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Wartislaw X, Duke of Pomerania, Wedding of Guillaume, Hereditary Grand Duke of Luxembourg, and Countess Stéphanie de Lannoy, Wegeleben, Weimar Republic, Werder (Havel), Wesel, West Prussia, When William Came, White, White Main, White Main Spring, Wiesbaden City Palace, Wilhelm II, German Emperor, Wilhelm Karl, Duke of Urach, Wilhelm Stieber, Wilhelm Ternite, Wilhelm von Brandenburg, Wilhelm von Grumbach, Wilhelm, German Crown Prince, Wilhelm-Orden, Wilhelmina of Prussia, Princess of Orange, Wilhelmine of Prussia, Margravine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, Wilhelmine of Prussia, Queen of the Netherlands, Wilhelmstrasse, Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands, William Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach, William I, German Emperor, William the Victorious, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, William, Prince of Hohenzollern, Wolfgang Straßmann, World War I, Wunsiedel, Wurmberg, Yantarny, Kaliningrad Oblast, Zizi Lambrino, Zollernalbkreis, Zollverein, 1870 in Germany, 1913, 1923 Constitution of 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The Abbots' Palace in Oliwa (Pałac Opatów w Oliwie) is a rococo palace in Oliwa, a quarter of Gdańsk (Danzig).
Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicated as German Emperor and King of Prussia in November 1918.
Abraham Jacobi (6 May 1830 – 10 July 1919) was a German physician and pioneer of pediatrics, opening the first children's clinic in the United States.
Absolute monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.
The Academy of Arts (Akademie der Künste) is a state arts institution in Berlin, Germany.
Adolf Hitler's rise to power began in Germany in September 1919 when Hitler joined the political party known as the Deutsche Arbeiterpartei – DAP (German Workers' Party).
Adolf Pfister (born at Hechingen in Hohenzollern, 26 September 1810; died at Ober-Dischingen in Württemberg, 29 April 1878) was a German Roman Catholic priest and educator.
Agnes of Brandenburg (born 17 July 1584 in Berlin; died: 26 March 1629 in Amt Neuhaus) was a Princess of Brandenburg by birth and by marriage successively Duchess of Pomerania and of Saxe-Lauenburg.
Albert II (Albrecht; 28 March 15228 January 1557) was the Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach (Brandenburg-Bayreuth) from 1527 to 1553.
Albert Frederick (Albrecht Friedrich, Albrecht Fryderyk; 7 May 1553, in Königsberg – 28 August 1618, in Fischhausen, Rybaki) was Duke of Prussia from 1568 until his death.
Albert I (8 April 1875 – 17 February 1934) reigned as the third King of the Belgians from 1909 to 1934.
Albert II (12 December 1298 – 16 August 1358), known as the Wise or the Lame, a member of the House of Habsburg, was Duke of Austria and Styria from 1330, as well as Duke of Carinthia from 1335 until his death.
Albert II or V of Brandenburg-Ansbach (18 September 1620 – 22 October 1667) was a German prince, who was Margrave of Ansbach from 1634 until his death.
Albert III of Austria (9 September 1349 – 29 August 1395), known as Albert with the Braid (Pigtail) (Albrecht mit dem Zopf), a member of the House of Habsburg, was Duke of Austria from 1365 until his death.
Albert III (Albrecht III.; – before 12 November 1422) was the last Duke of Saxe-Wittenberg and Elector of Saxony from the House of Ascania.
Cardinal Albert of Brandenburg (Albrecht von Brandenburg; 28 June 149024 September 1545) was Elector and Archbishop of Mainz from 1514 to 1545, and Archbishop of Magdeburg from 1513 to 1545.
Albert Wolfgang of Brandenburg-Bayreuth (8 December 1689 in Sulzbürg, now part of Mühlhausen – 29 June 1734 in Parma) was a Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth from the Kulmbach-Bayreuth side line of Franconian branch of the House of Hohenzollern.
Albert of Prussia (Albrecht von Preussen, 17 May 149020 March 1568) was the 37th Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, who after converting to Lutheranism, became the first ruler of the Duchy of Prussia, the secularized state that emerged from the former Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights.
Albrecht II (or Albert II) of Hohenberg-Rotenburg (c. 1235 – 17 April 1298) was Count of Hohenberg and Haigerloch and imperial governor of Lower Swabia.
Albert III (Albrecht III.) (9 November 141411 March 1486) was Elector of Brandenburg from 1471 until his death, the third from the House of Hohenzollern.
Albrecht von Eyb (August 24, 1420 – July 24, 1475) was one of the earliest German humanists.
Albrecht von Thaer (2 June 1868 - 23 June 1957) was a German General Staff Officer and authorised representative (''"Generalbevollmächtigter"'') of the last King of Saxony.
Alexander Eugen Conrady (January 27, 1866 at Burscheid, Germany – June 16, 1944 in London) was an eminent optical designer, academician, and textbook author.
Alexander, Hereditary Prince of Hohenzollern (Alexander Friedrich Antonius Johannes Prinz von Hohenzollern;Genealogisches Handbuch des Adels, Fürstliche Häuser XIX. "Haus Hohenzollern". C.A. Starke Verlag, 2011, pp. 32-33, 260;. born 16 March 1987 in New York City) is a member of the Princely House of Hohenzollern.
Alexandra Feodorovna (p), born Princess Charlotte of Prussia (13 July 1798 – 1 November 1860), was Empress consort of Russia.
Alexandrine of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (24 December 1879 – 28 December 1952) was Queen of Denmark as the spouse of King Christian X. She was also Queen of Iceland from 1 December 1918 to 17 June 1944.
Alexandru Candiano-Popescu (January 27, 1841 – June 25, 1901) was a Romanian army general, lawyer, journalist, and poet, best known for his role in the Republic of Ploieşti conspiracy.
Alexandru Macedonski (also rendered as Al. A. Macedonski, Macedonschi or Macedonsky; March 14, 1854 – November 24, 1920) was a Romanian poet, novelist, dramatist and literary critic, known especially for having promoted French Symbolism in his native country, and for leading the Romanian Symbolist movement during its early decades.
Alfred Ernst Christian Alexander Hugenberg (19 June 1865 – 12 March 1951) was an influential German businessman and politician.
The Almanach de Gotha (Gothaischer Hofkalender) was a directory of Europe's royalty and higher nobility, also including the major governmental, military and diplomatic corps, as well as statistical data by country.
Alpirsbach Abbey (in German Kloster Alpirsbach) was a house of the Benedictine Order located at Alpirsbach in Baden-Württemberg in Germany.
Alte Burg is a large Celtic hilltop fortification, or hillfort, that may have been used as a cult or assembly site for the regional population.
Altena is a town in the district of Märkischer Kreis, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
The Altmark (English: Old MarchHansard, The Parliamentary Debates from the Year 1803 to the Present Time..., Volume 32. 1 February to 6 March 1816, T.C. Hansard, 1816.. Article XXIII of the Final Act of the Congress of Vienna) is a historic region in Germany, comprising the northern third of Saxony-Anhalt.
Altstadt Spandau is the historic centre (Old Town) of the Spandau borough in the western suburbs of Berlin, situated on the right bank of the Havel river by its confluence with the Spree tributary.
Princess Anna Amalia of Prussia (9 November 1723 – 30 March 1787) was Princess-Abbess of Quedlinburg.
Anna Jagiellon (Anna Jagiellonka, Ona Jogailaitė; 18 October 1523 – 12 November 1596) was Queen of Poland and Grand Duchess of Lithuania in her own right from 1575 to 1586.
Anna Maria of Brandenburg (3 February 1567 in Zechlin Palace, Rheinberg – 14 November 1618 in Wolin) was an Princess of Brandenburg by birth and marriage Duchess of Pomerania.
Anna Maria of Brandenburg-Ansbach (28 December 1526 – 20 May 1589) was a German princess of Brandenburg-Ansbach.
Anna Maria Princess of Eggenberg, née Brandenburg-Bayreuth (born 30 December 1609 in Bayreuth; died 8 May 1680 in Ödenburg) was a Margravine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth and, by marriage Johann Anton I von Eggenberg, a Fürstin (princess) of Eggenberg.
Anna of Brandenburg (27 August 1487 – 3 May 1514) was a German noblewoman.
Anna of Brandenburg (1 January 1507 – June 19, 1567 in Lübz) was a Princess of Brandenburg and by marriage Duchess of Mecklenburg.
Anna of Saxony (7 March 1437 – 31 October 1512) was a princess of Saxony by birth and Electress of Brandenburg by marriage.
Anna Sophia of Prussia (11 June 1527 in Königsberg – 6 February 1591 in Lübz) was Duchess of Mecklenburg by marriage to John Albert I, Duke of Mecklenburg.
Anna Sophie Charlotte of Brandenburg-Schwedt (24 December 1706 – 3 January 1751), was a German noblewoman and member of the House of Hohenzollern and by marriage Duchess of Saxe-Eisenach.
Anne Catherine of Brandenburg (26 June 1575 – 8 April 1612) was queen-consort of Denmark and Norway from 1597 to 1612 as the first spouse of King Christian IV of Denmark.
Ansbach is a city in the German state of Bavaria.
Ansbach is a ''Landkreis'' (district) in Bavaria, Germany.
The Antique Temple is a small round temple in the west part of Sanssouci Park in Potsdam.
Anton Aloys, Prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (1762–1831) was Prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen.
Louise of Tuscany (2 September 1870 in Salzburg – 23 March 1947 in Brussels), was by marriage Crown Princess of Saxony as the wife of the future King Frederick Augustus III.
Archduchess Maria Luisa of Austria, Princess of Tuscany (full name: Maria Luisa Annunziata Anna Giovanna Giuseppa Antonietta Filomena Apollonia Tommasa) (31 October 1845 – 27 October 1917) was a Princess of Tuscany, and later Princess of Isenburg and Büdingen.
The Army of Sambre and Meuse (Armée de Sambre-et-Meuse) was one of the armies of the French Revolution.
Arneburg is a town in the district of Stendal, in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.
Article 231, often known as the War Guilt Clause, was the opening article of the reparations section of the Treaty of Versailles, which ended the First World War between the German Empire and the Allied and Associated Powers.
Aspasia Manos (Ασπασία Μάνου; 4 September 1896 – 7 August 1972) was a Greek commoner who became the wife of Alexander I, King of Greece.
Auerbachs Keller (Auerbach's Cellar in English) is the best known and second oldest restaurant in Leipzig, Germany.
The following events occurred in August 1934.
August Grahl (26 May 1791, Göhren-Lebbin - 13 June 1868, Dresden) was a German portrait painter and miniaturist.
Princess Augusta Victoria of Hohenzollern (19 August 1890 – 29 August 1966) was the daughter of William, Prince of Hohenzollern and Princess Maria Teresa of Bourbon-Two Sicilies.
Countess Auguste von Harrach (30 August 1800 – 5 June 1873), was the second spouse of King Frederick William III of Prussia.
Austria and Prussia had a long-standing conflict and rivalry for supremacy in Central Europe during the 18th and 19th centuries, termed Deutscher Dualismus (German dualism) in the German language area.
Świerklaniec (Neudeck) is a village in Tarnowskie Góry County, in the Silesian Voivodeship of southwestern Poland.
Babelsberg Park (Park Babelsberg) is a 114 hectare park in the northeast of the city of Potsdam, bordering on the Tiefen See lake on the River Havel.
Babylon Berlin is a German period drama television series based on novels by.
The Bamberg Conference (Bamberger Führertagung) included some sixty members of the leadership of the Nazi Party, and was specially convened by Adolf Hitler in Bamberg, in Upper Franconia, Germany on Sunday 14 February 1926 during the "wilderness years" of the party.
Barbara of Brandenburg (30 May 1464 – 4 September 1515), a member of the German House of Hohenzollern, was by birth Margravine of Brandenburg, and by her two marriages, Duchess of Głogów from 1472 to 1476, and Queen of Bohemia from 1476 to 1490/1500.
Barbara of Brandenburg (Barbara Brandenburska; 10 August 1527 – Brzeg, 2 January 1595), was a German princess member of the House of Hohenzollern She was a Margravine of Brandenburg by birth and by marriage a Duchess of Brzeg.
Barbara of Brandenburg (1422 – 7 November 1481) was a Marchioness consort of Mantua, married in 1433 to Ludovico III Gonzaga, Marquis of Mantua.
Barbara of Brandenburg-Ansbach-Kulmbach (24 September 1495 in Ansbach – 23 September 1552 in Karlovy Vary) was a princess of Brandenburg-Ansbach by birth and marriage Landgravine of Leuchtenberg.
Barbara Sophia of Brandenburg (16 November 1584 – 13 February 1636) was the daughter of the Catherine of Küstrin (1549–1602) and Elector of Joachim Frederick of Brandenburg.
The Battle of Fehrbellin was fought on June 18, 1675 (Julian calendar date, June 28th, Gregorian), between Swedish and Brandenburg-Prussian troops.
The Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during the Second World War.
During the Battle of Kehl (23–24 June 1796), a Republican French force under the direction of Jean Charles Abbatucci mounted an amphibious crossing of the Rhine River against a defending force of soldiers from the Swabian Circle.
The Battle of Rastatt (5 July 1796) saw part of a Republican French army under Jean Victor Marie Moreau clash with elements of a Habsburg Austrian army under Maximilian Anton Karl, Count Baillet de Latour which were defending the line of the Murg River.
The Battle of Sievershausen occurred on 9 July 1553 near the village of Sievershausen (today part of Lehrte in present-day Germany), where the forces of the Hohenzollern margrave Albert Alcibiades of Brandenburg-Kulmbach fought against the united troops of Elector Maurice of Saxony and Duke Henry V of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel.
Staatliches Bauhaus, commonly known simply as Bauhaus, was a German art school operational from 1919 to 1933 that combined crafts and the fine arts, and was famous for the approach to design that it publicized and taught.
The Bavarian War from 1459 to 1463, also known as the Princes War, was a result of the expansionist ambitions of the two warring Principalities, pitting Margrave, later Elector, Albert Achilles from the House of Hohenzollern, which by this time had already annexed the principalities of Brandenburg-Kulmbach and Brandenburg-Ansbach, against Duke Louis "the Rich" of Bavaria-Landshut from the House of Wittelsbach.
Bayreuth (Bavarian: Bareid) is a medium-sized town in northern Bavaria, Germany, on the Red Main river in a valley between the Franconian Jura and the Fichtelgebirge Mountains.
Bayreuth is a ''Landkreis'' (district) in Bavaria, Germany.
The Będzin Castle is a castle in Będzin (pronounced) in southern Poland.
Beatrice de Frangepan (Croatian: Beatrica Frankopan, Hungarian: Frangepán Beatrix), (1480 – c. 27 March 1510) was a Croatian noblewoman, a member of the House of Frankopan that lived in the Kingdom of Croatia in personal union with Hungary.
Beatrix of Nuremberg (Nuremberg – 10 June 1414, Perchtoldsdorf) was a daughter of Frederick V, Burgrave of Nuremberg and his wife Elisabeth of Meissen.
Bellevue Palace (Schloss Bellevue), located in Berlin's Tiergarten district, has been the official residence of the President of Germany since 1994.
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF).
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
Berlin Cathedral (Berliner Dom) is the short name for the Evangelical Supreme Parish and Collegiate Church (Oberpfarr- und Domkirche zu Berlin) in Berlin, Germany.
Hohenzollerndamm is a station in the Wilmersdorf district of Berlin.
The Berlin Palace (Berliner Schloss or Stadtschloss), also known as the Berlin City Palace, is a building in the centre of Berlin, located on the Museum Island at Schlossplatz, opposite the Lustgarten park.
Bethel Henry Strousberg (20 November 1823 – 31 May 1884) was a German Jewish industrialist and railway entrepreneur during Germany's rapid industrial expansion in the 19th century.
Biesenthal is a town in the district of Barnim in Brandenburg, Germany.
The Birutė Society was the first cultural non-religious society of Prussian Lithuanians.
The Bishopric of Brandenburg (Episcopatus Brandenburgensis or Dioecesis Brandenburgensis) was a Roman Catholic diocese established by King Otto I of Germany in 948, in the territory of the Marca Geronis (Saxon Eastern March) east of the Elbe river.
The Bishopric of Lebus was a Roman Catholic diocese of Poland and later an ecclesiastical territory of the Holy Roman Empire.
The von Blumenthal family are Lutheran and Roman Catholic German nobility, originally from Brandenburg-Prussia.
Bohumín (Bogumin, Oderberg) is a town in Karviná District, Moravian-Silesian Region, Czech Republic on the border with Poland.
Boris III (Борѝс III; 28 August 1943), originally Boris Klemens Robert Maria Pius Ludwig Stanislaus Xaver (Boris Clement Robert Mary Pius Louis Stanislaus Xavier), was Tsar of Bulgaria from 1918 until his death.
Borwin, Duke of Mecklenburg (Borwin, Herzog zu Mecklenburg; given names: Georg Borwin Friedrich Franz Karl Stephan Konrad Hubertus Maria; born 10 June 1956) has been the head of the House of Mecklenburg-Strelitz since 1996 and of the entire House of Mecklenburg since 2001.
Brandenburg (Brannenborg, Lower Sorbian: Bramborska, Braniborsko) is one of the sixteen federated states of Germany.
The Brandenburg Navy was the navy of the Margraviate of Brandenburg in Germany from the 16th century to 1701, when it became part of the Prussian Navy.
Brandenburg-Prussia (Brandenburg-Preußen) is the historiographic denomination for the Early Modern realm of the Brandenburgian Hohenzollerns between 1618 and 1701.
Brandenburg-Schwedt was a secundogeniture of the Hohenzollern margraves of Brandenburg, established by Prince Philip William who took his residence at Schwedt Castle in 1689.
Starting in the 12th century, the Margraviate, later Electorate, of Brandenburg was in conflict with the neighboring Duchy of Pomerania over frontier territories claimed by them both, and over the status of the Pomeranian duchy, which Brandenburg claimed as a fief, whereas Pomerania claimed Imperial immediacy.
BROADVIEW produces documentaries for broadcast and cable networks in Germany and worldwide, including ZDF, ARD, arte, HBO, A&E, NHK, RTL, as well as for national and international Institutions including the German Foreign Office and the Commission of the European Union.
Brunswick Palace (Braunschweiger Schloss or Braunschweiger Residenzschloss) on the Bohlweg in the centre of the city of Brunswick (Braunschweig), was the residence of the Brunswick dukes from 1753 to 8 November 1918.
Brzeg (Latin: Alta Ripa, former German name: Brieg) is a town in southwestern Poland with 36,381 inhabitants (2016) and the capital of Brzeg County.
Buchenbach is a municipality in the south west of the Black Forest in Germany.
Buckow (Märkische Schweiz) is a town in the Märkisch-Oderland district, in Brandenburg, Germany.
Burgabo (Buur Gaabo) is a port town in Lower Jubba province in southern Somalia near the border with Kenya.
The Burgkirche was a Reformed Protestant church of the Prussian Union in Königsberg, Prussia.
Burgrave also rendered as Burggrave (from Burggraf, praefectus), was since the medieval period in Europe (mainly Germany) the official title for the ruler of a castle, especially a royal or episcopal castle, and its territory called a Burgraviate or Burgravate (German Burggrafschaft also Burggrafthum, Latin praefectura).
The Burgraviate of Nuremberg (Burggrafschaft Nürnberg) was a state of the Holy Roman Empire from the early 12th to the late 15th centuries.
Burkhard I, Count of Zollern (Burchardus, Burcardus; born before 1025; killed as part of a feud in 1061) is considered the first well-documented ancestor of the Hohenzollern dynasty.
In heraldry, cadency is any systematic way of distinguishing otherwise identical coats of arms belonging to members of the same family.
The Republic and Canton of Neuchâtel (la République et Canton de Neuchâtel) is a canton of French-speaking western Switzerland.
Carl Einstein (26 April 1885 – 5 July 1940), born Karl Einstein, was an influential German Jewish writer, art historian, anarchist and critic.
Carl Friedrich Goerdeler (31 July 1884 – 2 February 1945) was a monarchist conservative German politician, executive, economist, civil servant, and opponent of the Nazi regime.
Carmen Tanase (born January 18, 1961) is a Romanian actress.
Carol I (20 April 1839 – 27 September (O.S.) / 10 October (N.S.) 1914), born Prince Karl of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, was the monarch of Romania from 1866 to 1914.
Carol II (15 October 18934 April 1953) reigned as King of Romania from 8 June 1930 until his enforced abdication on 6 September 1940.
Mircea Grigore Carol Hohenzollern (born Mircea Grigore Carol Lambrino; 8 January 1920 – 27 January 2006), also known as Prince Mircea Grigore Carol al României (anglicised as: of Romania) according to his amended Romanian birth certificate or as Carol Lambrino,, The Daily Telegraph, 10 February 2006 was the elder son of King Carol II of Romania.
Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach (Wilhelmina Charlotte Caroline; 1 March 1683 – 20 November 1737) was Queen consort of Great Britain as the wife of King George II.
Casimir (or Kasimir) of Brandenburg-Bayreuth (27 December 1481 – 21 September 1527) was Margrave of Bayreuth or Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach from 1515 to 1527.
Catherine of Brandenburg (Königsberg, 28 May 1604 – 27 August 1649, Schöningen) was an elected Princess of Transylvania between 1629 and 1630.
Catherine of Brandenburg-Küstrin (10 August 1549 – 30 September 1602) was a Margravine of Brandenburg-Küstrin by birth and Electress of Brandenburg by marriage.
The causes of the Franco-Prussian War are deeply rooted in the events surrounding the German unification.
In the 13th century Cölln was the sister town of Old Berlin (Altberlin), located on the southern Spree Island in the Margraviate of Brandenburg.
Cöln-Frechener Strassenbahn BENZELRATH and MARIA were two locomotives built by Hohenzollern, serial number 846 and 933, in 1895 and 1896.
Cecilia of Brandenburg (– 4 January 1449) was a princess of Brandenburg by birth and by marriage a Duchess of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel.
Cecilienhof Palace (Schloss Cecilienhof) is a palace in Potsdam, Brandenburg, Germany built from 1914 to 1917 in the layout of an English Tudor manor house.
Cedynia (Zehden) is a small town in Poland, the administrative seat of Gmina Cedynia in Gryfino County, West Pomeranian Voivodeship.
The Centre Party of Finland (Suomen Keskusta, Kesk; Centern i Finland) is a centrist, liberal, and agrarian political party in Finland.
Christian Frederick Charles Alexander (Christian Friedrich Karl Alexander; 24 February 1736 – 5 January 1806) was the last Margrave of the two Franconian principalities, Brandenburg-Ansbach and Brandenburg-Bayreuth, which he sold to the King of Prussia, a fellow member of the House of Hohenzollern.
Karl Friedrich Albrecht, Margrave of Brandenburg-Schwedt (born 10 June 1705 in Berlin; died 22 June 1762 in Breslau), a grandson of Frederick William of Brandenburg (the Great Elector) and son of Margrave Albert Frederick of Brandenburg-Schwedt, was a Prussian military officer and the Herrenmeister (grand master) of the Order of Saint John (Bailiwick of Brandenburg).
Margrave Charles Philip of Brandenburg-Schwedt (5 January 1673 in Sparnberg – 23 July 1695 in Casale Monferrato) was a Hohenzollern prince and a titular Margrave of Brandenburg-Schwedt.
Charles William Frederick (12 May 1712 – 3 August 1757), nicknamed der Wilde Markgraf (the Wild Margrave), was the margrave of the Principality of Ansbach from 1723 to his death.
Karl, Count of Hohenzollern-Haigerloch (1588 in Haigerloch – 9 March 1634 in Überlingen) was the third Count of Hohenzollern-Haigerloch.
Charles Emil, Electoral Prince of Brandenburg (16 February 1655, Berlin – 7 December 1674, Strasbourg) was a German prince as heir-apparent to the Electorate of Brandenburg.
The Château du Haut-Kœnigsbourg (Hohkönigsburg) is a medieval castle located in the commune of Orschwiller in the Bas-Rhin département of France,Ministry of Culture: - Ministry of Culture: in the Vosges mountains just west of Sélestat.
Chorzów (Königshütte; Chorzůw) is a city in Silesia in southern Poland, near Katowice.
Christian Albert, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach (18 September 1675 – 16 October 1692) was a German prince.
Christian Ernst of Brandenburg-Bayreuth (6 August 1644 in Bayreuth – 20 May 1712 in Erlangen) was a member of the House of Hohenzollern and Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth.
Christian Heinrich of Brandenburg-Bayreuth-Kulmbach (Bayreuth, 29 July 1661 – Weferlingen, 5 April 1708), was a German prince and member of the House of Hohenzollern and nominal Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth-Kulmbach.
Christian VI (30 November 1699 – 6 August 1746) was King of Denmark and Norway from 1730 to 1746.
Christian Wilhelm of Brandenburg (28 August 1587 in Wolmirstedt – 1 January 1665 in Zinna Abbey) was a titular Margrave of Brandenburg, and from 1598 to 1631 Archbishop of Magdeburg.
Christian, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth (30 January 1581 in Cölln – 30 May 1655 in Bayreuth) was a member of the House of Hohenzollern and Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach (later renamed Brandenburg-Bayreuth).
Christiane Charlotte of Württemberg-Winnental (20 August 1694 – 25 December 1729) was a German princess of the Württemberg-Winnental line.
Christiane Eberhardine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth (19 December 1671 – 4 September 1727) was Electress of Saxony from 1694 to 1727 (her death) and titular Queen of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1697 to 1727 by marriage to Augustus II the Strong.
Christiane Sophie Charlotte of Brandenburg-Kulmbach (15 October 1733 in Neustadt an der Aisch – 8 October 1757 in Jagdschloss Seidingstadt in Straufhain) was a member of the Kulmbach-Bayreuth branch of the Franconian line of the House of Hohenzollern and was, by marriage, Duchess of Saxe-Hildburghausen.
Christina (– 19 April 1689) reigned as Queen of Sweden from 1632 until her abdication in 1654.
Count Christoph of Hohenzollern-Haigerloch (20 March 1552 in Haigerloch – 21 April 1592, Haigerloch) was the first Count of Hohenzollern-Haigerloch.
Christopher II (29 September 1276 – 2 August 1332) was king of Denmark from 1320 to 1326 and again from 1329 until his death.
The Protestant Church of Peace (Friedenskirche) is situated in the Marly Gardens on the Green Fence (Am Grünen Gitter) in the palace grounds of Sanssouci Park in Potsdam, Germany.
Clary und Aldringen, also known as Clary-Aldringen, is one of the most prominent Austro-Hungarian princely families.
The coat of arms of the German state of Baden-Württemberg features a greater and a lesser version.
This article is about the coat of arms of the German state of Brandenburg.
The state of Prussia developed from the State of the Teutonic Order.
Coats of arms of German colonies were prepared but never formally granted.
Coburg is a town located on the Itz river in the Upper Franconia region of Bavaria, Germany.
The Cologne Ring (known in German as: Kölner Ringe) is a semi-circular, some 6 km long urban boulevard in Innenstadt, Cologne and the city's busiest and most prominent street system.
The Cologne War (1583–88) devastated the Electorate of Cologne, a historical ecclesiastical principality of the Holy Roman Empire, within present-day North Rhine-Westphalia, in Germany.
Conrad I of Nuremberg (1186 – 1261) was a Burgrave of Nuremberg of the House of Hohenzollern.
Prince Friedrich Wilhelm Konstantin Hermann Thassilo of Hohenzollern-Hechingen (16 February 1801 in Schloss Sagan, Sagan, Silesia, Prussia – 3 September 1869 in Schloss Polnisch Nettkow, Grünberg, Silesia, Prussia) was the last Prince of Hohenzollern-Hechingen.
The Corps Borussia Bonn is a German Student Corps at the University of Bonn.
The Council of Lithuania (Lietuvos Taryba, Litauischer Staatsrat), after July 11, 1918 the State Council of Lithuania (Lietuvos Valstybės Taryba) was convened at the Vilnius Conference that took place between 18 and 23 September 1917.
The title Count of Champlitte was created by letters patent on September 5, 1574 by Philip II, King of Spain, for Francois de Vergy, son of Guillaume de Vergy the Seigneur de Champlitte.
Countess Donata of Castell-Rüdenhausen (German: Donata Gräfin zu Castell-Rüdenhausen; 20 June 1950 – 5 September 2015) was a German noblewoman.
Princess Oskar of Prussia, Countess von Ruppin (27 January 1888 – 17 September 1973) was the wife of Prince Oskar of Prussia.
The House of Andechs was a feudal line of German princes in 12th and 13th century.
The Crown of the Kingdom of Poland (Korona Królestwa Polskiego, Latin: Corona Regni Poloniae), commonly known as the Polish Crown or simply the Crown, is the common name for the historic (but unconsolidated) Late Middle Ages territorial possessions of the King of Poland, including Poland proper.
The Crown of William II, also known as the Hohenzollern Crown, is the 1888 crown made for William II, German Emperor, in his role as King of Prussia.
Lions have been an important symbol to humans for tens of thousands of years and appear as a theme in cultures across Europe, Asia, and Africa.
Curtea de Argeș is a city in Romania on the right bank of the Argeş River, where it flows through a valley of the lower Carpathians (the Făgăraș Mountains), on the railway from Pitești to the Turnu Roșu Pass.
Czerwieńsk (Rothenburg an der Oder) is a town in Zielona Góra County, Lubusz Voivodeship, Poland, with 4,152 inhabitants (2005).
La Dame Blanche (French; literally "The White Lady") was the codename for an underground intelligence network which operated in German-occupied Belgium during World War I. It took its name from a German legend which stated that the fall of the Hohenzollern dynasty would be announced by the appearance of a woman wearing white.
The Day of Potsdam, otherwise known as the Tag von Potsdam or Potsdam Celebration was a March 21, 1933, ceremony for the opening of the new Reichstag after the German federal election, March 1933.
On 4 July 2011, Otto von Habsburg, also known as Otto of Austria, former head of the House of Habsburg and Sovereign of the Order of the Golden Fleece (1922–2007) and former Crown Prince (1916–1918) and, by pretence, Emperor-King (from 1922), of Austria-Hungary—or formally, of Austria, Hungary and Bohemia, of Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, Galicia, Lodomeria and Illyria, and of Jerusalem etc.
A death squad is an armed group that conducts extrajudicial killings or forced disappearances of persons for the purposes of political repression, genocide, or revolutionary terror.
The Decorations of the Romanian Royal House are a reward for conspicuous and special merits of the recipients for the Romanian state and the Romanian Royal House.
"Der Hohenfriedberger" (AM I, 21 (Army March I, 1c and Army march III, 1b)), also called "Hohenfriedberger Marsch" or "Der Hohenfriedberger Marsch", is one of the most classic and well known German military marches.
James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625), the only child of Mary, Queen of Scots, was King of Scots from 1567 and King of England and Ireland from 1603, being the first monarch of the House of Stuart to rule all three countries.
The Diet of Worms 1521 (Reichstag zu Worms) was an imperial diet (assembly) of the Holy Roman Empire held at the Heylshof Garden in Worms, then an Imperial Free City of the Empire.
Dillingen (also: Dillingen an der Saar) is a town in the district of Saarlouis, in Saarland.
The Dispositio Achillea (also: Constitutio Achillea or Achillean House Law) was the disposition of the territories of Elector Albert III Achilles of Brandenburg as regulated in his last will and testament of 1473.
The Division of Altenburg (German: Altenburger Teilung) was the plan for the division of the Meissen lands agreed upon by the two hostile Wettin brothers Elector Frederick II of Saxony and William III on 16 July 1445 at Altenburg.
Dodo von Knyphausen (1641–1698) was a German nobleman from the Duchy of Prussia in the service of Brandenburg-Prussia during the reigns of Electors Frederick William and Frederick III.
Donat Mg is a natural mineral water from the springs of Rogaška Slatina in Slovenia.
Dora d'Istria, pen-name of duchess Helena Koltsova-Massalskaya born Elena Ghica (Gjika/Xhika) (January 22, 1828, Bucharest – November 17, 1888, Florence) was a Wallachian-born Romantic writer and feminist of Albanian-Romanian descent.
Dorothea Friederike of Brandenburg-Ansbach (12 August 1676 – 13 March 1731) was the daughter of Margrave John Frederick of Brandenburg-Ansbach (1654–1686) and his first wife, Margravine Johanna Elisabeth of Baden-Durlach (1651–1680).
Dorothea of Brandenburg (1430/1431 – 10 November 1495) was Queen consort of Denmark (1445–1448 and 1449–1481), Norway (1445–1448 and 1450–1481), and Sweden (1447–1448 and 1457–1464) two times each by marriage to Christopher of Bavaria and Christian I of Denmark.
Dorothea von Salviati (1907–1972), was the wife of Prince Wilhelm of Prussia, the eldest son of Crown Prince Wilhelm, the eldest son and heir of the last German Emperor, Wilhelm II.
Drawsko Pomorskie (Dramburg) is a town in Drawsko County in West Pomeranian Voivodeship in northwestern Poland, the administrative seat of Drawsko County and the urban-rural commune of Gmina Drawsko Pomorskie.
Dubislav Gneomar von Natzmer (1654– 20 April 1739) was a Prussian Generalfeldmarschall and a confidant of the House of Hohenzollern.
Duchess Anna of Prussia and Jülich-Cleves-Berg (3 July 1576 – 30 August 1625) was Electress consort of Brandenburg and Duchess consort of Prussia by marriage to John Sigismund, Elector of Brandenburg.
Duchess Cecilie of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (Cecilie Auguste Marie; 20 September 1886 – 6 May 1954) was the last German Crown Princess and Crown Princess of Prussia as the wife of German Crown Prince Wilhelm, the son of German Emperor Wilhelm II.
Magdalene Sibylle of Prussia (31 December 1586 – 12 February 1659) was an Electress of Saxony as the spouse of John George I, Elector of Saxony.
Duchess Sophia Charlotte of Oldenburg (2 February 1879 – 29 March 1964) was a member of the House of Holstein-Gottorp.
Duchess Sophie of Prussia (c. 31 March 1582 – c. 24 November 1610) was a German princess of the Duchy of Prussia, a fief of Kingdom of Poland and a member of the House of Hohenzollern.
The Duchy of Brzeg (Księstwo Brzeskie) or Duchy of Brieg (Herzogtum Brieg), (Knížectví Břežské) was one of the Duchies of Silesia, created in 1311 during the fragmentation of the Duchy of Wrocław.
The Duchy of Bytom (Księstwo Bytomskie) or Duchy of Beuthen (Herzogtum Beuthen) was one of many Silesian duchies.
The Duchy of Cleves (Herzogtum Kleve; Hertogdom Kleef) was a State of the Holy Roman Empire which emerged from the mediaeval Hettergau (de).
The Duchy of Krnov (Ducatus Carnoviensis, Krnovské knížectví, Księstwo Karniowskie) or Duchy of Jägerndorf (Herzogtum Jägerndorf) was one of the Duchies of Silesia, which in 1377 emerged from the Duchy of Troppau (Opava), itself a fief of the Bohemian Crown.
The Duchy of Legnica (Księstwo Legnickie, Lehnické knížectví) or Duchy of Liegnitz (Herzogtum Liegnitz) was one of the Duchies of Silesia.
The Duchy of Magdeburg (Herzogtum Magdeburg) was a province of Brandenburg-Prussia from 1680 to 1701 and a province of the German Kingdom of Prussia from 1701 to 1807.
The Duchy of Münsterberg (Herzogtum Münsterberg) or Duchy of Ziębice (Księstwo Ziębickie, Minstrberské knížectví) was one of the Duchies of Silesia, with a capital in Münsterberg (Ziębice).
Duchy of Opole (Herzogtum Oppeln; Opolské knížectví) was one of the duchies of Silesia ruled by the Piast dynasty.
The Duchy of Opole and Racibórz (Księstwo opolsko-raciborskie, Herzogtum Oppeln und Ratibor) was one of the numerous Duchies of Silesia ruled by the Silesian branch of the royal Polish Piast dynasty.
The Duchy of Pomerania (Herzogtum Pommern, Księstwo Pomorskie, 12th century – 1637) was a duchy in Pomerania on the southern coast of the Baltic Sea, ruled by dukes of the House of Pomerania (Griffins).
The Duchy of Prussia (Herzogtum Preußen, Księstwo Pruskie) or Ducal Prussia (Herzogliches Preußen, Prusy Książęce) was a duchy in the region of Prussia established as a result of secularization of the State of the Teutonic Order during the Protestant Reformation in 1525.
Duchy of Racibórz (Herzogtum Ratibor, Ratibořské knížectví) was one of the duchies of Silesia.
The following is a list of monarchs who used the title Duke of Opole and controlled the city and the surrounding area either directly or indirectly (see also Duchy of Opole).
The Dukes of Swabia were the rulers of the Duchy of Swabia during the Middle Ages.
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family,Oxford English Dictionary, "dynasty, n." Oxford University Press (Oxford), 1897.
In the Rhine Campaign of 1796 (June 1796 to February 1797), two First Coalition armies under the overall command of Archduke Charles outmaneuvered and defeated two Republican French armies.
Early modern Britain is the history of the island of Great Britain roughly corresponding to the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries.
East Prussia (Ostpreußen,; Prusy Wschodnie; Rytų Prūsija; Borussia orientalis; Восточная Пруссия) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1773 to 1829 and again from 1878 (with the Kingdom itself being part of the German Empire from 1871); following World War I it formed part of the Weimar Republic's Free State of Prussia, until 1945.
The East Prussia(n) plebiscite (Abstimmung in Ostpreußen), also known as the Allenstein and Marienwerder plebiscite or Warmia, Masuria and Powiśle plebiscite (Plebiscyt na Warmii, Mazurach i Powiślu), was a plebiscite for self-determination of the regions southern Warmia (Ermland), Masuria (Mazury, Masuren) and Powiśle, which had been in parts of the East Prussian Government Region of Allenstein and of West Prussian Government Region of Marienwerder, in accordance with Articles 94 to 97 of the Treaty of Versailles.
The economic history of the United Kingdom deals with the economic history of England and Great Britain from 1500 to the early 21st century.
The Egerland (Chebsko; Egerland; Egerland German dialect: Eghalånd) is a historical region in the far north west of Bohemia in the Czech Republic at the border with Germany.
The Egyptian Museum of Berlin (Ägyptisches Museum und Papyrussammlung) is home to one of the world's most important collections of Ancient Egyptian artifacts, including the iconic Nefertiti Bust.
Eickendorf is a former municipality in the district of Salzlandkreis, in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.
Ein Feldlager in Schlesien (A Camp in Silesia) is a Singspiel in three acts by Giacomo Meyerbeer with a German-language libretto by Ludwig Rellstab after Eugène Scribe's Le camp de Silésie.
Einsiedeln is a municipality and district in the canton of Schwyz in Switzerland known for its monastery, the Benedictine Einsiedeln Abbey, established in the 10th century.
Eitel Friedrich von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (26 September 1582 – 19 September 1625) was a Roman Catholic Cardinal-Priest and Prince-Bishop of Osnabrück.
Eitel Friedrich II, Count of Hohenzollern (– 18 June 1512 in Trier) was a count of Hohenzollern and belonged to the Swabian line of the House of Hohenzollern.
Eitel Friedrich III, Count of Hohenzollern (1494 – 15 January 1525 in Pavia) was Count of County of Hohenzollern from 1512 until his death.
Count Eitel Friedrich IV of Hohenzollern (7 September 1545 in Sigmaringen – 16 January 1605 in Hechingen) was the founder and first Count of the line Hohenzollern-Hechingen as Eitel Friedrich I.
Elbląg (Elbing; Old Prussian: Elbings) is a city in northern Poland on the eastern edge of the Żuławy region with 124,257 inhabitants (December 31, 2011).
Eleanor of Prussia (21 August 1583 - 9 April 1607) was a princess of the Duchy of Prussia by birth and Electress of Brandenburg by marriage.
The Electorate of Saxony (Kurfürstentum Sachsen, also Kursachsen) was a state of the Holy Roman Empire established when Emperor Charles IV raised the Ascanian duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg to the status of an Electorate by the Golden Bull of 1356.
An Electress was the consort of a Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire, one of the Empire's greatest princes.
The Electress of the Palatinate was the consort of the Prince-elector of the Electorate of the Palatinate, one of the Empire's greatest princes.
Princess Elisa Radziwill (Elisa Friederike Luise Martha; Eliza Fryderyka Luiza Marta Radziwiłł; 28 October 1803, Berlin – 27 August 1834, Bad Freienwalde) was a member of Polish high nobility of royal ancestry.
Elisabeth of Bavaria-Landshut (1383 – 13 November 1442), nicknamed "Beautiful Beth", was an Electress of Brandenburg.
Elisabeth of Brandenburg (24 August 1510 – 25 May 1558) was a Duchess consort of Brunswick-Göttingen-Calenberg by marriage to Eric I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, and Regent of the Duchy of Brunswick-Göttingen-Calenberg during the minority of her son, Eric II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, from 1540 until 1545.
Elisabeth of Hohenzollern (Elżbieta Hohenzollern; 1 May/29 September 1403 – 31 October 1449), was a German princess member of the House of Hohenzollern and by her two marriages Duchess of Brzeg-Legnica and Cieszyn.
Elizabeth of Brandenburg (1425 – after 13 January 1465) was a princess of Brandenburg by birth and marriage Duchess of Pomerania.
Elizabeth of Brandenburg-Ansbach (29 November 1451, Ansbach – 28 March 1524, Nürtingen) was a princess of Brandenburg by birth and by marriage Duchess of Württemberg.
Elizabeth of Brandenburg-Ansbach-Kulmbach (25 March 1494 in Ansbach – 31 May 1518 in Pforzheim) was a princess of Brandenburg-Ansbach by birth and by marriage Margravine of Baden.
Elizabeth of Brandenburg-Küstrin (29 August 1540 – 8 March 1578), was a princess of Brandenburg-Küstrin and margravine of Brandenburg-Ansbach and Brandenburg-Kulmbach by marriage.
Elisabeth of Nuremberg (1358 – 26 July 1411) was the daughter of Frederick V, Burgrave of Nuremberg and Elisabeth of Meissen.
Elisabeth of Romania (full name Elisabeth Charlotte Josephine Alexandra Victoria: Elisabeta a României, Ελισάβετ της Ρουμανίας; 12 October 1894 – 14 November 1956) was a princess of Romania and member of the House of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen and by marriage Queen consort of Greece during 1922–1924.
Pauline Elisabeth Ottilie Luise zu Wied (29 December 1843 – 2 March 1916) was the Queen consort of Romania as the wife of King Carol I of Romania, widely known by her literary name of Carmen Sylva.
Lady Elizabeth Craven (née Berkeley; 17 December 1750 – 13 January 1828), Princess Berkeley (though often styled "Margravine of Brandenburg-Ansbach"), previously Lady Craven, of Hamstead Marshall, was an author and playwright, perhaps best known for her travelogues.
Emilio Castelar y Ripoll (7 September 1832 – 25 May 1899) was a Spanish republican politician, and a president of the First Spanish Republic.
Joséphine de Beauharnais (born Marie-Josèphe-Rose Tascher de la Pagerie; 23 June 1763 – 29 May 1814) was the first wife of Napoleon I, and thus the first Empress of the French as Joséphine.
The Ems Dispatch (Dépêche d'Ems, Emser Depesche), sometimes called the Ems Telegram, incited France to declare the Franco-Prussian War in July 1870.
Engelbert Wusterwitz (c. 1385–1433) is a chronicler of the history of the Margraviate of Brandenburg.
Erdmann August of Brandenburg-Bayreuth (b. Bayreuth, 8 October 1615 - d. Hof, 6 February 1651), was a member of the House of Hohenzollern and Hereditary Margrave (German: Erbmarkgraf) of Brandenburg-Bayreuth.
Erdmuthe of Brandenburg (26 June 1561 in Berlin – 13 November 1623 in Stolp) was a Princess of Brandenburg and by marriage Duchess of Pomerania.
The Erfurt Union (Erfurter Union) was a short-lived union of German states under a federation, proposed by the Kingdom of Prussia at Erfurt, for which the Erfurt Union Parliament (Erfurter Unionsparlament), lasting from March 20 to April 29, 1850, was opened at the former Augustinian monastery in Erfurt.
Eric II or Erich II (between 1418 and 1425 – 5 July 1474) was a member of the House of Pomerania (also known as the House of Griffins) and was the ruling Duke of Pomerania-Wolgast from 1457 to 1474.
Erlangen (East Franconian: Erlang) is a Middle Franconian city in Bavaria, Germany.
Ernest Augustus (Ernest Augustus Christian George; Ernst August Christian Georg; 17 November 1887 – 30 January 1953), reigning Duke of Brunswick (2 November 1913 – 8 November 1918), was a grandson of George V of Hanover, whom the Prussians deposed in 1866, and Christian IX of Denmark.
Ernest Augustus (Ernst August; 20 November 1629 – 23 January 1698), was a Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and ruled over the Principality of Calenberg (with its capital Hanover) subdivision of the duchy.
Ernest II (German: Ernst August Karl Johann Leopold Alexander Eduard; 21 June 1818 – 22 August 1893) was the sovereign duke of the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, reigning from 1844 to his death.
Ernst von Wildenbruch (3 February 1845 – 15 January 1909) was a German poet and dramatist.
Etherscope (published by Goodman Games) is a steampunk role-playing game based on the d20 system.
Eugénie Hortense Auguste Napoléone, known as Eugénie de Beauharnais, princess of Leuchtenberg (22 December 1808, Milan – 1 September 1847, Freudenstadt) was a Franco-German princess.
The Evangelical-Lutheran Church of Hanover (Evangelisch-lutherische Landeskirche Hannovers) is a Lutheran church body (Landeskirche) in the German state of Lower Saxony and the city of Bremerhaven covering the territory of the former Kingdom of Hanover.
Ewald Friedrich Graf von Hertzberg (2 September 1725 – 22 May 1795) was a Prussian statesman.
The Fürstenenteignung was the proposed expropriation of the dynastic properties of the former ruling houses of the German Empire during the period of the Weimar Republic.
Fall of Eagles is a 13-part British television drama aired by the BBC in 1974.
A family seat or sometimes just called seat is the principal residence of the landed gentry and aristocracy.
This is the British monarchs' family tree, from James VI & I (whose accession united the thrones of England and Scotland) to the present monarch, Elizabeth II.
The following image is a family tree of every king, monarch, confederation president and emperor of Germany, from Charlemagne in 800 over Louis the German in 843 through to Wilhelm II in 1918.
Fanny Cogan (1866 – May 18, 1929) was a stage and film actress of the silent movie era from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
The Faule Grete (German for Lazy Grete, alluding to the lack of mobility and slow rate of fire of such super-sized cannon) was a medieval supergun of the Teutonic Order.
Fürth is a ''Landkreis'' (district) in Bavaria, Germany.
Felix Graf von Bothmer (10 December 1852 – 18 March 1937) was a German general, notably during the Brusilov offensive of 1916.
Ferdinand I (Фердинанд I; 26 February 1861 – 10 September 1948),Louda, 1981, ''Lines of Succession'', Table 149 born Ferdinand Maximilian Karl Leopold Maria of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, was the second monarch of the Third Bulgarian State, firstly as knyaz (ruling prince) from 1887 to 1908, and later as tsar (emperor) from 1908 until his abdication in 1918.
Ferdinand I (Ferdinand Viktor Albert Meinrad; 24 August 1865 – 20 July 1927), nicknamed Întregitorul ("the Unifier"), was King of Romania from 10 October 1914 until his death in 1927.
Ferdinand Joseph, Prince of Dietrichstein (25 July 1628 – 1 December 1698), was a German prince member of the House of Dietrichstein, 3rd Prince (Fürst) of Dietrichstein zu Nikolsburg, Princely Count (gefürsteter Graf) of Tarasp, Baron (Freiherr) of Hollenburg, Finkenstein and Thalberg; in addition, he served as Lord Chamberlain (Obersthofmeister), Conference Minister (Konferenzminister) and Privy Councillor (Geheimrat) of Emperor Leopold I, and Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece since 1668.
Ferdinand Lassalle (11 April 1825 – 31 August 1864), born as Ferdinand Johann Gottlieb Lassal and also known as Ferdinand Lassalle-Wolfson, was a German-Jewish jurist, philosopher, socialist, and political activist.
Anton Ferdinand Leopold, Count of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (also known as Count of Hohenzollern-Haigerloch; 4 December 1692 in Sigmaringen – 23 July 1750 at Brühl Palace) was a German nobleman.
Heinrich Ludwig Ferdinand von Arnim (15 September 1814 – 23 March 1866) was a German architect and watercolour-painter.
The First Silesian War was a theatre of the War of the Austrian Succession.
The flag of Germany or German Flag (Flagge Deutschlands) is a tricolour consisting of three equal horizontal bands displaying the national colours of Germany: black, red, and gold (Schwarz-Rot-Gold).
The state of Prussia had its origins in the separate lands of the Margraviate of Brandenburg and of the Duchy of Prussia.
Francesco Carlo Rusca, or Carlo Francesco Rusca, also known as Ritter von Rusca (1 January 1693 – 11 May 1769) was an itinerant Italian-Swiss painter, best known for his portraits.
The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War (Deutsch-Französischer Krieg, Guerre franco-allemande), often referred to in France as the War of 1870 (19 July 1871) or in Germany as 70/71, was a conflict between the Second French Empire of Napoleon III and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia.
Franconia (Franken, also called Frankenland) is a region in Germany, characterised by its culture and language, and may be roughly associated with the areas in which the East Franconian dialect group, locally referred to as fränkisch, is spoken.
The Franconian Circle (Fränkischer Reichskreis) was an Imperial Circle established in 1500 in the centre of the Holy Roman Empire.
Franz Anton, Count of Hohenzollern-Haigerloch (2 December 1657 at Sigmaringen Castle – 14 October 1702 in Friedlingen), was a reigning Count of Hohenzollern-Haigerloch.
Franz Christoph Anton, Count of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (16 January 1699 in Haigerloch – 23 November 1767 in Cologne) was a member of the House of Hohenzollern.
Franz Ignaz von Beecke (October 28, 1733 – January 2, 1803) was a classical music composer born in Wimpfen am Neckar, Germany.
Franz Joseph Prinz von Hohenzollern-Emden (English: Prince Francis Joseph of Hohenzollern-Emden; 30 August 1891 – 3 April 1964) was a member of the Roman Catholic branch of the House of Hohenzollern.
Franz Xaver Dieringer was a Catholic theologian, b. 22 August 1811, at Rangendingen (Hohenzollern-Hechingen); d. 8 September 1876, at Veringendorf (today a district of Veringenstadt).
Frederick Christian of Brandenburg-Bayreuth (17 July 1708 in Weferlingen – 20 January 1769 in Bayreuth), was a member of the House of Hohenzollern and Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth.
Frederick Ernest of Brandenburg-Kulmbach (15 December 1703 – 23 June 1762 in Drage) was a member of the Brandenburg-Kulmbach branch of the House of Hohenzollern.
Frederick Henry, Margrave of Brandenburg-Schwedt (21 August 1709, in Schwedt – 12 December 1788, in Schwedt) was the last owner of the Prussian secundogeniture of Brandenburg-Schwedt.
Frederick I (Friedrich I.) (11 July 1657 – 25 February 1713), of the Hohenzollern dynasty, was (as Frederick III) Elector of Brandenburg (1688–1713) and Duke of Prussia in personal union (Brandenburg-Prussia).
Friedrich I of Nuremberg (before 1139 – after 1 October 1200), the first Burgrave of Nuremberg from the House of Hohenzollern.
Friedrich I, Count of Zollern (nicknamed Maute; died: before 1125), was often cited as a powerful Swabian Count and supporter of the imperial party of Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor.
Frederick (Middle High German: Friderich, Standard German: Friedrich; 21 September 1371 – 20 September 1440) was the last Burgrave of Nuremberg from 1397 to 1427 (as Frederick VI), Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach from 1398, Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach from 1420, and Elector of Brandenburg (as Frederick I) from 1415 until his death.
Frederick I of Ansbach and Bayreuth (also known as Frederick V; Friedrich II. or Friedrich der Ältere; 8 May 1460 – 4 April 1536) was born at Ansbach as the eldest son of Albert III, Margrave of Brandenburg by his second wife Anna, daughter of Frederick II, Elector of Saxony.
Friedrich Eugen, Duke of Württemberg (21 January 1732, Stuttgart – 23 December 1797, Hohenheim), the fourth son of Duke Karl Alexander, Duke of Württemberg and Princess Maria Augusta of Thurn and Taxis (11 August 1706 – 1 February 1756).
Friedrich II, Count von Zollern (died: 1142 or after 1145) was the eldest son of Friedrich I, Count of Zollern, and became Count of Zollern after his father's death around 1125.
Frederick II of Brandenburg (19 November 1413 – 10 February 1471), nicknamed "the Iron" (der Eiserne) and sometimes "Irontooth" (Eisenzahn), was a Prince-elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg from 1440 until his abdication in 1470, and was a member of the House of Hohenzollern.
Frederick III of Nuremberg (1220 – 14 August 1297 in Cadolzburg), Burgrave of Nuremberg from the House of Hohenzollern, was the eldest son of Conrad I of Nuremberg and Adelheid of Frontenhausen.
Frederick III (Friedrich; 18 October 1831 – 15 June 1888) was German Emperor and King of Prussia for ninety-nine days in 1888, the Year of the Three Emperors.
Frederick III, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach (1 May 1616, Ansbach – 6 September 1634, Nördlingen) was a German nobleman.
Frederick IV of Nuremberg (1287–1332) from the House of Hohenzollern was Burgrave of Nuremberg from 1300 to 1332.
Count Friedrich IV of Zollern (–), also known as Burgrave Friedrich II of Nuremberg, was Burgrave of Nuremberg from 1204 to 1218 and Count of Zollern from 1218 until his death.
Frederick IV (before 30 November 1384 – 7 May 1440), nicknamed the Peaceful (Friedrich der Friedfertige) or the Simple (der Einfältige), was a member of the House of Wettin and Margrave of Meissen who ruled as the last independent Landgrave of Thuringia from 1406 until his death.
Friedrich IX, Count of Hohenzollern (d. between 1377 and 1379), nicknamed "Fredrick the Old" or "the Black Count", was a German nobleman.
Frederick IX of Brandenburg (22 March 1588 in Cölln – 19 May 1611 in Sonnenburg, Prussia (now Słońsk, Poland)) was a Margrave of Brandenburg.
Frederick III of Brandenburg, nicknamed the Fat, also the Younger (born:; died: 6 October 1463 in Tangermünde) was Margrave of the Brandenburg and Lord of the Altmark.
Count Albrecht Friedrich Wilhelm Bernhard of Hohenau (born May 21, 1857 in the Albrechtsberg Castle in Dresden; died 15 April 1914 in Ochelhermsdorf) was a German nobleman.
Frederick of Prussia may refer to the House of Hohenzollern.
Frederick II (Friedrich; 24 January 171217 August 1786) was King of Prussia from 1740 until 1786, the longest reign of any Hohenzollern king.
Frederick V of Nuremberg (before 3 March 1333 – 21 January 1398) was a Burgrave (Burggraf) of Nuremberg, of the House of Hohenzollern.
Friedrich V. of Zollern (died: 24 May 1289 at Hohenzollern Castle) nicknamed, the Illustrious was a Count of Zollern.
Friedrich VI, Count of Zollern (died: 4 May 1298), also known as Friedrich the Knight, or Friedrich the Elder, was a Count of Hohenzollern.
Friedrich VII, Count of Zollern (d. after 6 October 1309) was a German nobleman.
Friedrich VIII, Count of Zollern, nicknamed Easter Sunday (d. 1333) was a Count of Hohenzollern.
The name Frederick William usually refers to several monarchs and princes of the Hohenzollern dynasty.
Frederick William I (Friedrich Wilhelm I) (14 August 1688 – 31 May 1740), known as the "Soldier King" (Soldatenkönig), was the King in Prussia and Elector of Brandenburg from 1713 until his death in 1740 as well as the father of Frederick the Great.
Frederick William II (Friedrich Wilhelm II.; 25 September 1744 – 16 November 1797) was King of Prussia from 1786 until his death.
Frederick William III (Friedrich Wilhelm III) (3 August 1770 – 7 June 1840) was king of Prussia from 1797 to 1840.
Frederick William IV (Friedrich Wilhelm IV.; 15 October 17952 January 1861), the eldest son and successor of Frederick William III of Prussia, reigned as King of Prussia from 1840 to 1861.
Frederick William (Friedrich Wilhelm) (16 February 1620 – 29 April 1688) was Elector of Brandenburg and Duke of Prussia, thus ruler of Brandenburg-Prussia, from 1640 until his death in 1688.
Frederick William of Brandenburg-Schwedt (17 November 1700, Oranienbaum Castle (modern-day Oranienbaum-Wörlitz, Wittenberg) – 4 March 1771, Wildenbruch Castle) was a German nobleman.
Friedrich X, Count of Hohenzollern (died 21 June 1412), nicknamed Friedrich the Younger or the Black Count was a German nobleman.
Friedrich XI, Count of Hohenzollern (died 26 November 1401), nicknamed Friedrich the Elder was a German nobleman.
Friedrich XII, Count of Hohenzollern, nickname Friedrich the Oettinger (before 1401 – 1443) was a German nobleman.
Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth (May 10, 1711 in Weferlingen – February 26, 1763 in Bayreuth), was a member of the House of Hohenzollern and Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth.
Frederick, Prince of Hohenzollern (Friedrich Viktor Pius Alexander Leopold Karl Theodor Ferdinand Fürst von Hohenzollern) (30 August 1891 in Heiligendamm, Mecklenburg-Schwerin – 6 February 1965 in Krauchenwies, Baden-Württemberg, Germany) was the eldest son of William, Prince of Hohenzollern and Princess Maria Teresa of Bourbon-Two Sicilies.
The Free Conservative Party (Freikonservative Partei, FKP) was a moderate right-wing political party in Prussia and the German Empire, which emerged from the Conservatives in the Prussian Landtag in 1866.
Free France and its Free French Forces (French: France Libre and Forces françaises libres) were the government-in-exile led by Charles de Gaulle during the Second World War and its military forces, that continued to fight against the Axis powers as one of the Allies after the fall of France.
The Imperial City of Nuremberg (Reichsstadt Nürnberg) was a free imperial city — independent city-state — within the Holy Roman Empire.
Friederike Charlotte Leopoldine Louise of Brandenburg-Schwedt (also often referred to as the Princess of Prussia; 18 August 1745 in Schwedt – 23 January 1808 in Altona) was a German aristocrat who lived as a secular canoness and ruled as the last Princess-abbess of Herford Abbey.
Friedrich Hermann Otto of Hohenzollern-Hechingen (born 22 July 1776 in Namur; died 13 September 1838 at Schloss Lindich in Hechingen) was the penultimate Prince of Hohenzollern-Hechingen.
Friedrich Ludwig of Hohenzollern-Hechingen (1 September 1688 in Strasbourg – 4 June 1750 at Lindich Castle in Hechingen) was prince of Hohenzollern-Hechingen.
Friedrich of Brandenburg-Bayreuth(ca.1550 - ?) was a nobleman of Germany from Hohenzollern dynasty.
Friedrich Wilhelm Bernhard von Berg, also von Berg-Markienen, (20 November 1866 – 9 March 1939) was a German politician and chairman of the Secret Civil Cabinet of Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1918.
Friedrich von Bodelschwingh Sr. (* 6 March 1831 in Tecklenburg; † 2 April 1910 in Bielefeld-Bethel) was a German theologian and politician.
Friedrich von Hohenzollern (1449–1505) was Prince-Bishop of Augsburg from 1486 to 1505.
The German name Friedrich Wilhelm usually refers to several monarchs of the Hohenzollern dynasty.
Friedrich Wilhelm Quirin von Forcade de Biaix,Lange, Page 91 Lehmann, Band 1, Page 34, Nr.
Friedrich Wilhelm von Grumbkow (4 October 1678 – 18 March 1739) was a Prussian Generalfeldmarschall and statesman.
Friedrich Wilhelm, Prince of Hohenzollern (Friedrich Wilhelm Ferdinand Joseph Maria Manuel Georg Meinrad Fidelis Benedikt Michael Hubert Fürst von Hohenzollern; February 3, 1924– September 16, 2010) was the head of the Princely House of Hohenzollern.
Friedrich Wilhelm of Hohenzollern-Hechingen (20 September 1663 in Hechingen – 14 November 1735 in Hechingen) was the fourth Prince of Hohenzollern-Hechingen and was also an imperial Field Marshal.
Friedrich, Count of Süllichen (1010 - May 3, 1097) is allegedly the father of Burkhard I. Friedrich was a probably a Count in the Sülichgau area (roughly corresponding to today's Tübingen district).
Friedrichstadt was an independent suburb of Berlin, and is now a historical neighbourhood of the city itself.
The Gardes du Corps (Regiment der Gardes du Corps) was the personal bodyguard of the king of Prussia and, after 1871, of the German emperor (in German, the Kaiser).
Głubczyce (Hlubčice or sparsely Glubčice, Leobschütz, Silesian German: Lischwitz) is a town in Opole Voivodeship in southern Poland, near the border with the Czech Republic.
Gebhard Truchsess von Waldburg (10 November 1547 – 21 May 1601) was Archbishop-Elector of Cologne.
Württemberg, a hilly rather than a mountainous region, forms part of the South German tableland, also referred to as the Swiss plateau.
Georg Albrecht of Brandenburg-Bayreuth (Bayreuth, 20 March 1619 – Schretz, 27 September 1666), was a German prince and member of the House of Hohenzollern.
Georg Friedrich Ferdinand, Prince of PrussiaEilers, Marlene.
Georg Michaelis (8 September 1857 – 24 July 1936) was Chancellor of Germany for a few months in 1917.
Georg Ritter von Schönerer (17 July 1842 – 14 August 1921) was an Austrian landowner and politician of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy active in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Georg von Frundsberg (24 September 1473 – 20 August 1528) was a German military and Landsknecht leader in the service of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation and Imperial House of Habsburg.
Georg Wolf of Kotzau, nicknamed the rich (d. 1560) was an Imperial Knight and Amtmann and Governor.
Georg, Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe (10 October 1846 – 29 April 1911) was a ruler of the small Principality of Schaumburg-Lippe.
George Albert of Brandenburg (20 November 1591, in Berlin – 29 November 1615, in Sonnenburg, present-day Słońsk), was Margrave of Brandenburg as George Albert II.
George Frost Kennan (February 16, 1904 – March 17, 2005) was an American diplomat and historian.
George Frederick Charles, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth (19 June 1688 at Oberzulzbürg Castle, near Mühlhausen – 17 May 1735 in Bayreuth), was a German prince, member of the House of Hohenzollern, nominal Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth-Kulmbach (1708–35) and Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth (1726–35).
George Frederick II, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach (3 May 1678 – 29 March 1703), known as George Frederick the Younger, the third son of John Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach by his first wife the Margravine Joanna Elisabeth of Baden-Durlach (and thus a half-brother of Queen Caroline of Great Britain), succeeded his elder brother as Margrave of Ansbach in 1692.
George Frederick of Brandenburg-Ansbach (Georg Friedrich der Ältere; 5 April 1539 in Ansbach – 25 April 1603) was Margrave of Ansbach and Bayreuth, as well as Regent of Prussia.
George Henry Griebel (13 August 1846 – March 1933) was a prominent Berlin-born and trained architect who resided in New York City.
George Panu (March 9, 1848 – November 6, 1910) was a Moldavian, later Romanian memoirist, literary critic, journalist and politician.
George Sylvester Viereck (December 31, 1884 – March 18, 1962) was a German-American poet, writer, and pro-Nazi propagandist.
George Tutoveanu (born Gheorghe Ionescu; November 30, 1872–August 18, 1957) was a Romanian poet.
George William (Georg Wilhelm), also known as George IV William; Jerzy IV Wilhelm; 29 September 1660 – 21 November 1675) was the last Silesian duke of Legnica and Brzeg from 1672 until his death. He was the last male member of the Silesian Piast dynasty descending from Władysław II the Exile (1105–1159).
George William (Georg Wilhelm; 13 November 1595 – 1 December 1640), of the Hohenzollern dynasty, was margrave and elector of Brandenburg and duke of Prussia from 1619 until his death.
George William of Brandenburg-Bayreuth (German: Georg Wilhelm; 26 November 1678 in Bayreuth – 18 December 1726 in Bayreuth) was a member of the House of Hohenzollern and Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth.
George of Brandenburg-Ansbach (Georg or Jürgen der Fromme) (4 March 1484 – 27 December 1543), known as George the Pious, was a Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach from the House of Hohenzollern.
The Georgian era is a period in British history from 1714 to, named eponymously after kings George I, George II, George III and George IV.
Gerabronn is a small town in the county of Schwäbisch Hall, Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
The German Confederation (Deutscher Bund) was an association of 39 German-speaking states in Central Europe, created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to coordinate the economies of separate German-speaking countries and to replace the former Holy Roman Empire, which had been dissolved in 1806.
The German Emperor (Deutscher Kaiser) was the official title of the head of state and hereditary ruler of the German Empire.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
The Goldmark (officially just Mark, sign: ℳ) was the currency used in the German Empire from 1873 to 1914.
German heraldry is the tradition and style of heraldic achievements in Germany and the Holy Roman Empire, including national and civic arms, noble and burgher arms, ecclesiastical heraldry, heraldic displays and heraldic descriptions.
The Military Administration in France (Militärverwaltung in Frankreich; Occupation de la France par l'Allemagne) was an interim occupation authority established by Nazi Germany during World War II to administer the occupied zone in areas of northern and western France.
The occupation of Estonia by the German Empire occurred during the later stages of the First World War.
The German Question was a debate in the 19th century, especially during the Revolutions of 1848, over the best way to achieve the unification of Germany.
A referendum on merging the posts of Chancellor and President was held in Germany on 19 August 1934,D. Nohlen and P. Stöver (2010), Elections in Europe: A Data Handbook, p. 762,.
German resistance to Nazism (German: Widerstand gegen den Nationalsozialismus) was the opposition by individuals and groups in Germany to the National Socialist regime between 1933 and 1945.
The German revolutions of 1848–49 (Deutsche Revolution 1848/1849), the opening phase of which was also called the March Revolution (Märzrevolution), were initially part of the Revolutions of 1848 that broke out in many European countries.
The Germans of Romania or Rumäniendeutsche are an ethnic group of Romania.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
The German-speaking states in the early modern period (1500–1800) were divided politically and religiously.
Gertrude Anne of Hohenberg (– 16 February 1281) was German queen from 1273 until her death, by her marriage with King Rudolf I of Germany.
Ghenadie Petrescu (March 1836 – August 31, 1918) was a Wallachian, later Romanian priest of the national Orthodox church, who served as Metropolitan-Primate of Romania from 1893 to 1896.
The Ghica family (Ghica, Gjika, Gikas, Γκίκαs) was a noble family active in Wallachia, Moldavia and in the Kingdom of Romania, between the 17th and 19th centuries.
The Glienicke Bridge (Glienicker Brücke) is a bridge across the Havel River in Germany, connecting the Wannsee district of Berlin with the Brandenburg capital Potsdam.
Gołdap (or variant Goldapp; Geldupė, Geldapė) is a town and the seat of Gołdap County in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship in Poland.
Goslar is a historic town in Lower Saxony, Germany.
The Grafelijke Korenmolen van Zeddam (Countships grainmill of Zeddam) is a tower mill in Zeddam, the Netherlands, which has been restored to working order.
Grand Duchess Anastasia Mikhailovna of Russia (Анастасия Михайловна; 28 July 1860 – 11 March 1922) was a daughter of Grand Duke Michael Nicolaievich of Russia and a granddaughter of Tsar Nicholas I of Russia.
Grand Duchess Maria Vladimirovna of Russia (Мари́я Влади́мировна Рома́нова; born 23 December 1953 in Madrid) has been a claimant to the headship of the Imperial Family of Russia (who reigned as Emperors and Autocrats of All the Russias from 1613 to 1917) since 1992.
The Grand Duchy of Posen (Großherzogtum Posen; Wielkie Księstwo Poznańskie) was part of the Kingdom of Prussia, created from territories annexed by Prussia after the Partitions of Poland, and formally established following the Napoleonic Wars in 1815.
Grand Duke George Mikhailovich of Russia (Георгий Михайлович Романов; born 13 March 1981) is the heir apparent to Maria Vladimirovna, Grand Duchess of Russia, a claimant to the disputed Headship of the Imperial Family of Russia.
Vladimir Kirillovich, Grand Duke of Russia (Cyrillic: Влади́мир Кири́ллович Рома́нов; 21 April 1992) was the Head of the Imperial Family of Russia, a position which he claimed from 1938 to his death.
The Grand Master (Hochmeister; Magister generalis) is the holder of the supreme office of the Teutonic Order. It is equivalent to the grand master of other military orders and the superior general in non-military Roman Catholic religious orders. Hochmeister, literally "high master", is only used in reference to the Teutonic Order, as Großmeister ("grand master") is used in German to refer to the leaders of other orders of knighthood. An early version of the full title in Latin was Magister Hospitalis Sanctae Mariae Alemannorum Hierosolymitani. Since 1216, the full title Magister Hospitalis Domus Sanctae Mariae Teutonicorum Hierosolymitani ("Master of the Hospital House of the Blessed Virgin Mary of the Germans of Jerusalem") was used. The offices of Hochmeister and Deutschmeister (Magister Germaniae) were united in 1525. The title of Magister Germaniae had been introduced in 1219 as the head of the bailiwicks in the Holy Roman Empire, from 1381 also those in Italy, raised to the rank of a prince of the Holy Roman Empire in 1494, but merged with the office of grand master under Walter von Cronberg in 1525, from which time the head of the order had the title of Hoch- und Deutschmeister.
The Guards Rifles Battalion (German: Garde-Schützen-Bataillon; French: Bataillon des Tirailleurs de la Garde; nicknamed: Neuchâteller in High German; Neffschandeller in Berlin German dialect) was an infantry unit of the Prussian Army.
Gunzenhausen is a town in the Weißenburg-Gunzenhausen district, in Bavaria, Germany.
Gusev (Гу́сев), previously known by its German name Gumbinnen (Gumbinė; Gąbin), is a town and the administrative center of Gusevsky District of Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located at the confluence of the Pissa and Krasnaya Rivers, near the border with Poland and Lithuania, east of Chernyakhovsk.
Haemophilia, also spelled hemophilia, is a mostly inherited genetic disorder that impairs the body's ability to make blood clots, a process needed to stop bleeding.
Haemophilia figured prominently in the history of European royalty in the 19th and 20th centuries.
Haigerloch is a town in the north-western part of the Swabian Alb in Germany.
Haldensleben is a town in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.
Hanns Heinz Ewers (3 November 1871 – 12 June 1943) was a German actor, poet, philosopher, and writer of short stories and novels.
Hans von Bodeck (1582–1658) was a German diplomat and chancellor of the Hohenzollern Prince-electors of Brandenburg-Prussia.
Hans Suess, known as Hans von Kulmbach, was a German artist.
Hans-Jürgen Graf von Blumenthal (23 February 1907 – 13 October 1944) was a German aristocrat and Army officer in the Second World War who was executed by the Nazi régime for his role in the 20 July Plot to assassinate Adolf Hitler.
The Harzburg Front (Harzburger Front) was a short-lived radical right-wing, anti-democratic political alliance in Weimar Germany, formed in 1931 as an attempt to present a unified opposition to the government of Chancellor Heinrich Brüning.
Hechingen is a town in central Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
Hedwig Jagiellon (Jadvyga Jogailaitė, Jadwiga Jagiellonka, Hedwig Jagiellonica; 15 March 1513 – 7 February 1573) was an Electress of Brandenburg by marriage to Joachim II Hector, Elector of Brandenburg.
Hedwig of Brandenburg (23 February 1540 – 21 October 1602), a member of the Hohenzollern dynasty, was Duchess of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Princess of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel from 1568 to 1589, by her marriage with the Welf duke Julius.
Heidenheim is a municipality in the Weißenburg-Gunzenhausen district, in Bavaria, Germany.
Heilsbronn is a town in the Ansbach district of the Mittelfranken administrative region of Franconia, in the German state of Bavaria between Nuremberg and Ansbach, in the wooded valley of the Rangau.
Heilsbronn Abbey was a Cistercian monastery at Heilsbronn in the district of Ansbach in Middle Franconia, Bavaria, Germany.
Heinrich Aloysius Maria Elisabeth Brüning (26 November 1885 – 30 March 1970) was a German Centre Party politician and academic, who served as Chancellor of Germany during the Weimar Republic from 1930 to 1932.
Heinrich Gotthard von Treitschke (15 September 1834 – 28 April 1896) was a German historian, political writer and National Liberal member of the Reichstag during the time of the German Empire.
Heinrich XXII, Prince Reuss of Greiz (Greiz, 28 March 1846 – Greiz, 19 April 1902) was the reigning sovereign of Reuss-Greiz, a small principality of the German states, from 1859 until his death in 1902.
Henriette Maria of Brandenburg-Schwedt (2 March 1702 probably in Berlin – 7 May 1782 in Köpenick), was a granddaughter of the "Great Elector" Frederick William of Brandenburg.
Sir Henry Channon (7 March 1897 – 7 October 1958), often known as Chips Channon, was an American-born British Conservative politician, author and diarist.
Henry Landau OBE was a South African World War I volunteer who served with the British Army's Royal Field Artillery when he was recruited into what is now known as the SIS (MI6).
Henry V of Plauen (9 October 1533, Andělská Hora – 24 December 1568, Hof; buried in the Mountain Church in Schleiz) was Burgrave of Meissen and Lord of Plauen and Voigtsberg.
Hermann Friedrich Otto (* 30 July 1751 in Lockenhaus (Léka), Vas County, Kingdom of Hungary; † 2 November 1810 in Hechingen) was the ruling Prince of Hohenzollern-Hechingen from 1798 until 1810.
Princess Hermine Reuss of Greiz (Hermine, Prinzessin Reuß zu Greiz;Montgomery-Massingberd, Hugh (editor). Burke's Guide to the Royal Family, Burke's Peerage, London, 1973, pp. 248-249,302. "Almanach de Gotha", Russie, (Gotha: Justus Perthes, 1944), pp. 90, 97, (French). 17 December 1887 – 7 August 1947), widowed Princess of Schönaich-Carolath, was the second wife of Wilhelm II (1859–1941).
Herzog is a German hereditary title held by one who rules a territorial duchy, exercises feudal authority over an estate called a duchy, or possesses a right by law or tradition to be referred to by the ducal title.
Herzogtum Lauenburg (Duchy of Lauenburg) is the southernmost Kreis, or district, of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany.
Hesselberg (689 m above sea level) is the highest point in Middle Franconia and the Franconian Jura and is situated 60 km south west of Nuremberg, Germany.
Hieronymus Roth (1606–1678) was a lawyer and alderman of Königsberg (Polish: Królewiec, modern day Kaliningrad) who led the city burghers in opposition to Elector Frederick William.
The history of antisemitism – defined as hostile actions or discrimination against Jews as a religious or ethnic group – goes back many centuries; antisemitism has been called "the longest hatred".
The history of Berlin starts with its foundation in the 13th century.
Franconia (Franken) is a region that is not precisely defined, but which lies in the north of the Free State of Bavaria, parts of Baden-Württemberg and South Thuringia and Hesse in Germany.
History of Friedrich II of Prussia, Called Frederick the Great was a biography of Friedrich II of Prussia written by Scottish historian Thomas Carlyle.
Goslar is a world heritage site in Germany.
The history of Luxembourg consists of the history of the country of Luxembourg and its geographical area.
The rule of the Jagiellonian dynasty in Poland between 1386 and 1572 spans the late Middle Ages and early Modern Era in European history.
The history of Pomerania starts shortly before 1000 AD with ongoing conquests by newly arrived Polans rulers.
The history of railways in Württemberg describes the beginnings and expansion of rail transport in Württemberg from the first studies in 1834 to today.
In the second half of the 2nd millennium B.C. (late Bronze Age) Silesia belonged to the Lusatian culture.
The Czech lands, then also known as Lands of the Bohemian Crown, were largely subject to the Habsburgs from the end of the Thirty Years' War in 1648 until the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867.
History of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569–1648) covers a period in the history of Poland and Lithuania, before their joint state was subjected to devastating wars in the middle of the 17th century.
History of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1648–1764) covers a period in the history of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, from the time their joint state became the theater of wars and invasions fought on a great scale in the middle of the 17th century, to the time just before the election of Stanisław August Poniatowski, the last king of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The Royal Castle in Warsaw was a seat of the Sejm and Senate of the first Rzeczpospolita and also an official residence of the monarchs in Warsaw.
Transylvania is a historical region in central and northwestern Romania.
Wrocław (Vratislav, Breslau) has long been the largest and culturally dominant city in Silesia, and is today the capital of Poland's Lower Silesian Voivodeship.
Hitler's Reign of Terror is an independently released 1934 film that attacked the activities of Adolf Hitler in Nazi Germany, and is often credited as being the "first-ever American anti-Nazi film."Greenhouse, Emily (May 21, 2013) The New Yorker.
Hof is a town located on the banks of the Saale in the northeastern corner of the German state of Bavaria, in the Franconian region, at the Czech border and the forested Fichtelgebirge and Frankenwald upland regions.
The Hofmarschall (plural: Hofmarschälle) was the administrative official in charge of a princely German court, supervising all its economic affairs.
Hohenzollern may refer to.
The Hohenzollern Bridge (Hohenzollernbrücke) is a bridge crossing the river Rhine in the German city of Cologne (German: Köln).
Hohenzollern Castle (German) is the ancestral seat of the imperial House of Hohenzollern.
The Hohenzollern Redoubt (Hohenzollernwerk) was a defensive strongpoint of the German 6th Army on the Western Front during World War I, at Auchy-les-Mines near Loos-en-Gohelle in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region of France.
Hohenzollern-Haigerloch was a small county in southwestern Germany.
Hohenzollern-Hechingen was a small principality in southwestern Germany.
Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen was a small principality in southwestern Germany.
Hohenzollernstraße is a two kilometer long street in Munich's Schwabing district.
The Hohe Bogen (archaically often Hohenbogen) is a roughly 8-kilometre-long mountain ridge in the Bavarian Forest.
The Hoher Stein is a rock formation at the northeastern foot of the Bergkopf mountain, part of the Waldstein ridge in the Germany's Fichtel Mountains.
The Homagial Crown, also known under its Latin name as the Corona Homagialis, was a part of the Polish Crown Jewels.
House law or House laws (Hausgesetze) are rules that govern a royal family or dynasty in matters of eligibility for succession to a throne, membership in a dynasty, exercise of a regency, or entitlement to dynastic rank, titles and styles.
The House of Bismarck is a German noble family that rose to prominence in the 19th century, largely through the achievements of the statesman Otto von Bismarck.
Fürstenberg is the name of a Swabian noble house in Germany, based primarily in what is today southern Baden-Württemberg near the source of the Danube river.
Henneberg was a medieval German comital family (Grafen) which from the 11th century onwards held large territories in the Duchy of Franconia.
The House of Hohenzollern is a dynasty of former princes, electors, kings and emperors of Hohenzollern, Brandenburg, Prussia, the German Empire, and Romania.
The House of Oldenburg is a European dynasty of North German origin.
The House of Orange-Nassau (Dutch: Huis van Oranje-Nassau), a branch of the European House of Nassau, has played a central role in the politics and government of the Netherlands and Europe especially since William the Silent organized the Dutch revolt against Spanish rule, which after the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) led to an independent Dutch state.
Plettenberg is a Westphalian noble family of the Uradel.
Schlüsselberg was a Franconian aristocratic family which was a member of the high nobility.
The House Order of Hohenzollern (Hausorden von Hohenzollern or Hohenzollernscher Hausorden) was a dynastic order of knighthood of the House of Hohenzollern awarded to military commissioned officers and civilians of comparable status.
The House Treaty of Gera was a House law of the House of Hohenzollern on the succession in Brandenburg and in the Franconian territories at the end of the sixteenth century binding rules.
The House Treaty of Regensburg was a treaty concluded on 23 July 1541 between two branches of the House of Hohenzollern, defining the boundaries between the newly created principalities of Ansbach and Kulmbach.
The Humboldt Box (Humboldt-Box) is a futuristic museum structure on the Schloßplatz in the center of Berlin, Germany.
The Hungarian Crown was a part of the Polish Crown Jewels.
Romania has a long history of hunting and remains a remarkable hunting destination, drawing many hunters because of its large numbers of brown bears, wolves, wild boars, red deer, and chamois.
The Iffland-Ring is a diamond-studded ring with the picture of August Wilhelm Iffland, a prominent German actor, dramatist and theatre director of the late 18th and early 19th century.
Immendingen is a municipality in the district of Tuttlingen in Baden-Württemberg in Germany.
Imperial and Royal Highness (abbreviation IH&RH) is a style possessed by someone who either through birth or marriage holds two individual styles, Imperial Highness and Royal Highness.
The election of a Holy Roman Emperor was generally a two-stage process whereby, from at least the 13th century, the King of the Romans was elected by a small body of the greatest princes of the Empire, the Prince-electors.
The imperial election of 1411 was an imperial election held to select the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Imperial Palace of Goslar (Kaiserpfalz Goslar) is a historical building complex at the foot of the Rammelsberg hill in the south of the town of Goslar north of the Harz mountains, central Germany.
Incest is sexual activity between family members or close relatives.
Innsbruck is the capital city of Tyrol in western Austria and the fifth-largest city in Austria.
Institut Le Rosey, commonly referred to as Le Rosey or simply Rosey, is a boarding school in Rolle, Switzerland.
The Southern Victory Series is a fan name given to a series of Harry Turtledove alternate history novels.
International relations from 1648–1814 covers the major interactions of the nations of Europe, as well as the other continents, with emphasis on diplomacy, warfare, migration, and cultural interactions, from the Peace of Westphalia to the Congress of Vienna.
Invasion literature (or the invasion novel) is a literary genre most notable between 1871 and the First World War (1914) but still practised to this day.
Io is a particle of a title used mainly by Romanian royalty from both Moldavia and Walachia, preceding their names and the complete list of titles, in all their documents (written or engraved), since the formation of the respective principalities up to the Hohenzollern dynasty in the 19th century.
Ioan Lazăr Kalinderu (born Calenderoglu,Nicolae Iorga, "Molière și Romînii. Comunicație comemorativă la Academia Romînă", in Revista Istorică, Nr. 1–3/1922, p. 5 also known as Iancu Kalinderu, Ioan Kelenderu, Ioanŭ Calenderu, or Jean Kalindéro; December 28 or 29, 1840 – December 11, 1913) was a Wallachian, later Romanian jurist and confidant of King Carol I, who served for thirty years as the administrator of crown domains, and for three years as president of the Romanian Academy.
Irina Mikhailovna Raievskya (18 August 1892 - 22 January 1955), (Раевская, Ирина Михайловна.), was Duchess of Mecklenburg, her second husband George, Duke of Mecklenburg (Georg Herzog zu Mecklenburg) was the head of the House of Mecklenburg-Strelitz from 1934 until his death 1963.
Irina Walker (born Princess Irina of Romania on 28 February 1953) is the third daughter of King Michael I and Queen Anne of Romania.
The Iron Front (Eiserne Front) was an anti-nazi, anti-monarchist and anti-communist paramilitary organization formed in the Weimar Republic.
Jérôme Frédéric Paul, baron David (30 June 1823 – 27 January 1882) was the illegitimate son of Jérôme Bonaparte.
Jörgenberg Castle is a castle in the municipality of Waltensburg/Vuorz of the Canton of Graubünden in Switzerland.
Jørgen Kaas (1618 – 30 January 1658 in Fyn) was a Danish colonel, lord of the fiefdom Lister in Norway, and owner of the Hastrup and Østergaard estates in Denmark.
Jelenia Góra Valley (Kotlina Jeleniogórska; Hirschberger Tal; Literally "Deer Mountain Valley") in Poland is a big valley at the Silesian northern side of the Western Sudetes and next to Kłodzko Valley the largest intramontane basin of the Sudetes.
Joachim derives from the Hebrew Yehoyaqim and means "raised by Yahweh".
Joachim Ernst, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach (22 June 1583, Cölln an der Spree – 7 March 1625, Ansbach) was a German nobleman.
Joachim Frederick (27 January 1546 – 18 July 1608), of the House of Hohenzollern, was Prince-elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg from 1598 until his death.
Joachim I Nestor (21 February 1484 – 11 July 1535) was a Prince-elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg (1499–1535), the fifth member of the House of Hohenzollern.
Joachim II (Joachim II Hector or Hektor; 13 January 1505 – 3 January 1571) was a Prince-elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg (1535–1571), the sixth member of the House of Hohenzollern.
Joachim of Münsterberg (Jáchym z Minstrberka, Joachim von Münsterberg or Joachim of Münsterberg-Oels), also: Joachim of Poděbrady (German: Joachim von Podiebrad; Czech: Jáchym z Poděbrad, Joachim Podiebradowicz) (18 January 1503 – 27 December 1562), a member of the Podiebrad family, was Silesian duke of Münsterberg and Oels from 1536 to 1542.
Joachim von Hohenzollern (21 June 1554 in Sigmaringen – 7 July 1587 in Cölln) was a titular Count of Hohenzollern.
is a small town in the district of Barnim, in Brandenburg, Germany.
Joanna of Bavaria (c. 1362 – 31 December 1386), a member of the House of Wittelsbach, was German queen from 1376 and Queen of Bohemia from 1378 until her death, by her marriage with the Luxembourg king Wenceslaus.
Karl Ernst Job Wilhelm von Witzleben (20 July 1783 – 9 July 1837) was a Prussian lieutenant general, adjutant-general to the king, and minister of war.
Jobst Nikolaus I, Count of Hohenzollern (also known as Jost Nikolaus I or Jos Nikolaus I; 1433 – 9 February 1488) was a German nobleman from the Swabian branch of the House of Hohenzollern.
Joe Buff is an American author of naval techno-thrillers, including the bestseller Tidal Rip.
Johann Christoph, Count of Hohenzollern-Haigerloch (1586 in Haigerloch – 1620 in Haigerloch) was the second Count of Hohenzollern-Haigerloch.
Johann Georg of Hohenzollern-Hechingen (born 1577 in Hechingen; died 28 September 1623 in Hechingen) was the first Prince of Hohenzollern-Hechingen.
Johann Wilhelm Ludwig Gleim (2 April 1719 – 18 February 1803) was a German poet, commonly associated with the Enlightenment movement.
Prince Johann of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (17 August 1578 in Sigmaringen – 22 March 1638 in Munich), was the ruling Count of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen from 1606 to 1623.
John Christian of Brieg (Jan Chrystian Brzeski; Johann Christian von Brieg; Ohlau, 28 August 1591 – Osterode in Ostpreußen (today Ostróda), 25 December 1639), was a Duke of Brzeg–Legnica–Wołów (since 1602; with his brother as co-ruler in Legnica and Wołów until 1612; in Oława since 1605).
John II (Johann II.; 2 August 1455 – 9 January 1499) was Elector of Brandenburg from 1486 until his death, the fourth of the House of Hohenzollern.
John Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach (18 October 1654 – 22 March 1686) succeeded his father Albert II as margrave of Ansbach in 1667.
John George of Brandenburg (Johann Georg) (11 September 1525 – 8 January 1598) was a Prince-elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg (1571–1598) and a Duke of Prussia.
John I, Burgrave of Nuremberg (– 1300) was a member of the House of Hohenzollern and was Burgrave of Nuremberg from 1297 until his death.
John II of Nuremberg (1309 – 1357) was a Burgrave of Nuremberg from the House of Hohenzollern.
John III of Nuremberg (c. 1369 – 11 June 1420 in Plassenburg), Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach from the House of Hohenzollern.
John Sigismund (Johann Sigismund; 8 November 1572 – 23 December 1619) was a Prince-elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg from the House of Hohenzollern.
John of Brandenburg-Küstrin (Johann von Brandenburg-Küstrin, or Hans von Küstrin; 3 August 1513 – 13 January 1571), was a member of the House of Hohenzollern and a Margrave of Brandenburg-Küstrin.
John, nicknamed the Alchemist (Johann der Alchimist; 1406 – 16 November 1464) was a Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach and served as the peace-loving Margrave of Brandenburg after the abdication of his father, Frederick I, the first member of the House of Hohenzollern to rule Brandenburg.
Josef Friedrich Wilhelm (born 12 November 1717 in Bayreuth; died 9 April 1798 in Hechingen), was prince of Hohenzollern-Hechingen from 1750 until his death.
Josef Lauff (16 November 1855 - 1933) was a German poet and dramatist.
Josef Schneider Sr. (29 May 1840 – 14 March 1927) was the first producer of electricity in Germany and founded the Elektrizitätswerk Horb.
Joseph Franz, Prince of Dietrichstein (28 March 1798 – 10 July 1858), was a German prince member of the House of Dietrichstein, Major general, 9th Prince (Fürst) of Dietrichstein zu Nikolsburg, Count of Proskau-Leslie, Baron (Freiherr) of Hollenburg, Finkenstein and Thalberg.
Prince Joseph Ernst Friedrich Karl Anton Meinrad of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (24 May 1702 in Sigmaringen – 8 December 1769 at Haag Castle, Haigerloch) was the fifth Prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen.
Juliana (Juliana Louise Emma Marie Wilhelmina; 30 April 1909 – 20 March 2004) was Queen of the Netherlands from 1948 until her abdication in 1980.
Julius Rudolph Ottomar Freiherr von Minutoli (30 August 1804, Berlin – 5 November 1860, Khaneh Zanian Caravanserai, near Shiraz, Persia) was a Prussian chief of police, diplomat, scientist, and author, as well as a gifted draughtsman.
Julius of Brunswick-Lüneburg (also known as Julius of Braunschweig; 29 June 1528 – 3 May 1589), a member of the House of Welf, was Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and ruling Prince of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel from 1568 until his death.
The following events occurred in June 1932.
Jungingen is a village in the Zollernalbkreis, Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
The Junkers were members of the landed nobility in Prussia.
Kaas is the name of two related Danish noble families from Jutland, which were and are, respectively, two of the preeminent families of the Danish Uradel or ancient high nobility, which were represented in the Council of the Realm.
Kadyny (Cadinen) is a village of Gmina Tolkmicko, within Elbląg County, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, in northern Poland.
Kaiser is the German word for "emperor".
The Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church (in German: Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gedächtniskirche, but mostly just known as Gedächtniskirche) is a Protestant church affiliated with the Evangelical Church in Berlin, Brandenburg and Silesian Upper Lusatia, a regional body of the Evangelical Church in Germany.
Kaiserbahnhof Halbe is a railway station located in Halbe, on the main line between Berlin, which begins at the Gorlitzer railway station, to Cottbus in Brandenburg and on to Görlitz in Saxony.
The Kammergericht (KG) is the Oberlandesgericht, i.e. the highest state court, for the city-state of Berlin, Germany.
Prince Karl Anton of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (Karl Anton Joachim Zephyrinus Friedrich Meinrad Fürst von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen) (7 September 1811 – 2 June 1885) was head of the Princely House of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, Hohenzollern from 1869 and Prime Minister of Prussia.
Karl Friedrich, Prince of Hohenzollern (born 20 April 1952) is the eldest son of the late Friedrich Wilhelm, Prince of Hohenzollern and Princess Margarita of Leiningen.
Karl Friedrich (9 January 1724 – 20 December 1785) was a member of the House of Hohenzollern and Prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, Lord of Haigerloch and Wehrstein from 1769 until his death.
Karl I of Hohenzollern (1516 in Brussels – 18 March 1576 at Sigmaringen Castle) was Count of County of Hohenzollern from 1525 to 1575.
Karl von Harrach (1570 – 16 May 1628) was a Holy Roman nobleman, statesman and diplomat.
Karl Freiherr von Plettenberg (18 December 1852 in Neuhaus – 10 February 1938 in Bückeburg) was a Prussian officer, and later General of Infantry during World War I. He was Commandant-General of the Guards Corps, Adjutant General of the German Kaiser Wilhelm II and a recipient of Pour le Mérite.
Karl, Prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (20 February 1785 – 11 March 1853) was the reigning Prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen from 1831 to 1848.
Karl, Prince of Isenburg-Büdingen (full name: Karl Viktor Amadeus Wolfgang Kasimir Adolf Bodo) (29 July 1838 – 2 April 1899) was head of the mediatised German house of Isenburg and Büdingen.
Karl, Truchsess von Waldburg (7 August 1548 – 18 June 1593), Baron and Steward of Waldburg in Trauchburg (1580), Imperial minister.
Karl-Liebknecht-Straße is a major street in the central Mitte district of the German capital Berlin.
Prince Karol Stanisław Radziwiłł (Караль Станіслаў Радзівіл II, Karolis Stanislovas Radvila II, Exonym: Charles Stanislaus: 27 February 1734 – 21 November 1790) was a Polish nobleman, politician, diplomat, prince of the Crown Kingdom of Poland and the Commonwealth, statesman of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Voivode of Vilnius, governor of Lwów and Sejm Marshal between 1767 and 1768.
Karoline (Hebrew: Chaile) Kaulla née Raphael, known foremost under the name Madame Kaulla or "Kiefe" Auerbacher (1739 in Buchau am Federsee- 18 March 1809 in Hechingen), was one of the most famous Court Jews of her time, and reputed to have been the richest woman in Germany.
Princess Katharina Ursula of Hohenzollern-Hechingen (also Catherine Ursula of Hohenzollern-Hechingen) (1610 – 2 June 1640 in Baden-Baden) was the first wife of Margrave William of Baden-Baden.
The Kálnoky family is a noble family originating from the Kingdom of Hungary.
Königsberg is the name for a former German city that is now Kaliningrad, Russia.
Mitteltragheim, ca. 1901 The Königsberg State and University Library (Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Königsberg) was a combined state library and academic library in Königsberg, Germany.
Schloss Köpenick is a Baroque water palace of the Hohenzollern electors of Brandenburg which stands on an island in the Dahme River surrounded by an English-style park and gives its name to Köpenick, a district of Berlin.
Kędzierzyn-Koźle (Kandrzin-Cosel, 1934-45: Heydebreck O.S. and Cosel; Kandrzin-Koźle) is a town in southwestern Poland, the administrative centre of Kędzierzyn-Koźle County in Opole Voivodeship.
King in Prussia was a title used by the Electors of Brandenburg from 1701 to 1772.
A king-emperor, the female equivalent being queen-empress, is a sovereign ruler who is simultaneously a king of one territory and emperor of another.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
The Kingdom of Lithuania was a short-lived constitutional monarchy created towards the end of World War I when Lithuania was under occupation by the German Empire.
The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.
The Kingdom of Romania (Regatul României) was a constitutional monarchy in Southeastern Europe which existed from 1881, when prince Carol I of Romania was proclaimed King, until 1947, when King Michael I of Romania abdicated and the Parliament proclaimed Romania a republic.
Kisielice (Freystadt in Westpreußen) is a town in Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, Poland, with 2,222 inhabitants (2004).
Klaipėda (Samogitian name: Klaipieda, Polish name: Kłajpeda, German name: Memel), is a city in Lithuania on the Baltic Sea coast.
Kleinstaaterei ("small-state-ery") is a German word used, often pejoratively, to denote the territorial fragmentation in Germany and neighboring regions during the Holy Roman Empire (especially after the end of the Thirty Years' War) and during the German Confederation in the first half of the 19th century.
Konstantin von Höfler was a German church and general historian, publicist, ennobled anti-nationalist politician and poet.
The House of Kotzau was a local noble family in Franconia.
Kreis Wirsitz was one of 14 or 15 Kreise (English: counties) in the northern administrative district of Bromberg, in the Prussian province of Posen.
The Kremmener Luch is a shallow fen, known locally as a luch, between the Glien plateau (near Berlin) in the south, and the Beetzer Heath in the north.
The Krkonoše (Czech), Karkonosze (Polish), Riesengebirge (German), Riesageberge (Silesian German) or Giant Mountains, are a mountain range located in the north of the Czech Republic and the south-west of Poland, part of the Sudetes mountain system (part of the Bohemian Massif).
The Kronprinzenpalais (Crown Prince's Palace) is a landmark late Neoclassical-style building at one end of Unter den Linden in Berlin.
The Krupp family (see pronunciation), a prominent 400-year-old German dynasty from Essen, became famous for their production of steel, artillery, ammunition, and other armaments.
Kulmbach is the capital of the district of Kulmbach in Bavaria in Germany.
Kulmbach is a ''Landkreis'' (district) in Bavaria, Germany.
Kunigunde of Brandenburg-Kulmbach (1524 in Ansbach; died: 27 February 1558 in Pforzheim) was a princess of Brandenburg-Kulmbach by birth and by marriage Margravine of Baden-Durlach.
The Kurfürstendamm (colloquially Ku'damm) is one of the most famous avenues in Berlin.
The German term Kurmark (archaic Churmark, "Electoral March") referred to the Imperial State held by the margraves of Brandenburg, who had been awarded the electoral (Kur) dignity by the Golden Bull of 1356.
Kurt Freiherr von Plettenberg (31 January 1891 in Bückeburg – 10 March 1945 in Berlin) was a German forester, cavalry officer and a member of the German Resistance (Widerstand).
Kurt Ferdinand Friedrich Hermann von Schleicher (7 April 1882 – 30 June 1934) was a German general and the last Chancellor of Germany during the Weimar Republic.
Kwidzyn (Latin: Quedin; Marienwerder; Prussian: Kwēdina) is a town in northern Poland on the Liwa river in the Powiśle (right bank of Vistula) region, with 40,008 inhabitants (2004).
La Tour d'Auvergne was a noble French dynasty.
The Ladies Merit Cross (Frauenverdienstkreuz) was founded on 22 October 1907 by King William II of Prussia as a two-class Ladies Order and to reward women and young women, who worked in the field of charity, or in a religious or social field, who rendered outstanding had personal self-sacrificing service.
The Lands of the Bohemian Crown, sometimes called Czech lands in modern times, were a number of incorporated states in Central Europe during the medieval and early modern periods connected by feudal relations under the Bohemian kings.
Lauenburg and Bütow Land (Länder or italic, Lãbòrskò-bëtowskô Zemia, Ziemia lęborsko-bytowska) formed a historical region in eastern Pomerania.
Lützow Free Corps was a volunteer force of the Prussian army during the Napoleonic Wars.
Le Locle is a municipality in Le Locle District in the Canton of Neuchâtel in Switzerland.
Lehnin Abbey (Kloster Lehnin) is a former Cistercian monastery in Lehnin in Brandenburg, Germany.
Leopold Hoesch (born February 16, 1969 in Cologne, West Germany) is a German film producer, International Emmy Award winner and founder of the production company Broadview TV.
Leopold II (Italian: Leopoldo Giovanni Giuseppe Francesco Ferdinando Carlo, German: Leopold Johann Joseph Franz Ferdinand Karl, English: Leopold John Joseph Francis Ferdinand Charles; 3 October 1797 – 29 January 1870) was Grand Duke of Tuscany (1824–1859).
Leopold von Ranke (21 December 1795 – 23 May 1886) was a German historian and a founder of modern source-based history.
Leopold, Prince of Hohenzollern (Leopold Stephan Karl Anton Gustav Eduard Tassilo Fürst von Hohenzollern) (22 September 1835 – 8 June 1905) was the head of the Swabian branch of the House of Hohenzollern, and played a fleeting role in European power politics, in connection with the Franco-Prussian War.
Lev Nussimbaum (Kiev, October 17, 1905 – Positano, August 27, 1942), who wrote under the pen names Essad Bey and Kurban Said, was a writer and journalist, born in Kiev to a Jewish family.
Lewis Atterbury Stimson (August 24, 1844 – September 17, 1917) was an American surgeon who was the first to perform a public operation in the United States using Joseph Lister's antiseptic technique.
The German Empire and Kingdom of Prussia were abolished in 1918.
The succession order to the throne of the Romanian monarchy, abolished since 1947, was regulated by the monarchical constitution of 1923 and the 1884 Law of the Romanian Royal House Rules enacted pursuant to the 1866 Constitution of Romania which had confirmed the enthronement of Prince Karl (Carol) of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen.
The following is a list of pagi (the Latin term glossing Old High German gowe, corresponding to English shire) of the Frankish duchy of Alamannia.
This list of notable Roseans is composed of former students of Institut Le Rosey, an international boarding school located in Rolle and Gstaad, Switzerland.
This is a list of the Austrian empresses, archduchesses, duchesses and margravines, wives of the rulers of Austria.
There have been three kinds of Bavarian consorts in history, Duchesses, Electresses and Queens.
This is a list of the Locomotives of the Bulgarian State Railways (BDŽ).
This list records the bishops of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Minden (Bistum Minden), a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Cologne, who were simultaneously rulers of princely rank (prince-bishop) in the Prince-Bishopric of Minden (Hochstift Minden; est. 1180 and secularised in 1648), a state of imperial immediacy within the Holy Roman Empire.
This is a list of the royal consorts of the rulers of Bohemia.
The following is a list of cemeteries in Germany.
Category:Duchesses of Anhalt Anhalt Anhalt.
Baden was a state of the Holy Roman Empire and later one of the German states along the frontier with France primarily consisting of territory along the right bank of the Rhine opposite Alsace and the Palatinate.
The Duchesses of Holstein-Gottorp were the consorts of the rulers of Holstein-Gottorp.
This is a list of the Duchesses and Grand Duchesses; the consorts of the Duke Mecklenburg and later the Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Strelitz.
A royal consort is the spouse of a ruling monarch.
The Duchesses of Schleswig-Holstein were the consorts of the rulers of Schleswig-Holstein and the separate states of Schleswig and Holstein, before that, the two duchies of Schleswig and Holstein.
The Queen of Württemberg was the queen consort of the ruler of the Kingdom of Württemberg, from its establishment in 1806 to its abolition in 1918.
For a list of current national currencies, see List of circulating currencies.
A pretender is an aspirant or claimant to a monarchy that either has been abolished or suspended, or is occupied by another.
This list of Danish consorts includes each queen consort (wife of a reigning king) and each prince consort (husband of a reigning queen).
A consort of the Netherlands is a person married to a Dutch monarch during his or her reign.
This is a list of films about the Romanovs, the ruling family of Russia from 1613 to 1917.
The Consorts of Finland were the spouses of the Finnish Monarchs.
This is a list of monarchs who ruled over the German territories of central Europe from the division of the Frankish Empire in 843 (by which a separate Eastern Frankish Kingdom was created), until the collapse of the German Empire in 1918.
The term German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich) commonly refers to Germany, from its foundation as a unified nation-state on January 18, 1871, until the abdication of its last Kaiser, Wilhelm II, on November 9, 1918.
German queen is the informal title used when referring to the wife of the ruler of the Kingdom of Germany.
Consorts of the Kings of Greece were women married to the rulers of the Kingdom of Greece during their reign.
Consorts of Hanover were women married to the Hanoverian monarchs during their reigns.
This is a list of the heads of state of Germany, from the Unification of Germany in 1871 to the present day.
This is a list of the Landgravine, Electress and Grand Duchess of Hesse, the consorts of the Landgrave of Hesse and its successor states; and finally of the Electors and Grand Dukes of Hesse.
This article serves as an index – as complete as possible – of all the honorific orders or similar decorations awarded by Germany, classified by Monarchies chapter and Republics chapter, and, under each chapter, recipients' countries and the detailed list of recipients.
This article serves as an index – as complete as possible – of all the honorific orders or similar decorations awarded by Portugal, classified by Monarchies chapter and Republics chapter, and, under each chapter, recipients' countries and the detailed list of recipients.
This article serves as an index – as complete as possible – of all the honorific orders or similar decorations awarded by Sweden, classified by Monarchies chapter and Republics chapter, and, under each chapter, recipients' countries and the detailed list of recipients.
This is a list of the queens consorts of Hungary, the consorts of the kings of Hungary.
The consort (or spouse) of the royal rulers of Lithuania and of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was in all cases a woman and nearly all took the title of Grand Duchess.
List of notable or known members of German Student Corps.
On 20 July 1944, Adolf Hitler and his top military associates entered the briefing hut of the Wolf's Lair military headquarters, a series of concrete bunkers and shelters located deep in the forest East Prussia, not far from the World War I Battle of Tannenberg.
The monarchs of Prussia were members of the House of Hohenzollern who were the hereditary rulers of the former German state of Prussia from its founding in 1525 as the Duchy of Prussia.
This is a list of Norwegian queens.
The following is a list of one-time characters from the American animated television comedy series The Simpsons.
This is a list of notable people from Silesia.
Numerous figures in German culture and history (some still living) were either born or resident in the former eastern territories of Germany.
These are characters created by the columnist Peter Simple (1913–2006) from 1957 onwards.
The Polish royal consorts were the spouses of the reigning monarchs of the Kingdom of Poland.
This is a list of princess-abbesses of Quedlinburg Abbey.
The Queen of Prussia was the queen consort of the ruler of the Kingdom of Prussia, from its establishment in 1701 to its abolition in 1918.
This is a list of retronyms used in the English language – terms renamed after something similar but newer has come into being.
This article lists the Margraves and Electors of Brandenburg during the period of time that Brandenburg was a constituent state of the Holy Roman Empire.
The following list of rulers of Estonia indicates the rules throughout that nation's history.
The Russian consorts were the spouses of the Russian rulers.
This is a list of the Duchesses, Electresses and Queens of Saxony; the consorts of the Duke of Saxony and its successor states; including the Electorate of Saxony, the Kingdom of Saxony, the House of Ascania, Albertine, and the Ernestine Saxony.
A monarch is the person who heads a monarchy, normally ruling for life, or until abdication or deposition.
This is a list of states in the Holy Roman Empire beginning with the letter H.
This is a list of states in the Holy Roman Empire beginning with the letter N.
This is a list of states in the Holy Roman Empire beginning with the letter Z.
This is a list of Swedish queens consort and spouses of Swedish monarchs and regents.
This list of treaties contains known historic agreements, pacts, peaces, and major contracts between states, armies, governments, and tribal groups.
This is a list of World War I films.
This is a list including all rulers who had carried the title of emperor through history.
This is a list of rulers and office-holders of Germany.
The Livonian War (1558–1583) was fought for control of Old Livonia (in the territory of present-day Estonia and Latvia), when the Tsardom of Russia faced a varying coalition of Denmark–Norway, the Kingdom of Sweden, and the Union (later Commonwealth) of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Poland.
Lord of the World is a 1907 dystopian science fiction novel by Monsignor Robert Hugh Benson that centers upon the reign of the Anti-Christ and the End of the World.
The following is a list of lords and later on margraves of Bergen op Zoom.
The Lords of Thannhausen are an old and still existing German noble family with the rank of Freiherr (Baron).
Lothar Bucher (October 25, 1817 – October 12, 1892) was a German publicist and trusted aide of German chancellor Otto von Bismarck.
Louis Ferdinand Victor Edward Albert Michael Hubert, Prince of Prussia (German: Louis Ferdinand Viktor Eduard Albert Michael Hubertus Prinz von Preußen; 9 November 1907 – 26 September 1994) was a member of the royal House of Hohenzollern and the pretender for a half-century to the abolished German throne.
Louis IV (Ludwig IV; 12 September 1837 – 13 March 1892) was the Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine, reigning from 13 June 1877 until his death.
Louis, Prince Napoléon (Louis Jérôme Victor Emmanuel Léopold Marie; 23 January 1914 – 3 May 1997) was a member of the Bonaparte dynasty.
Louisa Ulrika of Prussia (Lovisa Ulrika; Luise Ulrike) (24 July 1720 – 16 July 1782) was Queen of Sweden between 1751 and 1771 by her marriage to King Adolf Frederick, and queen mother during the reign of King Gustav III.
Duchess Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (Luise Auguste Wilhelmine Amalie; 10 March 1776 – 19 July 1810) was Queen of Prussia as the wife of King Frederick William III.
The Lower Saxon Circle (Niedersächsischer Reichskreis) was an Imperial Circle of the Holy Roman Empire.
Lubomirski is a Polish princely family.
Ludwig Johann Karl Gregor Eusebius Freiherr Roth von Schreckenstein (16 November 1789, in Immendingen – 30 May 1858, in Münster) was a Prussian General of the cavalry and Minister of War.
Anton Albert Heinrich Ludwig (or Louis) von Wildenbruch (1803–1874) was Prussian general and diplomat.
Ludwigsstadt is a town in the district of Kronach, in the Upper Franconian region of Bavaria, Germany.
Luther is a 2003 American-German epic historical drama film loosely based on the life of Martin Luther starring Joseph Fiennes.
Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxembourg, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.
Magdalene of Brandenburg (1460 in Tangermünde – 17 June 1496 at Hohenzollern Castle) was a German noblewoman.
Magdalene of Brandenburg, also Magdalene and Magdalen, (7 January 1582 – 4 May 1616) was the daughter of John George, Elector of Brandenburg and his third wife Elisabeth of Anhalt-Zerbst.
Magdalene of Brandenburg (born:; died: 27 October 1454 in Scharnebeck) was a princess of Brandenburg by birth and by marriage Duchess of Brunswick-Lüneburg.
The Maltese cross is the cross symbol associated with the Order of St. John since 1567, with the Knights Hospitaller and the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, and by extension with the island of Malta.
Margaret of Brandenburg (1410 – 27 July 1465, Landshut) was a Princess of Brandenburg by birth and through successive marriages Duchess of Mecklenburg, Duchess of Bavaria-Ingolstadt and Countess of Waldenfels.
Margaret of Brandenburg (1449 or 1450 – 1489) was a princess of Brandenburg by birth and by marriage Duchess of Pomerania.
Margaret of Brandenburg (18 April 1453 – 27 April 1509, Hof) was a princess of Brandenburg by birth and abbess of the Poor Clares monastery at Hof from 1476 to 1490.
Margaret of Brandenburg (1511 – after 3 November 1577) was a Princess of Brandenburg by birth and by marrying first a duke of Pomerania and later a prince of Anhalt.
Margaret of Hohenzollern-Nuremberg (1367-1406) was a daughter of Burgrave Frederick V of Nuremberg and his wife, Elisabeth of Meissen.
Princess Margareta, Custodian of the Crown of Romania (born 26 March 1949) is the eldest daughter of King Michael I and Queen Anne of Romania.
Margrave was originally the medieval title for the military commander assigned to maintain the defense of one of the border provinces of the Holy Roman Empire or of a kingdom.
Albert Frederick, Prince of Prussia, Margrave of Brandenburg-Schwedt (24 January 1672 in Berlin – 21 June 1731 at Friedrichsfelde Palace), was a Lieutenant General in the army of the Electorate of Brandenburg-Prussia and Grand Master of the Order of Saint John.
Christian Ludwig (24 May 1677 – 3 September 1734), a member of the House of Hohenzollern, was a Margrave of Brandenburg-Schwedt and a military officer of the Prussian Army.
Margrave Frederick of Brandenburg-Schwedt (13 August 1710 – 10 April 1741, fell in the Battle of Mollwitz) was the second son of Margrave Albert Frederick of Brandenburg-Schwedt and his wife Maria Dorothea of Courland (1684-1743).
Frederick William of Brandenburg-Schwedt (18 March 1715 – 12 September 1744 in Prague) was a Prussian Major General and commander of the Guards on Foot.
The Margravial Opera House (Markgräfliches Opernhaus) is a Baroque opera house in the town of Bayreuth, Germany, built between 1744 and 1748.
The Margraviate of Brandenburg (Markgrafschaft Brandenburg) was a major principality of the Holy Roman Empire from 1157 to 1806 that played a pivotal role in the history of Germany and Central Europe.
Dorothea Charlotte of Brandenburg-Ansbach (28 November 1661 – 15 November 1705) was a German noblewomen, and by her marriage to Ernest Louis, Landgravine consort of Hesse-Darmstadt.
Eleonore Juliane of Brandenburg-Ansbach (23 October 1663 – 4 March 1724) was a princess of Brandenburg-Ansbach and through her marriage duchess of Württemberg-Winnental.
Margravine Elisabeth Fredericka Sophie of Brandenburg-Bayreuth (30 August 1732 – 6 April 1780), was a German princess of the House of Hohenzollern and the Duchess of Württemberg by marriage.
Elisabeth Sophie of Brandenburg (5 April 1674 – 22 November 1748), was a Duchess consort of Courland by marriage to Duke Frederick Casimir Kettler of Courland, a Margravine consort of Brandenburg-Bayreuth by marriage to Christian Ernst, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, and a Duchess consort of Saxe-Meiningen by marriage to Ernst Ludwig I, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen.
Louise Charlotte of Brandenburg (13 September 1617 – 28 August 1676), was a Duchess consort of Courland by marriage to Duke Jacob Kettler of Courland.
Louise Henriette Wilhelmine of Brandenburg-Schwedt (24 September 1750 in Różanki – 21 December 1811 in Dessau), was a Margravine of Brandenburg by births and by marriage a princess, and later Duchess, of Anhalt-Dessau.
Magdalene Sibylle of Brandenburg-Bayreuth (27 October 1612 – 20 March 1687) was Electress of Saxony from 1656 to 1680 as the wife of John George II.
Margravine Philippine Auguste Amalie of Brandenburg-Schwedt (10 October 1745 – 1 May 1800) was a Landgravine consort of Hesse-Kassel by marriage to Frederick II, Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel.
Margravine Sophie Christine Louise of Brandenburg-Bayreuth (in German: Sophie Christine Luise, Markgräfin von Brandenburg-Bayreuth; 4 January 1710 in Schloss Weferlingen, Weferlingen– 13 June 1739 in Brussels, Austrian Netherlands) was a member of the Brandenburg-Bayreuth line of the House of Hohenzollern and a Margravine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth by birth.
Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg (11 November 1599 – 28 March 1655) was a German princess and queen consort of Sweden.
Maria of Romania (6 January 1900 – 22 June 1961), known in Serbian as Marija Karađorđević (Марија Карађорђевић) was Queen of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, later Queen of Yugoslavia, as the wife of King Alexander from 1922 until his assassination in 1934.
Maria Amalia of Brandenburg-Schwedt (26 November 1670 in Cölln – 17 November 1739 at Bertholdsburg Castle in Schleusingen) was a princess from the Brandenburg-Schwedt line of the House of Hohenzollern and by marriage a Duchess of Saxe-Zeitz.
Marie of Prussia (Marie Friederike Franziska Hedwig von Preußen; October 15, 1825 – May 17, 1889) was Queen of Bavaria and the mother of Kings Ludwig II and Otto of Bavaria.
Marie of Prussia (23 January 1579 – 21 February 1649) was a Prussian duchess by birth and Margravine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth by marriage.
The Marktbrunnen in Mainz is a renaissance fountain located at the ″Markt″ (market place) of Mainz.
The Master of Meßkirch (German: Meister von Meßkirch; active c. 1515 - 1540) was an anonymous German Renaissance painter.
Maximilian Harden (born Felix Ernst Witkowski, he changed his name to Maximilian Harden) (20 October 1861 – 30 October 1927) was an influential German journalist and editor.
Maximilian I, Prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (20 January 1636 – 13 August 1689 in Sigmaringen) was a German nobleman.
The following events occurred in May 1933.
The following events occurred in May 1938.
Meinhard II (c. 1238 – 1 November 1295), a member of the House of Gorizia (Meinhardiner), ruled the County of Gorizia (as Meinhard IV) and the County of Tyrol together with his younger brother Albert from 1258, until in 1271 they divided their heritage and Meinhard became sole ruler of Tyrol.
Meinrad I of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (1605 in Munich – 30 January 1681 in Sigmaringen) was Prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen from 1638 until his death.
Meinrad II Charles Anthony of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (1 November 1673 in Sigmaringen – 20 October 1715 in Sigmaringen) was Prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen from 1689 until his death.
Saint Meinrad (c. 797 – 21 January 861) was a hermit and a Roman Catholic saint.
Michael I (Mihai I; 25 October 1921 – 5 December 2017) was the last King of Romania, reigning from 20 July 1927 to 8 June 1930 and again from 6 September 1940 until his abdication on 30 December 1947.
Middle Franconia (Mittelfranken) is one of the three administrative regions of Franconia in Bavaria, Germany.
The military history of Luxembourg is central to the formation of Luxembourg as a nation from its formation around Luxembourg Castle in 963.
Millennialism (from millennium, Latin for "a thousand years"), or chiliasm (from the Greek equivalent), is a belief advanced by some Christian denominations that a Golden Age or Paradise will occur on Earth in which Christ will reign for 1000 years prior to the final judgment and future eternal state (the "World to Come") of the New Heavens and New Earth.
Monarchism is the advocacy of a monarch or monarchical rule.
Monarchism in Bavaria after 1918 was driven by the belief that a monarchy would be the best form of government for the German state of Bavaria, despite the abolition of the Bavarian monarchy in 1918.
The Monarchy of Germany (the German Monarchy) was the system of government in which a hereditary monarch was the sovereign of the German Empire from 1871 to 1918.
Monbijou Palace was a Rococo palace in central Berlin located in the present-day Monbijou Park on the north bank of the Spree river across from today's Bode Museum and within sight of the Hohenzollern city palace.
Sir Morell Mackenzie (7 July 1837 – 3 February 1892) was a British physician, one of the pioneers of laryngology in the United Kingdom.
The Museum für Vor- und Frühgeschichte ("Museum for prehistory and early history"), part of the Berlin State Museums, is one of major archaeological museums of Germany, and among the largest supra-regional collections of prehistoric finds in Europe.
Myślibórz (Soldin; Żôłdzëno) is a city in north-west Poland, in West Pomeranian Voivodeship.
The Equestrian statue of Frederick the Great is an outdoor sculpture in cast bronze at the east end of Unter den Linden in Berlin, Germany honoring King Frederick II of Prussia.
The national colours of the Federal Republic of Germany are officially black, red, and gold, defined with the adoption of the West German flag as a tricolour with these colours in 1949.
Neman (Неман), prior to 1946 known by its German name Ragnit (Ragainė; Ragneta), is a town and the administrative center of Nemansky District in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located in the historic East Prussia, on the steep southern bank of the Neman River, where it forms the Russian border with the Klaipėda Region in Lithuania, and northeast of Kaliningrad, the administrative center of the oblast.
Nemirseta (Nimmersatt) is a district of the Lithuanian seaside resort Palanga, located on the Baltic coast north of Klaipėda.
Nesterov (Не́стеров), until 1938 known by its German name Stallupönen (Stalupėnai; Stołupiany) and in 1938-1946 as Ebenrode, is a town and the administrative center of Nesterovsky District in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located east of Kaliningrad, the administrative center of the oblast, near the Russian-Lithuanian border on the railway connecting Kaliningrad Oblast with Moscow.
Else Ury's Nesthäkchen is a Berlin doctor's daughter, Anne Marie Braun, a slim, golden blond, quintessential German girl.
The Neuchâtel Crisis (1856–1857) was the result of a diplomatic question between the Swiss Confederation and the King of Prussia regarding the rights of the Royal House of Prussia to the Principality of Neuchâtel.
The Neue Kirche (New Church; colloquially Deutscher Dom, i.e., German Church), is located in Berlin on the Gendarmenmarkt across from French Church of Friedrichstadt (French Church).
The Neue Rheinische Zeitung: Organ der Demokratie ("New Rhenish Newspaper: Organ of Democracy") was a German daily newspaper, published by Karl Marx in Cologne between 1 June 1848 and 19 May 1849.
The Neuer Marstall (New Stables) is a listed historic building in Berlin, Germany located on the Schloßplatz and the Spree River.
The Neumark, also known as the New March (Nowa Marchia) or as East Brandenburg, was a region of the Margraviate of Brandenburg and its successors located east of the Oder River in territory which became part of Poland in 1945.
Neuruppin is a town in Brandenburg, Germany, the administrative seat of Ostprignitz-Ruppin district.
Neustadt (Aisch)-Bad Windsheim (German: Landkreis Neustadt an der Aisch-Bad Windsheim, official Landkreis Neustadt a.d.Aisch-Bad Windsheim) is a ''Landkreis'' (district) in Bavaria, Germany.
Neustadt an der Aisch (officially: Neustadt a.d.Aisch) is a small town of around 12,000 in the northern part of Bavaria (Germany), within the Franconian administrative region Middle Franconia.
The New Castle (Neues Schloss) is a nineteenth century palace in Hechingen in Germany.
Nicholas Michael de Roumanie Medforth-Mills, formerly Prince Nicholas of Romania, (born 1 April 1985) is the eldest child and only son of Princess Elena of Romania and Robin Medforth-Mills.
Nicolae Pătrașcu, Petrașco, or Petrașcu, also styled Nicolae Voevod (Church Slavonic and Romanian Cyrillic: or; ca. 1580 – late 1627), was the titular Prince of Wallachia, an only son of Michael the Brave and Lady Stanca, and a putative grandson of Pătrașcu the Good.
is a locality (Ortsteil) within the borough (Bezirk) of Pankow in Berlin, Germany.
coat of arms Nihil sine Deo, Latin for "Nothing without God", is used as a motto by the German Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen royal family.
A Noble House is an aristocratic family or kinship group, usually British or European, either currently or historically of national or international significance, and usually associated with one or more hereditary titles, the most senior of which will be held by the "Head of the House" or patriarch.
The North German Confederation (Norddeutscher Bund) was the German federal state which existed from July 1867 to December 1870.
The following events occurred in November 1926.
Nuremberg (Nürnberg) is a city on the river Pegnitz and on the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia, about north of Munich.
Nuremberg Castle (Nürnberger Burg) is a group of medieval fortified buildings on a sandstone ridge dominating the historical center of Nuremberg in Bavaria, Germany.
The following events occurred in October 1926.
Odo William Leopold Russell, 1st Baron Ampthill, (20 February 182925 August 1884), styled Lord Odo Russell between 1872 and 1881, was a British diplomat and the first British Ambassador to the German Empire.
The Old Market Square (German: Alter Markt) is a centrally located square in downtown Potsdam which forms the historical center of the city.
Olecko (former since 1560, colloquially also, since 1928, Alėcka) is a city in Masuria, in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship of Poland, near Ełk and Suwałki.
"Once Upon a Time in Springfield" is the tenth episode of The Simpsons twenty-first season.
The Ordenspalais ("Palace of the Order of Saint John") was a building on the northern corner of Wilhelmplatz with Wilhelmstraße in Berlin (now in Berlin-Mitte).
The Order of Carol I (Romanian: Ordinul Carol I) was the highest ranking of the Romanian honours of the Kingdom of Romania until the abolition of the monarchy in 1947.
The Order of Louise (German: Luisen-Orden) was founded on 3 August 1814 by Frederick William III of Prussia to honor his late wife, the much beloved Queen Louise (née Luise Auguste Wilhelmine Amalie, Herzogin zu Mecklenburg-Strelitz).
The Bailiwick of Brandenburg of the Chivalric Order of Saint John of the Hospital at Jerusalem (Balley Brandenburg des Ritterlichen Ordens Sankt Johannis vom Spital zu Jerusalem), commonly known as the Order of Saint John or the Johanniter Order (German: Johanniterorden), is the German Protestant branch of the Knights Hospitaller, the oldest surviving chivalric order, which generally is considered to have been founded in Jerusalem in the year 1099 AD.
The Order of the Black Eagle (Hoher Orden vom Schwarzen Adler) was the highest order of chivalry in the Kingdom of Prussia.
The Most Illustrious Order of the Royal House of Chakri (เครื่องขัตติยราชอิสริยาภรณ์อันมีเกียรติคุณรุ่งเรืองยิ่งมหาจักรีบรมราชวงศ์) was established in 1882 by King Rama V of the Kingdom of Siam (now Thailand) to commemorate the Bangkok Centennial.
The Order of the Swan (Schwanenorden) was a spiritual chivalric order of princes and nobles ruled by the House of Hohenzollern.
The National Decorations System of Romania (Sistemul Naţional de Decoraţii) is divided into six categories, listed below.
The Ordre de la Sincérité (Order of Sincerity), was an order of knighthood of the German Margrave of Bayreuth.
The origins of the coats of arms of German federal states covers the historical context for the current arms of the German länder.
Otto Hintze (August 27, 1861 – April 25, 1940) was a German historian of public administration.
Otto I (c. 1128 – July 8, 1184) was the second Margrave of Brandenburg, from 1170 until his death.
Paretz is a village in the German state of Brandenburg in the district of Havelland, west of Berlin.
Pariser Platz is a square in the centre of Berlin, Germany, situated by the Brandenburg Gate at the end of the Unter den Linden.
The Parochialkirche (literally the Reformed parochial church) is a Reformed church in the Klosterviertel neighbourhood of the Mitte borough in Berlin.
Paternalistic conservatism is a strand in conservatism which reflects the belief that societies exist and develop organically; and that members within them have obligations towards each other.
The Patriottentijd (English: Patriot Period) was a period of political instability in the Dutch Republic between approximately 1780 and 1787.
("Peacock Island") is an island in the River Havel situated in Berlin-Wannsee, in southwestern Berlin, near the border with Potsdam and Brandenburg.
Philip Absolon (born 24 November 1960) is a British artist and a founder member of the Stuckists art group,Milner, Frank, ed.
Philip Henry Hale (May 24, 1850 – May 7, 1927) was a British-born American newspaper publisher, rancher, and music composer.
Philip William, Prince in Prussia (Philipp Wilhelm von Brandenburg-Schwedt; May 19, 1669, castle of Königsberg – December 19, 1711, castle of Schwedt) was a Prussian Prince, was the first owner of the Prussian secundogeniture of Brandenburg-Schwedt and was governor of Magdeburg from 1692 to 1711.
Philipp Friedrich Alexander, Prince of Eulenburg and Hertefeld, Count von Sandels (12 February 1847 – 17 September 1921) was a diplomat and composer of Imperial Germany who achieved considerable influence as the closest friend of Wilhelm II.
Philipp Christoph Friedrich, Prince of Hohenzollern-Hechingen (24 June 1616 in Hechingen – 24 January 1671 in Hechingen) was a German nobleman.
Plassenburg is a castle in the city of Kulmbach in Bavaria.
Plön is the district seat of the Plön district in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, and has about 8,700 inhabitants.
Pliezhausen is a town in the district of Reutlingen in Baden-Württemberg in Germany.
The only surviving original piece of the Polish Crown Jewels from the time of the Piast dynasty is the ceremonial sword – Szczerbiec.
Substantial political violence existed in Germany from the fall of the House of Hohenzollern and the rise of the Weimar Republic through the German Revolution of 1918–19 until the rise of the Nazi Party to power in 1933 when a Nazi totalitarian state was formed and opposition figures were arrested.
Pomerania during the Late Middle Ages covers the history of Pomerania in the 14th and 15th centuries.
The Pomeranian Voivodeship (Województwo pomorskie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Kingdom of Poland and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1454/1466 until the First partition of Poland in 1772.
Potsdam is the capital and largest city of the German federal state of Brandenburg.
Pravdinsk, prior to 1946 known by its German name Friedland (Romuva; Frydląd) is a town and the administrative center of Pravdinsky District in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the Lava River, approximately east of Bagrationovsk and southeast of Kaliningrad, the administrative center of the oblast.
Primorsk (Примо́рск), prior to 1946 known by its German name Fischhausen (Žuvininkai/Skanavikas; Rybaki), is a town in Baltiysky District of Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the Vistula Lagoon.
Prince Adalbert of Prussia (Heinrich Wilhelm Adalbert) (29 October 1811 in Berlin – 6 June 1873 in Karlsbad) was a son of Prince Wilhelm of Prussia and Landgravine Marie Anna of Hesse-Homburg.
Prince Adalbert of Prussia (Adalbert Ferdinand Berengar Viktor; 14 July 1884, in Potsdam, Germany – 22 September 1948, in La Tour de Peilz, Switzerland) was the third son of Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany by his first wife, Princess Augusta Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein.
Prince Albert of Prussia (Frederick Henry Albert; Friedrich Heinrich Albrecht; 4 October 1809, in Königsberg – 14 October 1872, in Berlin) was a Prussian colonel general.
Prince Friedrich Wilhelm Nikolaus Albrecht of Prussia (8 May 1837 – 13 September 1906) was a Prussian general field marshal, Herrenmeister (Grand Master) of the Order of Saint John from 1883 until his death, and regent of the Duchy of Brunswick from 1885.
Prince Alexander of Prussia (Alexander Ferdinand Albrecht Achilles Wilhelm Joseph Viktor Karl Feodor; 26 December 1912 – 12 June 1985) was the only son of Prince August Wilhelm of Prussia and his wife Princess Alexandra Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg.
Prince Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig Alexander of Prussia (21 June 1820 – 4 January 1896) was the eldest child of Prince Frederick of Prussia and his wife, Princess Luise of Anhalt-Bernburg.
Prince August Wilhelm Heinrich Günther Viktor of Prussia (29 January 1887 – 25 March 1949), called "Auwi", was the fourth son of Emperor Wilhelm II, German Emperor by his first wife, Augusta Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein.
Prince August Ferdinand of Prussia (August Ferdinand von Preußen; 23 May 1730, Berlin – 2 May 1813, Berlin) was a Prussian Prince and general, and Herrenmeister ("Master of the Knights") of the Bailiwick of Brandenburg of the Order of Saint John.
Prince Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich August of Prussia (19 September 1779 - 19 July 1843), known in English as Prince Augustus, was a Prussian general.
Augustus William of Prussia (German: August Wilhelm; 9 August 1722 – 12 June 1758) was Prince of Prussia and a younger brother and general of Frederick II.
Prince Carl Christian of Hohenzollern (Carl Christian Friedrich Johannes Meinrad Maria Hubertus Edmund Prinz von Hohenzollern; born 5 April 1962) is the eldest child of Prince Johann Georg of Hohenzollern and of his wife Princess Birgitta of Sweden, sister of King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden.
Prince Frederick Charles Alexander of Prussia (German: Prinz Friedrich Carl Alexander von Preußen) (29 June 1801 – 21 January 1883) was a younger son of Frederick William III of Prussia.
Prince Christian-Sigismund of Prussia (born March 14, 1946) is one of the three paternal uncles of Georg Friedrich, Prince of Prussia, head of the House of Hohenzollern since 1994, which reigned over Germany until 1918.
Prince Eitel Friedrich of Prussia (Wilhelm Eitel Friedrich Christian Karl; 7 July 1883 – 8 December 1942) was the second son of Emperor Wilhelm II of Germany by his first wife, Augusta Viktoria of Schleswig-Holstein.
Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover, 3rd Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale (Ernest Augustus William Adolphus George Frederick; 21 September 1845 – 14 November 1923), was the eldest child and only son of George V of Hanover and his wife, Marie of Saxe-Altenburg.
Prince Ferdinand of Hohenzollern (Ferdinand Maria Fidelis Leopold Meinrad Valentin; born 14 February 1960http://www.thepeerage.com/p10440.htm#c104400.1) is the youngest of three children of Friedrich Wilhelm, Prince of Hohenzollern and his wife Princess Margarita of Leiningen.
Ferfried von Hohenzollern (Ferfried Maximilian Pius Meinrad Maria Hubert Michael Justinus Prinz von Hohenzollern) (born 14 April 1943 at Umkirch Castle, Germany) is a German nobleman and former champion race car driver.
Prince Franz Wilhelm of Prussia (Franz Wilhelm Victor Christoph Stephan; born 3 September 1943) is a German businessman and member of the House of Hohenzollern, the former ruling German imperial house and royal house of Prussia.
Prince Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig of Prussia (30 October 1794 – 27 July 1863), known in English as Frederick, was a Prussian prince, general of the royal cavalry, and division commander.
Prince Frederick of Prussia (Prinz Friedrich Georg Wilhelm Christoph von Preußen; 19 December 1911 – 20 April 1966), also known as "Mr.
Prince Friedrich Carl Nicolaus of Prussia (20 March 1828 – 15 June 1885) was the son of Prince Charles of Prussia (1801–1883) and his wife, Princess Marie of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (1808–1877).
Prince Friedrich Karl of Prussia (Tassilo Wilhelm Humbert Leopold Friedrich Karl; 6 April 1893 – 6 April 1917) was a German prince and competitive horse rider who competed in the 1912 Summer Olympics.
Joachim Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Leopold Prinz von Preußen (14 November 1865 in Berlin – 13 September 1931 Krojanke manor, Landkreis Flatow, Posen-West Prussia) was a son of Prince Frederick Charles of Prussia and Princess Maria Anna of Anhalt-Dessau, married in 1854.
Prince Joachim Viktor Wilhelm Leopold Friedrich Sigismund of Prussia (17 December 1891 – 6 July 1927) was a German World War I fighter pilot and member of the House of Hohenzollern.
Prince Friedrich Wilhelm of Prussia (Prinz Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Karl Ernst Alexander Heinrich von Preußen; 12 July 18809 March 1925) was a member of the House of Hohenzollern, great-grandson of Frederick William III of Prussia.
Prince George of Prussia (Frederick William George Ernest; 12 February 1826, Düsseldorf – 2 May 1902, Berlin) was a member of the House of Hohenzollern.
Prince Heinrich XXXII Reuss of Köstritz (4 March 1878 – 6 May 1935) was the eldest surviving son of Prince Heinrich VII Reuss of Köstritz and his wife, Princess Marie Alexandrine of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach.
Frederick Henry Louis (Friedrich Heinrich Ludwig) (18 January 1726 – 3 August 1802), commonly known as Henry (Heinrich), was a Prince of Prussia and the younger brother of Frederick the Great.
Frederick Henry Charles, Prince of Prussia (Friedrich Heinrich Karl, 30 December 1747 – 26 May 1767) was the second son of Prince Augustus William, the brother of Frederick the Great.
Prince Henry of Prussia (Albert Wilhelm Heinrich, 14 August 1862 – 20 April 1929) was a younger brother of German Emperor William II and a Prince of Prussia.
Prince Heinrich of Prussia, (Heinrich Viktor Ludwig Friedrich; 9 January 1900 – 26 February 1904), was the haemophiliac third son and youngest child of Prince Henry of Prussia and Princess Irene of Hesse and by Rhine, and thus a grandson of Frederick III, German Emperor on his father's side and a great-grandson of Queen Victoria through both his mother and father.
Prince Hubertus of Hohenzollern (Hubertus Gustav Adolf Veit Georg Meinrad Maria Alexander) (born 10 June 1966) is the third child of Prince Johann Georg of Hohenzollern and of his wife Princess Birgitta of Sweden, sister of King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden.
Prince Hubertus of Prussia (Hubertus Karl Wilhelm; 30 September 1909 – 8 April 1950) was the third son of Crown Prince Wilhelm of Germany and Duchess Cecilie of Mecklenburg-Schwerin.
Prince Joachim of Prussia (27 September 1876 – 24 October 1939) was a member of the House of Hohenzollern.
Prince Joachim Franz Humbert of Prussia (17 December 1890 – 18 July 1920) was the youngest son of Wilhelm II, German Emperor, by his first wife, Augusta Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein.
Johann Georg, Prince von Hohenzollern (Johann Georg Carl Leopold Eitel-Friedrich Meinrad Maria Hubertus Michael; 31 July 1932 – 2 March 2016) was a German prince, and through his marriage to Princess Birgitta of Sweden, was brother-in-law of King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden.
Prince Karl Franz of Prussia (15 December 1916 – 23 January 1975) was the only child of Prince Joachim of Prussia and his wife Princess Marie-Auguste of Anhalt.
Leopold Maximilian Joseph Maria Arnulf, Prinz von Bayern (9 February 1846 – 28 September 1930) was born in Munich, the son of Prince Regent Luitpold of Bavaria (1821–1912) and his wife Archduchess Augusta of Austria (1825–1864).
Prince Louis Charles of Prussia (Friedrich Ludwig Karl von Preußen; Potsdam, 5 November 1773 – Berlin, 28 December 1796) was the second son and third child of Frederick William II of Prussia and Frederika Louisa of Hesse-Darmstadt.
Prince Louis Ferdinand of Prussia (Friedrich Ludwig Christian; 18 November 1772 – 10 October 1806), was a Prussian prince and a soldier in the Napoleonic Wars.
Prince Louis Ferdinand Oskar Christian of Prussia (German: Louis Ferdinand Oskar Christian Prinz von Preußen; 25 August 1944 – 11 July 1977), also called Louis Ferdinand II or Louis Ferdinand Jr., nicknamed "Lulu", was a member of the House of Hohenzollern and the fifth of seven children of Prince Louis Ferdinand of Prussia and his wife, Grand Duchess Kira of Russia.
Prince Michael of Prussia (22 March 1940 – 3 April 2014) was a member of the Hohenzollern dynasty which ruled Germany until the end of World War I. His great-grandfather William II was the German Emperor and King of Prussia until 1918.
Prince Mircea of Romania (3 January 19132 November 1916) was the third son and last child of King Ferdinand of Romania and his wife, Marie of Edinburgh and a great-grandson of Queen Victoria through his mother.
Prince Nicholas of Romania (Principele Nicolae al României; 5 August 1903, date given as 18 August Gregorian calendar, which converts to 5 August in the Julian calendar used in Romania at the time. – 9 June 1978), later known as Prince Nicholas of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, was the fourth child and second son of King Ferdinand I of Romania and his wife Queen Marie.
Prince of Orange is a title originally associated with the sovereign Principality of Orange, in what is now southern France.
Prince Oscar of Prussia (German: Oskar Prinz von Preussen; born 6 May 1959) is a member of the House of Hohenzollern, the former ruling house of Prussia, and a pretender in line to the German throne.
Prince Oskar Karl Gustav Adolf of Prussia (Oskar Karl Gustav Adolf Prinz von Preußen; 27 July 1888 – 27 January 1958) was the fifth son of Wilhelm II, German Emperor and Augusta Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein.
Prince Radu of Romania (born Radu Duda on 7 June 1960, known as Prince Radu of Hohenzollern-Veringen from 1999 to 2007) is the husband of Princess Margareta of Romania, disputed head of the House of Romania and a pretender to the former Romanian throne.
Prince Sigismund of Prussia (Franz Friedrich Sigismund; 15 September 1864 – 18 June 1866) was the fourth child and third son of Crown Prince Frederick William of Prussia (later King of Prussia and German Emperor as Frederick III), and Victoria, Princess Royal, eldest daughter of the British Queen Victoria.
Prince Sigismund of Prussia (Wilhelm Viktor Karl August Heinrich Sigismund; 27 November 1896 at Kiel – 14 November 1978 at Puntarenas, Costa Rica), was the second son of Prince Henry of Prussia and his wife, Princess Irene of Hesse and by Rhine.
Prince Waldemar of Prussia (Joachim Friedrich Ernst Waldemar; 10 February 1868 – 27 March 1879) was the sixth child and youngest son of Crown Prince Friedrich (later Emperor Friedrich III), and Victoria, Princess Royal, the eldest daughter of the Queen Victoria.
Prince Waldemar of Prussia (Waldemar Wilhelm Ludwig Friedrich Viktor Heinrich) (20 March 1889 at Kiel – 2 May 1945 at Tutzing, Bavaria) was the eldest son of Prince Henry of Prussia and his wife, Princess Irene of Hesse and by Rhine.
Prince Wilhelm of Prussia (Friedrich Wilhelm Karl von Preußen; 3 July 1783, Berlin – 28 September 1851, Berlin) was the son of Frederick William II of Prussia and Frederika Louisa of Hesse-Darmstadt.
Prince Wilhelm of Prussia (Wilhelm Friedrich Franz Joseph Christian Olaf; 4 July 1906 – 26 May 1940) was the eldest child of Crown Prince Wilhelm of Germany and Duchess Cecilie of Mecklenburg-Schwerin.
Prince Wilhelm Victor of Prussia (Wilhelm Viktor Ernst Freund Friedrich Georg Adalbert) (15 February 1919 in Kiel, Schleswig-Holstein, 7 February 1989 in Donaueschingen, Baden-Württemberg) was a German nobleman, soldier and diplomat.
Prince Wilhelm Karl of Prussia (Wilhelm Karl Adalbert Erich Detloff; 30 January 1922, in Potsdam – 9 April 2007, in Holzminden) was the third son of Prince Oskar of Prussia, and the last surviving grandson of Wilhelm II, the last German Emperor.
A prince-bishop is a bishop who is also the civil ruler of some secular principality and sovereignty.
The Prince-Bishopric of Bamberg (Hochstift Bamberg) was an ecclesiastical State of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück (Hochstift Osnabrück) was a state of the Holy Roman Empire from 1225 until 1803.
The prince-electors (or simply electors) of the Holy Roman Empire (Kurfürst, pl. Kurfürsten, Kurfiřt, Princeps Elector) were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire.
The princely houses of Poland differed from other princely houses in Europe.
The Princes' Island (Prinzeninsel) is a peninsula in the Großer Plöner See southwest of the town of Plön in the north German state of Schleswig-Holstein.
Princess Alexandra Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg (21 April 1887 – 15 April 1957) was a daughter of Friedrich Ferdinand, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein and his wife Princess Karoline Mathilde of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg.
Princess Alexandrine of Prussia (23 February 1803 – 21 April 1892) was Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Schwerin by marriage to Paul Frederick, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin.
Princess Frederica Wilhelmina Louise Elisabeth Alexandrine of Prussia (1 February 1842 – 26 March 1906) was a member of the House of Hohenzollern as the daughter of Prince Albert of Prussia and his wife Princess Marianne of the Netherlands.
Princess Alexandrine Irene of Prussia (7 April 1915 – 2 October 1980) was the eldest daughter and fifth child of Wilhelm, German Crown Prince, and Cecilie of Mecklenburg-Schwerin.
Princess Maria Anna Friederike (17 May 1836 in Berlin – 12 June 1918 in Frankfurt) was a Princess of Prussia.
Princess Antonia of Prussia,Eilers, Marlene.
Princess Augusta of Prussia (Christine Friederike Auguste; 1 May 1780 – 19 February 1841) was a German salonist, painter, and Electress consort of Hesse by marriage to William II, Elector of Hesse.
Princess Barbara of Prussia (Prinzessin Barbara von Preußen; 2 August 192031 May 1994) was the only daughter and elder child of Prince Sigismund of Prussia and Princess Charlotte of Saxe-Altenburg.
Princess Charlotte of Prussia (Viktoria Elisabeth Auguste Charlotte; 24 July 1860 – 1 October 1919) was Duchess Consort of Saxe-Meiningen as the wife of Bernhard III, the duchy's last ruler.
Princess Frederica Louise Wilhelmina Marianne Charlotte of Prussia (21 June 1831 – 30 March 1855), was by birth a Princess of Prussia and member of the House of Hohenzollern and by marriage Hereditary Princess of Saxe-Meiningen.
Princess Elena of Romania (born 15 November 1950) is the second daughter of King Michael I and Queen Anne of Romania.
Princess Elisabeth Anna of Prussia (8 February 1857 – 28 August 1895) was a German princess.
Princess Elisabeth of Prussia (18 June 1815 – 21 March 1885) was the second daughter of Prince Wilhelm of Prussia and Landgravine Marie Anna of Hesse-Homburg and a granddaughter of Frederick William II of Prussia.
Princess Felicitas of Prussia (Felicitas Cecilie Alexandrine Helene Dorothea; 7 June 1934 – 1 August 2009) was a German princess and great-granddaughter of the last German Emperor, Wilhelm II.
Princess Frederica Charlotte of Prussia (Friederike Charlotte Ulrike Katharina; 7 May 1767 – 6 August 1820) was a Prussian and British princess.
Princess Frederica Wilhelmina Louise Amalia of Prussia (30 September 1796 – 1 January 1850) was a daughter of Prince Louis Charles of Prussia and Frederica of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
Princess Friederike Luise of Prussia (Friederike Luise von Preußen) (29 August 1714 – 4 February 1784) was a daughter of Frederick William I of Prussia and Sophia Dorothea of Hanover and Margravine of Brandenburg-Ansbach.
Friederike of Brandenburg-Schwedt (Friederike Sophia Dorothea; 18 December 1736 – 9 March 1798) was Duchess of Württemberg by marriage to Frederick II Eugene, Duke of Württemberg.
Princess Henriette of Schönaich-Carolath (Henriette Hermine Wanda Ida Luise Prinzessin von Schönaich-Carolath; 25 November 191816 March 1972) was the youngest daughter of Prince Johann George von Schönaich-Carolath and Princess Hermine Reuss of Greiz, who later became the second wife of Wilhelm II, German Emperor.
Princess Herzeleide-Ina-Marie Sophie Charlotte Else of Prussia (25 December 1918 – 22 March 1989) was a member of the deposed House of Hohenzollern.
Princess Kira of Prussia (Kira Auguste Viktoria Friederike; 27 June 1943 – 10 January 2004) was the fourth child and second daughter of Louis Ferdinand, Prince of Prussia and Grand Duchess Kira Kirillovna of Russia.
Princess Louise Margaret of Prussia (Louise Margaret Alexandra Victoria Agnes; later Duchess of Connaught and Strathearn; 25 July 1860 – 14 March 1917) was a German princess, and later a member of the British Royal Family, the wife of Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn.
Princess Louise of Prussia (3 December 1838 – 23 April 1923) was the second child and only daughter of German Emperor Wilhelm I and Augusta of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach.
Princess Frederica Dorothea Louise Philippine of Prussia (24 May 1770 - 7 December 1836) was a member of the House of Hohenzollern.
Princess Louise of Prussia (Luise Auguste Wilhelmine Amalie von Preußen, 1 February 1808, in Königsberg or Berlin – 6 December 1870, in Pauw Haus, Wassenaar) was the third surviving daughter and ninth child of Frederick William III of Prussia and Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
Marie Louise Anna of Prussia (1 March 1829, Berlin – 10 May 1901, Frankfurt am Main) was a Prussian princess of the House of Hohenzollern.
Princess Luise Dorothea of Prussia (Luise Dorothea Sophie; 29 September 1680 – 23 December 1705) was Hereditary Princess of Hesse-Kassel by marriage to Frederick, Hereditary Prince of Hesse-Kassel.
Princess Margaret of Prussia (Margarete Beatrice Feodora; 22 April 1872 – 22 January 1954) was a daughter of Frederick III, German Emperor and Victoria, Princess Royal, and the younger sister of Emperor Wilhelm II and a granddaughter of Queen Victoria.
Princess Marianne of Prussia (Prinzessin Marianne Cecilie Auguste Friederike Wilhelmine Elisabeth Johanna von Preußen; 23 August 19131 March 1983) was a member of the House of Hohenzollern, daughter of Prince Friedrich Wilhelm of Prussia.
Princess Marie Anne of Saxe-Altenburg (14 March 1864 – 3 May 1918) was the consort of Georg, Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe.
Princess Marie Bonaparte (2 July 1882 – 21 September 1962), known as Princess George of Greece and Denmark upon her marriage, was a French author and psychoanalyst, closely linked with Sigmund Freud.
Princess Marie-Cécile of Prussia (Marie-Cécile Kira Viktoria Luise; born 28 May 1942) is the daughter of Louis Ferdinand, Prince of Prussia, and his wife, Grand Duchess Kira Kirillovna of Russia.
Princess Marie of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, later Princess Marie of Belgium, Countess of Flanders (Marie Luise Alexandrine Karoline; 17 November 1845 – 26 November 1912) was a Princess of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, later simply of Hohenzollern, and mother of King Albert I of Belgium.
Princess Marie of Prussia (Marie Elisabeth Louise Frederika of Prussia; 14 September 1855, Marmorpalais, Potsdam – 20 June 1888, Dresden), was a princess of the House of Hohenzollern.
Princess Maria of Romania, formerly Princess of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (born 13 July 1964) is the fifth and youngest daughter of King Michael I and Queen Anne of Romania.
Princess Marie of Saxe-Altenburg (Marie Friederike Leopoldine Georgine Auguste Alexandra Elisabeth Therese Josephine Helene Sophie; 2 August 1854 – 8 October 1898) was the wife of Prince Albert of Prussia, Regent for the duchy of Brunswick.
Princess Marie Auguste of Anhalt (10 June 1898 – 22 May 1983) was the daughter of Eduard, Duke of Anhalt, and his wife, Princess Louise Charlotte of Saxe-Altenburg.
This is a list of women who held the title Princess of Orange by marriage.
Princess Philippine Charlotte of Prussia (Philippine Charlotte von Preußen) (13 March 1716, in Berlin – 17 February 1801, in Brunswick) was a Duchess consort of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel by marriage to Charles I of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel and a known intellectual in contemporary Germany.
Princess Sophia Dorothea of Prussia (Sophia Dorothea Marie von Preußen) (25 January 1719 – 13 November 1765) was the ninth child and fifth daughter of Frederick William I of Prussia and Sophia Dorothea of Hanover.
Princess Sophie of Romania (Sofia; born 29 October 1957) is the fourth daughter of King Michael I of Romania and Queen Anne.
Victoria Louise of Prussia (Viktoria Luise Adelheid Mathilde Charlotte; 13 September 1892 – 11 December 1980) was the only daughter and the last child of German Emperor Wilhelm II and Augusta Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein.
Princess Victoria Margaret Elizabeth Marie Ulrike of Prussia (17 April 1890 – 9 September 1923) was a member of the House of Hohenzollern.
Princess Viktoria of Prussia (Friederike Amalia Wilhelmine Viktoria) (12 April 1866 – 13 November 1929) was the second daughter of Frederick III, German Emperor and his wife Victoria, Princess Royal, a daughter of Queen Victoria.
The Principality or Margraviate of (Brandenburg-)Ansbach (Fürstentum Ansbach or Markgrafschaft Brandenburg-Ansbach) was a free imperial principality in the Holy Roman Empire centered on the Bavarian city of Ansbach.
The Principality of Bayreuth (Fürstentum Bayreuth) or Margraviate of Brandenburg-Bayreuth (Markgraftum Brandenburg-Bayreuth) was an immediate territory of the Holy Roman Empire, ruled by a Franconian branch of the Hohenzollern dynasty.
The Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (Fürstentum Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel) was a subdivision of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, whose history was characterised by numerous divisions and reunifications.
The Principality of Halberstadt (Fürstentum Halberstadt) was a state of the Holy Roman Empire ruled by Brandenburg-Prussia.
The Prinz-Albrecht-Palais was a Rococo city palace in the historic Friedrichstadt suburb of Berlin, Germany.
Prinzenerlass ("the Princes' decree") was the name of a decree issued in 1940 by Adolf Hitler that prohibited all members of Germany's formerly reigning royal houses from joining or participating in any military operations in the Wehrmacht.
The proclamation of the German Empire (Deutsche Reichsgründung) took place in January 1871 after the joint victory of the German states in the Franco-Prussian War.
The Proclamation of the German Empire (18 January 1871) is the title of several historical paintings by the German painter Anton von Werner.
The Province of Brandenburg (Provinz Brandenburg) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia and the Free State of Prussia from 1815 to 1945, from 1871 within the German Reich.
The Province of Hohenzollern (Provinz Hohenzollern) or the Hohenzollern Lands (Hohenzollernsche Lande) was a de facto province of the Kingdom of Prussia.
The Province of Posen (Provinz Posen, Prowincja Poznańska) was a province of Prussia from 1848 and as such part of the German Empire from 1871 until 1918.
The Province of Silesia (Provinz Schlesien; Prowincja Śląska; Silesian: Prowincyjŏ Ślōnskŏ) was a province of the German Kingdom of Prussia, existing from 1815 to 1919, when it was divided into the Upper and Lower Silesia provinces, and briefly again from 1938 to 1941.
The Provisional Government of the French Republic (gouvernement provisoire de la République française or GPRF) was an interim government of Free France between 1944 and 1946 following the liberation of continental France after Operations ''Overlord'' and ''Dragoon'', and lasted until the establishment of the French Fourth Republic.
Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
Prussia (Old Prussian: Prūsa, Preußen, Prūsija, Prusy, tr) is a historical region in Europe, stretching from Gdańsk Bay to the end of Curonian Spit on the southeastern coast of the Baltic Sea, and extending inland as far as Masuria.
The Royal Prussian Army (Königlich Preußische Armee) served as the army of the Kingdom of Prussia.
The Prussian Crown Jewels (German: Preußischen Kronjuwelen), is the royal regalia consisting of two crowns, an orb, and sceptre used during the coronation of the monarchs of Prussia from the House of Hohenzollern.
The Prussian estates (Preußischer Landtag, Stany pruskie) were representative bodies of Prussia, first created by the Monastic state of Teutonic Prussia in the 14th century (around the 1370s)Daniel Stone, A History of Central Europe, University of Washington Press, 2001,, but later becoming a devolved legislature for Royal Prussia within the Kingdom of Poland.
Prussian films were a cycle of historical films made in Germany during the Weimar (1918–1933) and Nazi (1933–1945) eras noted for their general glorification of Prussian history and its military.
The Prussian Homage or Prussian Tribute (Preußische Huldigung; hołd pruski) was the formal investment of Albert of Prussia as duke of the Polish fief of Ducal Prussia.
The Prussian House of Lords (Preußisches Herrenhaus) in Berlin was the upper house of the Preußischer Landtag, the parliament of Prussia from 1850 to 1918.
The Prussian Lithuanians, or Lietuvininkai (singular: Lietuvininkas, plural: Lietuvininkai), are Lithuanians, originally Lithuanian language speakers, who formerly inhabited a territory in northeastern East Prussia called Prussian Lithuania, or Lithuania Minor (Prūsų Lietuva, Mažoji Lietuva, Preußisch-Litauen, Kleinlitauen), instead of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and, later, the Republic of Lithuania (Lithuania Major, or Lithuania proper).
Prussian nationalism was the nationalism that asserted that Prussians were a nation and promoted the cultural unity of Prussians.
The Prussian Navy (German: Preußische Marine), was the naval force of the Kingdom of Prussia.
The Prussian Palaces and Gardens Foundation Berlin-Brandenburg (Stiftung Preußische Schlösser und Gärten Berlin-Brandenburg) or SPSG, was founded by a treaty of 23 August 1994 between the German federal states of Berlin and Brandenburg as a public foundation following German reunification.
The Prussian Privy State Archives (Geheimes Staatsarchiv Preußischer Kulturbesitz or GStA PK) is an agency of the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation headquartered in Berlin, Germany.
The Prussian scheme is the name of a reported 1786 attempt by Nathaniel Gorham, acting in possible concert with other persons influential in the government of the United States, to establish a monarchy in the U.S. under the rule of Henry of Prussia, a prince of the House of Hohenzollern, possibly to resolve the ongoing political crises occurring during the last days of the Articles of Confederation.
The Prussian Union of Churches (known under multiple other names) was a major Protestant church body which emerged in 1817 from a series of decrees by Frederick William III of Prussia that united both Lutheran and Reformed denominations in Prussia.
Prussian virtues (preußische Tugenden.) refers to the virtues associated with the historical Kingdom of Prussia, especially its militarism and the ethical code of the Prussian army, but also bourgeois values as influenced by Lutheranism and Calvinism.
The Queen's Crown (Polish: "korona królowych" or "korona Jadwigi kaliskiej") was a part of the Polish Crown Jewels until it was destroyed in 1809.
Rabeneck Castle (Burg Rabeneck) is a former high mediaeval aristocratic castle which stands high above the valley of the Wiesent in the Upper Franconian district of Bayreuth in the German state of Bavaria.
Racibórz (Ratibor, Ratiboř, Raćibůrz) is a town in Silesian Voivodeship in southern Poland.
Rathaus Bridge (Rathausbrücke, "Town Hall Bridge") is a bridge in the central Mitte district of Berlin, Germany.
Ratzeburg is a town in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany.
The Republic Advisory Committee was a committee established by the then Australian Prime Minister Paul Keating in April 1993 to examine the constitutional and legal issues that would arise were Australia to become a republic.
Rheinsberg Palace (Schloss Rheinsberg) lies in the municipality of Rheinsberg, about northwest of Berlin in the German district of Ostprignitz-Ruppin.
Rhenish nationalism is the point of view that asserts that Rhinelanders are a nation and promotes the cultural unity of Rhinelanders.
In the Rhine Campaign of 1796 (June 1796 to February 1797), two First Coalition armies under the overall command of Archduke Charles outmaneuvered and defeated two French Republican armies.
Burg Rheinstein in Trechtingshausen was the first castle to be rebuilt in the 19th Century Stolzenfels Castle in Koblenz, an example of the Rhine romanticism Werner Chapel in Bacharach The Rhine romanticism was the interpretation of the landscape conditions and history of the Rhine Valley in the cultural-historical period of the romanticism, by the end of the 18th century until the late 19th century and was continued in all forms of art expression.
Rix is an Aristocratic German surname with close relations to the House of Hohenzollern, the ruling house of Germany and Prussia.
The Archdiocese of Freiburg im Breisgau (Latin Archidioecesis Friburgensis) is a Roman Catholic diocese in Baden-Württemberg comprising the former states of Baden and Hohenzollern.
The Bishopric of Halberstadt was a Roman Catholic diocese (Bistum Halberstadt; 804–1648) Catholic-Hierarchy.org.
The Diocese of Magdeburg is a diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic church, located in the German state of Saxony-Anhalt.
The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC).
The Kingdom of Romania was neutral for the first two years of World War I, entering on the side of the Allied powers from 27 August 1916 until Central Power occupation led to the Treaty of Bucharest in May 1918, before reentering the war on 10 November 1918. It had the only oil fields in Europe, and Germany eagerly bought its petroleum, as well as food exports. King Carol favored Germany but after his death in 1914, King Ferdinand and the nation's political elite favored the Entente. For Romania, the highest priority was taking Transylvania from Hungary, with its 3,000,000 Romanians. The Allies wanted Romania to join its side in order to cut the rail communications between Germany and Turkey, and to cut off Germany's oil supplies. Britain made loans, France sent a military training mission, and Russia promised modern munitions. The Allies promised at least 200,000 soldiers to defend Romania against Bulgaria to the south, and help it invade Austria. The Romanian campaign was part of the Balkan theatre of World War I, with Romania and Russia allied with Britain and France against the Central Powers of Germany, Austria, and Turkey. Fighting took place from August 1916 to December 1917 across most of present-day Romania, including Transylvania, which was part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the time, as well as in southern Dobruja, which is currently part of Bulgaria. Despite initial successes, the Romanian forces (aided by Russia) suffered massive setbacks, and by the end of 1916 only Moldavia remained. After several defensive victories in 1917, with Russia's withdrawal from the war following the October Revolution, Romania, almost completely surrounded by the Central Powers, was also forced to drop out of the war; it signed the Treaty of Bucharest with the Central Powers in May 1918. On 10 November 1918, just one day before the German armistice and after all the other Central Powers had already capitulated, Romania re-entered the war after the successful Allied advances on the Macedonian Front.
The Romanians (români or—historically, but now a seldom-used regionalism—rumâni; dated exonym: Vlachs) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation native to Romania, that share a common Romanian culture, ancestry, and speak the Romanian language, the most widespread spoken Eastern Romance language which is descended from the Latin language. According to the 2011 Romanian census, just under 89% of Romania's citizens identified themselves as ethnic Romanians. In one interpretation of the census results in Moldova, the Moldovans are counted as Romanians, which would mean that the latter form part of the majority in that country as well.Ethnic Groups Worldwide: A Ready Reference Handbook By David Levinson, Published 1998 – Greenwood Publishing Group.At the time of the 1989 census, Moldova's total population was 4,335,400. The largest nationality in the republic, ethnic Romanians, numbered 2,795,000 persons, accounting for 64.5 percent of the population. Source:: "however it is one interpretation of census data results. The subject of Moldovan vs Romanian ethnicity touches upon the sensitive topic of", page 108 sqq. Romanians are also an ethnic minority in several nearby countries situated in Central, respectively Eastern Europe, particularly in Hungary, Czech Republic, Ukraine (including Moldovans), Serbia, and Bulgaria. Today, estimates of the number of Romanian people worldwide vary from 26 to 30 million according to various sources, evidently depending on the definition of the term 'Romanian', Romanians native to Romania and Republic of Moldova and their afferent diasporas, native speakers of Romanian, as well as other Eastern Romance-speaking groups considered by most scholars as a constituent part of the broader Romanian people, specifically Aromanians, Megleno-Romanians, Istro-Romanians, and Vlachs in Serbia (including medieval Vlachs), in Croatia, in Bulgaria, or in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Romincka Forest (Puszcza Romincka, Romintos giria), also known as Krasny Les (Красный лес) or Rominte Heath (Rominter Heide), is an extended forest and heath landscape stretching from the southeast of Russian Kaliningrad Oblast to the northeast of Polish Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship.
Rosa Luxemburg (Róża Luksemburg; also Rozalia Luxenburg; 5 March 1871 – 15 January 1919) was a Polish Marxist theorist, philosopher, economist, anti-war activist, and revolutionary socialist who became a naturalized German citizen at the age of 28.
Rosalie von Rauch (Rosalie Wilhelmine Johanna; 29 August 1820 – 5 March 1879), was a German noblewoman and since 1853, Countess of Hohenau.
Roth is a ''Landkreis'' (district) in Middle Franconia, Bavaria, Germany.
The Royal Castle in Warsaw (Zamek Królewski w Warszawie) is a castle residency that formerly served throughout the centuries as the official residence of the Polish monarchs.
A royal family is the immediate family of a king or queen regnant, and sometimes his or her extended family.
Royal Prussia (Prusy Królewskie; Königlich-Preußen or Preußen Königlichen Anteils, Królewsczé Prësë) or Polish PrussiaAnton Friedrich Büsching, Patrick Murdoch.
Rozumice (German Rösnitz) is a village in the community of Gmina Kietrz, within Głubczyce County, Opole Voivodeship, in south-western Poland, close to the Czech border.
Rudolf I, also known as Rudolf of Habsburg (Rudolf von Habsburg, Rudolf Habsburský; 1 May 1218 – 15 July 1291), was Count of Habsburg from about 1240 and the elected King of the Romans from 1273 until his death.
Saarlouis (Sarrelouis in French) is a Kreis (district) in the middle of the Saarland, Germany.
Sabina of Brandenburg-Ansbach (12 May 1529 – 2 November 1575) was a princess of Brandenburg-Ansbach and Electress of Brandenburg by marriage.
Hector Hugh Munro (18 December 1870 – 14 November 1916), better known by the pen name Saki, and also frequently as H. H. Munro, was a British writer whose witty, mischievous and sometimes macabre stories satirize Edwardian society and culture.
Sambia (Самбийский полуостров, Sambiysky poluostrov, literally the Sambiysky Peninsula;Sembos pusiasalis) or Samland (Земландский полуостров, Zemlandsky poluostrov, literally the Zemlandsky Peninsula) or Kaliningrad Peninsula (official name, Калининградский полуостров, Kaliningradsky poluostrov) is a peninsula in the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia, on the southeastern shore of the Baltic Sea.
Sans Souci Press began as a reactionary underground printing house in Potsdam, Germany, in the late nineteenth century.
Sanssouci is the summer palace of Frederick the Great, King of Prussia, in Potsdam, near Berlin.
Schaumburg Castle (German: Burg Schaumburg) is a castle in the town of Rinteln in the district of Schaumburg in Lower Saxony, Germany.
Schönhausen Palace (Schloss Schönhausen) is a Baroque palace at Niederschönhausen, in the borough of Pankow, Berlin, Germany.
Schlossbrücke is a bridge in the central Mitte district of Berlin, Germany.
Schwäbisch Hall is a ''Landkreis'' (district) in the northeast of Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
Schwedt (or Schwedt/Oder) is a town in northeastern Brandenburg, Germany.
The French Second Empire (Second Empire) was the Imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France.
Sibylle of Brandenburg (31 May 1467 in Ansbach – 9 July 1524 in Kaster) was a Princess of Brandenburg by birth and by marriage Duchess of Jülich and Duchess of Berg.
In the Siege of Hüningen (27 November 1796 – 1 February 1797), the Austrians captured the city from the French.
Emergency money printed by the city in 1920 with the woodcut by Hans Glaser Henry IV of Plauen The Siege of Hof was an event of the Second Margrave War.
The Siege of Kehl lasted from October 1796 to 9 January 1797. Habsburg and Württemberg regulars numbering 40,000, under the command of Maximilian Anton Karl, Count Baillet de Latour, besieged and captured the French-controlled fortifications at the village of Kehl in the German state of Baden-Durlach. The fortifications at Kehl represented important bridgehead crossing the Rhine to Strasbourg, an Alsatian city, a French Revolutionary stronghold. This battle was part of the Rhine Campaign of 1796, in the French Revolutionary War of the First Coalition. In the 1790s, the Rhine was wild, unpredictable, and difficult to cross, in some places more than four or more times wider than it is in the twenty-first century, even under non-flood conditions. Its channels and tributaries wound through marsh and meadow and created islands of trees and vegetation that were alternate submerged by floods or exposed during the dry seasons. At Kehl and the city of Strasbourg lay a complex of bridges, gates, fortifications and barrage dams. These had been constructed by the fortress architect Sébastien le Prestre de Vauban in the seventeenth century. The crossings had been contested before: in 1678 during the French-Dutch war, in 1703 during the War of the Spanish Succession, in 1733 during the War of the Polish Succession, and earlier in 1796, when the French crossed into the German states on 23–24 June. Critical to French success was the army's ability to cross the Rhine at will. The crossings at Hüningen, near the Swiss city of Basel, and the crossing at Kehl, gave them ready access to most of southwestern Germany; from there, French armies could sweep north, south, or east, depending on their military goal. Throughout the summer of 1796, the French and the Austrians had chased each other back and forth across the south German states. By October, the Austrian force, under the command of Archduke Charles, had pushed the French back to the Rhine. With the conclusion of the Battle of Schliengen on 24 October, the French army withdrew south and west toward the Rhine. The French commander, Jean Victor Marie Moreau, offered an armistice that the Archduke was inclined to accept. The Achduke wanted to secure the Rhine crossings so he could send troops to northern Italy to relieve Dagobert Sigmund von Wurmser at besieged Mantua; an armistice with Moreau would allow him to do that. However, his brother, Francis II, the Holy Roman Emperor, and the civilian military advisers of the Aulic Council categorically refused such an armistice, forcing Charles to order simultaneous sieges at Hüningen and Kehl. These tied his army to the Rhine for most of the winter. On 18 September 1796, the Austrians temporarily acquired control of the têtes-de-ponts (bridgeheads) joining Kehl and Strasbourg until a strong French counter-attack forced them to retreat. The situation remained in status quo until late October. Immediately after the Battle of Schliengen, while most of Moreau's army retreated south to cross the Rhine at Hüningen, Count Baillet Latour moved north to Kehl to begin the siege. On 22 November, the French defenders at Kehl, under Louis Desaix and the overall commander of the French Army of the Rhine and Moselle, Jean-Victor-Marie Moreau, almost ended the siege when they executed a sortie that nearly captured the Austrian artillery park. In early December, though, the Austrians expanded the siege, connecting a grand parallel with a series of batteries in a semi-circle around the village and the bridges. By late December, the completed Austrian batteries connected with the captured French fortification called Bonnet de Prêtre; from these positions, the Austrians bombarded the French defenses with enfilade fire. After the defenses were thoroughly riddled by heavy bombardment from the besiegers, the French defenders capitulated and withdrew on 9 January 1797.
Siegmund of Brandenburg-Bayreuth (27 September 1468 in Ansbach – 26 February 1495 in Ansbach) was the sixth, but third surviving, son of Albrecht III, Margrave of Brandenburg, Ansbach and Bayreuth.
Sigismund III Vasa (also known as Sigismund III of Poland, Zygmunt III Waza, Sigismund, Žygimantas Vaza, English exonym: Sigmund; 20 June 1566 – 30 April 1632 N.S.) was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, monarch of the united Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1587 to 1632, and King of Sweden (where he is known simply as Sigismund) from 1592 as a composite monarchy until he was deposed in 1599.
Sigismund of Brandenburg (1538–1566) was Prince-Archbishop of Magdeburg and Administrator of the Prince-Bishopric of Halberstadt.
Sigismund of Luxembourg (15 February 1368 in Nuremberg – 9 December 1437 in Znaim, Moravia) was Prince-elector of Brandenburg from 1378 until 1388 and from 1411 until 1415, King of Hungary and Croatia from 1387, King of Germany from 1411, King of Bohemia from 1419, King of Italy from 1431, and Holy Roman Emperor for four years from 1433 until 1437, the last male member of the House of Luxembourg.
Sigmaringen is a town in southern Germany, in the state of Baden-Württemberg.
Sigmaringen Castle (German: Schloss Sigmaringen) was the princely castle and seat of government for the Princes of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen.
The Silesian Piasts were the elder of four lines of the Polish Piast dynasty beginning with Władysław II the Exile (1105–1159), eldest son of Duke Bolesław III of Poland.
The Silesian Wars (Schlesische Kriege) were a series of three wars fought in the mid-18th century between Prussia (under King Frederick the Great) and Austria (under Empress Maria Theresa) for control of Silesia, all three of which ended in Prussian victory.
Sinaia railway station serves the Sinaia mountain resort in Romania.
Brigadier-General Charles Hotham (25 April 1693 – 15 January 1738) was a British Army officer and Member of Parliament who was entrusted by George II with the task of negotiating a double marriage between the Hanover and Hohenzollern dynasties.
The Skirmish of the Berlin Schloss (German: Weihnachtskämpfe or Weihnachtsaufstand) was a small skirmish between the socialist revolutionary Volksmarinedivision and regular German army units on 24 December 1918 during the German Revolution of 1918–19.
SMY Hohenzollern (Seiner Majestät Yacht Hohenzollern) was the name of several yachts used by the German Emperors between 1878 and 1918, named after their House of Hohenzollern.
Sooneck Castle (Burg Sooneck) (also known as Saneck or Sonneck, previously also known as Schloss Sonneck) is a castle in the upper middle valley of the Rhine, in the Mainz-Bingen district of Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
Sophia Charlotte of Hanover (30 October 1668 – 1 February 1705) was the first Queen consort in Prussia as wife of King Frederick I. She was the only daughter of Elector Ernest Augustus of Brunswick-Lüneburg and his wife Sophia of the Palatinate.
Sophia of Prussia (Sophia Dorothea Ulrike Alice; 14 June 1870 – 13 January 1932) was Queen consort of Greece during 1913–1917 and 1920–1922.
Sophie Caroline of Brandenburg-Kulmbach (31 March 1705 – 7 June 1764) was a princess consort of Ostfriesland as the spouse of Prince George Albert of East Frisia (1690–1734).
Princess Sophie Charlotte of Brandenburg-Bayreuth (Sophie Charlotte Albertine; 27 July 1713 – 2 March 1747), was a German noblewoman member of the House of Hohenzollern and by marriage Duchess of Saxe-Weimar and Saxe-Eisenach.
Sophie Elisabeth of Brandenburg (1 February 1616 at Moritzburg Castle in Halle – 16 March 1650 at Altenburg Castle) was a Princess of Brandenburg by birth and by marriage Duchess of Saxe-Altenburg.
Sophie Magdalene of Brandenburg-Kulmbach (28 November 1700 – 27 May 1770) was queen-consort of Denmark and Norway as the wife of King Christian VI of Denmark and Norway.
Sophie of Brandenburg (6 June 1568 – 7 December 1622) was a German regent, Electress of Saxony by marriage to Christian I, Elector of Saxony, and regent.
Show gate of Wülzburg Castle with the coats of arms of Sophie and her husband Sophie of Brunswick-Lüneburg (30 October 1563 – 14 January 1639) was a member of the House of Brunswick-Lüneburg and margravine of Brandenburg-Ansbach and Brandenburg-Kulmbach and Duchess of Krnov by marriage.
Sophie Johanna Maria, Princess of Prussia (née Princess of Isenburg,In 1919 royalty and nobility were mandated to lose their privileges in Germany, hereditary titles were to be legally borne thereafter only as part of the surname, according to of the Weimar Constitution. born 7 March 1978) is the wife of Georg Friedrich, Prince of Prussia, head of the House of Hohenzollern, members of which reigned as kings of Prussia and as German emperors until deposed in 1918.
The Gulden was the currency of the states of southern Germany between 1754 and 1873.
The Stade Region emerged in 1823 by an administrative reorganisation of the dominions of the Kingdom of Hanover, a sovereign state, whose then territory is almost completely part of today's German federal state of Lower Saxony.
The Stahlhelm, Bund der Frontsoldaten ("Steel Helmet, League of Front Soldiers", also known in short form as Der Stahlhelm) was one of the many paramilitary organizations that arose after the German defeat of World War I. It was part of the "Black Reichswehr" and in the late days of the Weimar Republic operated as the armed branch of the national conservative German National People's Party (DNVP), placed at party gatherings in the position of armed security guards (Saalschutz).
The State of the Teutonic Order (Staat des Deutschen Ordens; Civitas Ordinis Theutonici), also called Deutschordensstaat or Ordensstaat in German, was a crusader state formed by the Teutonic Knights or Teutonic Order during the 13th century Northern Crusades along the Baltic Sea.
The Schenk von Stauffenberg family is a noble (Uradel) Roman Catholic family from Swabia in Germany.
The Steinwald is a mountain range up to in southern Germany and, at the same time, a nature park (Steinwald Nature Park) founded in 1970 with an area of in the province of Upper Palatinate, in North Bavaria.
Hansestadt Stendal is a town in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.
Stephanie of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (Stephanie Josepha Friederike Wilhelmine Antonia; Estefânia; 15 July 1837 – 17 July 1859) was the Queen consort of King Peter V of Portugal.
Steponas Kairys (December 20, 1878 Old Style/January 3, 1879 New Style in Užnevėžiai, near Ukmergė – December 16, 1964 in Brooklyn) was a Lithuanian engineer, nationalist, and social democrat.
Stockenroth is a village now belonging to Sparneck in the Hof district, Bavaria, Germany.
Stockholm Palace or the Royal Palace (Stockholms slott or Kungliga slottet) is the official residence and major royal palace of the Swedish monarch (the actual residence of King Carl XVI Gustaf and Queen Silvia is at Drottningholm Palace).
Storkow (Mark) is a town in Oder-Spree district, in Brandenburg, Germany.
Strasburg (officially: Strasburg (Uckermark)) is a town in the Vorpommern-Greifswald district of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.
Sulechów (Züllichau) is a town located within the Zielona Góra County, in Lubusz Voivodeship, western Poland.
Swabia (Schwaben, colloquially Schwabenland or Ländle; in English also archaic Suabia or Svebia) is a cultural, historic and linguistic region in southwestern Germany.
The Circle of Swabia or Swabian Circle (Schwäbischer Reichskreis, also Schwäbischer Kreis) was an Imperial Circle of the Holy Roman Empire established in 1500 on the territory of the former German stem-duchy of Swabia.
The Swedish Empire (Stormaktstiden, "Great Power Era") was a European great power that exercised territorial control over much of the Baltic region during the 17th and early 18th centuries.
Switzerland is a confederation of states of which each one has its own history.
Swobnica (formerly Wildenbruch in Pommern) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Banie, within Gryfino County, West Pomeranian Voivodeship, in north-western Poland.
Tangermünde is a historic town on the Elbe River in the district of Stendal, in the northeastern part of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.
Tarnowskie Góry (German: Tarnowitz, established in 1526; Tarnowske Gůry) is a town in Silesia (southern Poland), located in the Silesian Highlands near Katowice.
The History of England (1754–61) is David Hume's great work on the history of England, which he wrote in installments while he was librarian to the Faculty of Advocates in Edinburgh.
The Protocols of the Elders of Zion (Протоколы сионских мудрецов) or The Protocols of the Meetings of the Learned Elders of Zion is an antisemitic fabricated text purporting to describe a Jewish plan for global domination.
The Wombles are fictional pointy-nosed, furry creatures created by author Elisabeth Beresford, originally appearing in a series of children's novels from 1968.
Theobald Theodor Friedrich Alfred von Bethmann-Hollweg (29 November 1856 – 1 January 1921) was a German politician who was the Chancellor of the German Empire from 1909 to 1917.
The Three Bishoprics (les Trois-Évêchés) constituted a province of pre-revolutionary France consisting of the dioceses of Metz, Verdun, and Toul within the Lorraine region.
The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Kaliningrad, Russia.
The German Emperors after 1873 had a variety of titles and coats of arms, which in various compositions became the officially used titles and coats of arms.
Torzym (Sternberg in der Neumark) is a small town in Sulęcin County, Lubusz Voivodeship, in western Poland.
Tradition und Leben e.V. (TuL, "Tradition and Life"), is a monarchist organisation in Germany.
The Treaty of Bromberg (Latin: Pacta Bydgostensia) or Treaty of Bydgoszcz was a treaty between John II Casimir of Poland and Elector Frederick William of Brandenburg-Prussia, ratified at Bromberg (Bydgoszcz) on 6 November 1657.
The Treaty of Chambord was an agreement signed on 15 January 1552 at the Château de Chambord between the Catholic King Henry II of France and three Protestant princes of the Holy Roman Empire led by Elector Maurice of Saxony.
The Treaty of Grimnitz (26 August 1529)Branig (1997), p.94 was the final settlement of a long-standing dispute between the House of Pomerania and the House of Hohenzollern regarding the legal status and succession in the Duchy of Pomerania.
The Treaty of Königsberg was concluded on 7 January (O.S.) / 17 January (N.S.) 1656 during the Second Northern War.
The Treaty of Labiau was a treaty signed between Frederick William I, Elector of Brandenburg and Charles X Gustav of Sweden on 10 November (O.S.) / 20 November (N.S.) 1656 in Labiau (now Polessk).
The treaty of Marienburg, concluded on 29 June 1656, was a Brandenburg-Prussian – Swedish alliance during the Second Northern War.
The Treaty or Peace of Oliva of 23 April (OS)/3 May (NS) 1660Evans (2008), p.55 (Pokój Oliwski, Freden i Oliva, Vertrag von Oliva) was one of the peace treaties ending the Second Northern War (1655-1660).
The Treaty of Pyritz settled claims of the House of Pomerania and the House of Hohenzollern regarding the legal status and succession in the Duchy of Pomerania on 26 and 28 March 1493.
The Treaty or Peace of Saint-Germain-en-Laye of 19 June (OS) or 29 June (NS) 1679 was a peace treaty between France and the Electorate of Brandenburg.
The Treaty of Stuhmsdorf (Stilleståndet i Stuhmsdorf) or Sztumska Wieś (Rozejm w Sztumskiej Wsi) was a treaty signed on 12 September 1635 between the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Sweden in the village of Stuhmsdorf, Royal Prussia (now Sztumska Wieś, Poland), just south of Stuhm (Sztum).
The Treaty of Teschen (Frieden von Teschen, i.e., "Peace of Teschen"; Traité de Teschen) was signed on 13 May 1779 in Teschen, Austrian Silesia, between the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy and the Kingdom of Prussia, which officially ended the War of the Bavarian Succession.
The Treaty of Xanten (Vertrag von Xanten) was signed in the Lower Rhine town of Xanten on November 12, 1614 between Wolfgang Wilhelm, Count Palatine of Neuburg and John Sigismund, Elector of Brandenburg, with representatives from England and France serving as mediators.
Enno Friedrich Wichard Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff (22 December 1848 – 25 September 1931) was a German classical philologist.
Umberto II (Umberto Nicola Tommaso Giovanni Maria di Savoia; 15 September 190418 March 1983) was the last King of Italy.
The unification of Germany into a politically and administratively integrated nation state officially occurred on 18 January 1871, in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles in France.
The University of Königsberg (Albertus-Universität Königsberg) was the university of Königsberg in East Prussia.
Unter den Linden ("under the linden trees") is a boulevard in the central Mitte district of Berlin, the capital of Germany.
Upper Franconia (Oberfranken) is a Regierungsbezirk (administrative region) of the state of Bavaria, southern Germany.
Upper Swabia (Oberschwaben or Schwäbisches Oberland) is a region in Germany in the federal states of Baden-Württemberg and Bavaria.
Urbain François Dubois (26 May 1818 – 14 March 1901) was a French chef who is best known as the author of a series of recipe books that became classics of French Cuisine, and as the creator of Veal Orloff.
Ursula, Margravine of Brandenburg (17 October 1488 – 18 September 1510) was a German noblewoman.
Ursula of Brandenburg (25 September 1450 – 25 November 1508, Breslau) was a princess of Brandenburg by birth and by marriage Duchess of Münsterberg and Oels and Countess of Glatz.
Vaginal Davis is an American performing artist, painter, independent curator, composer, filmmaker and writer.
Viadrina European University (Europa-Universität Viadrina Frankfurt (Oder), hence its frequent appearance as European University Viadrina Frankfurt (Oder) in English) is a university located at Frankfurt (Oder) in Brandenburg, Germany.
Victoria, Princess Royal (Victoria Adelaide Mary Louisa; 21 November 1840 – 5 August 1901) was German empress and queen of Prussia by marriage to German Emperor Frederick III.
Victory Square (Площадь победы, Ploshchad Pobedy) is a central square in Kaliningrad.
Villa Maund is a villa in Schoppernau, Hopfreben in Vorarlberg, Austria, built for Sir John Oakley Maund (died 10 June 1902) between 1891 and 1895.
Vincent, Count Benedetti (29 April 1817 – 28 March 1900) was a French diplomat.
The von Vladimiroff (Russian: Владимиров) family are a cadet branch of the von Biron family, the last rulers of the Duchy of Courland and Semigalia (German: Kurland, Latvian: Kurzeme).
Waldemar the Great (Waldemar der Große; – 14 August 1319), a member of the House of Ascania, was Margrave of Brandenburg-Stendal from 1308 until his death.
The Wallachian Revolution of 1848 was a Romanian liberal and nationalist uprising in the Principality of Wallachia.
Walter Franz Maria Stennes (12 April 1895 – 19 May 1983) was a leader of the Sturmabteilung (SA, stormtroopers, or "brownshirts") of the Nazi Party in Berlin and the surrounding area.
Wanda is a female given name of Polish origin.
Wannsee is a locality in the southwestern Berlin borough of Steglitz-Zehlendorf, Germany.
Duke Wartislaw IX of Pomerania-Wolgast (c. 1400 – 17 April 1457, Wolgast) was the eldest son of the Duke Barnim VI, Duke of Pomerania and Veronica (dynasty of Griffins).
Duke Wartislaw X of Pomerania (1435 – 17 December 1478) was the second son of Duke Wartislaw IX of Pomerania and his wife, Sophia of Saxe-Lauenburg.
The wedding of Prince Guillaume, Hereditary Grand Duke of Luxembourg, and Countess Stéphanie de Lannoy took place over a two-day period on October 19 and October 20, 2012.
Wegeleben is a town in the Harz district, in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.
The Weimar Republic (Weimarer Republik) is an unofficial, historical designation for the German state during the years 1919 to 1933.
Werder (Havel) (official name derived from Werder an der Havel ("Werder upon Havel"), colloquially just Werder), is a town in the state of Brandenburg, Germany, located on the Havel river in the Potsdam-Mittelmark district, west of the state's capital Potsdam.
Wesel is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
The Province of West Prussia (Provinz Westpreußen; Zôpadné Prësë; Prusy Zachodnie) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1773 to 1824 and again from 1878 (with the Kingdom itself being part of the German Empire from 1871); it also briefly formed part of the Weimar Republic's Free State of Prussia until 1919/20.
When William Came: A Story of London Under the Hohenzollerns is a novel written by the British author Saki (the pseudonym of Hector Hugh Munro) and published in November 1913.
White is the lightest color and is achromatic (having no hue), because it fully reflects and scatters all the visible wavelengths of light.
The White Main (Weißer Main or Weißmain, not to be confused with the Weismain), is the larger and shorter of the two headstreams of the River Main.
The White Main Spring (Weißmainquelle) is the source of the White Main river, the right-hand and northern headstream of the River Main, a major tributary of the Rhine in Germany.
Wiesbaden City Palace (Stadtschloss Wiesbaden or Wiesbadener Stadtschloss) is a neo-classical building in the center of Wiesbaden, Germany.
Wilhelm II (Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert von Hohenzollern; 27 January 18594 June 1941) was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and King of Prussia, ruling the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918.
Prince Wilhelm of Urach, Count of Württemberg, 2nd Duke of Urach (Wilhelm Karl Florestan Gero Crescentius; German Fürst Wilhelm von Urach, Graf von Württemberg, 2. Herzog von Urach; 30 May 1864 – 24 March 1928), was a German prince who was elected in June 1918 as King of Lithuania, with the regnal name of Mindaugas II.
Wilhelm Johann Carl Eduard Stieber (3 May 1818 – 29 January 1882) was Otto von Bismarck's master spy and director of the Prussian Feldgendarmerie.
Friedrich Wilhelm Ternite (5 September 1786, Neustrelitz - 22 October 1871, Potsdam) was a German portrait painter, miniaturist and lithographer.
Wilhelm von Brandenburg (30 June 1498 – 4 February 1563) was the Archbishop of Riga from 1539 to 1561.
Wilhelm von Grumbach (1 June 1503 – 18 April 1567) was a German adventurer, chiefly known through his connection with the so-called “Grumbach Feud” (Grumbachsche Händel), the last attempt of the Imperial Knights to prevail against the power of the territorial Princes of the Holy Roman Empire.
Wilhelm, German Crown Prince (Friedrich Wilhelm Victor August Ernst, 6 May 1882 – 20 July 1951) was the eldest child of the soon-to-be German Emperor Wilhelm II and his wife Empress Augusta Victoria, and the last Crown Prince of the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia.
The Wilhelm-Orden (English "William-Order") was instituted on 18 January 1896 by the German Emperor and King of Prussia Willhelm II as a high civilian award, and was dedicated to the memory of his grandfather Emperor William I "the Great".
Princess Wilhelmina of Prussia (Frederika Sophia Wilhelmina; 7 August 1751 in Berlin – 9 June 1820 in Het Loo) was the consort of William V of Orange and the de facto leader of the dynastic party and counter-revolution in the Netherlands.
Princess Wilhelmine of Prussia (Friederike Sophie Wilhelmine; 3 July 1709 – 14 October 1758) was a princess of the German Kingdom of Prussia (the older sister of Frederick the Great) and composer.
Friederike Luise Wilhelmine of Prussia (18 November 1774 – 12 October 1837) was the first wife of King William I of the Netherlands and so the first Queen of the Netherlands.
Wilhelmstrasse (Wilhelmstraße, see ß) is a major thoroughfare in the central Mitte and Kreuzberg districts of Berlin, Germany.
Willem-Alexander (born Willem-Alexander Claus George Ferdinand, 27 April 1967) is the King of the Netherlands, having ascended the throne following his mother's abdication in 2013.
William Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach (8 January 1686 – 7 January 1723), was Margrave of the Principality of Brandenburg-Ansbach from 1703 until his death in 1723.
William I, or in German Wilhelm I. (full name: William Frederick Louis of Hohenzollern, Wilhelm Friedrich Ludwig von Hohenzollern, 22 March 1797 – 9 March 1888), of the House of Hohenzollern was King of Prussia from 2 January 1861 and the first German Emperor from 18 January 1871 to his death, the first Head of State of a united Germany.
William I KG (1392 – 25 July 1482), called the Victorious (Wilhelm der Siegreiche), a member of the House of Welf, was Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg.
William, Prince of Hohenzollern (Wilhelm August Karl Joseph Peter Ferdinand Benedikt Fürst von Hohenzollern) (7 March 1864 in Schloss Benrath, near Düsseldorf – 22 October 1927 in Sigmaringen) was the eldest son of Leopold, Prince of Hohenzollern and Infanta Antónia of Portugal.
Wolfgang Straßmann (8 October 1821 – 6 December 1885) was a German physician and liberal politician.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
Wunsiedel is the seat of the Upper Franconian district of Wunsiedel in northeast Bavaria, Germany.
Wurmberg is a town in the district of Enz in Baden-Württemberg in Germany.
Yantarny, previously known in German as (Palvininkai; Palmniki), is an urban locality (an urban-type settlement) in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the Sambian Peninsula, about from Kaliningrad, the administrative center of the oblast.
Joanna Marie Valentina "Zizi" Lambrino (3 October 1898 – 11 March 1953) was the first (morganatic) wife of the later King Carol II of Romania.
The Zollernalbkreis is a ''Landkreis'' (district) in the middle of Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
The Zollverein or German Customs Union was a coalition of German states formed to manage tariffs and economic policies within their territories.
Events in the year 1870 in Germany.
The 1923 Constitution of Romania, also called the Constitution of Union, was intended to align the organisation of the state on the basis of universal male suffrage and the new realities that arose after the Great Union of 1918.
The 1st Foot Guard Regiment (1.) was an infantry regiment of the Royal Prussian Army formed in 1806 after Napoleon defeated Prussia in the Battle of Jena–Auerstedt.
The German 1st Infantry Division, (1.), was one of the original infantry divisions of the Reichswehr and Wehrmacht and served throughout World War II.
The 5th Army (5.) was an army level command of the German Army in World War I. It was formed on mobilization in August 1914 seemingly from the VII Army Inspection.
Count of Hohenzollern, Count of Zollern, County of Hohenzollern, County of Zollern, German princely family Hohenzollern, Hohenzolern, Hohenzollern, Hohenzollern Dynasty, Hohenzollern dynasty, Hohenzollern monarchy, Hohenzollern-Nuremberg, Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen dynasty, Hohenzollerns, House Hohenzollern, House of Hohenzolern, House of hohenzollern, Nihil sine Deus, Pretenders to the German throne, Prince Christian Ludwig of Prussia, Prince christian ludwig of prussia, Prince of Prussia, Swabian Hohenzollerns, The Hohenzollerns, Zollern.