13 relations: Battle of Aleppo (2012–2016), Great Siege of Malta, History of biological warfare, Jauch family, Karlštejn, Lists of battles, Military campaign, Outline of war, Sack of Constantinople (1204), Siege, Siege (disambiguation), Siege of Leningrad, Siege of Zadar (1345–46).
The Battle of Aleppo (معركة حلب) was a major military confrontation in Aleppo, the largest city in Syria, between the Syrian opposition (including the Free Syrian Army (FSA) and other largely-Sunni groups, such as the Levant Front and the Al-Qaeda-affiliated Al-Nusra Front) against the government of Bashar al-Assad, supported by Hezbollah, Shia militias and Russia, and against the Kurdish People's Protection Units. The battle began on 19 July 2012 and was part of the ongoing Syrian Civil War. A stalemate that had been in place for four years finally ended in July 2016, when Syrian government troops closed the rebels' last supply line into Aleppo with the support of Russian airstrikes. In response, rebel forces launched unsuccessful counteroffensives in September and October that failed to break the siege; in November, government forces embarked on a decisive campaign that resulted in the recapture of all of Aleppo by December 2016. The Syrian government victory was widely seen as a potential turning point in Syria's civil war. The large scale devastation of the battle and its importance led combatants to name it the "mother of battles" or "Syria's Stalingrad". The battle was marked by widespread violence against civilians, alleged repeated targeting of hospitals and schools (mostly by pro-government Air Forces and to a lesser extent by the rebels), and indiscriminate aerial strikes and shelling against civilian areas. It was also marked by the inability of the international community to resolve the conflict peacefully. The UN special envoy to Syria proposed to end the battle by giving East Aleppo autonomy, but the idea was rejected by the Syrian government. Hundreds of thousands of residents were displaced by the fighting and efforts to provide aid to civilians or facilitate evacuation were routinely disrupted by continued combat and mistrust between the opposing sides. Various claims of war crimes emerged during the battle, including the use of chemical weapons by both Syrian government forces and rebel forces, the use barrel bombs by the Syrian Air Force, the dropping of cluster munitions on populated areas by Russian and Syrian forces, the carrying out of "double tap" airstrikes to target rescue workers responding to previous strikes, summary executions of civilians and captured soldiers by both sides, indiscriminate shelling and use of highly inaccurate improvised artillery by rebel forces. During the 2016 Syrian government offensive, the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights warned that "crimes of historic proportions" were being committed in Aleppo. Fighting also caused severe destruction to the Old City of Aleppo, a UNESCO World Heritage site. An estimated 33,500 buildings have been either damaged or destroyed. After four years of fighting, the battle represents one of the longest sieges in modern warfare and one of the bloodiest battles of the Syrian Civil War, leaving an estimated 31,000 people dead, almost a tenth of the estimated overall war casualties at that time.
The Great Siege of Malta (L-Assedju l-Kbir) took place in 1565 when the Ottoman Empire tried to invade the island of Malta, then held by the Knights Hospitaller.
Various types of biological warfare (BW) have been practiced repeatedly throughout history.
The Jauch family of Germany is a Hanseatic family which can be traced back till the Late Middle Ages.
Karlštejn Castle (hrad Karlštejn; Burg Karlstein) is a large Gothic castle founded 1348 CE by Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor-elect and King of Bohemia.
This is an index to articles listing battles.
The term military campaign applies to large scale, long duration, significant military strategy plans incorporating a series of inter-related military operations or battles forming a distinct part of a larger conflict often called a war.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to war: War – organised and often prolonged armed conflict that is carried out by states and/or non-state actors – is characterised by extreme violence, social disruption, and economic destruction.
The siege and sack of Constantinople occurred in April 1204 and marked the culmination of the Fourth Crusade.
A siege is a military blockade of a city, or fortress, with the intent of conquering by attrition, or a well-prepared assault.
A siege is a military blockade and assault of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering.
The Siege of Leningrad (also known as the Leningrad Blockade (Блокада Ленинграда, transliteration: Blokada Leningrada) and the 900-Day Siege) was a prolonged military blockade undertaken from the south by the Army Group North of Nazi Germany and the Finnish Army in the north, against Leningrad, historically and currently known as Saint Petersburg, in the Eastern Front theatre of World War II.
The Siege of Zadar (12 August 1345 – 21 December 1346) was a successful attempt of the Republic of Venice to capture Zadar (or Zara), a Croatian coastal city in northern Dalmatia.