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Abdominal hair is the hair that grows on the abdomen of humans and non-human mammals, in the region between the pubic area and the thorax (chest).
Abiraterone acetate, sold under the brand name Zytiga among others, is an antiandrogen medication which is used in the treatment of prostate cancer.
The abortion–breast cancer hypothesis posits that having an induced abortion can increase the risk of getting breast cancer.
− Acanthopagrus butcheri, the black bream but also commonly known as the southern black bream, southern bream and blue-nosed bream, is a species of marine and freshwater fish of the porgy family, Sparidae.
Achyranthes aspera (common names: chaff-flower, prickly chaff flower, devil's horsewhip, Sanskrit: अपामार्ग apamarga) is a species of plant in the Amaranthaceae family.
Achyranthes japonica, commonly known as Oriental chaff flower or Japanese Chaff Flower, is a perennial member of the Achyranthes genus in the Amaranthaceae family.
Acne, also known as acne vulgaris, is a long-term skin disease that occurs when hair follicles are clogged with dead skin cells and oil from the skin.
Acne medicamentosa (commonly referred to as drug-induced acne) is acne that is caused or aggravated by medication.
An acquired characteristic is a non-heritable change in a function or structure of a living biotic material caused after birth by disease, injury, accident, deliberate modification, variation, repeated use, disuse, or misuse, or other environmental influences.
Acrodysostosis also known as Arkless-Graham syndrome or Maroteaux-Malamut syndrome is a rare congenital malformation syndrome which involves shortening of the interphalangeal joints of the hands and feet, intellectual disability in approximately 90% of affected children, and peculiar facies.
Acromegaly is a disorder that results from excess growth hormone (GH) after the growth plates have closed.
The Activin type I receptors transduce signals for a variety of members of the Transforming growth factor beta superfamily of ligands.
Activity-specific approach in temperament research in temperament research is the theory related to a structure of temperament, i.e. how temperament traits can be classified and organized.
Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is a genetic metabolic disorder affecting the production of heme, the oxygen-binding prosthetic group of hemoglobin.
Acute stress reaction (also called acute stress disorder, psychological shock, mental shock, or simply shock) is a psychological condition arising in response to a terrifying or traumatic event, or witnessing a traumatic event that induces a strong emotional response within the individual.
The Adam's apple, or laryngeal prominence, is a feature of the human neck, and is the lump or protrusion that is formed by the angle of the thyroid cartilage surrounding the larynx seen especially in males.
Adena Springs Ranch is the former name of a 30,000-acre cattle ranch in Florida's Marion County now known as Sleepy Creek Ranch Lands.
An adenoma (from Greek αδένας, adeno-, "gland" + -ώμα, -oma, "tumor") (plural adenomas or adenomata) is a benign tumor of epithelial tissue with glandular origin, glandular characteristics, or both.
Alcohol dehydrogenase 6 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ADH6 gene.
Adipokinetic hormone (AKH) is a short peptide hormone that has been studied in insects.
Adiponectin (also referred to as GBP-28, apM1, AdipoQ and Acrp30) is a protein hormone which is involved in regulating glucose levels as well as fatty acid breakdown.
In biology, adipose tissue, body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes.
Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ that secretes numerous protein hormones, including leptin, adiponectin, and resistin.
Adiposopathy (or sick fat) is defined as pathologic adipocyte and adipose tissue anatomic & functional disturbances, promoted by positive caloric balance, in genetically and environmentally susceptible individuals. The ensuing pathogenic endocrine and immune responses may directly promote cardiovascular disease, and may also cause or worsen among the most common metabolic disease encountered in developed countries.
AdolescenceMacmillan Dictionary for Students Macmillan, Pan Ltd.
Adolfo J. de Bold, OC, FRSC (born 14 February 1942) is an Argentinian–Canadian cardiovascular researcher, best known for his discovery of atrial natriuretic peptide, a polypeptide hormone secreted by heart muscle cells.
Situated along the perimeter of the adrenal gland, the adrenal cortex mediates the stress response through the production of mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids, such as aldosterone and cortisol, respectively.
Adrenal crisis (also known as Addisonian crisis and acute adrenal insufficiency) is a medical emergency and potentially life-threatening situation requiring immediate emergency treatment.
Adrenal fatigue or hypoadrenia is a pseudoscientific diagnosis believed in alternative medicine to be the state when adrenal glands are exhausted and unable to produce adequate quantities of hormones, primarily the glucocorticoid cortisol, due to chronic stress or infections.
The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.
The adrenal medulla (medulla glandulae suprarenalis) is part of the adrenal gland.
An adrenal tumor or adrenal mass is any benign or malignant neoplasms of the adrenal gland, several of which are notable for their tendency to overproduce endocrine hormones.
Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.
In humans and other animals, the adrenocortical hormones are hormones produced by the adrenal cortex, the outer region of the adrenal gland.
Adrenomedullin (ADM or AM) is a vasodilator peptide hormone of uncertain significance in human health and disease.
Adrenosterone, also known as Reichstein's substance G, as well as 11-ketoandrostenedione (11-KA4), 11-oxoandrostenedione (11-OXO), and androst-4-ene-3,11,17-trione, is a steroid hormone with a weak androgenic effect, and an intermediate/prohormone of 11-ketotestosterone.
Adriana Iliescu (born May 31, 1938) is a retired Romanian university lecturer and author of children's novels.
The African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis, also known as the xenopus, African clawed toad, African claw-toed frog or the platanna) is a species of African aquatic frog of the family Pipidae.
Ageless is an adjective describing a person or thing whose age cannot be defined, is non-existent, or appears not to change.
Aggression in cattle is usually a result of fear, learning, and hormonal state, however, many other factors can contribute to aggressive behaviors in cattle.
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
Agricultural wastewater treatment is a farm management agenda for controlling pollution from surface runoff that may be contaminated by chemicals in fertiliser, pesticides, animal slurry, crop residues or irrigation water.
An agrochemical or agrichemical, a contraction of agricultural chemical, is a chemical product used in agriculture.
The Akt Pathway, or PI3K-Akt Pathway is a signal transduction pathway that promotes survival and growth in response to extracellular signals.
Alan Leshner is a scientist, educator and public servant from the United States.
Alan Mathison Turing (23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English computer scientist, mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst, philosopher, and theoretical biologist.
The Albert Einstein College of Medicine ("Einstein" for short), a joint entity between Montefiore Medical Center and Yeshiva University (until 2018), is a private, not-for-profit, sectarian medical school located in the Morris Park neighborhood of the Bronx in New York City.
Alcohol (also known as ethanol) has a number of effects on health.
Alcohol (also known formally as ethanol), found in alcoholic beverages, can exacerbate sleep disturbances.
Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems.
Algestone acetophenide, also known as dihydroxyprogesterone acetophenide (DHPA) and sold under the brand name Deladroxate among others, is a progestin medication which is used in combination with an estrogen as a form of long-lasting injectable birth control.
Alkanolamines are chemical compounds that contain both hydroxyl (-OH) and amino (-NH2, -NHR, and -NR2) functional groups on an alkane backbone.
Alkaptonuria is a rare inherited genetic disorder in which the body cannot process the amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine, which occur in protein.
Allatostatins are neuropeptide hormones in insects and crustacea.
An allomone is any chemical substance produced and released by an individual of one species that affects the behaviour of a member of another species to the benefit of the originator but not the receiver.
Allylestrenol, sold under the brand names Gestanin and Turinal among others, is a progestin medication which is used to treat recurrent and threatened miscarriage and to prevent premature labor in pregnant women.
Alpha cells (more commonly alpha-cells or α-cells) are endocrine cells in the pancreatic islets of the pancreas.
The Invisible Woman (Sue Storm Richards) is a fictional Marvel Comics character, who has had many alternate versions through various media.
Altitude training is the practice by some endurance athletes of training for several weeks at high altitude, preferably over above sea level, though more commonly at intermediate altitudes due to the shortage of suitable high-altitude locations.
The American coot (Fulica americana), also known as a mud hen, is a bird of the family Rallidae.
The American white ibis (Eudocimus albus) is a species of bird in the ibis family, Threskiornithidae.
Aminoglutethimide is an anti-steroid drug marketed under the tradename Cytadren by Novartis around the world.
5' AMP-activated protein kinase or AMPK or 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase is an enzyme (EC 188.8.131.52) that plays a role in cellular energy homeostasis.
Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.
The amygdalofugal pathway (Latin for "fleeing from the amygdala" and commonly distinguished as the ventral amygdalofugal pathway) is one of the three major efferent pathways of the amygdala, meaning that it is one of the three principal pathways by which fibers leave the amygdala.
Anabolic steroids, also known more properly as anabolic–androgenic steroids (AAS), are steroidal androgens that include natural androgens like testosterone as well as synthetic androgens that are structurally related and have similar effects to testosterone.
Anabolism (from ἁνά, "upward" and βάλλειν, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that construct molecules from smaller units.
Analgesic nephropathy is injury to the kidneys caused by analgesic medications such as aspirin, phenacetin, and paracetamol.
Anaphylaxis is a serious allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and may cause death.
An anastomosis (plural anastomoses) is a connection or opening between two things (especially cavities or passages) that are normally diverging or branching, such as between blood vessels, leaf veins, or streams.
The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) Classification System is used for the classification of active ingredients of drugs according to the organ or system on which they act and their therapeutic, pharmacological and chemical properties.
In entomology, anautogeny is a reproductive strategy in which an adult female insect must eat a particular sort of meal (generally vertebrate blood) before laying eggs in order for her eggs to mature.
Ancestral sequence reconstruction (ASR) – also known as ancestral gene/sequence reconstruction/resurrection – is a technique used in the study of molecular evolution.
Andrzej Viktor "Andrew" Schally (born 30 November 1926) is an American endocrinologistAndrew V. Schally,, Encyclopædia Britannica.
An androgen (from Greek andr-, the stem of the word meaning "man") is any natural or synthetic steroid hormone which regulates the development and maintenance of male characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors.
An androgen or anabolic steroid ester is an ester of an androgen/anabolic steroid (AAS) such as the natural testosterone or dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or the synthetic nandrolone (19-nortestosterone).
An androgen prohormone, or proandrogen, is a prohormone (or prodrug) of an anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS).
In Jewish tradition, the term androgynos (אנדרוגינוס in Hebrew, translation "intersex") refers to someone who possesses both male and female sexual characteristics.
Androstenediol may refer to.
Androstenedione, or 4-androstenedione (abbreviated as A4 or Δ4-dione), also known as androst-4-ene-3,17-dione, is an endogenous weak androgen steroid hormone and intermediate in the biosynthesis of estrone and of testosterone from dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).
Angiotensin is a peptide hormone that causes vasoconstriction and an increase in blood pressure.
Angiotensin II receptor type 2, also known as the AT2 receptor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AGTR2 gene.
Animal coloration is the general appearance of an animal resulting from the reflection or emission of light from its surfaces.
Animal sexual behaviour takes many different forms, including within the same species.
Frogs have been used in animal tests throughout the history of biomedical science.
The annual growth cycle of grapevines is the process that takes place in the vineyard each year, beginning with bud break in the spring and culminating in leaf fall in autumn followed by winter dormancy.
Anorgasmia, or Coughlan's syndrome, is a type of sexual dysfunction in which a person cannot achieve orgasm despite adequate stimulation.
Antaeus is the name of two fictional characters from DC Comics.
A major organ of the endocrine system, the anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis or pars anterior), is the glandular, anterior lobe that together with the posterior lobe (posterior pituitary, or the neurohypophysis) makes up the pituitary gland (hypophysis).
Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), also known as Müllerian-inhibiting hormone (MIH), is a glycoprotein hormone structurally related to inhibin and activin from the transforming growth factor beta superfamily, whose key roles are in growth differentiation and folliculogenesis.
Antifragile: Things That Gain From Disorder is a book by Nassim Nicholas Taleb published on November 27, 2012, by Random House in the United States and Penguin in the United Kingdom.
Antihormone therapy is a type of hormone therapy that suppresses selected hormones or their effects, in contrast with hormone replacement therapy, which encourages hormone activity.
Antihypertensives are a class of drugs that are used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure).
Apalutamide, sold under the brand name Erleada, is a nonsteroidal antiandrogen (NSAA) medication which is used in the treatment of prostate cancer.
Apelin (also known as APLN) is a peptide that in humans is encoded by the APLN gene.
Aphallia is a congenital malformation in which the phallus (penis or clitoris) is absent.
Apolipoproteins are proteins that bind lipids (oil-soluble substances such as fat and cholesterol) to form lipoproteins.
Appetite is the desire to eat food, sometimes due to hunger.
Aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT), also known as arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase or serotonin N-acetyltransferase (SNAT), is an enzyme that is involved in the day/night rhythmic production of melatonin, by modification of serotonin.
The arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (also known as ARH, ARC, or infundibular nucleus) is an aggregation of neurons in the mediobasal hypothalamus, adjacent to the third ventricle and the median eminence.
"Are You There God? It's Me, Jesus" is episode 47 of Comedy Central's animated series South Park.
The area postrema is a medullary structure in the brain that controls vomiting.
Beef is a key component of traditional Argentine cuisine.
Arie Jan Haagen-Smit (December 22, 1900 Utrecht – March 17, 1977, Pasadena, California) was a Dutch chemist.
Aromatase, also called estrogen synthetase or estrogen synthase, is an enzyme responsible for a key step in the biosynthesis of estrogens.
Aromatization is a chemical reaction in which an aromatic system is formed.
An arteriole is a small-diameter blood vessel in the microcirculation that extends and branches out from an artery and leads to capillaries.
Arthur Beck Pardee (born July 13, 1921) is an American biochemist.
An artificial cell or minimal cell is an engineered particle that mimics one or many functions of a biological cell.
Artificial insemination (AI) is the deliberate introduction of sperm into a female's uterus or cervix for the purpose of achieving a pregnancy through in vivo fertilization by means other than sexual intercourse.
An artificial uterus (or artificial womb) is a hypothetical device that would allow for external pregnancy by growing a fetus outside the body of an organism that would normally carry the fetus to term.
Arylalkanolamines (ArROHNR2) are a class of medicinal molecules that are structurally related to one another in certain respects.
Asian Dust (also yellow dust, yellow sand, yellow wind or China dust storms) is a meteorological phenomenon which affects much of East Asia year round but especially during the spring months.
The Asian small-clawed otter (Aonyx cinerea, syn. Amblonyx cinereus), also known as the oriental small-clawed otter or simply small-clawed otter, is a semiaquatic mammal native to South and Southeast Asia.
Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation.
An associated reproductive pattern is a seasonal change in reproduction which is highly correlated with a change in gonad and associated hormone.
Astatotilapia burtoni is a species of fish in the family Cichlidae.
The athletics competition at the 2010 Commonwealth Games was held in New Delhi, India between 6 and 14 October.
The Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) is a species of tuna in the family Scombridae.
Atrophy is the partial or complete wasting away of a part of the body.
Aurobindo Pharma Limited is a pharmaceutical manufacturing company headquartered in HITEC City, Hyderabad, India.
Autacoids or "autocoids" are biological factors which act like local hormones, have a brief duration, and act near the site of synthesis.
Autoimmune hypophysitis or Lymphocytic hypophysitis is defined as inflammation of the pituitary gland due to autoimmunity.
Autoimmune thyroiditis, (or Chronic Autoimmune thyroiditis), is a chronic disease in which the body interprets the thyroid glands and its hormone products T3, T4 and TSH as threats, therefore producing special antibodies that target the thyroid’s cells, thereby destroying it.
An autoreceptor is a type of receptor located in the membranes of presynaptic nerve cells.
The axillary bud (or lateral bud) is an embryonic shoot located in the axil of a leaf.
Gustave-Édouard Laguesse (23 April 1861 – 6 November 1927) was a French pathologist and histologist born in Dijon.
Étienne-Émile Baulieu (born 12 December 1926) is a French biochemist and endocrinologist who is best known for his research in the field of steroid hormones and their role in reproduction and aging.
Bacillus safensis is a Gram-positive, spore-forming, and rod bacterium, originally isolated from a spacecraft in Florida and California.
Baker-Miller Pink is a tone of pink claimed to reduce hostile, violent or aggressive behavior.
Baroreceptors (or archaically, pressoreceptors) are sensors located in the blood vessels of all vertebrate animals.
The basal or basic electrical rhythm (BER) or electrical control activity (ECA) is the spontaneous depolarization and repolarization of pacemaker cells in the smooth muscle of the stomach, small intestine, and large intestine.
An anterior pituitary basophil is a type of cell in the anterior pituitary which manufactures hormones.
The Bayliss and Starling Society was founded in 1979 as a forum for research scientists with specific interests in the chemistry, physiology and function of central and autonomic peptides.
The beak, bill, or rostrum is an external anatomical structure of birds that is used for eating and for preening, manipulating objects, killing prey, fighting, probing for food, courtship and feeding young.
Beast is a 1991 novel by Peter Benchley, the author of Jaws.
Beef is the culinary name for meat from cattle, particularly skeletal muscle.
Behavioral endocrinology is the study of hormonal processes and neuroendocrine systems that influence or regulate behavior.
Behavioral plasticity refers to a change in an organism's behavior that results from exposure to stimuli, such as changing environmental conditions.
Behavioural responses to stress are evoked from underlying complex physiological changes that arise consequently from stress.
"Bend Her" is the thirteenth episode in the fifth season of the American animated television series Futurama.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), also called prostate enlargement, is a noncancerous increase in size of the prostate.
A benign tumor is a mass of cells (tumor) that lacks the ability to invade neighboring tissue or metastasize.
Bernardo Alberto Houssay (April 10, 1887 – September 21, 1971) was an Argentine physiologist who, in 1947, received one half Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of the role played by pituitary hormones in regulating the amount of blood sugar (glucose) in animals.
Bertold Paul Wiesner (1901–1972) was an Austrian Jewish physiologist noted firstly for coining the term 'Psi' to denote parapsychological phenomena; secondly for his contribution to research into human fertility and the diagnosis of pregnancy; and thirdly for being biological father to an estimated 600 offspring by anonymously donating sperm used by his wife the obstetrician Mary Barton to perform artificial insemination on women at a private clinic on Harley Street, London, England.
Biological bet hedging occurs when organisms suffer decreased fitness in their typical conditions in exchange for increased fitness in stressful conditions.
Bet v I allergen is a family of protein allergens.
Beta blockers, also written β-blockers, are a class of medications that are particularly used to manage abnormal heart rhythms, and to protect the heart from a second heart attack (myocardial infarction) after a first heart attack (secondary prevention).
Beta cells (β cells) are a type of cell found in the pancreatic islets of the pancreas.
Betty Diamond, a physician and researcher, was born in Hartford, CT on 11 May 1948.
Bile acids are steroid acids found predominantly in the bile of mammals and other vertebrates.
Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (also known as BiFC) is a technology typically used to validate protein interactions.
Binding selectivity is defined with respect to the binding of ligands to a substrate forming a complex.
Binge drinking, or heavy episodic drinking, is a modern epithet for drinking alcoholic beverages with an intention of becoming intoxicated by heavy consumption of alcohol over a short period of time.
A biogenic amine is a biogenic substance with one or more amine groups.
Bioidentical hormone replacement therapy (BHRT), also known as bioidentical hormone therapy or natural hormone therapy, is the use of hormones that are identical on a molecular level with endogenous hormones in hormone replacement therapy.
Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field that develops methods and software tools for understanding biological data.
A biological system is a complex network of biologically relevant entities.
A biological target is anything within a living organism to which some other entity (like an endogenous ligand or a drug) is directed and/or binds, resulting in a change in its behavior or function.
A biomolecule or biological molecule is a loosely used term for molecules and ions that are present in organisms, essential to some typically biological process such as cell division, morphogenesis, or development.
A biopharmaceutical, also known as a biologic(al) medical product, biological, or biologic, is any pharmaceutical drug product manufactured in, extracted from, or semisynthesized from biological sources.
Biphasic sleep (or diphasic, bimodal or bifurcated sleep) is the practice of sleeping during two periods over 24 hours, while polyphasic sleep refers to sleeping multiple times – usually more than two.
Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood.
Birth is the act or process of bearing or bringing forth offspring.
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an organic synthetic compound with the chemical formula (CH3)2C(C6H4OH)2 belonging to the group of diphenylmethane derivatives and bisphenols, with two hydroxyphenyl groups.
The Black Queen Cell Virus (BQCV) is a virus that infects honey bees, specifically Apis mellifera, Apis florea, and Apis dorsata.
The blastocyst is a structure formed in the early development of mammals.
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
The blood parrot cichlid (or more commonly and formally known as parrot cichlid; no binomial nomenclature) is a hybrid thought to be between the midas and the redhead cichlid, although the true parent species has not confirmed by breeders.
Blood plasma is a yellowish coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension; this makes plasma the extracellular matrix of blood cells.
Blood plasma fractionation refers to the general processes of separating the various components of blood plasma, which in turn is a component of blood obtained through blood fractionation.
Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.
Blood proteins, also termed plasma proteins, are proteins present in blood plasma.
The blood sugar level, blood sugar concentration, or blood glucose level is the amount of glucose present in the blood of humans and other animals.
Blood sugar regulation is the process by which the levels of blood sugar, primarily glucose, are maintained by the body within a narrow range.
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.
BNN-20, also known as 17β-spiro-(androst-5-en-17,2'-oxiran)-3β-ol, is a synthetic neurosteroid, "microneurotrophin", and analogue of the endogenous neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).
BNN-27, also known as 17α,20R-epoxypregn-5-ene-3β,21-diol, is a synthetic neurosteroid and "microneurotrophin" and analogue of the endogenous neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).
Body hair, or androgenic hair, is the terminal hair that develops on the human body during and after puberty.
Body memory (BM) is a hypothesis that the body itself is capable of storing memories, as opposed to only the brain.
In physiology, body water is the water content of an animal body that is contained in the tissues, the blood, the bones and elsewhere.
Bodybuilding is the use of progressive resistance exercise to control and develop one's musculature.
Bolandione, also known as 19-norandrostenedione, as well as 19-norandrost-4-en-3,17-dione or estr-4-ene-3,17-dione, is a precursor of the anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) nandrolone (19-nortestosterone).
The silkworm is the larva or caterpillar or imago of the domestic silkmoth, Bombyx mori (Latin: "silkworm of the mulberry tree").
A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton.
A bone growth factor is a growth factor that stimulates the growth of bone tissue.
Bone mineral (also called inorganic bone phase, bone salt, or bone apatite) is the inorganic component of bone tissue.
Boris Revut Ialso Boris Revout; Борис Исаакович Ревут; born August 19, 1947) is a German-Russian chemist, inventor and writer.
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), commonly known as mad cow disease, is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy and fatal neurodegenerative disease in cattle that may be passed to humans who have eaten infected flesh.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), also known as B-type natriuretic peptide, is a hormone secreted by cardiomyocytes in the heart ventricles in response to stretching caused by increased ventricular blood volume.
The Brattleboro rat is a strain of laboratory rat descended from a litter born in West Brattleboro, Vermont in 1961 without the ability to produce the hormone vasopressin, which helps control kidney function.
The breast is one of two prominences located on the upper ventral region of the torso of primates.
Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.
Breast cancer classification divides breast cancer into categories according to different schemes criteria and serving a different purpose.
Breast development, also known as mammogenesis, is a complex biological process in primates that takes place throughout a female's life.
Breast enlargement is the enlargement of the breasts.
Breast hypertrophy is a rare medical condition of the breast connective tissues in which the breasts become excessively large.
Breast milk is the milk produced by the breasts (or mammary glands) of a human female to feed a child.
Reduction mammoplasty (also breast reduction and reduction mammaplasty) is the plastic surgery procedure for reducing the size of large breasts.
Breastfeeding, also known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a woman's breast.
Broodstock, or broodfish, are a group of mature individuals used in aquaculture for breeding purposes.
Brooke Christa Shields (born May 31, 1965) is an American actress and model.
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) or brown fat makes up the adipose organ together with white adipose tissue (or white fat).
The Brown Dog affair was a political controversy about vivisection that raged in England from 1903 until 1910.
A contusion, commonly known as a bruise, is a type of hematoma of tissue in which capillaries and sometimes venules are damaged by trauma, allowing blood to seep, hemorrhage, or extravasate into the surrounding interstitial tissues.
Buenos Aires 100 kilómetros (Buenos Aires 100 KM) is a 2004 Argentine, French, and Spanish, film, written and directed by Pablo José Meza.
A bumblebee (or bumble bee, bumble-bee or humble-bee) is any of over 250 species in the genus Bombus, part of Apidae, one of the bee families.
Bursicon (from the Greek bursikos, pertaining to tanning) is an insect hormone which mediates tanning in the cuticle of adult flies.
In molecular biology, a CCAAT box (also sometimes abbreviated a CAAT box or CAT box) is a distinct pattern of nucleotides with GGCCAATCT consensus sequence that occur upstream by 60–100 bases to the initial transcription site.
Cadmium is a chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number 48.
Calcifediol (INN), also known as calcidiol, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, or 25-hydroxyvitamin D (abbreviated 25(OH)D), is a prehormone that is produced in the liver by hydroxylation of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) by the enzyme cholecalciferol 25-hydroxylase which was isolated by Michael F. Holick.
Calcitonin (also known as thyrocalcitonin) is a 32-amino acid linear polypeptide hormone that is produced in humans primarily by the parafollicular cells (also known as C-cells) of the thyroid gland, and in many other animals in the ultimopharyngeal body.
Camille Anna Paglia (born April 2, 1947) is an American academic and social critic.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Cancer and nausea are associated in about fifty percent of people affected by cancer.
Canine pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas that can occur in two very different forms.
A cannabinoid is one of a class of diverse chemical compounds that acts on cannabinoid receptors in cells that alter neurotransmitter release in the brain.
This article presents common techniques and facts regarding the cultivation of the flowering plant Cannabis, primarily for the production and consumption of cannabis flowers ("buds").
Cannibalism is the act of one individual of a species consuming all or part of another individual of the same species as food.
Carbohydrate chemistry is a subdiscipline of chemistry primarily concerned with the synthesis, structure, and function of carbohydrates.
Carbohydrate metabolism denotes the various biochemical processes responsible for the formation, breakdown, and interconversion of carbohydrates in living organisms.
Carboxypeptidase E (CPE), also known as carboxypeptidase H (CPH) and enkephalin convertase, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CPE gene.
Carcinogenesis, also called oncogenesis or tumorigenesis, is the formation of a cancer, whereby normal cells are transformed into cancer cells.
Carcinoid (also carcinoid tumor) is a slow-growing type of neuroendocrine tumor originating in the cells of the neuroendocrine system.
The cardiovascular centre is a part of the human brain responsible for the regulation of the rate at which the heart beats through the nervous and endocrine systems.
Carl Djerassi (October 29, 1923 – January 30, 2015) was an Austrian-born Bulgarian-American chemist, novelist, playwright and co-founder of with Diane Wood Middlebrook.
Carl Peter Værnet (April 28, 1893 – November 25, 1965) was a Danish doctor at Buchenwald concentration camp.
Carotenoid oxygenases are a family of enzymes involved in the cleavage of carotenoids to produce, for example, retinol, commonly known as vitamin A. This family includes an enzyme known as RPE65 which is abundantly expressed in the retinal pigment epithelium where it catalyzed the formation of 11-cis-retinol from all-trans-retinyl esters.
Carrie is a novel by American author Stephen King.
Kazimierz Funk (February 23, 1884 – November 19, 1967 Casimir Funk A Biographical Sketch (1884–1967). Journal of Nutrition 1972 Sep;102(9):1105–13.. Available from: http://jn.nutrition.org/content/102/9/1105.full.pdf), commonly anglicized as Casimir Funk, was a Polish biochemist, generally credited with being among the first to formulate (in 1912) the concept of vitamins, which he called "vital amines" or "vitamines".
Castration (also known as gonadectomy) is any action, surgical, chemical, or otherwise, by which an individual loses use of the testicles.
A castrato (Italian, plural: castrati) is a type of classical male singing voice equivalent to that of a soprano, mezzo-soprano, or contralto.
Catabolism (from Greek κάτω kato, "downward" and βάλλειν ballein, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller units that are either oxidized to release energy or used in other anabolic reactions.
Epilepsy is a chronic neurological condition characterized by recurrent seizures.
Catechol, also known as pyrocatechol or 1,2-dihydroxybenzene, is an organic compound with the molecular formula C6H4(OH)2.
A catecholamine (CA) is a monoamine, an organic compound that has a catechol (benzene with two hydroxyl side groups at carbons 1 and 2) and a side-chain amine.
Cathepsin D is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CTSD gene.
Different cattle feeding production systems have separate advantages and disadvantages.
Cancer is a disease caused by genetic changes leading to uncontrolled cell growth and tumor formation.
There are many causes of seizures.
CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins (or C/EBPs) is a family of transcription factors composed of six members, named from C/EBPα to C/EBPζ.
Cecil Byran Jacobson (born October 2, 1936) is an American former fertility doctor who used his own sperm to impregnate his patients without informing them.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
Cell culture is the process by which cells are grown under controlled conditions, generally outside their natural environment.
In the context of human physiology, the term cell physiology often specifically applies to the physiology of membrane transport, neuron transmission, and (less frequently) muscle contraction.
Cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions.
Cell surface receptors (membrane receptors, transmembrane receptors) are receptors that are embedded in the membranes of cells.
In cell biology and pathophysiology, cellular adaptation refers to changes made by a cell in response to adverse environmental changes.
Cellulite (also known as adiposis edematosa, dermopanniculosis deformans, status protrusus cutis, gynoid lipodystrophy, and orange peel syndrome) is the herniation of subcutaneous fat within fibrous connective tissue that manifests topographically as skin dimpling and nodularity, often on the pelvic region (specifically the buttocks), lower limbs, and abdomen.
The central melanocortin system is defined anatomically as a collection of central nervous system circuits which include.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Central serous retinopathy (CSR), also known as central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC or CSCR), is an eye disease which causes visual impairment, often temporary, usually in one eye.
CEPP is an acronym for the name of a chemotherapy regimen that is intended for treatment of aggressive Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas.
Charles Brenton Huggins (September 22, 1901 – January 12, 1997) was a Canadian-American physician, physiologist and cancer researcher at the University of Chicago specializing in prostate cancer.
Charles Poliquin (born March 5, 1961) is a Canadian strength coach.
Charles-Édouard Brown-Séquard FRS (8 April 1817 – 2 April 1894) was a Mauritian physiologist and neurologist who, in 1850, became the first to describe what is now called Brown-Séquard syndrome.
Chelates (che·late) in animal feed are organic forms of essential trace minerals such as copper, iron, manganese and zinc.
Chemical changes occur when a substance combines with another to form a new substance, called chemical synthesis or, alternatively, chemical decomposition into two or more different substances.
A chemical messenger is any compound that serves to transmit a message.
A chemoreceptor, also known as chemosensor, is a specialized sensory receptor cell which transduces (responds to) a chemical substance (endogenous or induced) and generates a biological signal.
The chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ) is an area of the medulla oblongata that receives inputs from blood-borne drugs or hormones, and communicates with other structures in the vomiting center to initiate vomiting.
Merriam-Webster defines chemotaxonomy as the method of biological classification based on similarities in the structure of certain compounds among the organisms being classified.
The International Chemical Secretariat (ChemSec) is a non-governmental organisation founded in Sweden in 2002 to advocate in favour of stricter regulatory controls on potentially hazardous chemicals and to work with businesses on reducing the production and use of hazardous substances in their products and supply chains.
Chest hair is hair that grows on the chest of a person in the region between the neck and the abdomen.
Childhood obesity is a condition where excess body fat negatively affects a child's health or well-being.
The Chincoteague Pony, also known as the Assateague horse, is a breed of pony that developed and lives in a feral condition on Assateague Island in the United States states of Virginia and Maryland.
Chipotle Mexican Grill, Inc. is an American chain of fast casual restaurants in the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Germany, and France, specializing in tacos and Mission-style burritos.
Chlormadinone acetate (CMA), sold under the brand names Belara, Lutéran, and Prostal among others, is a progestin and antiandrogen medication which is used in birth control pills to prevent pregnancy, as a component of menopausal hormone therapy, and in the treatment of gynecological disorders as well as androgen-dependent conditions like enlarged prostate and prostate cancer in men and acne and hirsutism in women.
Choh Hao Li (sometimes Cho Hao Li) (pinyin: Lǐ Zhuōhào) (April 21, 1913 – November 28, 1987) was a Chinese-born U.S. biochemist who discovered, in 1966, that human pituitary growth hormone (somatotropin) consists of a chain of 256 amino acids.
In cognitive science, choice-supportive bias or post-purchase rationalization is the tendency to retroactively ascribe positive attributes to an option one has selected.
The Cholecystokinin A receptor is a human protein, also known as CCKAR or CCK1, with CCK1 now being the IUPHAR-recommended name.
A cholecystokinin antagonist is a specific type of receptor antagonist which blocks the receptor sites for the peptide hormone cholecystokinin (CCK).
In botany, the Cholodny–Went model, proposed in 1927, is an early model describing tropism in emerging shoots of monocotyledons, including the tendencies for the shoot to grow towards light (phototropism) and the roots to grow downward (gravitropism).
Chondroblasts, or perichondrial cells, is the name given to mesenchymal progenitor cells in situ which, from endochondral ossification, will form chondrocytes in the growing cartilage matrix.
Chromatophobe is a general term used in endocrinology to describe the cell stain type of the anterior pituitary hormone: the corticotroph cells which produce adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).
Chromatophores are pigment-containing and light-reflecting cells, or groups of cells, found in a wide range of animals including amphibians, fish, reptiles, crustaceans and cephalopods.
A chromophil biological cell is a cell which is easily stainable by absorbing chromium salts used in histology to increase the visual contrast of samples for microscopy.
Chromophobia (also known as chromatophobia or chrematophobia) is a persistent, irrational fear of, or aversion to, colors and is usually a conditioned response.
Chronic critical illness is a disease state which affects intensive care patients who have survived an initial insult but remain dependent on intensive care for a protracted period, neither dying nor recovering.
Chronic kidney disease–mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) is one of the many complications associated with chronic kidney disease.
A chronic wound is a wound that does not heal in an orderly set of stages and in a predictable amount of time the way most wounds do; wounds that do not heal within three months are often considered chronic.
Chyme or chymus (from Greek χυμός khymos, "juice") is the semi-fluid mass of partly digested food that is expelled by the stomach, through the pyloric valve, into the duodenum (the beginning of the small intestine).
A circadian rhythm is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours.
Circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSD) are a family of sleep disorders affecting (among other bodily processes) the timing of sleep.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Circumventricular organs (CVOs) are structures in the brain characterized by their extensive vasculature and highly permeable capillaries unlike those in the rest of the brain where there exists a blood brain barrier (BBB).
(Dorothy) Claire Wathes née Bulman (born 1953) is a British veterinary researcher who studies the reproduction of farm animals.
Clinical chemistry (also known as chemical pathology, clinical biochemistry or medical biochemistry) is the area of chemistry that is generally concerned with analysis of bodily fluids for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.
Clubroot is a common disease of cabbages, broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, radishes, turnips, stocks, wallflowers and other plants belonging to the family Brassicaceae (Cruciferae).
Coccus hesperidum is a soft scale insect in the family Coccidae with a wide host range.
A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme's activity.
Coleoptile is the pointed protective sheath covering the emerging shoot in monocotyledons such as grasses.
The collecting duct system of the kidney consists of a series of tubules and ducts that physically connect nephrons to a minor calyx or directly to the renal pelvis.
A triple bolus test or a dynamic pituitary function test is a medical diagnostic procedure used to assess a patient's pituitary function.
The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is the agricultural policy of the European Union.
The common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis) is a species of natricine snake, which is indigenous to North America and found widely across the continent.
The common raven (Corvus corax), also known as the northern raven, is a large, all-black passerine bird.
The common tern (Sterna hirundo) is a seabird in the family Laridae.
The common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) is a small, leaf-nosed bat native to the Americas.
Comparative endocrinology is concerned with the many complexities of vertebrate and invertebrate endocrine systems at the sub-molecular, molecular, cellular and organismal levels of analysis.
Compensatory growth is a type of regenerative growth that can take place in a number of human organs after the organs are either damaged, removed, or cease to function.
Compliance is the ability of a hollow organ (vessel) to distend and increase volume with increasing transmural pressure or the tendency of a hollow organ to resist recoil toward its original dimensions on application of a distending or compressing force.
Body composition may be analyzed in terms of molecular type e.g., water, protein, connective tissue, fats (or lipids), hydroxylapatite (in bones), carbohydrates (such as glycogen and glucose) and DNA.
Computational neuroscience (also known as theoretical neuroscience or mathematical neuroscience) is a branch of neuroscience which employs mathematical models, theoretical analysis and abstractions of the brain to understand the principles that govern the development, structure, physiology and cognitive abilities of the nervous system.
Computational Resources for Drug Discovery (CRDD) is one of the important silico modules of Open Source for Drug Discovery (OSDD).
A concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO), as defined by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) is an animal feeding operation (AFO)—a farm in which animals are raised in confinement—that has over 1000 "animal units" confined for over 45 days a year.
A congenital disorder of glycosylation (previously called carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome) is one of several rare inborn errors of metabolism in which glycosylation of a variety of tissue proteins and/or lipids is deficient or defective.
A contraceptive implant is an implantable medical device used for the purpose of birth control.
The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) is the statute establishing federal U.S. drug policy under which the manufacture, importation, possession, use, and distribution of certain substances is regulated.
Conventionally grown is an agriculture term referring to a method of growing edible plants (such as fruit and vegetables) and other products.
Cooper's ligaments (also known as the suspensory ligaments of Cooper and the fibrocollagenous septa) are connective tissue in the breast that help maintain structural integrity.
Copper deficiency is a very rare hematological and neurological disorder.
In zoology, copulation is animal sexual behavior in which a male introduces sperm into the female's body, especially directly into her reproductive tract.
Corin, also called atrial natriuretic peptide-converting enzyme, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CORIN gene.
Cornelia "Nina" Channing (1938–1985) was an American professor of physiology at the University of Maryland School of Medicine.
Cornelius Stirk is a fictional character in DC Comics.
Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), refers to a group of diseases which includes stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.
Corticotropin-releasing factor, CRF is a family of related neuropeptides in vertebrates.
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) (also known as corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) or corticoliberin; corticotropin may also be spelled corticotrophin) is a peptide hormone involved in the stress response.
Cosmetic surgery, also referred to as aesthetic surgery, is a surgical procedure which endeavours to improve the physical aspects of one's appearance to become more aesthetically pleasing.
Cotesia congregata is a parasitoid wasp of the genus Cotesia. The genus is particularly noted for its use of polydnaviruses. Parasitoids are distinct from true parasites in that a parasitoid will ultimately kill its host or otherwise sterilize it.
A counterregulatory hormone is a hormone that opposes the action of another.
Crabs are decapod crustaceans of the infraorder Brachyura, which typically have a very short projecting "tail" (abdomen) (translit.
A cream is a preparation usually for application to the skin.
CAMP responsive element binding protein 1, also known as CREB-1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CREB1 gene.
Keeping crickets as pets emerged in China in early antiquity.
Crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) is a highly conserved, amidated cyclic nonapeptide with the primary structure PFCNAFTGC-NH2 (ProPheCysAsnAlaPheTyrGlyCys-NH2) and a disulfide bridge between Cys3 and Cys9.
In biology, culling is the process of segregating organisms from a group according to desired or undesired characteristics.
Curcuma comosa is a species of flowering plant in the ginger family.
Cuteness is a subjective term describing a type of attractiveness commonly associated with youth and appearance, as well as a scientific concept and analytical model in ethology, first introduced by Konrad Lorenz.
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP, or 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a second messenger important in many biological processes.
A cyclic nucleotide (cNMP) is a single-phosphate nucleotide with a cyclic bond arrangement between the sugar and phosphate groups.
Cyclic nucleotide–gated ion channels or CNG channels are ion channels that function in response to the binding of cyclic nucleotides.
Cyclin D is a member of the cyclin protein family that is involved in regulating cell cycle progression.
Cyril Norman Hugh Long (June 19, 1901 – July 6, 1970) was an English-American biochemist and academic administrator.
Cysteine proteases, also known as thiol proteases, are enzymes that degrade proteins.
Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are proteins of the superfamily containing heme as a cofactor and, therefore, are hemoproteins.
Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.
Cytoplasmic inclusions are diverse intracellularShively, J. M. (ed.). (2006).
The cytosol, also known as intracellular fluid (ICF) or cytoplasmic matrix, is the liquid found inside cells.
DAF-16 is the sole ortholog of the FOXO family of transcription factors in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.
Dafydd Rhys "Dave" Williams OC (born May 16, 1954) is a Canadian physician, public speaker and a retired CSA astronaut.
Dahan syndrome is a pituitary injury due to not enough blood supply caused by diffuse vasospasm of arteries within the skull.
Danger Mouse is a British animated television series produced by Cosgrove Hall Films for Thames Television.
Daniel David Federman, MD (1928 – September 6, 2017) was an American endocrinologist and a Carl W. Walter Distinguished Professor of Medicine and the Dean for Medical Education at Harvard Medical School.
Dauer (German "die dauer", "the enduring", from A.G. Fuchs (1937) Neue parasitische und halbparasitischa Nematoden bei Borkenkäfern und einige andere Nematoden) describes an alternative developmental stage of nematode worms, particularly rhabditids including Caenorhabditis elegans, whereby the larva goes into a type of stasis and can survive harsh conditions.
Dead zones are hypoxic (low-oxygen) areas in the world's oceans and large lakes, caused by "excessive nutrient pollution from human activities coupled with other factors that deplete the oxygen required to support most marine life in bottom and near-bottom water.
The decidua is the uterine lining (endometrium) during a pregnancy, which forms the maternal part of the placenta.
Deep fascia (or investing fascia) is a fascia, a layer of dense connective tissue which can surround individual muscles, and also surround groups of muscles to separate into fascial compartments.
Deepwater rice are varieties of rice (Oryza sativa) grown in flooded conditions with water more than deep for at least a month.
Degarelix or degarelix acetate, sold under the brand name Firmagon among others, is a hormonal therapy used in the treatment of prostate cancer.
The third season of Degrassi: Next Class premiered on January 9, 2017 on Family Channel under the teen block F2N in Canada and began streaming internationally on January 6, 2017 on Netflix.
The second season of Degrassi: The Next Generation commenced airing in Canada on 29 September 2002, concluded on 23 February 2003 and contains twenty-two episodes.
Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, abbreviated as DHEA sulfate or DHEA-S, also known as androstenolone sulfate, is an endogenous androstane steroid that is produced by the adrenal cortex.
Delayed puberty is described as delayed puberty with exceptions when an organism has passed the usual age of onset of puberty with no physical or hormonal signs that it is beginning.
Delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD), more often known as delayed sleep phase syndrome and also as delayed sleep-wake phase disorder, is a chronic dysregulation of a person's circadian rhythm (biological clock), compared to those of the general population and societal norms.
Delmadinone acetate (DMA), sold under the brand name Tardak among others, is a progestin and antiandrogen which is used in veterinary medicine to treat androgen-dependent conditions such as benign prostatic hyperplasia.
Depersonalization disorder (DPD), also known as depersonalization/derealization disorder, is a mental disorder in which the person has persistent or recurrent feelings of depersonalization or derealization.
Desiccation tolerance refers to the ability of an organism to withstand or endure extreme dryness, or drought-like conditions.
Desmopressin, sold under the trade name DDAVP among others, is a medication used to treat diabetes insipidus, bedwetting, hemophilia A, von Willebrand disease, and high blood urea levels.
Desogestrel, sold under the brand names Cerazette and Mircette among many others, is a progestin medication which is used in birth control pills for women.
Developmental toxicity is any structural or functional alteration, reversible or irreversible, which interferes with homeostasis, normal growth, differentiation, development or behavior, and which is caused by environmental insult (including drugs, lifestyle factors such as alcohol, diet, and environmental toxic chemicals or physical factors).
DHAP in context of chemotherapy is an acronym for chemotherapy regimen that is used for remission induction in cases of relapsed or refractory non-Hodgkin lymphoma and Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
Diapause, when referencing animal dormancy, is the delay in development in response to regularly and recurring periods of adverse environmental conditions.
Diastasis symphysis pubis is the separation of normally joined pubic bones, as in the dislocation of the bones, without a fracture.
Acyl-CoA-binding protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DBI gene.
Dick Frans Swaab (born 17 December 1944) is a Dutch physician and neurobiologist (brain researcher).
Dienedione, also known as estra-4,9-diene-3,17-dione, is a synthetic, orally active anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) of the 19-nortestosterone group that was never introduced for medical use.
Dienogest, sold under the brand names Natazia and Qlaira among others, is a progestin medication which is used in birth control pills and in the treatment of endometriosis.
The diet-induced obesity model (DIO model) is an animal model used to study obesity using animals that have obesity caused by being fed high-fat and/or high-density diets.
The digit ratio is the ratio of the lengths of different digits or fingers typically measured from the midpoint of bottom crease (where the finger joins the hand) to the tip of the finger.
Dimethisterone, formerly sold under the brand names Lutagan and Secrosteron among others, is a progestin medication which was used in birth control pills and in the treatment of gynecological disorders but is now no longer available.
Type II iodothyronine deiodinase (iodothyronine 5'-deiodinase, iodothyronine 5'-monodeiodinase) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the DIO2 gene.
Dioscorea bulbifera (commonly known as the air potato, air yam, bitter yam, cheeky yam, potato yam) is a species of true yam in the yam family, Dioscoreaceae.
Dioscorea composita, or barbasco, is a species of yam in the genus Dioscorea, native to Mexico.
Dioscorea mexicana, Mexican yam or cabeza de negro is a species of yam in the genus Dioscorea.
Dioscorea villosa is a species of a twining tuberous vine that is native to eastern North America.
The discovery of an orally inactive peptide from snake venom established the important role of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in regulating blood pressure.
The angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), also called angiotensin (AT1) receptor antagonists or sartans, are a group of antihypertensive drugs that act by blocking the effects of the hormone angiotensin II (Ang II) in the body, thereby lowering blood pressure.
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4 inhibitors) are enzyme inhibitors that inhibit the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4).
Lipase inhibitors belong to a drug class that is used as an antiobesity agent.
Dispositional affect, similar to mood, is a personality trait or overall tendency to respond to situations in stable, predictable ways.
The distal convoluted tubule (DCT) is a portion of kidney nephron between the loop of Henle and the collecting tubule.
A diuretic is any substance that promotes diuresis, the increased production of urine.
Dollo's law of irreversibility (also known as Dollo's law and Dollo's principle), proposed in 1893 by French-born Belgian paleontologist Louis Dollo states that, "an organism never returns exactly to a former state, even if it finds itself placed in conditions of existence identical to those in which it has previously lived...
The domesticated red fox, domesticated silver fox or just simply domesticated fox (Vulpes vulpes forma amicus) is a form of the wild red fox (Vulpes vulpes) which has been domesticated to an extent, under laboratory conditions.
Dominance hierarchy is a type of social hierarchy that arises when members of a social group interact, often aggressively, to create a ranking system.
A Dominance signal is used in a dominance hierarchy or pecking order to indicate an animal's dominance.
Dopamine, sold under the brandname Intropin among others, is a medication most commonly used in the treatment of very low blood pressure, a slow heart rate that is causing symptoms, and, if epinephrine is not available, cardiac arrest.
Dopaminergic pathways, sometimes called dopaminergic projections, are the sets of projection neurons in the brain that synthesize and release the neurotransmitter dopamine.
Doping, or the use of restricted performance-enhancing drugs in the United States has a systemic nature, most notably in the sports of baseball and football.
Dorothy Mary Crowfoot Hodgkin (12 May 1910 – 29 July 1994) was a British chemist who developed protein crystallography, for which she won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1964.
Douglas L. Coleman (6 October 1931 – 16 April 2014) was a scientist and professor at The Jackson Laboratory, in Bar Harbor, Maine.
In the biological context of organisms' production of gene products, downregulation is the process by which a cell decreases the quantity of a cellular component, such as RNA or protein, in response to an external stimulus.
Drag kings are mostly female performance artists who dress in masculine drag and personify male gender stereotypes as part of an individual or group routine.
Drospirenone, sold under the brand names Yasmin and Angeliq among others, is a progestin medication which is used in birth control pills and in menopausal hormone therapy. The medication is available only in combination with an estrogen. It is taken by mouth. Drospirenone is a progestin, or a synthetic progestogen, and hence is an agonist of the progesterone receptor, the biological target of progestogens like progesterone. It has additional antimineralocorticoid and antiandrogenic activity and no other important hormonal activity. Drospirenone was introduced for medical use in 2000. It is available widely throughout the world. The medication is sometimes referred to as a "fourth-generation" progestin. It is available as a generic medication.https://www.drugs.com/availability/generic-yasmin.html.
In the fields of medicine, biotechnology and pharmacology, drug discovery is the process by which new candidate medications are discovered.
The Drugs and Cosmetics Rules, 1945 are the set of rules under The Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 which contains provisions for classification of drugs under given schedules and there are guidelines for the storage, sale, display and prescription of each schedule.
Dwarfism, also known as short stature, occurs when an organism is extremely small.
Dydrogesterone, sold under the brand name Duphaston among others, is a progestin medication which is used for a variety of indications, including threatened or recurrent miscarriage during pregnancy, dysfunctional bleeding, infertility due to luteal insufficiency, dysmenorrhea, endometriosis, secondary amenorrhea, irregular cycles, premenstrual syndrome, and as a component of menopausal hormone therapy.
Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) is abnormal genital tract bleeding based in the uterus and found in the absence of demonstrable structural or organic disease.
Earl Wilbur Sutherland Jr. (November 19, 1915 – March 9, 1974) was an American pharmacologist and biochemist born in Burlingame, Kansas.
Heterodon platirhinos, commonly known as the eastern hog-nosed snake, spreading adder,Wright, A.H., and A.A. Wright.
An eating disorder is a mental disorder defined by abnormal eating habits that negatively affect a person's physical or mental health.
Ecdysis is the moulting of the cuticle in many invertebrates of the clade Ecdysozoa.
Ecdysone is a steroidal prohormone of the major insect molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone, which is secreted from the prothoracic glands.
The ecdysone receptor is a nuclear receptor found in arthropods, where it controls development and contributes to other processes such as reproduction.
Edestin, (also known as Edistin) is a highly-digestible, hexameric legumin protein, and a seed storage protein, with a molecular weight of 50,000.
Edmond Henri Fischer (born April 6, 1920) is a Chinese Swiss American biochemist.
Edmontosaurus (meaning "lizard from Edmonton") is a genus of hadrosaurid (duck-billed) dinosaur.
Eero Antero Mäntyranta (20 November 1937 – 29 December 2013) was one of the most successful Finnish skiers.
Gender differences have been observed in the age of onset of schizophrenia.
Most of the eicosanoid receptors are integral membrane protein G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that bind and respond to eicosanoid signaling molecules.
An electrochemical gradient is a gradient of electrochemical potential, usually for an ion that can move across a membrane.
An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.
Elevated alkaline phosphatase describes the situation where the levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) exceed the reference range.
Elizabeta Nemeth is an American physiologist who has made many contributions to the understanding of inflammatory disorders, thalassemias, and iron overload diseases.
Elizabeth Gould is an American neuroscientist and professor of psychology at Princeton University's Department of Psychology.
Elliott R. Blackstone (November 30, 1924 – October 25, 2006) was a sergeant in the San Francisco Police Department and a longtime advocate for the lesbian, gay and transgender community in that city.
Eltrombopag (rINN, codenamed SB-497115-GR) is a medication that has been developed for certain conditions that lead to thrombocytopenia (abnormally low platelet counts). It is a small molecule agonist of the c-mpl (TpoR) receptor, which is the physiological target of the hormone thrombopoietin. Eltrombopag was discovered as a result of research collaboration between GlaxoSmithKline and Ligand Pharmaceuticals. Designated an orphan drug in the United States and European Union, it is being manufactured and marketed by GlaxoSmithKline under the trade name Promacta in the USA and is marketed as Revolade in the EU.
Elwood Vernon Jensen (January 13, 1920 – December 16, 2012) was the Distinguished University Professor, George and Elizabeth Wile Chair in Cancer Research at the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine's Vontz Center for Molecular Studies.
Emergency contraception (EC), or emergency postcoital contraception, are birth control measures that may be used after sexual intercourse to prevent pregnancy.
In anthropology, folkloristics, and the social and behavioral sciences, emic and etic refer to two kinds of field research done and viewpoints obtained: emic, from within the social group (from the perspective of the subject) and etic, from outside (from the perspective of the observer).
Emotion can have a powerful effect on humans and animals.
Empire Kosher Poultry, Inc. is the largest producer of kosher poultry in the United States.
Empty sella syndrome (abbreviated ESS) is where the pituitary gland shrinks or becomes flattened, filling the sella turcica with cerebrospinal fluid on imaging instead of the normal pituitary.
Endocrine disruptors are chemicals that can interfere with endocrine (or hormone) systems at certain doses.
Endocrine glands are glands of the endocrine system that secrete their products, hormones, directly into the blood rather than through a duct.
The endocrine system is a chemical messenger system consisting of hormones, the group of glands of an organism that carry those hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs, and the feedback loops of homeostasis that the hormones drive.
Endocrinology (from endocrine + -ology) is a branch of biology and medicine dealing with the endocrine system, its diseases, and its specific secretions known as hormones.
Hormonal regulation occurs at every stage of development.
Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are endogenous viral elements in the genome that closely resemble and can be derived from retroviruses.
The endometrium is the inner epithelial layer, along with its mucous membrane, of the mammalian uterus.
Endoscopic endonasal surgery is a minimally invasive technique used mainly in neurosurgery and otolaryngology.
ENOX2 is a gene located on the long arm of the X chromosome in humans.
Entero-oxyntin is a hormone released from intestinal endocrine cells which stimulates gastric acid secretion in the stomach.
An enterogastrone is any hormone secreted by the mucosa of the duodenum in the lower gastrointestinal tract in response to dietary lipids that inhibits the caudal (or "forward, analward") motion of the contents of chyme.
Enteroglucagon is a peptide hormone derived from preproglucagon.
Entomophagy (from Greek ἔντομον éntomon, "insect", and φᾰγεῖν phagein, "to eat") is the human use of insects as food.
The study of the environment and sexual orientation is research into possible environmental influences on the development of human sexual orientation.
An environmental hazard is a substance, a state or an event which has the potential to threaten the surrounding natural environment / or adversely affect people's health, including pollution and natural disasters such as storms and earthquakes Any single or combination of toxic chemical, biological, or physical agents in the environment, resulting from human activities or natural processes, that may impact the health of exposed subjects, including pollutants such as heavy metals, pesticides, biological contaminants, toxic waste, industrial and home chemicals.
Environmental hormones are chemical compounds that resembles endocrine hormones.
The environmental effect of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) is largely speculative.
Environmental monitoring describes the processes and activities that need to take place to characterise and monitor the quality of the environment.
Enzalutamide, sold under the brand name Xtandi, is a nonsteroidal antiandrogen (NSAA) medication which is used in the treatment of prostate cancer.
An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Epilobium is a genus of flowering plants in the family Onagraceae, containing about 197 species.
EPOCH is an intensive chemotherapy regimen intended for treatment of aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
The epoxyeicosatrienoic acids or EETs are signaling molecules formed within various types of cells by the metabolism of arachidonic acid by a specific subset of Cytochrome P450 enzymes termed cytochrome P450 epoxygenases.
Equine chorionic gonadotropin (acronym given as eCG but not to be confused with ECG) is a gonadotropic hormone produced in the chorion of pregnant mares.
Equine nutrition is the feeding of horses, ponies, mules, donkeys, and other equines.
Erectile dysfunction (ED), also known as impotence, is a type of sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis during sexual activity.
Since their discovery, anabolic steroids (AAS) have been widely used as performance-enhancing drugs to improve performance in sports, to improve one's physical appearance, as self-medication to recover from injury, and as an anti-aging aid.
Erin Patria Margaret Pizzey (born 19 February 1939) is an English family care activist and a novelist.
Ernest Henry Starling (17 April 1866 – 2 May 1927) was a British physiologist who contributed many fundamental ideas to this subject.
Erythema anulare centrifugum (EAC), also known as deep gyrate erythema, erythema perstans, palpable migrating erythema and superficial gyrate erythema, is a descriptive term for a class of skin lesion presenting redness (erythema) in a ring form (anulare) that spreads from a center (centrifugum).
Essential hypertension (also called primary hypertension or idiopathic hypertension) is the form of hypertension that by definition has no identifiable cause.
Essure is a device for female sterilization.
Esterified estrogens/methyltestosterone, sold under brand names such as Covaryx, Eemt, Essian, Estratest, Menogen, and Syntest, is a hormonal preparation that combines esterified estrogens with methyltestosterone in one tablet and is used in menopausal hormone therapy.
Estradiol (E2), also spelled oestradiol, is an estrogen steroid hormone and the major female sex hormone.
Estradiol palmitate (brand name Esmopal), or estradiol monopalmitate, also known as estradiol 17β-hexadecanoate, is a naturally occurring steroidal estrogen and an estrogen ester – specifically, the C17β palmitate ester of estradiol.
Estradiol stearate (brand name Depofollan), or estradiol octadecanoate, is a naturally occurring steroidal estrogen and an estrogen ester – specifically, the C17β stearate ester of estradiol.
Estradiol/progesterone (developmental code name TX-001HR, formerly TX-12-001HR) is an oral combination of estradiol, an estrogen, and progesterone, a progestogen, which is under development in the United States by TherapeuticsMD for the treatment of menopausal symptoms and endometrial hyperplasia.
Estrin (American English), or oestrin (British English), also known as estra-1,3,5(10)-triene, is an estrane steroid.
Neurodegenerative diseases can disrupt the normal human homeostasis and result in abnormal estrogen levels.
An estrogen ester is an ester of an estrogen, generally of estradiol but also and alternatively of estrone or estriol.
Estrogen receptors (ERs) are a group of proteins found inside cells.
Ethinylestradiol/etonogestrel (brand names NuvaRing) is a contraceptive vaginal ring containing the estrogen ethinylestradiol and the progestin etonogestrel which is marketed in the United States and Europe.
Ethisterone, also known as ethinyltestosterone, pregneninolone, and anhydrohydroxyprogesterone and formerly sold under the brand names Proluton C and Pranone among others, is a progestin medication which was used in the treatment of gynecological disorders but is now no longer available.
Etonogestrel is a progestin medication which is used as a means of birth control for women.
Etynodiol diacetate, or ethynodiol diacetate, sold under the brand names Demulen and Femulen among others, is a progestin medication which is used in birth control pills.
Eugene Goldwasser (October 14, 1922 – December 17, 2010) was an American biochemist at the University of Chicago who identified erythropoietin (widely known as EPO or Epo), a hormone that plays a vital role in the synthesis of red blood cells.
The term eunuch (εὐνοῦχος) generally refers to a man who has been castrated, typically early enough in his life for this change to have major hormonal consequences.
The European Physiology Module (EPM) is an International Standard Payload Rack for the Columbus Laboratory on board the International Space Station.
The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study is a Europe-wide prospective cohort study of the relationships between diet and cancer, as well as other chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease.
The European Society of Endocrinology (ESE) is a scientific society to promote for the public benefit research, education and clinical practice in endocrinology by the organisation of conferences, training courses and publications, by raising public awareness, liaison with national and international legislators.
Enquiry into the evolution of ageing aims to explain why survival, reproductive success, and functioning of almost all living organisms decline at old age.
The capacity for exceptional memory can take several forms.
Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC, informally called afterburn) is a measurably increased rate of oxygen intake following strenuous activity.
Exenatide (marketed as Byetta, Bydureon) is a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 receptor agonist) medication, belonging to the group of incretin mimetics, approved in April 2005 for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2.
Exocytosis is a form of active transport in which a cell transports molecules (e.g., neurotransmitters and proteins) out of the cell (exo- + cytosis) by expelling them through an energy-dependent process.
Exogenous ketones are a class of ketone bodies that are ingested using nutritional supplements.
The exposome encompasses the totality of human environmental (i.e. non-genetic) exposures from conception onwards, complementing the genome, first proposed in 2005 by a cancer epidemiologist.
Extended female sexuality is where the female of a species mates when infertile.
In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word extracellular (or sometimes extracellular space) means "outside the cell".
Facetotecta is a poorly known infraclass of thecostracan crustaceans.
Facial hair is hair grown on the face, usually on the chin, cheeks, and upper lip region.
Squalene synthase (SQS) or farnesyl-diphosphate:farnesyl-diphosphate farnesyl transferase is an enzyme localized to the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum.
Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is cyclic voltammetry with a very high scan rate (up to). Application of high scan rate allows rapid acquisition of a voltammogram within several milliseconds and ensures high temporal resolution of this electroanalytical technique.
Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.
Fatty acid metabolism consists of catabolic processes that generate energy, and anabolic processes that create biologically important molecules (triglycerides, phospholipids, second messengers, local hormones and ketone bodies).
Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the FASN gene.
Feedback occurs when outputs of a system are routed back as inputs as part of a chain of cause-and-effect that forms a circuit or loop.
Felypressin is a non-catecholamine vasoconstrictor that is chemically related to vasopressin, the posterior pituitary hormone.
Female body shape or female figure is the cumulative product of a woman's skeletal structure and the quantity and distribution of muscle and fat on the body.
Female education in STEM includes child and adult female represented in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). In 2017, 33% of students in STEM fields were women.
Female sperm storage is a biological process and often a type of sexual selection in which sperm cells transferred to a female during mating are temporarily retained within a specific part of the reproductive tract before the oocyte, or egg, is fertilized.
In biology and medicine, feminization is the development in an organism of physical characteristics that are usually unique to the female of the species.
A fenestra (plural fenestrae) in anatomy, zoology and biology, is any small opening or pore.
In molecular biology, the FERM domain (F for 4.1 protein, E for ezrin, R for radixin and M for moesin) is a widespread protein module involved in localising proteins to the plasma membrane.
Fertility is the natural capability to produce offspring.
Fertility testing is the process by which fertility is assessed, both generally and also to find the fertile window.
Fetal Warfarin syndrome is a disorder of the embryo which occurs in a child whose mother took the medication warfarin (brand name: Coumadin) during pregnancy.
A fetus is a stage in the prenatal development of viviparous organisms.
Fibroblast growth factor 19 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FGF19 gene.
Fibroblast growth factor 21 is a protein that in mammals is encoded by the FGF21 gene.
Fibrocystic breasts or fibrocystic breast disease or fibrocystic breast condition commonly referred to as "FBC" is a condition of breast tissue affecting an estimated 30-60% of women and at least 50% of women of childbearing age.
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
Fish anatomy is the study of the form or morphology of fishes.
Fish physiology is the scientific study of how the component parts of fish function together in the living fish.
Flibanserin, sold under the trade name Addyi, is a medication approved for the treatment of pre-menopausal women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD).
The Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, more commonly known as the Florey Institute, is an Australian medical research institute that undertakes clinical and applied research into treatments for brain and mind disorders and the cardiovascular system.
The Florida stone crab (Menippe mercenaria) is a crab found in the western North Atlantic, from Connecticut to Belize, including Texas, the Gulf of Mexico, Cuba, The Bahamas, and the East Coast.
Florigen (or flowering hormone) is the hypothesized hormone-like molecule responsible for controlling and/or triggering flowering in plants.
Flumedroxone acetate, sold under the brand names Demigran and Leomigran, is a progestogen medication which is or has been used as an antimigraine agent.
Fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) is a class of in vitro biochemical test used for rapid detection of antibody or antigen in sample.
For a person to flush is to become markedly red in the face and often other areas of the skin, from various physiological conditions.
Fluticasone propionate belongs to a class of drugs known as corticosteroids, specifically glucocorticoids, which are hormones that predominantly affect the metabolism of carbohydrates and, to a lesser extent, fat and protein.
Folashade Abigeal Abugan (born December 17, 1990) is a female Nigerian sprinter who specializes in the 400 metres.
Foliar feeding is a technique of feeding plants by applying liquid fertilizer directly to their leaves.
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a gonadotropin, a glycoprotein polypeptide hormone.
Follicular atresia is the breakdown of the ovarian follicles, which consist of an oocyte surrounded by granulosa cells and internal and external theca cells.
The term food system is used frequently in discussions about nutrition, food, health, community economic development and agriculture.
Formestane, sold under the brand name Lentaron among others, is a steroidal, selective aromatase inhibitor which is used in the treatment of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer in postmenopausal women.
Foster care is a system in which a minor has been placed into a ward, group home (residential child care community, treatment center,...), or private home of a state-certified caregiver, referred to as a "foster parent" or with a family member approved by the state.
Francis M. Pottenger Jr. (1901–1967) was the son of Francis M. Pottenger Sr., the physician who co-founded the Pottenger Sanatorium for treatment of tuberculosis in Monrovia, California.
Franciszek Kokot (born 24 November 1929) is a Polish nephrologist and endocrinologist.
Franz von Leydig, also Franz Leydig (May 21, 1821 – April 13, 1908), was a German zoologist and comparative anatomist.
The eleventh and final season of the American sitcom television series Frasier originally aired from September 23, 2003 to May 13, 2004 on NBC.
Frederic Middlebrook Richards (August 19, 1925 – January 11, 2009), commonly referred to as Fred Richards, was an American biochemist and biophysicist known for solving the pioneering crystal structure of the ribonuclease S enzyme in 1967 and for defining the concept of solvent-accessible surface.
Sir Frederick Grant Banting (November 14, 1891 – February 21, 1941) was a Canadian medical scientist, physician, painter, and Nobel laureate noted as the co-discoverer of insulin and its therapeutic potential.
Dr Frederik Paulsen Sr (born Friedrich Paulsen, 31 July 1909 in Dagebüll – 1997 in Alkersum) was a Medical Doctor and the founder of Ferring Pharmaceuticals.
Free-running sleep is a sleep pattern that is not adjusted (entrained) to the 24-hour cycle in nature nor to any artificial cycle.
A freemartin or free-martin (sometimes martin heifer) is an infertile female mammal with masculinized behavior and non-functioning ovaries.
Freeze branding is a branding process that involves the use of liquid nitrogen or dry ice and alcohol to cool a branding iron so that the iron may then be used to alter the hair follicle of an animal to remove the pigmentation or to remove the hair altogether, depending on the color of the animal.
Fresh water (or freshwater) is any naturally occurring water except seawater and brackish water.
The term "Freshman 15" is an expression commonly used in the United States that refers to an amount (somewhat arbitrarily set at 15 pounds, and originally just 10) of weight gained during a student's first year at college.
Freshwater environmental quality parameters are the natural and man-made chemical, biological and microbiological characteristics of rivers, lakes and ground-waters, the ways they are measured and the ways that they change.
A frog is any member of a diverse and largely carnivorous group of short-bodied, tailless amphibians composing the order Anura (Ancient Greek ἀν-, without + οὐρά, tail).
Frontal lobe epilepsy, or FLE, is a neurological disorder that is characterized by brief, recurring seizures that arise in the frontal lobes of the brain, often while the patient is sleeping.
Functional Ensemble of Temperament (FET) is a neurochemical model suggesting specific functional roles of main neurotransmitter systems in regulation of behavior.
A functioning tumor is a tumor that is found in endocrine tissue and makes hormones (chemicals that travel in the bloodstream and control the actions of other cells or organs).
Furnished cages, sometimes called enriched or modified cages, are cages for egg laying hens which have been designed to overcome some of the welfare concerns of battery cages whilst retaining their economic and husbandry advantages, and also provide some of the welfare advantages of non-cage systems.
Guanine nucleotide binding proteins (G proteins) are membrane-associated, heterotrimeric proteins composed of three subunits: alpha, beta, and gamma.
G proteins, also known as guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, are a family of proteins that act as molecular switches inside cells, and are involved in transmitting signals from a variety of stimuli outside a cell to its interior.
The G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (GPBAR1) also known G-protein coupled receptor 19 (GPCR19), membrane-type receptor for bile acids (M-BAR) or TGR5 as is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GPBAR1 gene.
G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), also known as seven-(pass)-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein–linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses.
A galactagogue, or galactogogue, (from γάλα, milk, + ἀγωγός, leading) is a substance that promotes lactation in humans and other animals.
Galactorrhea (also spelled galactorrhoea) (galacto- + -rrhea) or lactorrhea (lacto- + -rrhea) is the spontaneous flow of milk from the breast, unassociated with childbirth or nursing.
Galactorrhea hyperprolactinemia is increased blood prolactin levels associated with galactorrhea (abnormal milk secretion).
Galactosamine is a hexosamine derived from galactose with the molecular formula C6H13NO5.
Ganglioneuroma is a rare and benign tumor of the autonomic nerve fibers arising from neural crest sympathogonia, which are completely undifferentiated cells of the sympathetic nervous system.
A ganglioside is a molecule composed of a glycosphingolipid (ceramide and oligosaccharide) with one or more sialic acids (e.g. n-acetylneuraminic acid, NANA) linked on the sugar chain.
Gastric acid, gastric juice or stomach acid, is a digestive fluid formed in the stomach and is composed of hydrochloric acid (HCl), potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium chloride (NaCl).
Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) or gastroinhibitory peptide, also known as the glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, is an inhibiting hormone of the secretin family of hormones.
Gastro- is a common English-language prefix derived from the ancient Greek gastros ("stomach").
The gastrointestinal hormones (or gut hormones) constitute a group of hormones secreted by enteroendocrine cells in the stomach, pancreas, and small intestine that control various functions of the digestive organs.
Gastrointestinal physiology is the branch of human physiology that addresses the physical function of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
The "halitosis bomb" and "gay bomb" are informal names for two theoretical, non-existent, non-lethal psychochemical weapons that a United States Air Force research laboratory speculated about producing; the theories involve discharging female sex pheromones over enemy forces in order to make them sexually attracted to each other.
Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between, masculinity and femininity.
Gender inequality is the idea and situation that women and men are not equal.
A gender role, also known as a sex role, is a social role encompassing a range of behaviors and attitudes that are generally considered acceptable, appropriate, or desirable for people based on their actual or perceived sex or sexuality.
Gene doping is the hypothetical non-therapeutic use of gene therapy by athletes in order to improve their performance in those sporting events which prohibit such applications of genetic modification technology, and for reasons other than the treatment of disease.
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
Genentech, Inc., is a biotechnology corporation which became a subsidiary of Roche in 2009.
George Constantine Nichopoulos (October 29, 1927 – February 24, 2016), also known as Dr.
George Wilhelm Herman Emanuel Merck (March 29, 1894 – November 9, 1957) was the president of Merck & Co. from 1925 to 1950 and member of Merck family.
Gerald D. Aurbach (March 24, 1927 – November 4, 1991) was an American medical scientist noted for his studies of parathyroid diseases, bone metabolism and calcium homeostasis.
In enzymology, a geranyltranstransferase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are geranyl diphosphate (a 10 carbon precursor) and isopentenyl diphosphate (a 5 carbon precursor) whereas its two products are diphosphate and trans,trans-farnesyl diphosphate (a 15 carbon product).
Gestational diabetes is a condition in which a woman without diabetes develops high blood sugar levels during pregnancy.
Gestonorone caproate, also known as gestronol hexanoate or norhydroxyprogesterone caproate and sold under the brand names Depostat and Primostat, is a progestin medication which is used in the treatment of enlarged prostate and endometrial cancer.
Gideon Alfred Rodan (June 14, 1934 – January 1, 2006) was a Romanian-born American biochemist and Doctor of Medicine.
A girl is a young female human, usually a child or an adolescent.
A gland is a group of cells in an animal's body that synthesizes substances (such as hormones) for release into the bloodstream (endocrine gland) or into cavities inside the body or its outer surface (exocrine gland).
Globular proteins or spheroproteins are spherical ("globe-like") proteins and are one of the common protein types (the others being fibrous, disordered and membrane proteins).
Most of the terms listed in Wikipedia glossaries are already defined and explained within Wikipedia itself.
The following is a glossary of common English language terms used in the description of birds—warm-blooded vertebrates of the class Aves, characterized by, the ability to in all but the approximately 60 extant species of flightless birds, toothless,, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.
The following is a glossary of diabetes which explains terms connected with diabetes.
This glossary of medical terms is a list of definitions about medicine, its sub-disciplines, and related fields.
Glucagon is a medication and hormone.
A glucagonoma is a rare tumor of the alpha cells of the pancreas that results in the overproduction of the hormone glucagon.
Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which are a class of steroid hormones.
Glucuronidation is often involved in drug metabolism of substances such as drugs, pollutants, bilirubin, androgens, estrogens, mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, fatty acid derivatives, retinoids, and bile acids.
Glycerol Kinase Deficiency (GKD) is an X-linked recessive enzyme defect that is heterozygous in nature.
Glyceroneogenesis is a metabolic pathway which synthesizes glycerol 3-phosphate or triglyceride from precursors other than glucose.
Glycogenesis is the process of glycogen synthesis, in which glucose molecules are added to chains of glycogen for storage.
Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to amino acid side-chains.
GnRH neurons, or Gonadotropin-releasing hormone expressing neurons, are the cells in the brain that control the release of reproductive hormones from the pituitary.
GnRH2, also known as gonadotropin-releasing hormone II or LHRH-II.
The golden-mantled tamarin (Saguinus tripartitus) is a tamarin species from South America.
Gonadal dysgenesis is classified as any congenital developmental disorder of the reproductive system in the male or female.
Gonadotropins are glycoprotein polypeptide hormones secreted by gonadotrope cells of the anterior pituitary of vertebrates.
The gonadotropin receptors are a group of receptors that bind a group of pituitary hormones called gonadotropins.
The hormone of gonadotropins secreted by the anterior hypophyse gland effects on the gonads and play a crucial role in the process of gonadal development and function in vertebrates.
Gonadotropin surge-attenuating factor (GnSAF) is a nonsteroidal ovarian hormone which is involved in the regulation of gonadotropin secretion and the menstrual cycle.
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) also known as gonadoliberin, and by various other names in its endogenous form and as gonadorelin in its pharmaceutical form, is a releasing hormone responsible for the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary.
A gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH agonist) is a type of medication which affects gonadotropins and sex hormones.
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists (GnRH antagonists) are a class of medications that antagonize the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRH receptor) and thus the action of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH).
Good agricultural practice (GAP) are specific methods which, when applied to agriculture, create food for consumers or further processing that is safe and wholesome.
G protein-coupled receptor 119 also known as GPR119 is a G protein-coupled receptor that in humans is encoded by the GPR119 gene.
Sir Graham "Mont" Collingwood Liggins, CBE, FRS, FRSNZ (24 June 192624 August 2010) was a New Zealand medical scientist.
Granin (chromogranin and secretogranin) is a protein family of regulated secretory proteins ubiquitously found in the cores of amine and peptide hormone and neurotransmitter dense-core secretory vesicles.
Granulin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GRN gene.
Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF or GCSF), also known as colony-stimulating factor 3 (CSF 3), is a glycoprotein that stimulates the bone marrow to produce granulocytes and stem cells and release them into the bloodstream.
Some fruit juices and fruits can interact with numerous drugs, in many cases causing adverse effects.
The Greenlandic sheep (sava) (Danish: grønlandsk får) is a breed of domestic sheep.
Groundwater pollution (also called groundwater contamination) occurs when pollutants are released to the ground and make their way down into groundwater.
A growth factor is a naturally occurring substance capable of stimulating cellular growth, proliferation, healing, and cellular differentiation.
A growth medium or culture medium is a solid, liquid or semi-solid designed to support the growth of microorganisms or cells, or small plants like the moss Physcomitrella patens.
The Gubru are a fictional extraterrestrial race in David Brin's Uplift Universe series.
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY is an open-access website, acting as a portal to information on the biological targets of licensed drugs and other small molecules.
Gut flora, or gut microbiota, or gastrointestinal microbiota, is the complex community of microorganisms that live in the digestive tracts of humans and other animals, including insects.
The gut–brain axis is the biochemical signaling that takes place between the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) and the central nervous system (CNS).
Gynaecology or gynecology (see spelling differences) is the medical practice dealing with the health of the female reproductive systems (vagina, uterus, and ovaries) and the breasts.
In molecular biology, the haemolymph juvenile hormone-binding protein (JHPB) family of proteins consists of several insect specific haemolymph juvenile hormone binding proteins.
20-hydroxyecdysone, a key regulatory hormone involved in cuticle development in insectsThe halloween genes are a set of genes identified in Drosophila melanogaster that influence embryonic development.
The Hanchen Group was founded in Amsterdam, Netherlands in 1998, as an enterprise engaged in tobacco and related industries.
A hangover is the experience of various unpleasant physiological and psychological effects following the consumption of alcohol, such as wine, beer and distilled spirits.
Johannes (Hans) Theodor Gustav Ernst Fitting (23 April 1877, Halle an der Saale – 6 July 1970, Köln) was a German plant physiologist.
Hans-Joachim Merker (born 7 October 1929 in Merseburg, died 18 August 2014 in BerlinBaumgarten HG. Professor Dr. med. Hans-Joachim Merker (1929–2014). Ann Anat. 2015 Jan;197:1-2.) was a German physician and anatomist.
The Hauptman-Woodward Medical Research Institute (HWI) is an independent, not-for-profit, biomedical research facility located in the Buffalo Niagara Medical Campus.
Hazel Tucker (born 1989) is a retired American trans woman pornographic actress.
Hürthle cell adenoma is a rare benign tumor, typically seen in women between the ages of 70 and 80 years old.
This article describes the anatomy of the head and neck of the human body, including the brain, bones, muscles, blood vessels, nerves, glands, nose, mouth, teeth, tongue, and throat.
Noise health effects are the physical and psychological health consequences of regular exposure, to consistent elevated sound levels.
Tobacco use has predominantly negative effects on human health and concern about health effects of tobacco has a long history.
Healthe, the creator of Eyesafe, is an American technology company.
Heart rate is the speed of the heartbeat measured by the number of contractions of the heart per minute (bpm).
Heart rate variability (HRV) is the physiological phenomenon of variation in the time interval between heartbeats.
Heavy metals are generally defined as metals with relatively high densities, atomic weights, or atomic numbers.
Hedonic hunger or hedonic hyperphagia is "the drive to eat to obtain pleasure in the absence of an energy deficit." Particular foods may have a high "hedonic rating" or individuals may have increased susceptibility to environmental food cues.
Helicoverpa zea, commonly known as the corn earworm, is a species (formerly in the genus Heliothis) in the family Noctuidae.
Hemodynamics or hæmodynamics is the dynamics of blood flow.
Hemolymph, or haemolymph, is a fluid, analogous to the blood in vertebrates, that circulates in the interior of the arthropod body remaining in direct contact with the animal's tissues.
Henry George Friesen, (born July 31, 1934) is a Canadian endocrinologist, a distinguished professor emeritus of the University of Manitoba and the discoverer of human prolactin, a hormone which stimulates lactation in mammary glands.
Hepatic artery embolization (HAE), also known as trans-arterial embolization (TAE), is one of the several therapeutic methods to treat primary liver tumors or metastases to the liver.
Hepcidin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HAMP gene.
Herbert McLean Evans (September 23, 1882 – March 6, 1971) was a U.S. anatomist and embryologist.
A herbivore is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material, for example foliage, for the main component of its diet.
Hereditary gingival fibromatosis (HGF), also known as idiopathic gingival hyperplasia, is a rare condition of gingival overgrowth.
Hermione Jean Granger is a fictional character in J. K. Rowling's Harry Potter series.
Herring bodies or neurosecretory bodies are structures found in the posterior pituitary.
Hervey Milton Cleckley (1903 – January 28, 1984) was an American psychiatrist and pioneer in the field of psychopathy.
Heteroblasty is significant and abrupt change in form and function that occurs over the lifespan of certain plants.
Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS), also known as acne inversa, is a long term skin disease characterized by the occurrence of inflamed and swollen lumps.
High-dose estrogen (HDE) is a type of hormone therapy in which high doses of estrogens are given.
Hirsutism is excessive body hair in men and women on parts of the body where hair is normally absent or minimal, such as on the chin or chest in particular, or the face or body in general.
The practice of abortion—the termination of a pregnancy—has been known since ancient times.
The history of biology traces the study of the living world from ancient to modern times.
The catecholamines comprise the endogenous substances dopamine, noradrenaline (norepinephrine) and adrenaline (epinephrine) as well as numerous artificially synthesized compounds such as isoprenaline.
The history of intersex surgery is intertwined with the development of the specialities of pediatric surgery, pediatric urology, and pediatric endocrinology, with our increasingly refined understanding of sexual differentiation, with the development of political advocacy groups united by a human qualified analysis, and in the last decade by doubts as to efficacy, and controversy over when and even whether some procedures should be performed.
This history of McDonald's is an overview of the original restaurant and of the chain.
The history of violence against LGBT people in the United Kingdom is made up of assaults on gay men, lesbians, bisexual, transgender, queer and intersexed individuals (LGBTQI), legal responses to such violence, and hate crime statistics in the United Kingdom.
This article considers the history of zoology since the theory of evolution by natural selection proposed by Charles Darwin in 1859.
The hologenome theory of evolution recasts the individual animal or plant (and other multicellular organisms) as a community or a "holobiont" – the host plus all of its symbiotic microbes.
Holometabolism, also called complete metamorphosis, is a form of insect development which includes four life stages: egg, larva, pupa and imago or adult.
Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.
Homochirality is a uniformity of chirality, or handedness.
Homologous recombination is a type of genetic recombination in which nucleotide sequences are exchanged between two similar or identical molecules of DNA.
Homosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexual behavior between members of the same sex or gender.
Hormonal breast enhancement or augmentation is a highly experimental potential medical treatment for the breasts in which hormones or hormonal agents such as estrogen, progesterone, growth hormone (GH), and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are utilized or manipulated to produce breast enlargement in women.
Hormonal imprinting (HI) is a phenomenon which takes place at the first encounter between a hormone and its developing receptor in the critical periods of life (in unicellulars during the whole life) and determines the later signal transduction capacity of the cell.
Hormonal sentience, first described by Robert A. Freitas Jr., describes the information processing rate in plants, which are mostly based on hormones instead of neurons like in all major animals (except sponges).
Hormonal therapy in oncology is hormone therapy for cancer and is one of the major modalities of medical oncology (pharmacotherapy for cancer), others being cytotoxic chemotherapy and targeted therapy (biotherapeutics).
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
Hormone or Hormones may refer to.
A hormone receptor is a receptor molecule that binds to a specific hormone.
Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is any form of hormone therapy wherein the patient, in the course of medical treatment, receives hormones, either to supplement a lack of naturally occurring hormones or to substitute other hormones for naturally occurring hormones.
Hormone therapy or hormonal therapy is the use of hormones in medical treatment.
A hormone-sensitive cancer, or hormone-dependent cancer, is a type of cancer that is dependent on a hormone for growth and/or survival.
Hormones and Cancer is a bimonthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering research on all aspects of hormone action on cancer.
Horse behavior is best understood from the view that horses are prey animals with a well-developed fight-or-flight response.
Horumonyaki is a kind of Japanese cuisine made from beef or pork offal.
The Hospital de Clínicas "José de San Martín" is a teaching hospital located in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Hot flashes (American English) or hot flushes (British English) are a form of flushing due to reduced levels of estradiol.
Hourman (spelled Hour-Man in his earliest appearances, also referred to as the Hour-Man, and the Hourman) is the name of three different fictional superheroes appearing in comics published by DC Comics.
Howard Sachs (July 12, 1926 – December 6, 2011), was a biochemist who helped pioneer the study of neuroendocrinology.
HSD2 neurons are a small group of neurons in the brainstem which are uniquely sensitive to the mineralocorticosteroid hormone aldosterone, through expression of HSD11B2.
The human body is the entire structure of a human being.
Human bonding is the process of development of a close, interpersonal relationship between two or more people.
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a hormone produced by the placenta after implantation.
Human embryogenesis is the process of cell division and cellular differentiation of the embryo that occurs during the early stages of development.
Hair color is the pigmentation of hair follicles due to two types of melanin: eumelanin and pheomelanin.
Human impact on the environment or anthropogenic impact on the environment includes changes to biophysical environments and ecosystems, biodiversity, and natural resources caused directly or indirectly by humans, including global warming, environmental degradation (such as ocean acidification), mass extinction and biodiversity loss, ecological crises, and ecological collapse.
Human male sexuality covers physiological, psychological, social, cultural, and political aspects of the human male sexual response and related phenomena.
The human microbiota is the aggregate of microorganisms that resides on or within any of a number of human tissues and biofluids, including the skin, mammary glands, placenta, seminal fluid, uterus, ovarian follicles, lung, saliva, oral mucosa, conjunctiva, biliary and gastrointestinal tracts.
A human milk bank is "a service which collects, screens, processes, and dispenses by prescription human milk donated by nursing mothers who are not biologically related to the recipient infant".
Human nutrition deals with the provision of essential nutrients in food that are necessary to support human life and health.
The human reproductive system usually involves internal fertilization by sexual intercourse.
Hummingbirds are birds from the Americas that constitute the family Trochilidae.
Humoral factors are factors that are transported by the circulatory system, that is, in blood, and include.
Humorism, or humoralism, was a system of medicine detailing the makeup and workings of the human body, adopted by Ancient Greek and Roman physicians and philosophers, positing that an excess or deficiency of any of four distinct bodily fluids in a person—known as humors or humours—directly influences their temperament and health.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
Hydroxyprogesterone caproate (OHPC), sold under the brand names Proluton and Makena among others, is a progestin medication which is used to prevent preterm birth in pregnant women with a history of the condition and to treat gynecological disorders.
The hymen is a membrane that surrounds or partially covers the external vaginal opening.
Hypercholesterolemia, also called high cholesterol, is the presence of high levels of cholesterol in the blood.
Hyperinsulinemia, or hyperinsulinaemia is a condition in which there are excess levels of insulin circulating in the blood relative to the level of glucose.
Hyperkalemia, also spelled hyperkalaemia, is an elevated level of potassium (K+) in the blood serum.
Hypermobility, also known as double-jointedness, describes joints that stretch farther than normal.
Hypertrophy (from Greek ὑπέρ "excess" + τροφή "nourishment") is the increase in the volume of an organ or tissue due to the enlargement of its component cells.
Hypoadrenocorticism in dogs, or, as it is known in people, Addison's disease, is an endocrine system disorder that occurs when the adrenal glands fail to produce enough hormones for normal function.
Hypoalbuminemia (or hypoalbuminaemia) is a medical sign in which the level of albumin in the blood is abnormally low.
Hypoaldosteronism is an endocrinological disorder characterized decreased levels of the hormone aldosterone.
Hypoglycemia, also known as low blood sugar, is when blood sugar decreases to below normal levels.
Hypogonadism means diminished functional activity of the gonads—the testes or the ovaries —that may result in diminished sex hormone biosynthesis.
The hypophyseal portal system is a system of blood vessels in the microcirculation at the base of the brain, connecting the hypothalamus with the anterior pituitary.
Hypopituitarism is the decreased (hypo) secretion of one or more of the eight hormones normally produced by the pituitary gland at the base of the brain.
Hypotension is low blood pressure, especially in the arteries of the systemic circulation.
Hypothalamic–pituitary hormones are hormones that are produced by the hypothalamus and pituitary gland.
The hypothalamic–pituitary–prolactin axis (HPP axis), also known as the hypothalamic–pituitary–mammary axis or hypothalamic–pituitary–breast axis, is a hypothalamic–pituitary axis which includes the secretion of prolactin (PRL; luteotropin) from the lactotrophs of the pituitary gland into the circulation and the subsequent action of prolactin on tissues such as, particularly, the mammary glands or breasts.
The hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis (HPT axis for short, a.k.a. thyroid homeostasis or thyrotropic feedback control) is part of the neuroendocrine system responsible for the regulation of metabolism.
The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.
Fish are exposed to large oxygen fluctuations in their aquatic environment since the inherent properties of water can result in marked spatial and temporal differences in the concentration of oxygen (see oxygenation and underwater).
The Iberian ribbed newt or Spanish ribbed newt (Pleurodeles waltl) is a newt endemic to the central and southern Iberian Peninsula and Morocco.
Ibutamoren (developmental code names MK-677, MK-0677, L-163,191; former tentative brand name Oratrope) is a potent, long-acting, orally-active, selective, and non-peptide agonist of the ghrelin receptor and a growth hormone secretagogue, mimicking the growth hormone (GH)-stimulating action of the endogenous hormone ghrelin.
This is an overview about the chapter IV (also called chapter E) of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10).
ICD-10 is an international statistical classification used in health care and related industries.
ICD-10 is an international statistical classification used in health care and related industries.
ICD-9-CM Volume 3 is a system of procedural codes used by health insurers to classify medical procedures for billing purposes.
The Icelandic sheep (sauðkindin) is a breed of domestic sheep.
The classification of all headaches, including migraines, is organized by the International Headache Society, and published in the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD).
The ileum is the final section of the small intestine in most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a type of thrombocytopenic purpura defined as isolated low platelet count (thrombocytopenia) with normal bone marrow and the absence of other causes of thrombocytopenia.
Immune Selective Anti-Inflammatory Derivatives (ImSAIDs) are a class of peptides being that have anti-inflammatory properties.
Immunology is a branch of biology that covers the study of immune systems in all organisms.
The impala; (Aepyceros melampus) is a medium-sized antelope found in eastern and southern Africa.
On 29 March 2010, the US District Court for the Southern District of New York found several of the patent claims on the BRCA1 and BRCA2 breast cancer genes held by Myriad Genetics to be invalid.
Incretins are a group of metabolic hormones that stimulate a decrease in blood glucose levels.
Articles related to anatomy include.
Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms.
Biology is the study of life and its processes.
Genetics (from Ancient Greek γενετικός genetikos, “genite” and that from γένεσις genesis, “origin”), a discipline of biology, is the science of heredity and variation in living organisms.
Health is the state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and a positive concept emphasizing social and personal resources, as well as physical capacities.
This is a list of AIDS-related topics, many of which were originally taken from the public domain U.S. Department of Health Glossary of HIV/AIDS-Related Terms, 4th Edition.
The Indian peafowl or blue peafowl (Pavo cristatus), a large and brightly coloured bird, is a species of peafowl native to South Asia, but introduced in many other parts of the world.
Indometacin (INN; or USAN indomethacin) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) commonly used as a prescription medication to reduce fever, pain, stiffness, and swelling from inflammation.
Industrial wastewater treatment describes the processes used for treating wastewater that is produced by industries as an undesirable by-product.
An infusion pump infuses fluids, medication or nutrients into a patient's circulatory system.
Inositol trisphosphate or inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (also commonly known as triphosphoinositol; abbreviated InsP3 or Ins3P or IP3), together with diacylglycerol (DAG), is a secondary messenger molecule used in signal transduction and lipid signaling in biological cells.
Insect diuretic hormones are hormones that regulate water balance through diuretic action.
An insect growth regulator (IGR) is a substance (chemical) that inhibits the life cycle of an insect.
Insect morphology is the study and description of the physical form of insects.
Insect physiology includes the physiology and biochemistry of insect organ systems.
Insecticides are substances used to kill insects.
The roles of insects in culture span different aspects of human life, whether analysed academically or more generally.
Insulin-like 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the INSL3 gene.
Insomnia, also known as sleeplessness, is a sleep disorder where people have trouble sleeping.
This is a list of instruments used in general in laboratories, including.
Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), also called somatomedin C, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IGF1 gene.
Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2) is one of three protein hormones that share structural similarity to insulin.
Intensive animal farming or industrial livestock production, also known as factory farming, is a production approach towards farm animals in order to maximize production output, while minimizing production costs.
Intensive farming involves various types of agriculture with higher levels of input and output per cubic unit of agricultural land area.
Internal medicine or general medicine (in Commonwealth nations) is the medical specialty dealing with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of adult diseases.
The International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD) is a detailed hierarchical classification of all headache-related disorders published by the International Headache Society.
In pharmacology, the international unit is a unit of measurement for the amount of a substance; the mass or volume that constitutes one international unit varies based on which substance is being measured, and the variance is based on the biological activity or effect, for the purpose of easier comparison across substances.
In histology, an intestinal gland (also crypt of Lieberkühn and intestinal crypt) is a gland found in the intestinal epithelium lining of the small intestine and large intestine (colon).
Intracellular receptors are receptors located inside the cell rather than on its cell membrane.
Intracrine refers to a hormone that acts inside a cell, regulating intracellular events.
Intractable pain, also known as Intractable Pain Disease or IP, is a severe, constant pain that is not curable by any known means and which causes a bed or house-bound state and early death if not adequately treated, usually with opioids and/or interventional procedures.
SBHarris 05:41, 26 July 2009 (UTC)--> Iodine is an essential trace element for life, the heaviest element commonly needed by living organisms, and the second-heaviest known to be used by any form of life (only tungsten, a component of a few bacterial enzymes, has a higher atomic number and atomic weight).
Iodothyronine deiodinases (and) are a subfamily of deiodinase enzymes important in the activation and deactivation of thyroid hormones.
In cell biology, ion trapping is the build-up of a higher concentration of a chemical across a cell membrane due to the pKa value of the chemical and difference of pH across the cell membrane.
Islands in the Net is a 1988 science fiction novel by American writer Bruce Sterling.
Isopregnanolone, also known as isoallopregnanolone and epiallopregnanolone, as well as sepranolone, and as 3β-hydroxy-5α-pregnan-20-one or 3β,5α-tetrahydroprogesterone (3β,5α-THP), is an endogenous neurosteroid and a natural 3β-epimer of allopregnanolone.
John Michael 'Rab' Rabinovich, later known as Prof John Michael Robson FRSE FRCS FRCSE LLD (1900–1982) was a geneticist and physicist who co-founded the science of mutagenesis by mutations in fruit flies exposed to mustard gas, and who first observed neutron beta decay.
James Francis Tait was an English physicist and endocrinologist.
James L. McGaugh (born December 17, 1931) is an American neurobiologist and author working in the field of learning and memory.
Jane A. Cauley is a Distinguished Professor in the Department of Epidemiology and an Associate Dean for Research at the University of Pittsburgh.
The Japanese rice fish (Oryzias latipes) also known as the medaka, is a member of genus Oryzias (ricefish), the only genus in the subfamily Oryziinae.
Japanorama was a series of documentaries presented by Jonathan Ross, exploring various facets of popular culture and trends of modern-day Japan.
Jean-Pierre Willem, born 24 May 1938 at Sedan, France, is a physician and founder of Médecins Aux Pieds Nus.
Jeffrey Friedman (born July 20, 1954) is a molecular geneticist at New York City's Rockefeller University and an Investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.
Jenapharm is a pharmaceutical company from Jena, Germany.
Jerker Porath, (23 October 1921 – 21 January 2016) was a Swedish biochemist who invented several separation methods for biomolecules.
Jessica Williams (born March 17, 1948) is an American jazz pianist and composer.
Johanson–Blizzard syndrome (JBS) is a rare, sometimes fatal autosomal recessive multisystem congenital disorder featuring abnormal development of the pancreas, nose and scalp, with mental retardation, hearing loss and growth failure.
Joseph Thomas Cunningham (1859–1935) was a British marine biologist and zoologist known for his experiments on flatfish and his writings on neo-Lamarckism.
Josef, Baron von Mering (28 February 1849, in Cologne – 5 January 1908, at Halle an der Saale, Germany) was a German physician.
The Journal of Endocrinology is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal that publishes original research articles, reviews and commentaries.
Junonia coenia, known as the common buckeye or buckeye, is a butterfly in the family Nymphalidae.
Juvenile hormones (JHs) are a group of acyclic sesquiterpenoids that regulate many aspects of insect physiology.
The conjugate (10S,11S) JH diol phosphate is the product of a two-step enzymatic process: conversion of JH to JH diol and then addition of a phosphate group to C10.
K-Beauty is an umbrella term for skin-care products that derive from South Korea.
Kallmann syndrome (KS) is a genetic disorder that prevents a person from starting or fully completing puberty.
In horticulture, a keiki is a plant produced asexually by an orchid plant, especially Dendrobium, Epidendrum (sensu lato), and Phalaenopsis orchids.
Kenneth Kaushansky, M.D., Master of the American College of Physicians (MACP) (born October 20, 1953) is an American medical doctor, hematologist, former editor of the medical journal Blood, and has served as the Dean of the Stony Brook University School of Medicine since July 2010.
Kenneth Sokolski, M.D. is a psychiatrist practicing in Orange County, California and Associate Adjunct Professor in the Department of Psychiatry and Human behavior at VA Medical Center Long Beach, California.
Kenneth J. Sterling was a medical doctor and prominent researcher on the topic of thyroid hormone and human metabolism.
Keratoconus (KC) is a disorder of the eye which results in progressive thinning of the cornea.
Kernan August Hand, Sr., known as Kernan "Skip" Hand (born December 30, 1945), is a retired state court judge of the 24th Judicial District from Kenner in Jefferson Parish, Louisiana.
Ketotic hypoglycemia is a medical term used in two ways: (1) broadly, to refer to any circumstance in which low blood glucose is accompanied by ketosis, and (2) in a much more restrictive way to refer to recurrent episodes of hypoglycemic symptoms with ketosis and, often, vomiting, in young children.
Kexin is a prohormone-processing protease found in the budding yeast (S. cerevisiae).
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
In the context of Philippine culture, the Tagalog word kilig refers to the feeling of excitement due to various romantic situations such as making first eye contact with one's crush or watching another person propose to someone.
The king quail (Excalfactoria chinensis), also known as the blue-breasted quail, Asian blue quail, Chinese painted quail, or Chung-Chi, is a species of Old World quail in the family Phasianidae.
King's College School, commonly referred to as KCS, King's or KCS Wimbledon, is a selective independent school in Wimbledon, southwest London, England.
Kiran Mazumdar-Shaw (born 23 March 1953) is an Indian billionaire entrepreneur.
Klinefelter syndrome (KS) also known as 47,XXY or XXY, is the set of symptoms that result from two or more X chromosomes in males.
(Vengalil) Krishna (Kumar) Chatterjee is a Professor of Endocrinology in the Department of Medicine at the University of Cambridge and a Fellow of Churchill College, Cambridge.
The labia are part of the female genitalia; they are the major externally visible portions of the vulva.
A laboratory rat or lab rat is a rat of the species Rattus norvegicus (brown rat) which is bred and kept for scientific research.
Lactation describes the secretion of milk from the mammary glands and the period of time that a mother lactates to feed her young.
Lactones are cyclic esters of hydroxycarboxylic acids, containing a 1-oxacycloalkan-2-one structure, or analogues having unsaturation or heteroatoms replacing one or more carbon atoms of the ring.
Lajos Kisfaludy (30 August 1924, in Gemer, Czechoslovakia − 30 October 1988, in Budapest, Hungary) was a Hungarian chemical engineer, a corresponding member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
Lancelot Thomas Hogben FRS FRSE (9 December 1895 – 22 August 1975) was a British experimental zoologist and medical statistician.
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease involving clonal proliferation of Langerhans cells, abnormal cells deriving from bone marrow and capable of migrating from skin to lymph nodes.
Lanreotide (INN) is a medication used in the management of acromegaly and symptoms caused by neuroendocrine tumors, most notably carcinoid syndrome.
Lanthanide probes are a non-invasive analytical tool commonly used for biological and chemical applications.
Lanugo (from Latin lana "wool") is very thin, soft, usually unpigmented, downy hair that is sometimes found on the body of a fetal or new-born human.
Large-cell neuroendocrine cancer refers to the large-cell type of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) that arise from cells of the endocrine (hormonal) and nervous systems.
Laron's syndrome, or Laron-type dwarfism, is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by an insensitivity to growth hormone (GH), usually caused by a mutant growth hormone receptor.
Leonardo "Léo" Jaime (born April 23, 1960) is a Brazilian singer-songwriter, guitarist, actor and writer, famous for being one of the founding members of the rockabilly band João Penca e Seus Miquinhos Amestrados.
Leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin-2 (LECT2) is a protein first described in 1996 as a chemotactic factor for neutrophils, i.e. it stimulated human neutrophils to move directionally in an in vitro assay system.
Leiopotherapon plumbeus, known commonly as the silver perch,Froese, R. and D. Pauly, Eds.
Leopold Ružička (13 September 1887 – 26 September 1976) was a Croatian-Swiss scientist and joint winner of the 1939 Nobel Prize in Chemistry who worked most of his life in Switzerland.
Leptin (from Greek λεπτός leptos, "thin"), "the hormone of energy expenditure", is a hormone predominantly made by adipose cells that helps to regulate energy balance by inhibiting hunger.
Leucyl/cystinyl aminopeptidase, also known as cystinyl aminopeptidase (CAP), insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP), human placental leucine aminopeptidase (PLAP), oxytocinase, and vasopressinase, is an enzyme of the aminopeptidase group that in humans is encoded by the LNPEP gene.
Leuprorelin, also known as leuprolide, is a manufactured version of a hormone used to treat prostate cancer, breast cancer, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and early puberty.
Levonorgestrel is a hormonal medication which is used in a number of birth control methods.
Levonorgestrel-releasing implant, sold under the brand name Jadelle among others, is a device made up of a two rods of levonorgestrel used for birth control.
Leydig cells, also known as interstitial cells of Leydig, are found adjacent to the seminiferous tubules in the testicle.
This article covers the LGBT history of Iran.
The initialism LGBT is used to refer collectively to '''l'''esbian, '''g'''ay, '''b'''isexual, and '''t'''ransgender (LGBT) people and members of the specific group and to the community (subculture) that surrounds them.
Li Jiayang (born 1956) ForMemRS is Vice Minister of Agriculture in China and President of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS).
Life in the Undergrowth is a BBC nature documentary series written and presented by David Attenborough, first transmitted in the UK from 23 November 2005.
Ligand binding assays (LBA) is an assay, or an analytic procedure, whose procedure or method relies on the binding of ligand molecules to receptors, antibodies or other macromolecules.
Light in school buildings traditionally is from a combination of daylight and electric light to illuminate learning spaces (e.g. classrooms, labs, studios, etc.), hallways, cafeterias, offices and other interior areas.
Light therapy—or phototherapy, classically referred to as heliotherapy—consists of exposure to daylight or to specific wavelengths of light using polychromatic polarised light, lasers, light-emitting diodes, fluorescent lamps, dichroic lamps or very bright, full-spectrum light.
The lingzhi mushroom is a species complex that encompasses several fungal species of the genus Ganoderma, most commonly the closely related species Ganoderma lucidum, Ganoderma tsugae, and Ganoderma lingzhi.
Lino Barañao (born 28 December 1953) is an Argentine chemist and politician, currently Minister of Science, Technology and Innovative Production of Argentina under President Mauricio Macri.
In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.
Lipid metabolism is the synthesis and degradation of lipids in cells, involving the break down or storage of fats for energy.
Lipoidal estradiol (LE2) is the variety of endogenous C17β long-chain fatty acid esters of estradiol which are formed as metabolites of estradiol.
A lipokine is a lipid-controlling hormone.
Lipotropin is a hormone produced by the cleavage of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC).
Liraglutide (NN2211) is a derivative of human incretin (metabolic hormone) glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) that is used as a long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, binding to the same receptors as does the endogenous metabolic hormone GLP-1 that stimulates insulin secretion.
This is a list of 5α-reductase inhibitors (5α-RIs), drugs which inhibit one or more isoforms of the enzyme 5α-reductase.
Articles about notable biochemists include: Note that the definition of biochemist is fairly loose here, and noted chemical biologists, biophysicists and others are included.
This is a list of articles that describe particular biomolecules or types of biomolecules.
Crystal structures of protein and nucleic acid molecules and their complexes are central to the practice of most parts of biophysics, and have shaped much of what we understand scientifically at the atomic-detail level of biology.
This is a list of students, alumni, faculty or academic affiliates associated with Colgate University in the United States.
This is a partially sorted list of notable persons who have had ties to Columbia University.
This page is a list of substances or materials generally considered discredited.
The use of performance-enhancing drugs (doping) is prohibited within the sport of athletics.
This list of drugs banned by WADA is determined by the World Anti-Doping Agency, established in 1999 to deal with the increasing problem of doping in the sports world.
The following is a table with drugs organized by year of discovery and begins with firs drugs formed in the universe; Hydrogen, Helium and Lithium that were formed during the first three minutes after the big bang, bigger elements and molecules were formed by stellar nucleosynthesis and other forms of nucleosynthesis thousands and millions of years after the Big Bang, such as water, sodium chloride, after it, more complex molecules were formed and evolved into self-replicating molecules.
This is a selected list of gairaigo, Japanese words originating or based on foreign language (generally Western) terms, including wasei-eigo (Japanese pseudo-Anglicisms).
Category:Lists of words.
The pituitary gland (or hypophysis) is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing in humans.
The following is a list of hormones found in Homo sapiens.
The List of ICD-9 codes 800–999: injury and poisoning is one of the ranges International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems codes.
Instruments used specially in Toxicology are as follows.
This is a list of investigational hormonal agents, or hormonal agents that are currently under development for clinical use but are not yet approved.
As of 2017, Nobel PrizesThe Nobel Prize is an annual, international prize first awarded in 1901 for achievements in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace.
The following is a list of the codes for MeSH (Medical Subject Headings), a comprehensive controlled vocabulary for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences; it can also serve as a thesaurus that facilitates searching.
This is the fourth part of the list of the "D" codes for MeSH.
This is the fourth part of the list of the "D" codes for MeSH.
The Nobel Prizes are awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Karolinska Institute, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine.
The Nobel Prizes are awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Karolinska Institute, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin) is awarded annually by the Swedish Karolinska Institute to scientists and doctors in the various fields of physiology or medicine.
Note that there exists a category for proteins that is more complete than this list. A list of proteins (and protein complexes).
Before Christopher Columbus and the Spanish Conquistadors landed on the island of "Borikén" (Puerto Rico), the Tainos who inhabited the island depended on their astronomical observations for the cultivation of their crops.
The following is a partial list of Saturday Night Live commercial parodies.
The steroid hormones are referred to by various abbreviations in the biological literature.
The main systems of the human body are.
This is a list of episodes of the Canadian television sitcom The Smart Woman Survival Guide.
† not study.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Elizabeth Ann Velásquez (born March 13, 1989) is an American motivational speaker, author, and YouTuber.
LNCaP cells are a cell line of human cells commonly used in the field of oncology.
Local hormones are a large group of signaling molecules that do not circulate within the blood. Local hormones are produced by cells and bind to either neighboring cells or the same type of cell that produced them.
The loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta), or loggerhead, is an oceanic turtle distributed throughout the world.
Lola (Greek: Λόλα) was the Greek remake of the successful Argentine comedy franchise Lalola.
Long Ashton Research Station (LARS) was an agricultural and horticultural government research centre in the village of Long Ashton near Bristol, UK.
Lordosis behavior, also known as mammalian lordosis (Greek lordōsis, from lordos "bent backward") or presenting, is the naturally occurring body posture for sexual receptivity to copulation present in most mammals including rodents, elephants, and felines.
Lorraine Rothman (January 12, 1932 – September 25, 2007) was a founding member of the feminist Self-Help Clinic movement.
Louann Brizendine, M.D., (born December 30, 1952) is an American scientist, a neuropsychiatrist who is both a researcher and a clinician and professor at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF)..
Louis Lowenstein (1908 - March 23, 1968) was a medical researcher who made significant contributions in hematology and immunology.
Love encompasses a variety of different emotional and mental states, typically strongly and positively experienced, ranging from the most sublime virtue or good habit, the deepest interpersonal affection and to the simplest pleasure.
A love dart (also known as a gypsobelum) is a sharp, calcareous or chitinous dart which some hermaphroditic land snails and slugs create.
LPH may refer to.
Luis Alberto Castillo (born August 4, 1983), is a former American football defensive end in the National Football League (NFL).
Lung cancer, also known as lung carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.
Luteinizing hormone (LH, also known as lutropin and sometimes lutrophin) is a hormone produced by gonadotropic cells in the anterior pituitary gland.
A luteoma is a tumor that occurs in the ovaries during pregnancy.
Lyn-Genet Recitas, (born March 26, 1965), also known as Lyn-Genet, is an American nutritionist and author.
Lynestrenol, sold under the brand names Exluton and Ministat among others, is a progestin medication which is used in birth control pills and in the treatment of gynecological disorders.
Malcolm Daniel Lane (1930-2014; "Dan" socially) was a biochemist who spent most of his career on the faculty at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine in Baltimore, Maryland.
Magnocellular neurosecretory cells are large neuroendocrine cells within the supraoptic nucleus and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus.
The major sperm protein (MSP) is a nematode specific small protein of 126 amino acids with a molecular weight of 14 kDa.
A mammary gland is an exocrine gland in mammals that produces milk to feed young offspring.
A man is a male human.
The mannose receptor (Cluster of Differentiation 206, CD206) is a C-type lectin primarily present on the surface of macrophages and immature dendritic cells, but is also expressed on the surface of skin cells such as human dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes.
Japan's major export industries include automobiles, consumer electronics (see Electronics industry in Japan), computers, semiconductors, copper, iron and steel.
Margo Panush Cohen is an American physician and entrepreneur.
Mark Shaw (June 25, 1921 – January 26, 1969) was an American fashion and celebrity photographer in the 1950s and 1960s.
Marriage and health are closely related.
Martti Sakari Vainio (born 30 December 1950) is a Finnish former long-distance runner.
Masturbation is the sexual stimulation of one's own genitals for sexual arousal or other sexual pleasure, usually to the point of orgasm.
The Maudsley Hospital is a British psychiatric hospital in south London.
Meat is animal flesh that is eaten as food.
Meat and bone meal (MBM) is a product of the rendering industry.
Aspirin causes several different effects in the body, mainly the reduction of inflammation, analgesia (relief of pain), the prevention of clotting, and the reduction of fever.
The median eminence, part of the inferior boundary of the hypothalamus in the brain, is attached to the infundibulum.
A medical laboratory or clinical laboratory is a laboratory where tests are carried out on clinical specimens in order to obtain information about the health of a patient in order to provide diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical chemistry are disciplines at the intersection of chemistry, especially synthetic organic chemistry, and pharmacology and various other biological specialties, where they are involved with design, chemical synthesis and development for market of pharmaceutical agents, or bio-active molecules (drugs).
Medrogestone, sold under the brand name Colprone among others, is a progestin medication which has been used in menopausal hormone therapy and in the treatment of gynecological disorders.
Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), sold under the brand name Depo-Provera among others, is a hormonal medication of the progestin type.
Medullipin is a hormone created by the interstitial cells of renal papilla, which is converted to medullipin II in the liver.
Megestrol acetate (MGA), sold under the brand name Megace among others, is a progestin medication which is used mainly as an appetite stimulant to treat wasting syndromes such as cachexia.
Melanocyte-inhibiting factor (also known as Pro-Leu-Gly-NH2, Melanostatin, MSH release–inhibiting hormone or MIF-1) is an endogenous peptide fragment derived from cleavage of the hormone oxytocin, but having generally different actions in the body.
Melatonin, also known as N-acetyl-5-methoxy tryptamine, is a hormone that is produced by the pineal gland in animals and regulates sleep and wakefulness.
Melvin Malcolm Grumbach (December 21, 1925 – October 4, 2016) was an American pediatrician and academic who specialized in pediatric endocrinology.
Menarche (Greek: μήν mēn "month" + ἀρχή arkhē "beginning") is the first menstrual cycle, or first menstrual bleeding, in female humans.
Menopause, also known as the climacteric, is the time in most women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children.
Menotropin (also called human menopausal gonadotropin or hMG) is a hormonally active medication for the treatment of fertility disturbances.
The menstrual cycle is the regular natural change that occurs in the female reproductive system (specifically the uterus and ovaries) that makes pregnancy possible.
Menstruation, also known as a period or monthly, is the regular discharge of blood and mucosal tissue (known as menses) from the inner lining of the uterus through the vagina.
A messenger or courier is a person or thing that carries a message.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Metamorphosis is a biological process by which an animal physically develops after birth or hatching, involving a conspicuous and relatively abrupt change in the animal's body structure through cell growth and differentiation.
Metaplasticity is a term originally coined by W.C. Abraham and M.F. Bear to refer to the plasticity of synaptic plasticity.
This article discusses methods of passing as female.
The Mexican barbasco trade was the trade of the diosgenin-rich yam species Dioscorea mexicana, Dioscorea floribunda and Dioscorea composita which emerged in Mexico in the 1950s as part of the Mexican steroid industry.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Michael Wallent (born Michael Wallent, transitioned to Megan Wallent in 2008, and transitioned back to Michael Wallent in 2013) is an executive at Microsoft.
Microbes (microorganisms) play many roles in the practical aspects of human culture, and sometimes appear in literature, music, film, and art.
Microdialysis is a minimally-invasive sampling technique that is used for continuous measurement of free, unbound analyte concentrations in the extracellular fluid of virtually any tissue.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
Micropenis is an unusually small penis.
Micropropagation is the practice of rapidly multiplying stock plant material to produce a large number of progeny plants, using modern plant tissue culture methods.
Cardiac syndrome X is a historic term for microvascular angina, angina (chest pain) with signs associated with decreased blood flow to heart tissue but with normal coronary arteries.
Whole brain emulation (WBE), mind upload or brain upload (sometimes called "mind copying" or "mind transfer") is the hypothetical futuristic process of scanning the mental state (including long-term memory and "self") of a particular brain substrate and copying it to a computer.
miR-208 is a family of microRNA precursors found in animals, including humans.
In molecular biology miR-375 microRNA is a short RNA molecule.
Miriam Friedman Menkin (8 August 1901 – June 8, 1992), née Miriam Friedman, was an American scientist who was most famous for her in vitro fertilization (IVF) research with John Rock.
Miscarriage, also known as spontaneous abortion and pregnancy loss, is the natural death of an embryo or fetus before it is able to survive independently.
Miscarriage risks are those circumstances, conditions, and substances that increase the risk of miscarriage.
Misfits of Science is an American superhero fantasy television series that aired on NBC from October 1985 to February 1986.
Mitochondrial trifunctional protein (MTP) is a protein attached to the inner mitochondrial membrane which catalyzes three out of the four steps in beta oxidation.
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
A mitogen is a chemical substance that encourages a cell to commence cell division, triggering mitosis.
Molecular binding is an attractive interaction between two molecules that results in a stable association in which the molecules are in close proximity to each other.
Molecular Endocrinology is a peer-reviewed journal that publishes research on the molecular processes of hormones.
Monocarpic plants are those that flower, set seeds and then die.
Monoclonal antibodies (mAb or moAb) are antibodies that are made by identical immune cells that are all clones of a unique parent cell.
Monsanto Company was an agrochemical and agricultural biotechnology corporation.
Morning sickness, also called nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP), is a symptom of pregnancy that involves nausea or vomiting.
Morphogenesis (from the Greek morphê shape and genesis creation, literally, "beginning of the shape") is the biological process that causes an organism to develop its shape.
Motilin is a 22-amino acid polypeptide hormone in the motilin family that, in humans, is encoded by the MLN gene.
Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) is a milk-transmitted retrovirus like the HTL viruses, HI viruses, and BLV.
The acronym MSH may stand for one of several things, including.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged.
A multivitamin is a preparation intended to serve as a dietary supplement - with vitamins, dietary minerals, and other nutritional elements.
Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.
Muscle tissue is a soft tissue that composes muscles in animal bodies, and gives rise to muscles' ability to contract.
Myogenic tone is a state of muscle tone in living creatures that originates from the muscle itself rather than from the autonomic nervous system or from hormone processes.
MyriaNed is a wireless sensor network (WSN) platform developed by DevLab.
Myxedema psychosis, more colloquially known as myxedema madness, is a relatively uncommon consequence of hypothyroidism, such as in Hashimoto's thyroiditis or in patients who have had the thyroid surgically removed and are not taking thyroxine.
N-Acylphosphatidylethanolamines (NAPEs) are hormones released by the small intestine into the bloodstream when it processes fat.
n-Butanol or n-butyl alcohol or normal butanol is a primary alcohol with a 4-carbon structure and the chemical formula C4H9OH.
The N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP or BNPT) is a prohormone with a 76 amino acid N-terminal inactive protein that is cleaved from the molecule to release brain natriuretic peptide.
Nancy A. Moran (born December 21, 1954, Dallas, Texas) is an American evolutionary biologist, University of Texas Leslie Surginer Endowed Professor, and co-founder of the Yale Microbial Diversity Institute.
A nanonetwork or nanoscale network is a set of interconnected nanomachines (devices a few hundred nanometers or a few micrometers at most in size), which are able to perform only very simple tasks such as computing, data storing, sensing and actuation.
A nanoparticle–biomolecule conjugate is a nanoparticle with biomolecules attached to its surface.
The National Academy of Medicine (NAM), formerly called the Institute of Medicine (IoM), is an American nonprofit, non-governmental organization.
The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which is one of eleven agencies that are part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
The National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS) is one of the institutes and centers that make up the National Institutes of Health, an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).
Natural Cycle IVF is in vitro fertilisation (IVF) using either of the following procedures.
Natural foods and all natural foods are widely used terms in food labeling and marketing with a variety of definitions, most of which are vague.
A natural product is a chemical compound or substance produced by a living organism—that is, found in nature.
Nuclear receptor coactivator 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NCOA6 gene.
Neena Betty Schwartz (December 10, 1926 – April 15, 2018) was an American endocrinologist and William Deering Professor of Endocrinology Emerita in the Department of Neurobiology at Northwestern University.
Negative feedback (or balancing feedback) occurs when some function of the output of a system, process, or mechanism is fed back in a manner that tends to reduce the fluctuations in the output, whether caused by changes in the input or by other disturbances.
Mehmet Nejat Ferit Eczacıbaşı (known simply as Nejat F. Eczacıbaşı, (January 5, 1913–October 6, 1993), a second generation member of the notable Turkish Eczacıbaşı family, was a chemist, industrialist, entrepreneur and philanthropist. He was the founder of Eczacıbaşı, a prominent Turkish industrial group with investments in pharmaceuticals, personal care products, consumer products, building products and financial services.
Neoadjuvant therapy is the administration of therapeutic agents before a main treatment.
The nephridium (plural nephridia) is an invertebrate organ which occurs in pairs and performs a function similar to the vertebrate kidney.
The nephron (from Greek νεφρός – nephros, meaning "kidney") is the microscopic structural and functional unit of the kidney.
The nephrostome is the funnel-like component of a metanephridium.
Nephrotic syndrome is a collection of symptoms due to kidney damage.
A nerve net consists of interconnected neurons lacking a brain or any form of cephalization.
The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
Nesting behaviour refers to an instinct or urge in pregnant animals caused by the increase of estradiol (E2) to prepare a home for the upcoming newborn(s).
A boycott was launched in the United States on July 7, 1977, against the Swiss-based Nestlé corporation.
Neural top–down control of physiology concerns the direct regulation by the brain of physiological functions (in addition to smooth muscle and glandular ones).
Neurocardiology is the study of the neurophysiological, neurological and neuroanatomical aspects of cardiology, including especially the neurological origins of cardiac disorders.
Neuroendocrine cells are cells that receive neuronal input (neurotransmitters released by nerve cells or neurosecretory cells) and, as a consequence of this input, release message molecules (hormones) to the blood.
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are neoplasms that arise from cells of the endocrine (hormonal) and nervous systems.
Neuroendocrinology is the branch of biology (specifically of physiology) which studies the interaction between the nervous system and the endocrine system, that is how the brain regulates the hormonal activity in the body.
Neuroglycopenia is a medical term that refers to a shortage of glucose (glycopenia) in the brain, usually due to hypoglycemia.
A neurohormone is any hormone produced and released by neuroendocrine cells (also called neurosecretory cells) into the blood.
Neurolaw is an emerging field of interdisciplinary study that explores the effects of discoveries in neuroscience on legal rules and standards.
Neuromedin U (or NmU) is a neuropeptide found in the brain of humans and other mammals, which has a number of diverse functions including contraction of smooth muscle, regulation of blood pressure, pain perception, appetite, bone growth, and hormone release.
Neuropeptides are small protein-like molecules (peptides) used by neurons to communicate with each other.
Neurophysin I is a carrier protein with a size of 10 KDa and contains 90 to 97 aminoacids.
Neurophysin II is a carrier protein with a size of 19,687.3 Da and is made up of a dimer of two virtually identical chains of amino acids.
Neuroplasticity, also known as brain plasticity and neural plasticity, is the ability of the brain to change throughout an individual's life, e.g., brain activity associated with a given function can be transferred to a different location, the proportion of grey matter can change, and synapses may strengthen or weaken over time.
Neurosarcoidosis (sometimes shortened to neurosarcoid) refers to sarcoidosis, a condition of unknown cause featuring granulomas in various tissues, involving the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord).
The neuroscience of sleep is the study of the neuroscientific and physiological basis of the nature of sleep and its functions.
Neurosecretion is the storage, synthesis and release of hormones from neurons.
A neurotransmitter receptor (also known as a neuroreceptor) is a membrane receptor protein that is activated by a neurotransmitter.
Neutering, from the Latin neuter ('of neither sex'), is the removal of an animal's reproductive organ, either all of it or a considerably large part.
The NR4A1 gene is a transcription factor important in the development of cells that secrete the hormone insulin-like 3 (INSL3).
Nicotine is a potent parasympathomimetic stimulant and an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants.
Niemann–Pick type C is a lysosomal storage disease associated with mutations in NPC1 and NPC2 genes.
Nilutamide, sold under the brand names Nilandron and Anandron, is a nonsteroidal antiandrogen (NSAA) which is used in the treatment of prostate cancer.
A nociceptor is a sensory neuron that responds to damaging or potentially damaging stimuli by sending “possible threat” signals to the spinal cord and the brain.
Nocturnal enuresis, also called bedwetting, is involuntary urination while asleep after the age at which bladder control usually occurs.
Nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC), sold under the brand names Lutenyl and Zoely among others, is a progestin medication which is used in birth control pills, menopausal hormone therapy, and for the treatment of gynecological disorders.
The non-mevalonate pathway—also appearing as the mevalonate-independent pathway and the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate/1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate (MEP/DOXP) pathway—is an alternative metabolic pathway for the biosynthesis of the isoprenoid precursors isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP).
Nonallergic rhinitis is inflammation of the inner part of the nose that is not caused by an allergy.
Nonverbal communication (NVC) between people is communication through sending and receiving wordless cues.
Nonylphenols, from the Latin nōnus (number 9) and phenol, are a family of closely related organic compounds composed of phenol bearing a 9 carbon-tail.
Norelgestromin, or norelgestromine, sold under the brand names Evra and Ortho Evra among others, is a progestin medication which is used as a method of birth control for women.
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
Norepinephrine, also known as noradrenaline, is a medication used to treat people with very low blood pressure.
Norethisterone, also known as norethindrone and sold under the brand names Aygestin and Primolut N among many others, is a progestin medication which is used in birth control pills, menopausal hormone therapy, and for the treatment of gynecological disorders.
Norethisterone acetate (NETA), also known as norethindrone acetate and sold under the brand name Primolut-Nor among others, is a progestin medication which is used in birth control pills, menopausal hormone therapy, and for the treatment of gynecological disorders.
Noretynodrel, or norethynodrel, sold under the brand name Enovid among others, is a progestin medication which was previously used in birth control pills and in the treatment of gynecological disorders but is now no longer marketed. It was available both alone and in combination with an estrogen. The medication is taken by mouth. Noretynodrel is a progestin, or a synthetic progestogen, and hence is an agonist of the progesterone receptor, the biological target of progestogens like progesterone. It is a relatively weak progestogen. The medication has weak estrogenic activity, no or only very weak androgenic activity, and no other important hormonal activity. It is a prodrug of various active metabolites in the body, such as norethisterone among others. Noretynodrel was introduced for medical use in 1957. It was specifically approved at this time in combination with mestranol for the treatment of gynecological and menstrual disorders. Subsequently, in 1960, this formulation was approved for use as a birth control pill. It was the first birth control pill to be introduced, and was followed by birth control pills containing norethisterone and other progestins shortly thereafter. Due to its nature as a relatively weak progestogen, noretynodrel is no longer used in medicine. As such, it is no longer marketed.
Norgestimate, sold under the brand names Ortho Tri-Cyclen and Previfem among others, is a progestin medication which is used in birth control pills for women and in menopausal hormone therapy.
Norman Tenner Adler (June 7, 1941 - September 11, 2016) through his research, teaching, writing, and academic administration, made major contributions to the modern study of biological psychology and in American higher education, having helped develop the fields that are now labeled behavioral neurobiology and evolutionary psychology.
Normethandrone, also known as methylestrenolone or methylnortestosterone and sold under the brand name Metalutin among others, is a progestin and androgen/anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which is used in combination with an estrogen in the treatment of amenorrhea and menopausal symptoms in women.
A nuchal scan or nuchal translucency (NT) scan/procedure is a sonographic prenatal screening scan (ultrasound) to detect cardiovascular abnormalities in a fetus, though altered extracellular matrix composition and limited lymphatic drainage can also be detected.
In the field of molecular biology, nuclear receptors are a class of proteins found within cells that are responsible for sensing steroid and thyroid hormones and certain other molecules.
Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism.
Nutritional neuroscience is the scientific discipline that studies the effects various components of the diet such as minerals, vitamins, protein, carbohydrates, fats, dietary supplements, synthetic hormones, and food additives have on neurochemistry, neurobiology, behavior, and cognition.
The ob/ob or obese mouse is a mutant mouse that eats excessively due to mutations in the gene responsible for the production of leptin and becomes profoundly obese.
Obesity is defined as an abnormal accumulation of body fat, usually 20% or more over an individual's ideal body weight.
Octopamine (molecular formula C8H11NO2) is an organic chemical closely related to norepinephrine. In many types of invertebrates it functions as an important neurotransmitter and hormone, but in the human body it normally exists only at trace levels and has no known function. Because it shares some of the actions of norepinephrine, octopamine has been sold under trade names such as Epirenor, Norden, and Norfen for use as a sympathomimetic drug, available by prescription. Very little information exists concerning its clinical usefulness or safety. In mammals, octopamine may mobilize the release of fat from adipocytes (fat cells), which has led to its promotion on the internet as a slimming aid. However, the released fat is likely to be promptly taken up into other cells, and there is no evidence that octopamine facilitates weight loss. Octopamine may also increase blood pressure significantly when combined with other stimulants, as in some weight loss supplements.
Octopamine is an organic chemical closely related to norepinephrine, and synthesized biologically by a homologous pathway.
The octopus (or ~) is a soft-bodied, eight-armed mollusc of the order Octopoda.
Oleoyl-estrone (OE), or estrone 3-oleate, is a fatty acid ester of estrone.
An Oligopeptidase is an enzyme that cleaves peptides but not proteins.
The olm or proteus (Proteus anguinus) is an aquatic salamander in the family Proteidae, the only exclusively cave-dwelling chordate species found in Europe.
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Onychophora (from Ancient Greek, onyches, "claws"; and pherein, "to carry"), commonly known as velvet worms (due to their velvety texture and somewhat wormlike appearance) or more ambiguously as peripatus (after the first described genus, Peripatus), is a phylum of elongate, soft-bodied, many-legged panarthropods.
Human oocyte cryopreservation (egg freezing) is a procedure to preserve a woman's eggs (oocytes).
Oppenauer oxidation, named after Rupert Viktor Oppenauer, is a gentle method for selectively oxidizing secondary alcohols to ketones.
An orexigenic, or appetite stimulant, is a drug, hormone, or compound that increases appetite and may induce hyperphagia.
Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Organic farming is an alternative agricultural system which originated early in the 20th century in reaction to rapidly changing farming practices.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
Organoiodine compounds are organic compounds that contain one or more carbon–iodine bonds.
Orgasm (from Greek ὀργασμός orgasmos "excitement, swelling"; also sexual climax) is the sudden discharge of accumulated sexual excitement during the sexual response cycle, resulting in rhythmic muscular contractions in the pelvic region characterized by sexual pleasure.
Osmoregulation is the active regulation of the osmotic pressure of an organism's body fluids, detected by osmoreceptors, to maintain the homeostasis of the organism's water content; that is, it maintains the fluid balance and the concentration of electrolytes (salts in solution) to keep the fluids from becoming too diluted or concentrated.
Osteoblasts (from the Greek combining forms for "bone", ὀστέο-, osteo- and βλαστάνω, blastanō "germinate") are cells with a single nucleus that synthesize bone.
Osteocalcin, also known as bone gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-containing protein (BGLAP), is a noncollagenous protein hormone found in bone and dentin.
An osteoclast is a type of bone cell that breaks down bone tissue.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to biochemistry: Biochemistry – study of chemical processes in living organisms, including living matter.
Biology – The natural science that involves the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and a topical guide to nutrition.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to obstetrics: Obstetrics – medical specialty dealing with the care of all women's reproductive tracts and their children during pregnancy (prenatal period), childbirth and the postnatal period.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the human brain: Human brain – central organ of the nervous system located in the head of a human being, protected by the skull.
Ovarian cancer is a cancer that forms in or on an ovary.
The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system that produces an ovum.
Being overweight or fat is having more body fat than is optimally healthy.
The ovulatory shift hypothesis is the theory that women experience evolutionarily adaptive changes in subconscious thoughts and behaviors related to mating across the ovulatory cycle.
Oxendolone, sold under the brand names Prostetin and Roxenone, is an antiandrogen and progestin medication which is used in Japan in the treatment of enlarged prostate.
Oxyntomodulin is a naturally occurring 37-amino acid peptide hormone found in the colon, produced by the oxyntic (fundic) cells of the oxyntic (fundic) mucosa.
The oxytocin receptor, also known as OXTR, is a protein which functions as receptor for the hormone and neurotransmitter oxytocin.
The P-type calcium channel is a type of voltage-dependent calcium channel.
Pain in babies, and whether babies feel pain, has been a large subject of debate within the medical profession for centuries.
Pain management in children is the assessment and treatment of pain in infants and children.
The pancreas is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates.
Pancreatic cancer arises when cells in the pancreas, a glandular organ behind the stomach, begin to multiply out of control and form a mass.
A pancreatic hormone is any of various hormones produced by the pancreas.
The pancreatic islets or islets of Langerhans are the regions of the pancreas that contain its endocrine (hormone-producing) cells, discovered in 1869 by German pathological anatomist Paul Langerhans.
Pancreatic juice is a liquid secreted by the pancreas, which contains a variety of enzymes, including trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen, elastase, carboxypeptidase, pancreatic lipase, nucleases and amylase.
Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs, PETs, or PNETs), often referred to as "islet cell tumors", or "pancreatic endocrine tumors" are neuroendocrine neoplasms that arise from cells of the endocrine (hormonal) and nervous system within the pancreas.
Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas.
Panic attacks are sudden periods of intense fear that may include palpitations, sweating, shaking, shortness of breath, numbness, or a feeling that something bad is going to happen.
Panicum virgatum, commonly known as switchgrass, is a perennial warm season bunchgrass native to North America, where it occurs naturally from 55°N latitude in Canada southwards into the United States and Mexico.
Papillary (collecting) ducts are anatomical structures of the kidneys, previously known as the ducts of Bellini.
A paraneoplastic syndrome is a syndrome (a set of signs and symptoms) that is the consequence of cancer in the body, but unlike mass effect, is not due to the local presence of cancer cells.
Parasitic castration is the strategy, by a parasite, of blocking reproduction by its host, completely or in part, to its own benefit.
Parathyroid hormone (PTH), also called parathormone or parathyrin, is a hormone secreted by the parathyroid glands that is important in bone remodeling, which is an ongoing process in which bone tissue is alternately resorbed and rebuilt over time.
The paraventricular nucleus (PVN, PVA, or PVH) is a nucleus in the hypothalamus.
A parent is a caregiver of the offspring in their own species.
Parent–offspring conflict (POC) is an expression coined in 1974 by Robert Trivers.
In biology, paternal care is parental investment provided by a male animal to his own offspring.
Asthma is a common pulmonary condition defined by chronic inflammation of respiratory tubes, tightening of respiratory smooth muscle, and episodes of bronchoconstriction.
Paul Trendelenburg (24 March 1884, Bonn – 4 February 1931, Berlin) was a German pharmacologist.
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 2, mitochondrial (PCK2, PEPCK-M), is an isozyme of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK, PEPCK) that in humans is encoded by the PCK2 gene on chromosome 14.
cAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4B is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PDE4B gene.
The peacock flounder (Bothus mancus), also known as the flowery flounder, is a species of fish in the family Bothidae (lefteye flounders).
Pedophilia, or paedophilia, is a psychiatric disorder in which an adult or older adolescent experiences a primary or exclusive sexual attraction to prepubescent children.
Pelvic girdle pain (abbreviated PGP) is a pregnancy discomfort that causes pain, instability and limitation of mobility and functioning in any of the three pelvic joints.
Penile agenesis is a birth defect in humans, occurring about once in 5–6 million male births, in which a male child is born without a penis.
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
Peptide hormones or protein hormones are hormones whose molecules are peptides or proteins, respectively.
Peptide PHI (or peptide histidine isoleucine) is a peptide which functions as a hormone.
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (conjugate base perfluorooctanoate), also known as C8, is a synthetic perfluorinated carboxylic acid and fluorosurfactant.
Performance-enhancing substances, also known as performance-enhancing drugs (PED), are substances that are used to improve any form of activity performance in humans.
Pericytes are contractile cells that wrap around the endothelial cells that line the capillaries and venules throughout the body.
Peripheral chemoreceptors (of the carotid and aortic bodies) are so named because they are sensory extensions of the peripheral nervous system into blood vessels where they detect changes in chemical concentrations.
Peripheral membrane proteins are membrane proteins that adhere only temporarily to the biological membrane with which they are associated.
In endocrinology, permissiveness is a biochemical phenomenon in which the presence of one hormone is required in order for another hormone to exert its full effects on a target cell.
Personality is defined as the set of habitual behaviors, cognitions and emotional patterns that evolve from biological and environmental factors.
The pharmaceutical industry in Bangladesh is one of the most developed technology sectors within Bangladesh.
Pharmacodynamics is the study of the biochemical and physiologic effects of drugs (especially pharmaceutical drugs).
The pharmacology of antidepressants is not entirely clear.
The pharmacology of bicalutamide, a nonsteroidal antiandrogen (NSAA), has been well-characterized.
Pharming, a portmanteau of "farming" and "pharmaceutical", refers to the use of genetic engineering to insert genes that code for useful pharmaceuticals into host animals or plants that would otherwise not express those genes, thus creating a genetically modified organism (GMO).
Phaseic acid is a terpenoid catabolite of abscisic acid.
Phenethylamine (PEA) is an organic compound, natural monoamine alkaloid, and trace amine which acts as a central nervous system stimulant in humans.
A pheromone (from Ancient Greek φέρω phero "to bear" and hormone, from Ancient Greek ὁρμή "impetus") is a secreted or excreted chemical factor that triggers a social response in members of the same species.
Philip Cole is a professor and the director of the Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences at Johns Hopkins University Medical School.
Philippa Saunders, is Chair of Reproductive Steroids and Director of Postgraduate Research for the College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, and Registrar of the Academy of Medical Sciences.
In vascular plants, phloem is the living tissue that transports the soluble organic compounds made during photosynthesis and known as photosynthates, in particular the sugar sucrose, to parts of the plant where needed.
A phobia is a type of anxiety disorder, defined by a persistent and excessive fear of an object or situation.
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) is an enzyme in the lyase family used in the metabolic pathway of gluconeogenesis.
Phospholipase D (lipophosphodiesterase II, lecithinase D, choline phosphatase) (PLD) is an enzyme of the phospholipase superfamily.
Photoactivation is a technique used in biological research to specifically activate cellular players (proteins, nucleic acids, small molecules) by a flash of light in order to study processes in cells.
In developmental biology, photomorphogenesis is light-mediated development, where plant growth patterns respond to the light spectrum.
Physical intimacy is sensual proximity or touching.
Pickardt syndrome (also Pickardt's syndrome or Pickardt–Fahlbusch syndrome) denotes a rare form of tertiary hypothyroidism that is caused by interruption of the portal veins connecting hypothalamus and pituitary.
Pierre (February 16, 1983 – May 6, 2016) was an African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) who lived at the California Academy of Sciences in San Francisco.
Pierre De Meyts (born 1944) is a Belgian physician and biochemist known for his research on fine chemical and kinetic aspects of ligand-receptor interaction, subunit assembly, and specific metabolic (as well as mitogenic) effects of hormones typically causing receptor tyrosine kinase activation such as insulin and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs).
Pigment dispersing factor (pdf) is a gene that encodes the protein PDF, which is part of a large family of neuropeptides.
The Pimelodidae, commonly known as the long-whiskered catfishes, are a family of catfishes (order Siluriformes).
Pine nut oil, also called pine seed oil or cedar nut oil, is a vegetable oil, extracted from the edible seeds of several species of pine.
The Pine Tavern is a restaurant in Bend, Oregon, United States.
The pineal gland, also known as the conarium, kônarion or epiphysis cerebri, is a small endocrine gland in the vertebrate brain.
Pinealocytes are the main cells contained in the pineal gland, located behind the third ventricle and between the two hemispheres of the brain.
Pioneer factors are transcription factors that can directly bind condensed chromatin.
Piriformis syndrome is a condition which is believed to result from compression of the sciatic nerve around the piriformis muscle.
Pituitary adenomas are tumors that occur in the pituitary gland.
Pituitary apoplexy or pituitary tumor apoplexy is bleeding into or impaired blood supply of the pituitary gland at the base of the brain.
A pituitary disease is a disorder primarily affecting the pituitary gland.
Pizzle is an old English word for penis, derived from Low German pesel or Flemish Dutch pezel, diminutive of pees, meaning 'sinew'.
Placental lactogen, also called chorionic somatomammotropin, is a polypeptide placental hormone, part of the somatotropin family.
Evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo) refers to the study of developmental programs and patterns from an evolutionary perspective.
Plant genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity specifically in Plants.
Plant hormones (also known as phytohormones) are chemicals that regulate plant growth.
Plant physiology is a subdiscipline of botany concerned with the functioning, or physiology, of plants.
Plastic pollution is the accumulation of plastic products in the environment that adversely affects wildlife, wildlife habitat and humans.
The plateau principle is a mathematical model or scientific law originally developed to explain the time course of drug action.
Platelet-activating factor, also known as PAF, PAF-acether or AGEPC (acetyl-glyceryl-ether-phosphorylcholine), is a potent phospholipid activator and mediator of many leukocyte functions, platelet aggregation and degranulation, inflammation, and anaphylaxis.
POEMS syndrome (also termed osteosclerotic myeloma, Crow–Fukase syndrome, Takatsuki disease, or PEP syndrome) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome caused by a clone of aberrant plasma cells.
The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) is a hypercarnivorous bear whose native range lies largely within the Arctic Circle, encompassing the Arctic Ocean, its surrounding seas and surrounding land masses.
Polistes gallicus (also historically referred to as Polistes foederatus) is a fairly common species of paper wasp found in various parts of Europe, excluding England, Denmark, and Scandinavia, from warmer climates to cooler regions north of the Alps.
Pollution in China is one aspect of the broader topic of environmental issues in China.
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers or PBDEs, are organobromine compounds that are used as flame retardant.
A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) is an organic chlorine compound with the formula C12H10−xClx.
A polyphenic trait is a trait for which multiple, discrete phenotypes can arise from a single genotype as a result of differing environmental conditions.
Polyprenols are natural long-chain isoprenoid alcohols of the general formula H-(C5H8)n-OH where n is the number of isoprene units.
Poplar River First Nation (or Azaadiwi-ziibi Nitam-Anishinaabe in the Anishinaabe language) is an Ojibwa First Nation in Manitoba, Canada.
Porichthys notatus is a species of fish in the toadfish family.
Post-concussion syndrome, also known as postconcussive syndrome or PCS, is a set of symptoms that may continue for weeks, months, or a year or more after a concussion – a mild form of traumatic brain injury (TBI).
Post-translational modification (PTM) refers to the covalent and generally enzymatic modification of proteins following protein biosynthesis.
A postpartum (or postnatal) period begins immediately after the birth of a child as the mother's body, including hormone levels and uterus size, returns to a non-pregnant state.
Potassium channels are the most widely distributed type of ion channel and are found in virtually all living organisms.
Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar (11 May 1922 – 21 October 1990), also known by his spiritual name, Shrii Shrii Ánandamúrti (Ánanda Múrti.
The prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) is a small vole found in central North America.
Pramlintide (trade name Symlin) is an injectable amylin analogue drug for diabetes (both type 1 and 2), developed by Amylin Pharmaceuticals (now a wholly owned subsidiary of AstraZeneca).
Prasterone, also known as dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and sold under the brand names Gynodian Depot (as an ester) and Intrarosa among others, is a medication as well as supplement which is used to correct DHEA deficiency due to adrenal insufficiency or old age, as a component of menopausal hormone therapy, to treat painful sexual intercourse due to vaginal atrophy, and to prepare the cervix for childbirth among other uses.
Prasterone sulfate (brand names Astenile, Levospa, Mylis, Teloin), also known as dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), is a naturally occurring androstane steroid which is marketed and used in Japan as a labor inducer in the treatment of insufficient cervical ripening and dilation during childbirth.
In medicine, precocious puberty is puberty occurring at an unusually early age.
Pregnenolone (P5), or pregn-5-en-3β-ol-20-one, is an endogenous steroid and precursor/metabolic intermediate in the biosynthesis of most of the steroid hormones, including the progestogens, androgens, estrogens, glucocorticoids, and mineralocorticoids.
A prehormone is a biochemical substance secreted by glandular tissue and has minimal or no significant biological activity, but it is converted in peripheral tissues into an active hormone.
Premature thelarche (PT) is a medical condition, characterised by isolated breast development in female infants.
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) refers to physical and emotional symptoms that occur in the one to two weeks before a woman's period.
The hormonal theory of sexuality holds that, just as exposure to certain hormones plays a role in fetal sex differentiation, such exposure also influences the sexual orientation that emerges later in the adult.
Prenatal Testosterone Transfer (also known as prenatal androgen transfer or prenatal hormone transfer) refers to the phenomenon in which testosterone synthesized by a developing male fetus transfers to one or more developing fetuses within the womb and influences development.
A preprohormone is the precursor protein to one or more prohormones, which are in turn precursors to peptide hormones.
The preputial mucosa of the penis is the epithelium of the inside of the prepuce, or foreskin.
The Pressure Flow Hypothesis, also known as the Mass Flow Hypothesis, is the best-supported theory to explain the movement of sap through the phloem.
Previtamin D3 is an intermediate in the production of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3).
The Price-Pottenger Nutrition Foundation (PPNF) is a U.S. 501(c)(3) non-profit organization established "to teach the public and professionals about foods, lifestyle habits, healing modalities, and environmental practices that can help people attain vibrant health." Founded in 1952, it was first known as the Santa Barbara Medical Research Foundation and later renamed the Weston A. Price Memorial Foundation, in 1965, after the 20th century researcher Weston Price who emphasized the importance of nutrition for health and dentistry.
Primary aldosteronism, also known as primary hyperaldosteronism or Conn's syndrome, refers to the excess production of the hormone aldosterone from the adrenal glands, resulting in low renin levels.
Pro-opiomelanocortin converting enzyme (prohormone converting enzyme, pro-opiomelanocortin-converting enzyme, proopiomelanocortin proteinase, PCE) is an enzyme.
Prodynorphin, also known as proenkephalin B, is an opioid polypeptide hormone involved with chemical signal transduction and cell communication.
Proenkephalin (PENK), formerly known as proenkephalin A (since proenkephalin B was renamed prodynorphin), is an endogenous opioid polypeptide hormone which, via proteolyic cleavage, produces the enkephalin peptides Metenkephalin, and to a lesser extent, Leuenkephalin.
Professor Achilles Milo is a fictional character in DC Comics.
Progesterone (P4) is an endogenous steroid and progestogen sex hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis of humans and other species.
Progesterone is a medication and naturally occurring steroid hormone.
A progestin is a type of medication which is used most commonly in hormonal birth control and menopausal hormone therapy.
Proinsulin is the prohormone precursor to insulin made in the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans, specialized regions of the pancreas.
Prolactin (PRL), also known as luteotropic hormone or luteotropin, is a protein that is best known for its role in enabling mammals, usually females, to produce milk.
A prolactinoma is a benign tumor (adenoma) of the pituitary gland that produces a hormone called prolactin.
Prolyl endopeptidase (PE) also known as prolyl oligopeptidase or post-proline cleaving enzyme is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PREP gene.
Promegestone, sold under the brand name Surgestone, is a progestin medication which is used in menopausal hormone therapy and in the treatment of gynecological disorders.
Proneural genes encode transcription factors of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) class which are responsible for the development of neuroectodermal progenitor cells.
Proprotein convertases are a family of proteins that activate other proteins.
Proprotein convertase 1, also known as prohormone convertase, prohormone convertase 3, or neuroendocrine convertase 1 and often abbreviated as PC1/3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PCSK1 gene.
The prostaglandins (PG) are a group of physiologically active lipid compounds having diverse hormone-like effects in animals.
The prostate (from Ancient Greek προστάτης, prostates, literally "one who stands before", "protector", "guardian") is a compound tubuloalveolar exocrine gland of the male reproductive system in most mammals.
Prostate cancer is the development of cancer in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
A protein precursor, also called a pro-protein or pro-peptide, is an inactive protein (or peptide) that can be turned into an active form by post-translational modification, such as breaking off a piece of the molecule or adding on another molecule.
The liver plays the major role in producing proteins that are secreted into the blood, including major plasma proteins, factors in hemostasis and fibrinolysis, carrier proteins, hormones, prohormones and apolipoprotein.
The proteome is the entire set of proteins that is, or can be, expressed by a genome, cell, tissue, or organism at a certain time.
Prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) was the first insect hormone to be discovered.
Proximal femoral focal deficiency (PFFD), also known as Congenital Femoral Deficiency (CFD), is a rare, non-hereditary birth defect that affects the pelvis, particularly the hip bone, and the proximal femur.
Pseudo-Cushing's syndrome is a medical condition in which patients display the signs, symptoms, and abnormal hormone levels seen in Cushing's syndrome.
Pseudoplatystoma is a genus of several South American catfish species of family Pimelodidae.
Psychoneuroendocrinology is the clinical study of hormone fluctuations and their relationship to human behavior.
Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI), also referred to as psychoendoneuroimmunology (PENI) or psychoneuroendocrinoimmunology (PNEI), is the study of the interaction between psychological processes and the nervous and immune systems of the human body.
Psychopharmacology (from Greek label; label; and label) is the scientific study of the effects drugs have on mood, sensation, thinking, and behavior.
Female breast ptosis or sagging is a natural consequence of aging.
Puberty is the process of physical changes through which a child's body matures into an adult body capable of sexual reproduction.
Puberty blockers, also called puberty inhibitors, puberty suppressors, or hormone suppressors, are a group of medications used to inhibit puberty.
Pulsatile intravenous insulin therapy, sometimes called metabolic activation therapy, or cellular activation therapy describes in a literal sense the intravenous injection of insulin in pulses versus continuous infusions.
Pulsatile secretion is a biochemical phenomenon in which a chemical, such as a hormone, is secreted in a burst-like or episodic manner rather than constantly.
Glycogen phosphorylase, liver form (PYGL), also known as human liver glycogen phosphorylase (HLGP), is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PYGL gene on chromosome 14.
Pyogenic granuloma (also known as a "eruptive hemangioma", "granulation tissue-type hemangioma", "granuloma gravidarum", "lobular capillary hemangioma", "pregnancy tumor", and "tumor of pregnancy") is a vascular lesion that occurs on both mucosa and skin, and appears as an overgrowth of tissue due to irritation, physical trauma, or hormonal factors.
Pyrabactin is a synthetic sulfonamide that mimics abscisic acid (ABA), a naturally produced stress hormone in plants that helps them cope with drought conditions by inhibiting growth.
Pyridoxine 5’-phosphate oxidase is an enzyme that catalyzes several reactions in the vitamin B6 metabolism pathway.
The firebug, Pyrrhocoris apterus, is a common insect of the family Pyrrhocoridae.
Quingestanol acetate, sold under the brand names Demovis and Pilomin among others, is a progestin which was used in birth control pills but is no longer marketed.
The rabbit test, or "Friedman test", was an early pregnancy test developed in 1931 by Maurice Harold Friedman and Maxwell Edward Lapham at the University of Pennsylvania as an improvement on the 1927 test developed by Bernhard Zondek and Selmar Aschheim.
The radiation effects from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster are the observed and predicted effects as a result of the release of radioactive isotopes from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant following the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami.
A radioimmunoassay (RIA) is an immunoassay that uses radiolabeled molecules in a stepwise formation of immune complexes.
The United States Army Ranger School is a 61-day combat leadership course oriented toward small-unit tactics.
Reactive lymphocytes or variant lymphocytes are cytotoxic (CD8+) lymphocytes that become large as a result of antigen stimulation.
A reborn doll is a manufactured skin doll that has been transformed by an artist to resemble a human infant with as much realism as possible.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
A receptor antagonist is a type of receptor ligand or drug that blocks or dampens a biological response by binding to and blocking a receptor rather than activating it like an agonist.
Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are the high-affinity cell surface receptors for many polypeptide growth factors, cytokines, and hormones.
Reclaimed or recycled water (also called wastewater reuse or water reclamation) is the process of converting wastewater into water that can be reused for other purposes.
Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.
In human sexuality, the refractory period is usually the recovery phase after orgasm during which it is physiologically impossible for a man to have additional orgasms.
Regulation of emotion describes ways that people attempt to regulate their emotions, for instance by denying, intensifying, weakening, curtailing, masking, or completely hiding them.
Regulation of gene expression includes a wide range of mechanisms that are used by cells to increase or decrease the production of specific gene products (protein or RNA), and is informally termed gene regulation.
A regulatory enzyme is an enzyme in a biochemical pathway which, through its responses to the presence of certain other biomolecules, regulates the pathway activity.
Rejuvenation is a medical discipline focused on the practical reversal of the aging process.
Relaxin is a protein hormone of about 6000 Da first described in 1926 by Frederick Hisaw.
Releasing hormones and inhibiting hormones are hormones whose main purpose is to control the release of other hormones, either by stimulating or inhibiting their release.
Renal physiology (Latin rēnēs, "kidneys") is the study of the physiology of the kidney.
Renalase, FAD-dependent amine oxidase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the RNLS gene.
A renewable resource is a natural resource which replenishes to overcome resource depletion caused by usage and consumption, either through biological reproduction or other naturally recurring processes in a finite amount of time in a human time scale.
Repressed memories are memories that have been unconsciously blocked due to the memory being associated with a high level of stress or trauma.
Reproductive biology includes both sexual and asexual reproduction.
Reproductive endocrinology and infertility (REI) is a surgical subspecialty of obstetrics and gynecology that trains physicians in reproductive medicine addressing hormonal functioning as it pertains to reproduction as well as the issue of infertility.
The reproductive system or genital system is a system of sex organs within an organism which work together for the purpose of sexual reproduction.
Resolvins are metabolic byproducts of omega-3 fatty acids, primarily eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), as well as docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and clupanodonic acid.
Reuse of excreta (or re-use or use of excreta) refers to the safe, beneficial use of animal or human excreta, i.e. feces (or faeces in British English) and urine.
The reward theory of attraction states that people like those whose behavior is rewarding to them or whom they associate with rewarding events.
Rhinitis, also known as coryza, is irritation and inflammation of the mucous membrane inside the nose.
Rhodnius prolixus is the principal triatomine vector of the Chagas parasite due to both its sylvatic and domestic populations in northern South America as well as to its exclusively domestic populations in Central America.
Richard Kogan is Clinical Professor of Psychiatry at Weill Cornell Medical Center, in New York City; Co-Director of the Medical Center's Human Sexuality Program; and Artistic Director of the Weill Cornell Music and Medicine Program.
Richard A. Lerner (born August 26, 1938) is an American research chemist.
Richard ("Dick") Wurtman is a medical doctor who who spent his career doing basic and translational neuroscience research at Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Rick Strassman (born February 8, 1952 in Los Angeles, California) is a medical doctor specialized in psychiatry with a fellowship in clinical psychopharmacology research and holds degrees from Stanford University and Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University.
Given the variety of diseases prevalent in swine production, both in the United States and abroad, it is important to understand the risks associated with organic swine production.
Romiplostim (rINN, USAN) is a fusion protein analog of thrombopoietin, a hormone that regulates platelet production.
A rooster, also known as a gamecock, a cockerel or cock, is a male gallinaceous bird, usually a male chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus).
Rosalyn Sussman Yalow (July 19, 1921 – May 30, 2011) was an American medical physicist, and a co-winner of the 1977 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (together with Roger Guillemin and Andrew Schally) for development of the radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique.
Rudolph Leibel, MD, (born 1942) is the Christopher J. Murphy Professor of Diabetes Research, Professor of Pediatrics and Medicine at Columbia University Medical Center, and Director of the Division of Molecular Genetics in the Department of Pediatrics.
Russell Watson (born 24 November 1966) is an English tenor who has released singles and albums of both operatic-style and pop songs.
RVD-Hpα is an endogenous neuropeptide found in human and mammalian brain, which was originally proposed to act as a selective agonist for the CB1 cannabinoid receptor.
Salcatonin is the type of calcitonin hormone found in salmon.
Saliva hormone testing is an effort to determine the amount of hormones found in saliva.
Samael Aun Weor (סםאל און ואור) (March 6, 1917 – December 24, 1977), born Víctor Manuel Gómez Rodríguez, was a spiritual teacher and author of over sixty books of esoteric spirituality.
The School of Chemistry is one of the 27 academic institutions that are part of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM).
Seasonal breeders are animal species that successfully mate only during certain times of the year.
Research on seasonal effects on suicide rates suggests that the prevalence of suicide is greatest during the late spring and early summer months, despite the common belief that suicide rates peak during the cold and dark months of the winter season.
Second messengers are intracellular signaling molecules released by the cell in response to exposure to extracellular signaling molecules—the first messengers.
Secondary hypertension (or, less commonly, inessential hypertension) is a type of hypertension which by definition is caused by an identifiable underlying primary cause.
Secondary sex characteristics are features that appear during puberty in humans, and at sexual maturity in other animals.
Secretin is a hormone that regulates water homeostasis throughout the body and influences the environment of the duodenum by regulating secretions in the stomach, pancreas, and liver.
A secretory protein is any protein, whether it be endocrine or exocrine, which is secreted by a cell.
Segesterone acetate (SGA), sold under the brand names Nestorone and Elcometrine, is a progestin medication which is used in birth control and in the treatment of endometriosis in Brazil and other South American countries.
The self-control theory of crime, often referred to as the general theory of crime, is a criminological theory about the lack of individual self-control as the main factor behind criminal behavior.
Self-experimentation refers to scientific experimentation in which the experimenter conducts the experiment on her- or himself.
Selmar Aschheim (4 October 1878 – 15 February 1965) was a German gynecologist who was a native resident of Berlin.
A sense is a physiological capacity of organisms that provides data for perception.
In the broadest definition, a sensor is a device, module, or subsystem whose purpose is to detect events or changes in its environment and send the information to other electronics, frequently a computer processor.
A serenic, or antiaggressive agent, is a type of drug which reduces the capacity for irritability and aggression.
Serine dehydratase or L-serine ammonia lyase (SDH) is in the β-family of pyridoxal phosphate-dependent (PLP) enzymes.
A serotonin receptor agonist is an agonist of one or more serotonin receptors.
A serotonin–norepinephrine–dopamine reuptake inhibitor (SNDRI), also known as a triple reuptake inhibitor (TRI), is a type of drug that acts as a combined reuptake inhibitor of the monoamine neurotransmitters serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine.
In physiology, the term serous fluid or serosal fluid (originating from the Medieval Latin word serosus, from Latin serum) is any of various body fluids resembling serum, that are typically pale yellow and transparent and of a benign nature.
A Sertoli cell (a kind of sustentacular cell) is a "nurse" cell of the testicles that is part of a seminiferous tubule and helps in the process of spermatogenesis, the production of sperm.
In blood, the serum is the component that is neither a blood cell (serum does not contain white or red blood cells) nor a clotting factor; it is the blood plasma not including the fibrinogens.
Serum sickness in humans is a reaction to proteins in antiserum derived from a non-human animal source, occurring 5–10 days after exposure.
Sewage sludge refers to the residual, semi-solid material that is produced as a by-product during sewage treatment of industrial or municipal wastewater.
Sewage treatment is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater, primarily from household sewage.
Sex assignment (sometimes known as gender assignment) is the determination of an infant's sex at birth.
Sex change is a process by which a person or animal changes sex – that is, by which female sexual characteristics are substituted for male ones, or vice versa.
Sex differences in human physiology are distinctions of physiological characteristics associated with either male or female humans.
Sex is influenced by water pollutants that are encountered in everyday life.
Sex therapy is a strategy for the improvement of sexual function and treatment of sexual dysfunction.
A sex-hormonal agent, also known as a sex-hormone receptor modulator, is a type of hormonal agent which specifically modulates the effects of sex hormones and of their biological targets, the sex hormone receptors.
Sex-limited genes are genes that are present in both sexes of sexually reproducing species but are expressed in only one sex and remain 'turned off' in the other.
Sexual arousal (also sexual excitement) is the arousal of sexual desire, during or in anticipation of sexual activity.
Sexual arousal disorder is characterized by a lack or absence of sexual fantasies and desire for sexual activity in a situation that would normally produce sexual arousal, or the inability to attain or maintain typical responses to sexual arousal.
Sexual desire is a motivational state and an interest in “sexual objects or activities, or as a wish, or drive to seek out sexual objects or to engage in sexual activities”.
Sexual differentiation is the process of development of the differences between males and females from an undifferentiated zygote.
Sexual differentiation in humans is the process of development of sex differences in humans.
Sexual dimorphism is the condition where the two sexes of the same species exhibit different characteristics beyond the differences in their sexual organs.
Sexual dysfunction (or sexual malfunction or sexual disorder) is difficulty experienced by an individual or a couple during any stage of a normal sexual activity, including physical pleasure, desire, preference, arousal or orgasm.
Sexual fluidity is one or more changes in sexuality or sexual identity (sometimes known as sexual orientation identity).
Sexual intercourse (or coitus or copulation) is principally the insertion and thrusting of the penis, usually when erect, into the vagina for sexual pleasure, reproduction, or both.
Sexual motivation is influenced by hormones such as testosterone, estrogen, progesterone, oxytocin, and vasopressin.
Sexual objectification is the act of treating a person as a mere object of sexual desire.
Sexual orientation is an enduring pattern of romantic or sexual attraction (or a combination of these) to persons of the opposite sex or gender, the same sex or gender, or to both sexes or more than one gender.
Sexual orientation change efforts (SOCE) are methods used in attempts to change the sexual orientation of homosexual and bisexual people to heterosexuality.
A ship is a large watercraft that travels the world's oceans and other sufficiently deep waterways, carrying passengers or goods, or in support of specialized missions, such as defense, research and fishing.
The sigma-2 receptor (σ2R) is a sigma receptor subtype that has been found highly expressed in malignant cancer cells, and is currently under investigation for its potential diagnostic and therapeutic uses.
Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response.
The silver fox is a melanistic form of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes).
Sjögren syndrome (SjS, SS) is a long-term autoimmune disease in which the moisture-producing glands of the body are affected.
SK3 (small conductance calcium-activated potassium channel 3) also known as KCa2.3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KCNN3 gene.
Sleep is a naturally recurring state of mind and body, characterized by altered consciousness, relatively inhibited sensory activity, inhibition of nearly all voluntary muscles, and reduced interactions with surroundings.
Sleep is important in regulating metabolism.
Baseline levels of insulin do not signal muscle and fat cells to absorb glucose.
The sleep cycle is an oscillation between the slow-wave and REM (paradoxical) phases of sleep, sometimes called the ultradian sleep cycle, sleep–dream cycle, or REM-NREM cycle, to distinguish it from the circadian alternation between sleep and wakefulness.
Sleep deprivation is the condition of not having enough sleep; it can be either chronic or acute.
In oncology a small intestine neuroendocrine tumor is a carcinoid in the distal small intestine or the proximal large intestine.
Small-cell carcinoma (also known as "small-cell lung cancer", or "oat-cell carcinoma") is a type of highly malignant cancer that most commonly arises within the lung, although it can occasionally arise in other body sites, such as the cervix, prostate, and gastrointestinal tract.
Small integral membrane protein (SMIM) 20 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SMIM20 gene.
Snf3 is a protein which regulates glucose uptake in yeast.
The social construction of gender is a belief in feminism and sociology about the operation of gender and gender differences in societies.
Social defeat refers to losing a confrontation among conspecific animals, or any kind of hostile dispute among humans, in either a dyadic or in a group-individual context, potentially generating very significant practical and psychological consequences in terms of control over resources, access to mates and social positions.
Monogamous pairing refers to a general relationship between an adult male and an adult female for the purpose of sexual reproduction.
Social neuroscience is an interdisciplinary field devoted to understanding how biological systems implement social processes and behavior, and to using biological concepts and methods to inform and refine theories of social processes and behavior.
The Society for Behavioral Neuroendocrinology is an interdisciplinary scientific organization dedicated to the study of hormonal processes and neuroendocrine systems that regulate behavior.
Sociobiology is a field of biology that aims to examine and explain social behavior in terms of evolution.
Sociogenomics, also known as social genomics, is the field of research that examines why and how different social factors and processes (e.g., social stress, conflict, isolation, attachment, etc.) affect the activity of the genome.
The sociology of human consciousness uses the theories and methodology of sociology to explain human consciousness.
Sociophysiology is the "interplay between society and physical functioning" (Freund 1988: 856) involving "collaboration of two neighboring sciences: physiology and sociology" (Mauss 1936: 373).
Soil microbiology is the study of organisms in soil, their functions, and how they affect soil properties.
Solanidine is a poisonous steroidal alkaloid chemical compound that occurs in plants of the Solanaceae family, such as potato and Solanum americanum.
Somatic fusion, also called protoplast fusion, is a type of genetic modification in plants by which two distinct species of plants are fused together to form a new hybrid plant with the characteristics of both, a somatic hybrid.
The sopite syndrome (Latin: sopire, "to lay to rest, to put to sleep") is a neurological disorder that relates symptoms of fatigue, drowsiness, and mood changes to prolonged periods of motion.
Spawn is the eggs and sperm released or deposited into water by aquatic animals.
A specialty, or speciality, in medicine is a branch of medical practice.
The ethological concept of species-typical behavior is based on the premise that certain behavioral similarities are shared by almost all members of a species.
Spermatocytes are a type of male gametocyte in animals.
Spermatogenesis is the process by which haploid spermatozoa develop from germ cells in the seminiferous tubules of the testis.
Spilopsyllus cuniculi, the rabbit flea, is a species of flea in the family Pulicidae.
Spironolactone, sold under the brand name Aldactone among others, is a medication that is primarily used to treat fluid build-up due to heart failure, liver scarring, or kidney disease.
A spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) (occasionally coronary artery dissection) is a rare, sometimes fatal traumatic condition, with eighty percent of cases affecting women.
The term stable isotope has a meaning similar to stable nuclide, but is preferably used when speaking of nuclides of a specific element.
A stallion is a male horse that has not been gelded (castrated).
Statins, also known as HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, are a class of lipid-lowering medications.
Sir Stephen Robert Bloom FRS is a Professor of Medicine at Imperial College London where he leads the Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism division.
Steroid diabetes (also "steroid-induced diabetes") is a medical term referring to prolonged hyperglycemia due to glucocorticoid therapy for another medical condition.
A steroid hormone is a steroid that acts as a hormone.
Stigmasterol (also known as Wulzen anti-stiffness factor) is a plant sterol, or phytosterol.
In physiology, a stimulus (plural stimuli) is a detectable change in the internal or external environment.
The stomach (from ancient Greek στόμαχος, stomachos, stoma means mouth) is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates.
Streptozotocin or streptozocin (INN, USP) (STZ) is a naturally occurring alkylating antineoplastic agent that is particularly toxic to the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas in mammals.
Strigolactones are a group of chemical compounds produced by plant's roots.
Nature abounds with structures built by animals other than humans, or animal architecture, as it is commonly termed, such as termite mounds, wasp and beehives, burrow complexes of rodents, beaver dams, elaborate nests of birds, and webs of spiders.
The subfornical organ (SFO), situated on the ventral surface of the fornix (the reasoning behind the organ's name), at the interventricular foramina (foramina of Monro), is one of the circumventricular organs of the brain, meaning that it is highly vascularized and does not have a blood-brain barrier, unlike the vast majority of regions in the brain.
The subgranular zone (SGZ) is a brain region in the hippocampus where adult neurogenesis occurs.
Substituted phenethylamines (or simply phenethylamines) are a chemical class of organic compounds that are based upon the phenethylamine structure; the class is composed of all the derivative compounds of phenethylamine which can be formed by replacing, or substituting, one or more hydrogen atoms in the phenethylamine core structure with substituents.
Substituted tryptamines, or serotonin analogues, are organic compounds which may be thought of as being derived from tryptamine itself.
Sulfur is an essential element for growth and physiological functioning of plants.
Sulfotransferase 1A1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the SULT1A1 gene.
Sulfotransferase family cytosolic 2B member 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the SULT2B1 gene.
Sunglasses or sun glasses (informally called shades) are a form of protective eyewear designed primarily to prevent bright sunlight and high-energy visible light from damaging or discomforting the eyes.
The supraoptic nucleus (SON) is a nucleus of magnocellular neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus of the mammalian brain.
Surfactant protein A1 (SP-A1), also known as Pulmonary surfactant-associated protein A1 (PSP-A) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SFTPA1 gene.
Surfactant protein A2 (SP-A2), also known as Pulmonary surfactant-associated protein A2 (PSP-A2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SFTPA2 gene.
Sustainable living is a lifestyle that attempts to reduce an individual's or society's use of the Earth's natural resources and personal resources.
Sylvia Agnes Sophia Tait (8 January 1917 – 28 February 2003) (née Wardropper, known as Sylvia Simpson from 1941 to 1956) was an English biochemist and endocrinologist.
The sympathoadrenal system is a physiological connection between the sympathetic nervous system and the adrenal medulla and is crucial in an organism’s physiological response to outside stimuli.
Sympathomimetic drugs (also known as adrenergic drugs and adrenergic amines) are stimulant compounds which mimic the effects of endogenous agonists of the sympathetic nervous system.
Synaptic pruning, which includes both axon and dendrite pruning, is the process of synapse elimination that occurs between early childhood and the onset of puberty in many mammals, including humans.
T-47D is a human breast cancer cell line commonly used in biomedical research involving the hormonal expression of cancer cells.
Teresa S. Wiley is the author of Lights Out: Sleep, Sugar and Survival, and Sex, Lies and Menopause.
Trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) is a trace amine-associated receptor (TAAR) protein that in humans is encoded by the TAAR1 gene.
Preprotachykinin-1, (abbreviated PPT-1, PPT-I, or PPT-A), is a precursor protein that in humans is encoded by the TAC1 gene.
Tachycardia, also called tachyarrhythmia, is a heart rate that exceeds the normal resting rate.
In molecular biology, this protein domain, TACI-CRD2 represents the second cysteine-rich protein domain found in the TACI family of proteins.
was a Japanese chemist.
Takeover Target (27 September 1999 – 20 June 2015) was a much-travelled Australian Thoroughbred racehorse who won top sprinting races in each of the five major cities in Australia as well as in the United Kingdom, Japan, and Singapore. He was owned and trained by Joe Janiak, a former Queanbeyan, New South Wales, taxi driver, and was ridden by Sydney-based jockey Jay Ford in all but two race starts. He was purchased for A$1,250 plus $125 GST in July 2003 and earned $6,028,311 in prize money.
In the context of sports, tapering refers to the practice of reducing exercise in the days just before an important competition.
Teething is the process by which an infant's first teeth (the deciduous teeth, often called "baby teeth" or "milk teeth") sequentially appear by emerging through the gums, typically arriving in pairs.
A test panel is a predetermined group of medical tests as an aid in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.
Testicular cancer is cancer that develops in the testicles, a part of the male reproductive system.
3α,5α-Tetrahydrocorticosterone (3α,5α-THB), or simply tetrahydrocorticosterone (THB or THCC), is an endogenous glucocorticoid hormone.
Teva Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (TAPI) is an international pharmaceutical company headquartered in Israel.
The transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) signaling pathway is involved in many cellular processes in both the adult organism and the developing embryo including cell growth, cell differentiation, apoptosis, cellular homeostasis and other cellular functions.
The Beginning Was the End is a 1971 pseudo-scientific book written by Oscar Kiss Maerth that claims that humankind evolved from cannibalistic apes.
The Evolution of Human Sexuality is a 1979 book about human sexuality by the anthropologist Donald Symons, in which the author discusses topics such as human sexual anatomy, ovulation, orgasm, homosexuality, sexual promiscuity, and rape, attempting to show how evolutionary concepts can be applied to humans.
The Female Brain is a 2006 book by the American neuropsychiatrist Louann Brizendine.
The Great Pheromone Myth is a book on pheromones and their application to chemosensation in mammals by Richard Doty, director of the University of Pennsylvania's Smell and Taste Center in Philadelphia.
The Homosexual Matrix is a book by American psychologist Clarence Arthur Tripp, in which the author discusses the biological and sociological implications of homosexuality, and also attempts to explain heterosexuality and bisexuality.
The Inner Circle is a novel by T. C. Boyle first published in 2004 about the development of sexology in the United States and about Alfred Kinsey's rise to fame during the late 1940s and early 1950s as seen through the eyes of one of his loyal assistants.
The Invisible Man (also shortened to "The I-Man" in Season 2) is a Sci-Fi American television series starring Vincent Ventresca, Paul Ben-Victor, Eddie Jones, Shannon Kenny and Michael McCafferty.
The Ottawa Hospital (L'Hôpital d'Ottawa) is a non-profit, public university teaching hospital in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
The Relic is a 1997 science fiction-horror film directed by Peter Hyams and based on the best-selling novel Relic by Douglas Preston and Lincoln Child.
"The Secret Sense" is a science fiction short story by American writer Isaac Asimov.
Theobromine, formerly known as xantheose, is a bitter alkaloid of the cacao plant, with the chemical formula C7H8N4O2.
Therapy (often abbreviated tx, Tx, or Tx) is the attempted remediation of a health problem, usually following a diagnosis.
Thirst is the craving for fluids, resulting in the basic instinct of animals to drink.
Ling Yuan "Thomas" Dao (April 27, 1921 – July 16, 2009) was a Chinese American physician and specialist in breast cancer, its causes and treatment, who was one of the earliest proponents of minimalist alternatives to radical mastectomy as a treatment option for breast cancer, in addition to advocacy of breast self-examination and mammography as means to detect breast cancer as early as possible.
Clara Thompson was an important figure in the revisionist “cultural school” of psychoanalysis in the 1940s and 1950s, though today she is less well remembered than her culturalist colleagues Karen Horney, Harry Stack Sullivan and Erich Fromm.
Thrombopoietin (THPO) also known as megakaryocyte growth and development factor (MGDF) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the THPO gene.
Thymosins are small proteins present in many animal tissues.
The thyroid gland, or simply the thyroid, is an endocrine gland in the neck, consisting of two lobes connected by an isthmus.
Thyroid hormones are two hormones produced and released by the thyroid gland, namely triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4).
Thyroid neoplasm is a neoplasm or tumor of the thyroid.
A thyroidectomy is an operation that involves the surgical removal of all or part of the thyroid gland.
Thyrotropes (also called thyrotrophs) are endocrine cells in the anterior pituitary which produce thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in response to thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH).
TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 1, also known as TIMP1, a tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases, is a glycoprotein that is expressed from the several tissues of organisms.
Tinbergen's four questions, named after Nikolaas Tinbergen and based on Aristotle's four causes, are complementary categories of explanations for behaviour.
Tissue engineering is the use of a combination of cells, engineering and materials methods, and suitable biochemical and physicochemical factors to improve or replace biological tissues.
Sir Thomas Leon "Tom" Blundell, (born 7 July 1942) is a British biochemist, structural biologist, and science administrator.
Topical progesterone, also known as transdermal or percutaneous progesterone, is a formulation and route of administration of progesterone in which the hormone is supplied in the form of a cream or gel that is applied to the skin.
A total internal reflection fluorescence microscope (TIRFM) is a type of microscope with which a thin region of a specimen, usually less than 200 nanometers can be observed.
In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence.
A person may be considered to be a transgender person if their gender identity is inconsistent or not culturally associated with the sex they were assigned at birth, and consequently also with the gender role and social status that is typically associated with that sex.
Before the Islamic Revolution in 1979, the issue of trans identity in Iran had never been officially addressed by the government.
Triiodothyronine, also known as T3, is a thyroid hormone.
Trimegestone, sold under the brand names Ondeva and Totelle among others, is a progestin medication which is used in menopausal hormone therapy and in the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis.
Tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl)phosphate (TDCPP) is a chlorinated organophosphate. Organophosphate chemicals have a wide variety of applications and are used as flame retardants, pesticides, plasticizers, and nerve gases. TDCPP is structurally similar to several other organophosphate flame retardants, such as tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) and tris(chloropropyl)phosphate (TCPP). TDCPP and these other chlorinated organophosphate flame retardants are all sometimes referred to as "chlorinated tris".
Tropic hormones are hormones that have other endocrine glands as their target.
A tropism (from Greek τρόπος, tropos, "a turning") is a biological phenomenon, indicating growth or turning movement of a biological organism, usually a plant, in response to an environmental stimulus.
Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TRPV2 gene.
Tryptophan (symbol Trp or W) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
The tuber cinereum is a hollow eminence of the middle–ventral hypothalamus, specifically the arcuate nucleus, situated between the mammillary bodies and the optic chiasm.
Tyrannosaurus is a genus of coelurosaurian theropod dinosaur.
Tyrosine hydroxylase or tyrosine 3-monooxygenase is the enzyme responsible for catalyzing the conversion of the amino acid L-tyrosine to L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA).
The U.S. Farmers and Ranchers Alliance is an alliance of agriculture related advocacy groups and organizations that promote industrial agriculture in the United States.
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1 also known as UGT-1A is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the UGT1A1 gene.
Ueli Schibler (born June 16, 1947) is a Swiss biologist, chronobiologist and a professor at the University of Geneva.
UDP glucuronosyltransferase 1 family, polypeptide A7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the UGT1A7 gene.
An ulcer is a sore on the skin or a mucous membrane, accompanied by the disintegration of tissue.
In chronobiology, an ultradian rhythm is a recurrent period or cycle repeated throughout a 24-hour day.
Ultrasound avoidance is an escape or avoidance reflex displayed by certain animal species that are preyed upon by echolocating predators.
Undercover Mosque is a documentary programme produced by the independent television company Hardcash Productions for the Channel 4 series Dispatches that was first broadcast on 15 January 2007 in the UK.
Underwater camouflage is the set of methods of achieving crypsis—avoidance of observation—that allows otherwise visible aquatic organisms to remain unnoticed by other organisms such as predators or prey.
The United States raw milk debate concerns issues of food safety and claimed health benefits of raw (un-pasteurized, un-homogenized) milk, and whether authorities responsible for regulating food safety should prohibit sale of raw milk for consumption.
University College London (UCL) is a public research university in London, England, and a constituent college of the federal University of London.
The urinary system, also known as the renal system or urinary tract, consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and the urethra.
A urine-diverting dry toilet (UDDT) is a type of dry toilet with urine diversion that can be used to provide safe, affordable sanitation in a variety of contexts worldwide.
Urodilatin is a hormone that causes natriuresis through increasing renal blood flow.
Uterine fibroids, also known as uterine leiomyomas or fibroids, are benign smooth muscle tumors of the uterus.
The uterine microbiome is the commensal, nonpathogenic, bacteria, viruses, yeasts/fungi present in a healthy uterus, amniotic fluid and endometrium and the specific environment which they inhabit.
Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, colloquially known as P&S and formerly Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, is a graduate school of Columbia University that is located in the Columbia University Irving Medical Center in the Washington Heights neighborhood of Manhattan.
Vaginal anomalies are abnormal structures that are formed (or not formed) during the prenatal development of the female reproductive system and are rare congenital defects that result in an abnormal or absent vagina.
Vaginal bleeding is any bleeding through the vagina, including bleeding from the vaginal wall itself, as well as (and more commonly) bleeding from another location of the female reproductive system, often the uterus.
The vaginal epithelium is the aglandular inner lining of the vagina consisting of multiple layers of (squamous) cells.
The Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC) is a medical provider with multiple hospitals in Nashville, Tennessee, as well as clinics and facilities throughout Middle Tennessee.
Vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) is a chemical intermediate in the synthesis of artificial vanilla flavorings and is an end-stage metabolite of the catecholamines, epinephrine, and norepinephrine.
Variegate porphyria, also known by several other names, is an autosomal dominant porphyria that can have acute (severe but usually not long-lasting) symptoms along with symptoms that affect the skin.
Vascular resistance is the resistance that must be overcome to push blood through the circulatory system and create flow.
Vasoconstriction is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, in particular the large arteries and small arterioles.
Vasodilation is the widening of blood vessels.
Vasopressin, also named antidiuretic hormone (ADH), arginine vasopressin (AVP) or argipressin, is a hormone synthesized as a peptide prohormone in neurons in the hypothalamus, and is converted to AVP.
VeganBurg is a vegan fast casual chain of restaurants, which currently has one outlet in Singapore and one outlet in San Francisco, United States.
Veganism is the practice of abstaining from the use of animal products, particularly in diet, and an associated philosophy that rejects the commodity status of animals.
Vegetative reproduction (also known as vegetative propagation, vegetative multiplication or vegetative cloning) is any form of asexual reproduction occurring in plants in which a new plant grows from a fragment of the parent plant or grows from a specialized reproductive structure.
Venom in medicine is the medicinal use of venoms for therapeutic benefit in treating diseases.
Very Short Introductions (VSI) are a book series published by the Oxford University Press (OUP).
In cell biology, a vesicle is a small structure within a cell, or extracellular, consisting of fluid enclosed by a lipid bilayer.
A Rhodesian Ridgeback (sex unknown) with "stud tail": the violet gland lost hair and appears as a dark dimple The violet gland or supracaudal gland is an important gland located on the upper surface of the tail of certain mammals, including European badgers and canids such as foxes, wolves, and the domestic dog, as well as the domestic cat.
Vitamin A is a group of unsaturated nutritional organic compounds that includes retinol, retinal, retinoic acid, and several provitamin A carotenoids (most notably beta-carotene).
Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects.
Vitellogenesis (also known as yolk deposition) is the process of yolk formation via nutrients being deposited in the oocyte, or female germ cell involved in reproduction of lecithotrophic organisms.
Vitellogenin (VTG or less popularly known as VG) (from Latin vitellus, yolk, and gener, to produce) is a precursor protein of egg yolk normally in the blood or hemolymph only of females that is used as a biomarker in vertebrates of exposure to environmental estrogens which stimulate elevated levels in males as well as females.
The vocal folds, also known commonly as vocal cords or voice reeds, are composed of twin infoldings of mucous membrane stretched horizontally, from back to front, across the larynx.
Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs), also known as voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs), are a group of voltage-gated ion channels found in the membrane of excitable cells (e.g., muscle, glial cells, neurons, etc.) with a permeability to the calcium ion Ca2+.
Vritti, literally "whirlpool", is a technical term in yoga meant to indicate that the contents of mental awareness are disturbances in the medium of consciousness.
Vulcans (also Vulcanians) are a fictional extraterrestrial humanoid species in the Star Trek franchise who originate from the planet Vulcan.
Water quality refers to the chemical, physical, biological, and radiological characteristics of water.
The term water retention (also known as fluid retention) or hydrops, hydropsy, edema, signifies an abnormal accumulation of clear, watery fluid in the tissues or cavities of the body.
Weed control is the botanical component of pest control, which attempts to stop weeds, especially noxious or injurious weeds, from competing with desired flora and fauna, this includes domesticated plants and livestock, and in natural settings, it includes stopping non local species competing with native, local, species, especially so in reserves and heritage areas.
Well-being is a much-studied topic in psychology, especially positive psychology.
Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization,is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.
Whale feces, the excrement of whales, has a significant role in the ecology of the oceans, and whales have been referred to as "marine ecosystem engineers".
Whipple's triad is a collection of three criteria (called Whipple's criteria) that suggest a patient's symptoms result from hypoglycemia that may indicate insulinoma.
Sir William Maddock Bayliss (2 May 1860 – 27 August 1924) was an English physiologist.
The witch-hazel cone gall aphid (Hormaphis hamamelidis) is a minuscule insect, a member of the aphid superfamily, whose presence on a witch-hazel plant is easily recognizable by a red conical gall structure.
A woman is an adult female human being.
Women's health refers to the health of women, which differs from that of men in many unique ways.
Xenohormones are a group of either naturally occurring or artificially created compounds showing hormone-like properties.
Yeeda Station is a pastoral lease that operates as a cattle station in the Kimberley region of Western Australia.
Yellow is the color between orange and green on the spectrum of visible light.
The Yerkes National Primate Research Center in Atlanta, Georgia, is one of seven national primate research centers funded by the National Institutes of Health.
In molecular biology, the protein domain, YTH refers to a member of the YTH family that has been shown to selectively remove transcripts of meiosis-specific genes expressed in mitotic cells.
Zatypota percontatoria is a species of parasitoid wasps that is part of the order Hymenoptera and the family Ichneumonidae responsible for parasitizing arachnids, specifically those of the Theridiidae family.
1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) is a disubstituted cyclic α-amino acid in which a three-membered cyclopropane ring is fused to the Cα atom of the amino acid.
1-Testosterone (abbreviated and nicknamed as 1-Testo, 1-T), also known as δ1-dihydrotestosterone (δ1-DHT), as well as dihydroboldenone, is a synthetic anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) and derivative of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) which was never marketed.
11-Ketoprogesterone (brand name Ketogestin; former developmental code names Bio 66, U-1258), or 11-oxoprogesterone, also known as pregn-4-ene-3,11,20-trione, is a pregnane steroid related to cortisone (11-keto-17α,21-dihydroxyprogesterone) that was formerly used in veterinary medicine in the treatment of bovine ketosis.
12-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) is a derivative of the 20 carbon polyunsaturated fatty acid, arachidonic acid, containing a Hydroxyl residue at carbon 12 and a 5Z,8Z,10E,14Z Cis–trans isomerism configuration (Z.
15-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (also termed 15-HETE, 15(S)-HETE, and 15S-HETE) is an eicosanoid, i.e. a metabolite of arachidonic acid.
17α-Hydroxypregnenolone is a pregnane (C21) steroid that is obtained by hydroxylation of pregnenolone at the C17α position.
The year 1889 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below.
The year 1921 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below.
20-Hydroxyecdysone (ecdysterone or 20E) is a naturally occurring ecdysteroid hormone which controls the ecdysis (moulting) and metamorphosis of arthropods.
In 2010 there was no obvious, primary athletics championship, as neither the Summer Olympics nor the World Championships in Athletics occurred in the year.
The year 2012 involved many significant scientific events and discoveries, including the first orbital rendezvous by a commercial spacecraft, the discovery of a particle highly similar to the long-sought Higgs boson, and the near-eradication of guinea worm disease.
The 2013 Critérium du Dauphiné was the sixty-fifth running of the Critérium du Dauphiné cycling stage race; a race, organised by the Amaury Sport Organisation, rated as a World Tour event on the UCI calendar, the highest classification such an event can have.
Stage 12 of the 2013 Giro d'Italia was contested on 16 May, and the race concluded on 26 May.
24,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol, also known as 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and (24R)-hydroxycalcidiol (abbreviated as 24(R),25-(OH)2D3), is a compound which is closely related to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, the active form of vitamin D3, but like vitamin D3 itself and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 is inactive as a hormone both in vitro and in vivo.
3β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-4 isomerase (3β-HSD) is an enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of progesterone from pregnenolone, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone from 17α-hydroxypregnenolone, and androstenedione from dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in the adrenal gland.
4-Androstene-3,6,17-trione (4-AT; also marketed as 6-OXO or 4-etioallocholen-3,6,17-trione) is a drug or nutritional supplement that may increase the testosterone-estrogen ratio, but has no proven effect on body composition.
5-Androstenedione is a prohormone of testosterone.
The serotonin 1A receptor (or 5-HT1A receptor) is a subtype of serotonin receptor (5-HT receptor) that binds the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT).
5-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE, 5(S)-HETE, or 5S-HETE) is an eicosanoid, i.e. a metabolite of arachidonic acid.
7-Ketodehydroepiandrosterone (7-keto-DHEA), also known as 7-oxoprasterone, is a steroid produced by metabolism of the prohormone dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).
1,4-Androstadienedione, Apohormone, Hormonal, Hormonal agent, Hormonal drug, Hormonal medication, Hormone molecule, Hormone precursor, Hormone signalling, Hormones, Horomone, Intestinal hormones, Life hormones, Pro-hormone, Prohormone, Prohormones, Reproductive hormone, Synthetic hormones, Δ1-Androstenediol, Δ1-androstenediol.