twelfth century.
Walter Hervey was a 13th-century English Mayor of London.
Walter III of Brienne (Gautier, Gualtiero; died 14 June 1205) was a nobleman from northern France.
Sir Walter Leslie (died 1382) was a 14th-century Scottish nobleman and crusader, one of the foremost knights of his time.
A war elephant is an elephant that is trained and guided by humans for combat.
Wartislaw VII (Warcisław VII) (*1363/1365 – † 1394/1395) was one of the Dukes of Pomerania.
Wartislaw VIII (1373 – 20 or 23 August 1415) was a duke of Pomerania from the House of Griffins house.
Water jousting is a sport practised principally in France and also Switzerland and Germany.
Vladislaus II the Exile (Władysław II Wygnaniec) (1105 – 30 May 1159) was a High Duke of Poland and Duke of Silesia from 1138 until his expulsion in 1146.
Władysław III (31 October 1424 – 10 November 1444), also known as Władysław of Varna, was King of Poland from 1434, and King of Hungary and Croatia from 1440, until his death at the Battle of Varna.
Władysław (Włodko) the White or Władysław of Gniewkowo (Władysław (Włodko) Biały (Gniewkowski); ca. 1327/1333 – 29 February 1388), was a Polish prince member of the House of Piast, Duke of Gniewkowo during 1347/1350–1363/1364 (his final and official resignation was in 1377) and last male representative of the Kujavian line.
The Wendish Crusade (Wendenkreuzzug) was a military campaign in 1147, one of the Northern Crusades and a part of the Second Crusade, led primarily by the Kingdom of Germany within the Holy Roman Empire and directed against the Polabian Slavs (or "Wends").
Whitley Bay is a seaside town on the north east coast of England.
"Will You Tolerate This?" is the first episode of the 2006 Robin Hood television series, made by Tiger Aspect Productions for BBC One.
William Beamont (1797–1889) was an English solicitor and local philanthropist.
William Cowper Prime (1825–1905) was an American journalist, art historian, numismatist, attorney, and travel writer.
Sir William de Brantingham was an English noble of the late fourteenth century, and the brother of Thomas de Brantingham, bishop of Exeter and Lord Treasurer.
William de Forz, 3rd Earl of Albemarle (died 26 March 1242) was an English nobleman.
Sir William de Tracy (died) was a knight and the feudal baron of Bradninch, Devon, with caput at the manor of Bradninch near Exeter, and was lord of the manors (amongst very many others) of Toddington, Gloucestershire and of Moretonhampstead, Devon.
William de Wendenal (also William de Wendeval) was a Norman baron probably born during the mid-12th century.
William Eugene Blackstone (October 6, 1841 – November 7, 1935) was an American evangelist and Christian Zionist.
William Firmatus (Guillaume Firmat; 1026–1103) was a Norman hermit and pilgrim of the eleventh century, now venerated as a saint in the Catholic Church.
William Holman Hunt (2 April 1827 – 7 September 1910) was an English painter and one of the founders of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood.
William of Bures (died before the spring of 1144, or around 1157) was Prince of Galilee from 1119 or 1120 to his dead.
William I of Guelders and Jülich KG (5 March 1364 – 16 February 1402, Arnhem) was Duke of Guelders, as William I, from 1377 and Duke of Jülich, as William III, from 1393.
William I of Hesse (Wilhelm) (4 July 1466 – 8 February 1515) was the Landgrave of Hesse (Lower Hesse) from 1471 to 1493.
William II Jordan (Guillem Jordà; Guilhèm Jordan) (died 1109) was the Count of Berga beginning in 1094, the Count of Cerdanya beginning in 1095, and Regent of the County of Tripoli beginning in 1105.
Sir William Longespée (c. 1212 – 8 February 1250) was an English knight and crusader, the son of William Longespée and Ela, Countess of Salisbury.
William II, Lord of Béthune, nicknamed William the Red (Guillaume II « le Roux » de Bethune; d. April 1214) was French nobleman.
William III of Mâcon (1088–1156), also known as William IV of Burgundy, was count of Mâcon (1102–1156), count of Auxonne (1127–1156), count of Vienne (1148–1156) and regent of the county of Burgundy (1148–1156).
William IV of Saint Omer was the castellan of Saint-Omer from ca.
William IV, Count of Nevers, (c. 1130 – Acre, 24 October 1168) Count of Nevers, Auxerre and Tonnerre (1161–1168).
William IX (Guilhèm de Peitieus; Guilhem de Poitou Guillaume de Poitiers) (22 October 1071 – 10 February 1127), called the Troubador, was the Duke of Aquitaine and Gascony and Count of Poitou (as William VII) between 1086 and his death.
William Kurelek, CM (March 3, 1927 – November 3, 1977) was a Canadian artist and writer.
William the Old (Gulielmus Senex; died 1168) was a 12th-century prelate who became one of the most famous bishops of Orkney.
William V (or Guilhem V; died 1121) was the Lord of Montpellier from 1068 until his death.
William V of Saint Omer (ca. 1171 – ca. 1246) was the castellan of Saint-Omer from 1192 until his death, as well as Lord of Beaurain and Fauquembergues.
Sir William Robert Wills Wilde MD, FRCSI, (March 1815 – 19 April 1876) was an Irish eye and ear surgeon, as well as an author of significant works on medicine, archaeology and folklore, particularly concerning his native Ireland.
Saint Willibald (born in Wessex c.700 and died c.787 in Eichstätt) was an 8th-century bishop of Eichstätt in Bavaria.
The World Day of Peace is a feast day of the Roman Catholic Church dedicated to universal peace, held on 1 January, the Solemnity of Mary, Mother of God.
The world tour of Ulysses S. Grant began in May 1877, only a couple of months after Grant's second presidential term had ended.
Wurmbrand-Stuppach is an old noble family of Austria.
Rabbi Yaakov Abuhatzeira, also known as the Abir Yaakov and Abu Hasira (1806–1880), was a leading Moroccan-Jewish rabbi of the 19th century.
Ye Olde Trip to Jerusalem is a public house in Nottingham which claims to have been established in 1189, however there is no documentation to verify this date.
Yecapixtla (Yecapixtlān) is a town and municipality located in the northeast of the state of Morelos in central Mexico.
Sir Yeghishe Tourian KBE (Եղիշե Դուրյան, 23 February 1860 – 27 April 1930) was Armenian Patriarch of Jerusalem serving Armenian Patriarchate of Jerusalem from 1921 to 1929.
Rabbi Yehuda Ashlag (1885–1954) or Yehuda Leib Ha-Levi Ashlag (רַבִּי יְהוּדָה לֵיבּ הַלֵּוִי אַשְׁלַג), also known as the Baal Ha-Sulam (Hebrew:, "Author of the Ladder") in reference to his magnum opus, was an orthodox rabbi and kabbalist born in Łódź, Congress Poland, Russian Empire, to a family of scholars connected to the Hasidic courts of Porisov and Belz.
Yevgeny Yevsigneyevich Golubinsky (Евгений Евсигнеевич Голубинский; 28 February 1834 - 7 January 1912) was one of three major church historians of the Russian Empire, along with Macarius Bulgakov and Filaret Gumilevsky.
Rabbi Yisroel Halpern, also known as Yisroel Karduner (died 1920), was a Breslover Hasid who lived in Ottoman Palestine at the turn of the century.
Yitzchok Sternhartz (1808–1871) was the second eldest son of Rabbi Nathan of Breslov (also known as "Reb Noson").
Yohanna Barnaba Abdallah (died 1924) was a clergyman and historian of the Yao people of central Africa.
Yosef Tunkel (1881–August 9, 1949) was a Jewish–Belarusian–American writer of poetry and humorous prose in Yiddish commonly known by the pen name Der Tunkeler or 'The dark one' in Yiddish.
The Zealot Temple Siege (68 AD) was a short siege of the Temple in Jerusalem fought between Jewish factions during the Great Jewish Revolt against the Roman Empire (66–70 AD).
The Zealots were a political movement in 1st-century Second Temple Judaism, which sought to incite the people of Judea Province to rebel against the Roman Empire and expel it from the Holy Land by force of arms, most notably during the First Jewish–Roman War (66–70).
Rabbi Zeira (רבי זירא), known before his semicha as Rav Zeira (רב זירא) and known in the Jerusalem Talmud as Rabbi Ze'era (רבי זעירא), was a Jewish Talmudist, known as an Amora, who lived in the Land of Israel, of the third generation.
The Zeno brothers, namely Nicolò (c. 1326–c. 1402) and Antonio Zeno (died c. 1403) were Italian noblemen from Venice living in the second half of the 14th century, who were famous during the Renaissance for a possible but controversial exploration of the north Atlantic and Arctic waters.
Zerubbabel was in biblical account a governor of the Persian Province of Yehud Medinata and the grandson of Jehoiachin, penultimate king of Judah.
Zionism (צִיּוֹנוּת Tsiyyonut after Zion) is the national movement of the Jewish people that supports the re-establishment of a Jewish homeland in the territory defined as the historic Land of Israel (roughly corresponding to Canaan, the Holy Land, or the region of Palestine).
Yosef Zundel of Salant (1786–1866) (also known as Zundel Salant) was an Ashkenazi rabbi and the primary teacher of Rabbi Yisrael Salanter.
Zvi (Zwi) Hirsch Kalischer (24 March 1795 – 16 October 1874) was an Orthodox German rabbi who expressed views, from a religious perspective, in favour of the Jewish re-settlement of the Land of Israel, which predate Theodor Herzl and the Zionist movement.
Zwiefalten Abbey (Kloster Zwiefalten, Abtei Zwiefalten or after 1750, Reichsabtei Zwiefalten) was a Benedictine monastery situated at Zwiefalten near Reutlingen in Baden-Württemberg in Germany.
Year 1095 (MXCV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1212 (MCCXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1217 (MCCXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
The 1270s is the decade starting January 1, 1270, and ending December 31, 1279.
Year 1274 (MCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1291 (MCCXCI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
The 12th century is the period from 1101 to 1200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Common Era.
The 1840s was a decade that ran from January 1, 1840, to December 31, 1849.
Events from the year 1858 in art.
The year 1890 in archaeology.
Events from the year 2014 in Vatican City.
Year 327 (CCCXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 384 (CCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 441 (CDXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 565 (DLXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
The Seventh India Armada was assembled in 1505 on the order of King Manuel I of Portugal and placed under the command of D. Francisco de Almeida, the first Portuguese Viceroy of the Indies.
Agioi Topoi, Al-Arḍ Al-Mubarakah, Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah, Al-Arḍ Al-Muqaddasah, Al-Arḍ ul-Muqaddasah, Al-arḍ al-muqaddasa, Ar'a Qaddisha, Bible Lands, Bible lands, Erets HaQodesh, Eretz HaQodesh, Holiness of Palestine, Holy Land (Biblical), Holy Lands, Holy land, Holy lands, Protestantism in the Holy Land, Terra Sancta, Terrae Sanctae, The Holy Land, The Holy Places, Άγιοι Τόποι, ארעא קדישא, ארץ הקודש, الأرض المقدسة.