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Livonia

Index Livonia

Livonia (Līvõmō, Liivimaa, German and Scandinavian languages: Livland, Latvian and Livonija, Inflanty, archaic English Livland, Liwlandia; Liflyandiya) is a historical region on the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea. [1]

642 relations: Abraham Neumann, Abrene County, Adam Heinrich von Steinau, Administrative division of Polish–Lithuanian territories after Partitions, Adolf IV of Holstein, Adolf von Harnack, Afanasy Ordin-Nashchokin, Ahoy (greeting), Ainaži, Albert I, Duke of Mecklenburg-Stargard, Albert of Riga, Albert Suerbeer, Aleksander Józef Lisowski, Aleksander Korwin Gosiewski, Aleksey Adashev, Aleksey Korol, Alexander Buturlin, Alexander Friedrich von Hueck, Alexander II of Russia, Alexander Mikhailovich Golitsyn, Alexander von Oettingen, Alexis of Russia, Alice (singer), Andrei Budberg, Andrey Bolotov, Andrey Glebov, Anikita Repnin, Anna Jöransdotter, Anna of Mecklenburg, Anna Sophia of Prussia, Anrep family, Anti Selart, Antonio Possevino, Archbishopric of Riga, Arka Noego, Arnolds Spekke, Arvid Stålarm the Younger, August von Kotzebue, Augustinus Rotundus, Augustus II the Strong, Augustus III of Poland, Ļaudona, Babtai, Bad Mergentheim, Baltadvaris Castle, Balthasar Russow, Balthasar von 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Abraham Neumann

Abraham Neumann, a Jewish painter, was born in Sierpc, Poland, on February 6, 1873, and died in the Krakow Ghetto in June 4, 1942.

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Abrene County

The Abrene County (Abrenes apriņķis) was an administrative district in the Republic of Latvia with an area of 4292 square kilometers, formed in 1925 from the northern part of the Ludza district and the western part of the Ostrov region as the Jaunlatgale (New Latgale) district, but this was renamed Abrene in 1938.

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Adam Heinrich von Steinau

Adam Heinrich Graf von Steinau (died 1712) was a Saxon Generalfeldmarschall.

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Administrative division of Polish–Lithuanian territories after Partitions

The three consecutive partitions of Poland carried out in the late 18th century by the Austrian, Prussian and the Russian empires, between 1772 and 1795, resulted in the complete disappearance of sovereign Poland from the map of Europe until the end of World War One in 1918.

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Adolf IV of Holstein

Adolf IV (before 1205 – 8 July 1261), was a Count of Schauenburg (1225–1238) and of Holstein (1227–1238), of the House of Schaumburg.

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Adolf von Harnack

Carl Gustav Adolf von Harnack (7 May 1851 – 10 June 1930) was a German Lutheran theologian and prominent church historian.

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Afanasy Ordin-Nashchokin

Afanasy Lavrentievich Ordin-Nashchokin (Афанасий Лаврентьевич Ордин-Нащокин) (1605–1680) was one of the most important Russian statesmen of the 17th century.

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Ahoy (greeting)

Ahoy or Ah Hoy() is a signal word used to call to a ship or boat, stemming from the Middle English cry, 'Hoy!'.

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Ainaži

Ainaži (pronounced; Heinaste, Haynasch) is a harbour town in the Vidzeme region of Latvia.

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Albert I, Duke of Mecklenburg-Stargard

Albert I, Duke of Mecklenburg-Stargard (before 1377 – between 11 February and 15 July 1397) was Duke of Mecklenburg-Stargard from 1392 until his death and also Coadjutor of the Bishopric of Dorpat.

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Albert of Riga

Albert of Riga or Albert of Livonia (Alberts fon Buksthēvdens; Albert von Buxthoeven; c.1165 – 17 January 1229) was the third Bishop of Riga in Livonia.

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Albert Suerbeer

Albert Suerbeer (ca. 1200 – 1273) was the first Archbishop of Riga in Livonia.

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Aleksander Józef Lisowski

Aleksander Józef Lisowski HNG (c. 1580 – October 11, 1616) was a Polish–Lithuanian noble (szlachcic), commander of a mercenary group that after his death adopted the name "Lisowczycy." His coat of arms was ''Jeż'' (Hedgehog).

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Aleksander Korwin Gosiewski

Aleksander Korwin Gosiewski (Aleksandras Korvinas Gosievskis) ''de armis'' Ślepowron (b. – d. 1639), was a Polish nobleman, military commander and diplomat, Lithuanian Field-Quartermaster since 1630, Palatine-Governor of Smolensk from 1625, Lithuanian Great-Quartermaster since 1615, Speaker of the Parliament in 1613, Great-Secretary of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania from 1610 and District-Governor of Wieliż, Puńsk, Kupise, Biel, and Markowa.

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Aleksey Adashev

Aleksey Fyodorovich Adashev (Адашев, Алексей Фёдорович, died 1561) was a Russian statesman, okolnichy,, voivode of Livonia.

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Aleksey Korol

Aleksey Korol (Олексій Король; born 14 October 1977 in Kyiv) is a Ukrainian soccer forward and coach who has spent most of his career in the United States.

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Alexander Buturlin

Count Aleksander Borisovich Buturlin (Russian, in full: граф Александр Борисович Бутурлин; 1694 – 1767) was a Russian general and courtier whose career was much furthered by his good looks and personal affection of Empress Elizabeth.

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Alexander Friedrich von Hueck

Alexander Friedrich von Hueck (1802–1842) was a Baltic-German professor of anatomy at the University of Tartu, and a notable estophile.

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Alexander II of Russia

Alexander II (p; 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881) was the Emperor of Russia from the 2nd March 1855 until his assassination on 13 March 1881.

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Alexander Mikhailovich Golitsyn

Alexander Mikhailovich Golitsyn (17 November 1718 – 8 October 1783) was a Russian prince of the House of Golitsyn and field marshal.

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Alexander von Oettingen

Alexander von Oettingen (–) was a Baltic German Lutheran theologian and statistician.

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Alexis of Russia

Aleksey Mikhailovich (p; –) was the tsar of Russia from 12 July 1645 until his death, 29 January 1676.

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Alice (singer)

Alice, also known as Alice Visconti (born Carla Bissi, 26 September 1954, Forlì, Province of Forlì-Cesena, Italy) is an Italian singer-songwriter and pianist, active since 1971.

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Andrei Budberg

Count Andrei Yakovlevich Budberg (Андрей Яковлевич Будберг; Andreas Eberhard von Budberg) (10 August 1750 – 1 September 1812) was a Russian Empire diplomat who served as Foreign Minister in 1806–07.

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Andrey Bolotov

Andrey Timofeyevich Bolotov (18 October 1738 – 16 October 1833) was the most prolific memoirist and the most distinguished agriculturist of the 18th-century Russian Empire.

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Andrey Glebov

Andrey Saviichevich Glebov (Андрей Савиичевич Глебов; 1770 in Berezna – 24 September 1854) was a colonel of the Russian Empire.

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Anikita Repnin

Prince Anikita Ivanovich Repnin (Аники́та Ива́нович Репни́н; 1668 – 3 July 1726, in Riga) was a prominent Russian general during the Great Northern War who superintended the taking of Riga in 1710 and served as the Governor of Livland from 1719 until his death.

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Anna Jöransdotter

Anna Jöransdotter (floruit 1714), was a Finnish soldier.

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Anna of Mecklenburg

Anna of Mecklenburg (14 October 15334 July 1602), was a Duchess consort of Courland by marriage to the Duke of Courland, Gotthard Kettler.

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Anna Sophia of Prussia

Anna Sophia of Prussia (11 June 1527 in Königsberg – 6 February 1591 in Lübz) was Duchess of Mecklenburg by marriage to John Albert I, Duke of Mecklenburg.

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Anrep family

Anrep is a family, belonging to Swedish and Russian nobility.

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Anti Selart

Anti Selart (born 11 August 1973 in Tallinn) is an Estonian historian.

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Antonio Possevino

Antonio Possevino (Antonius Possevinus) (10 July 1533 – 26 February 1611) was a Jesuit protagonist of Counter Reformation as a papal diplomat and a Jesuit controversialist, encyclopedist and bibliographer.

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Archbishopric of Riga

The Archbishopric of Riga (Archiepiscopatus Rigensis, Erzbisdom Riga) was an archbishopric in Medieval Livonia, a subject to the Holy See.

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Arka Noego

Arka Noego was a war pinnace in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Navy that played an important role in two naval battles of the Polish–Swedish War (1626–29). Small, fast and lightly armed when compared to the impressive man-of-war galleons of the Swedish Navy, excellent leadership, a fine crew and aggressive marines combined to bring the Arka Noego into parity with her larger opponents. Major roles in two impressive victories followed in the fall of 1627.

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Arnolds Spekke

Arnolds Spekke (or Arnolds Speke; born 14 June 1887, Vecmuiža parish, Russian Empire — died 27 July 1972, Washington, D.C., USA) received a doctorate in philology from the University of Latvia in 1927.

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Arvid Stålarm the Younger

Arvid Stålarm, actually Arvid Eriksson (Stålarm) till Lindö i Tenala (c. 1540 or 1549 – May 1620, Gripsholm Castle) was a Swedish noble and soldier from the Finland-based Stålarm family.

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August von Kotzebue

August Friedrich Ferdinand von Kotzebue (–) was a German dramatist and writer who also worked as a consul in Russia and Germany.

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Augustinus Rotundus

Augustinus Rotundus (Augustyn Rotundus, Augustinas Rotundas, 1520–1582) was a Christian and Renaissance humanist, erudite, jurist, political writer, first historian and apologist of Lithuania.

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Augustus II the Strong

Augustus II the Strong (August II.; August II Mocny; Augustas II; 12 May 16701 February 1733) of the Albertine line of the House of Wettin was Elector of Saxony (as Frederick Augustus I), Imperial Vicar and elected King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania.

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Augustus III of Poland

Augustus III (August III Sas, Augustas III; 17 October 1696 5 October 1763) was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1734 until 1763, as well as Elector of Saxony in the Holy Roman Empire from 1733 until 1763 where he was known as Frederick Augustus II (Friedrich August II).

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Ļaudona

Ļaudona (Laudohn) is a village in the Vidzeme region of northeastern Latvia.

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Babtai

Babtai is a small town north of Kaunas, in Kaunas County, in central Lithuania.

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Bad Mergentheim

Bad Mergentheim (Mergentheim until 1926) is a town in the Main-Tauber-Kreis district in the German state of Baden-Württemberg.

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Baltadvaris Castle

Baltadvaris Castle (Baltadvario pilis) was a fortified manor house, earlier sometimes classed as a bastion castle, in:lt:Baltadvaris (Molėtai), near Videniškiai in Molėtai district, Lithuania.

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Balthasar Russow

Balthasar Russow (1536–1600) was one of the most important Livonian and Estonian chroniclers.

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Balthasar von Campenhausen

Balthasar Balthasarovich Campenhausen (Балтазар Балтазарович Кампенгаузен) (1772, Lenzenhof, –1823) was a Russian statesman who held the ranks of Privy Councilor and Chamberlain.

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Baltic area runestones

The Baltic area runestones are Varangian runestones in memory of men who took part in peaceful or warlike expeditions across the Baltic Sea, where Finland and the Baltic states are presently located.

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Baltic Cross

The Baltic Cross (German: Das Baltenkreuz) was a military decoration of the German Weimar Republic.

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Baltic Germans

The Baltic Germans (Deutsch-Balten or Deutschbalten, later Baltendeutsche) are ethnic German inhabitants of the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea, in what today are Estonia and Latvia.

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Baltic knighthoods

Baltic Noble Corporations of Courland, Livonia, Estonia, and Oesel (Ösel) were medieval fiefdoms formed by German nobles in the 13th century under vassalage to the Teutonic Knights and Denmark in modern Latvia and Estonia.

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Baltic maritime trade (c. 1400–1800)

Baltic maritime trade began in the late Middle Ages and would continue to develop into the early modern era.

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Baltic region

The terms Baltic region, Baltic Rim countries (or simply Baltic Rim), and the Baltic Sea countries refer to slightly different combinations of countries in the general area surrounding the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe.

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Barclay de Tolly (Russian nobility)

Barclay de Tolly is the name of a Russian noble family of Scottish origin, that came to Russia during the times of the Revolution of 1688, from Towy (Towie) in Aberdeenshire.

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Basilica of the Assumption, Aglona

Basilica of the Assumption in Aglona, Latvia is one of the most important Catholic spiritual centers in Latvia.

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Battle of Bornholm (1456)

The Battle of Bornholm was a naval battle which took place near the Danish island of Bornholm, between privateers from the city of Gdańsk (Danzig) and a transport convoy of Danish and Livonian ships which were attempting to bring supplies and reinforcements to the Teutonic Knights in Prussia, during the Thirteen Years' War (1454–66) between the Kingdom of Poland and the Prussian Confederation on one hand, and the Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights on the other.

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Battle of Daugavgrīva (1609)

The Battle of Daugavgrīva took place October 6, 1609 during the Polish–Swedish War (1600–1611).

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Battle of Durbe

The Battle of Durbe (Durbes kauja, Durbės mūšis, Schlacht an der Durbe) was a medieval battle fought near Durbe, east of Liepāja, in present-day Latvia during the Livonian Crusade.

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Battle of Gross-Jägersdorf

The Battle of Gross-Jägersdorf (30 August 1757) was a victory for the Russian force under Field Marshal Stepan Fyodorovich Apraksin over a smaller Prussian force commanded by Field Marshal Hans von Lehwaldt, during the Seven Years' War.

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Battle of Kokenhausen

The Battle of Kokenhausen (Kokenhuza, Koknese) was a major battle opening the Polish–Swedish War (1600–1611).

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Battle of Kroppenhof

The Battle of Kroppenhof was fought during the Polish–Swedish War (1621–1625), between Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Swedish Empire in November 28, 1621.

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Battle of Lesnaya

The Battle of Lesnaya (Битва при Лесной Bitva pri Lesnoy, Slaget vid Lesna, Bitwa pod Leśną), was one of the major battles of the Great Northern War.

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Battle of Listenhoff

The Battle of Listenhoff was fought during the Polish–Swedish War (1621–1625), between Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Swedish Empire in October 12, 1625.

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Battle of Lyndanisse

The Battle of Lindanise was a battle which helped King Valdemar II of Denmark establish the territory of Danish Estonia during the Northern Crusades, which were undertaken in response to calls from the Pope.

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Battle of Napue

The Battle of Napue was fought on February 19, 1714 (O.S.) / March 2, 1714 (N.S.) at the villages of Napue and Laurola in the Isokyrö parish of the Swedish Empire (modern Finland) between the Swedish Empire and the Tsardom of Russia.

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Battle of Narva (1700)

The Battle of Narva (Битва при Нарве; Slaget vid Narva) on (20 November in the Swedish transitional calendar) was an early battle in the Great Northern War.

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Battle of Nowy Dwór Mazowiecki

The Battle of Nowy Dwór was fought during September 20 – September 30, 1655 between forces of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth commanded by Jan Kazimierz Krasiński on one side, and on the other Swedish Empire forces commanded by Gustaf Otto Stenbock.

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Battle of Riga (1215)

The Battle of Riga was an attempt by native Estonian forces to repel the Crusader knights (known as the Livonian Brothers of the Sword) and their allies during the Livonian Crusade.

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Battle of Selburg

The Battle of Selburg was fought during the Polish–Swedish War (1626–1629), between Sweden and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in September 1626.

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Battle of Treiden (1628)

The Battle of Treiden was fought during the Polish–Swedish War (1626–1629), between Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Swedish Empire in February 1, 1628.

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Battle of Ula

The Battle of Ula or Battle of Chashniki was fought during the Livonian War on 26 January 1564 between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Tsardom of Russia on the Ula River (tributary of the Daugava River) north of Chashniki in the Vitebsk Region.

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Battle of Wenden (1601)

The Battle of Wenden (also known as Battle of Kieś) took place on January 7, 1601, during the Polish–Swedish War (1600–1611).

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Battle of Wenden (1626)

Battle of Wenden (also known as Battle of Kieś) was a battle fought during the Polish–Swedish War (1626–1629), between Sweden and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth on December 3, 1626 at Wenden (Cēsis, Kiesia) in present-day Latvia.

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Battle of Wesenberg (1268)

The Battle of Wesenberg, Rakvere or Rakovor was a battle fought on February 18, 1268, between the combined forces of Danish Duchy of Estonia, Bishopric of Dorpat, Livonian branch of the Teutonic Knights and local Estonian militia on one side and the forces of Novgorod and Pskov, led by Dmitry of Pereslavl, on the other.

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Battles of Wenden (1577–78)

The Battles of Wenden were a series of battles for control of the stronghold of Wenden (Cēsis, Kiesia, Võnnu), in present-day Latvia, fought during the Livonian War in 1577 and 1578.

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Būtingė

Būtingė (German: Butendiekshof or Budendiekshof) is a small village at the coast of the Baltic Sea in the north of Lithuania, at the border to Latvia.

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Benandanti

The benandanti ("Good Walkers") were members of an agrarian visionary tradition in the Friuli district of Northeastern Italy during the 16th and 17th centuries.

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Bengt Gabrielsson Oxenstierna

Bengt Oxenstierna Count Bengt Gabrielsson Oxenstierna (1623–1702) was a Swedish statesman.

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Bengt Gottfried Forselius

Bengt Gottfried Forselius (ca 1660, Harju-Madise, Harju County, Swedish Estonia – November 16, 1688, Baltic Sea) was a founder of public education in Estonia, author of the first ABC-book in the Estonian language, and creator of a spelling system which made the teaching and learning of Estonian easier.

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Berezan' Runestone

The Berezan' Runestone (X UaFv1914;47) was discovered in 1905 by Ernst von Stern, professor at Odessa, on Berezan' Island (also known as the Island of St Aitherios) where the Dnieper River meets the Black Sea.

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Bexhövede

Bexhövede is a town in the Cuxhaven district of Lower Saxony, Germany which was incorporated into the municipality of Loxstedt in 1974.

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Bishopric of Ösel–Wiek

The Bishopric of Ösel–Wiek (Saare-Lääne piiskopkond; Bistum Ösel–Wiek; Low German: Bisdom Ösel–Wiek; contemporary Ecclesia Osiliensis) was a Roman Catholic diocese and semi-independent prince-bishopric (parto of Terra Mariana, i.e. Livonia) in the Holy Roman Empire, covering what are now Saare, Hiiu and Lääne counties of Estonia.

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Bolesław Romanowski

Bolesław Romanowski (21 March 1910 – 12 August 1968) was a submarine commander of the Polish Navy during World War II.

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Boris Godunov

Boris Fyodorovich Godunov (Бори́с Фёдорович Годуно́в,; c. 1551) ruled the Tsardom of Russia as de facto regent from c. 1585 to 1598 and then as the first non-Rurikid tsar from 1598 to 1605.

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Brick Gothic

Brick Gothic (Backsteingotik, Gotyk ceglany, Baksteengotiek) is a specific style of Gothic architecture common in Northwest and Central Europe especially in the regions in and around the Baltic Sea, which do not have resources of standing rock, but in many places a lot of glacial boulders.

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Brotherhood of Blackheads

The Brotherhood of Blackheads (Mustpeade vennaskond; Bruderschaft der Schwarzhäupter; Melngalvju brālības) is an association of local unmarried merchants, ship owners, and foreigners that was active in Livonia (present-day Estonia and Latvia) from the mid-14th century till 1940 but still remains active in present day Hamburg.

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Brownsville, Brooklyn

Brownsville is a residential neighborhood located in eastern Brooklyn in New York City.

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Burchard von Schwanden

Burchard von Schwanden (also Burkhard; died 1310) was the 12th Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, serving from 1282 or 1283-1290.

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Campaign of Grodno

The Campaign of Grodno was a plan developed by Johann Patkul and Otto Arnold von Paykull during the Swedish invasion of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, a part of the Great Northern War.

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Canons Regular of the Order of the Holy Cross

The Canons Regular of the Order of the Holy Cross, commonly called Crosiers, are a Roman Catholic religious order.

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Cape Kolka

Cape Kolka (Kūolka nanā, Kolkasrags, Old German name - Domesnes, Russian - Колка or мыс Домеснес) - cape on the Baltic Sea, near the entry to Gulf of Riga, in Livonian coast, in the Courland Peninsula of Latvia.

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Capture of Daugavgrīva

The Capture of Daugavgriva by Swedish forces in July 1608 occurred during the Polish–Swedish War (1600–1611).

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Carl Christian Vogel von Vogelstein

Carl Christian Vogel von Vogelstein (26 June 1788, Wildenfels, Kursachsen – 4 March 1868, Munich), born Vogel, was a German painter.

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Carta marina

Carta marina et descriptio septentrionalium terrarum (Latin for Marine map and description of the Northern lands; commonly abbreviated Carta marina) is the first map of the Nordic countries to give details and place names, created by Swedish ecclesiastic Olaus Magnus and initially published in 1539.

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Case of Schlitte

Case of Schlitte is a trial against Hans Schlitte which was held in 1548 in Lübeck.

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Castellans of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

Castellans of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth were the lower rank officials who could sit in the Senate of Poland.

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Castle

A castle (from castellum) is a type of fortified structure built during the Middle Ages by predominantly the nobility or royalty and by military orders.

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Castle Risk

Castle Risk is a version of the board game Risk that is played on a map of Europe.

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Catherine Jagiellon

Catherine Jagiellon (Katarzyna Jagiellonka; Katarina Jagellonica, Lithuanian: Kotryna Jogailatė; 1 November 1526 – 16 September 1583) was a Polish princess and the wife of John III of Sweden.

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Catholic Church in Latvia

The Roman Catholic Church of Latvia is part of the worldwide Roman Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope in Rome.

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Cēsis Castle

Cēsis Castle is a Livonian castle situated in Cēsis, Latvia.

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Charles Eugène de Croÿ

Charles Eugène de Croÿ (Карл Евгений де Круа) (1651–1702) was a field marshal and duke from the House of Croÿ.

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Charles II, Duke of Lorraine

Charles II (11 September 1364 – 25 January 1431), called the Bold (le Hardi) was the Duke of Lorraine from 1390 to his death and Constable of France from 1418 to 1425.

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Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor

Charles IV (Karel IV., Karl IV., Carolus IV; 14 May 1316 – 29 November 1378Karl IV. In: (1960): Geschichte in Gestalten (History in figures), vol. 2: F-K. 38, Frankfurt 1963, p. 294), born Wenceslaus, was a King of Bohemia and the first King of Bohemia to also become Holy Roman Emperor.

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Charles Philip, Duke of Södermanland

Prince Charles Philip of Sweden, Duke of Södermanland, (Swedish: Carl Filip; Alt-Anzen (Vana-Antsla), 22 April 1601 – Narva, 25 January 1622) was a Swedish prince, Duke of Södermanland, Närke and Värmland.

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Charles XII of Sweden

Charles XII, also Carl (Karl XII; 17 June 1682 – 30 November 1718 O.S.), Latinized to Carolus Rex, was the King of Sweden from 1697 to 1718.

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Chernyakhovsk

Chernyakhovsk (Черняхо́вск); prior to 1946 known by its German name (Įsrutis; Wystruć) is a town and the administrative center of Chernyakhovsky District in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located at the confluence of the Instruch and Angrapa Rivers, forming the Pregolya.

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Chicklet

Chicklet are Julie Park (vocals, guitar) and Daniel Barida (guitar, vocals, synth).

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Christianity

ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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Christina, Queen of Sweden

Christina (– 19 April 1689) reigned as Queen of Sweden from 1632 until her abdication in 1654.

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Christmas tree

A Christmas tree is a decorated tree, usually an evergreen conifer such as spruce, pine, or fir or an artificial tree of similar appearance, associated with the celebration of Christmas.

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Christoffer Valkendorff

Christoffer Valkendorff (1 September 152517 January 1601) was a Danish statesman and landowner.

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Christopher Lieven

Prince Christopher Henry von Lieven, Lord of Mesothen (Kristofers Heinrihs fon Līvens; Христофор Андреевич Ливен; Christoph Heinrich von Liewen; Christoffer Henrik von Liewen af Eksjö; Christophe de Lieven; 6 May 1774 – 10 January 1839) was a Livonian nobleman, Russian general, ambassador to London in 1812–1834, and educator of tsesarevich Alexander Nikolaievitch.

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Clan Barclay

Clan Barclay is a Lowland Scottish clan.

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Clan Ostoja

Clan Ostoja (ancient Polish: Ostoya) was a powerful group of knights and lords in late-medieval Europe.

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Conrad von Rosen

Conrad von Rosen (1628, Straupe – 1715) was a soldier from Livonia, noted for his long service in the French Army.

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Cooley High School

Thomas M. Cooley High School is located at the intersection of Hubbell Avenue and Chalfonte Street, on the northwest side of Detroit, Michigan.

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Cornelius Anckarstjerna

Cornelius Didrikson Thijsen Anckarstierna (25 January 1655 – 19 April 1714) was a Swedish admiral of Dutch origin and a member of the Swedish House of Nobility.

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Cosmographia (Sebastian Münster)

The Cosmographia ("Cosmography") by Sebastian Münster (1488–1552) from 1544 is the earliest German-language description of the world.

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County of Dassel

The County of Dassel (Grafschaft Dassel) emerged shortly after the turn of the 11th and 12th centuries when, after the extinction of the male line of the Billungs, its seat in Suilbergau, north of the Solling hills was divided into the domains of Einbeck and Dassel.

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Crossing of the Düna

The Crossing of the Düna (also known as Battle of Riga) took place during the Great Northern War on July 8 (Julian calendar) / July 9 (Swedish calendar) / July 19 (Gregorian calendar) 1701 near the city of Riga, present-day Latvia.

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Crusader states

The Crusader states, also known as Outremer, were a number of mostly 12th- and 13th-century feudal Christian states created by Western European crusaders in Asia Minor, Greece and the Holy Land, and during the Northern Crusades in the eastern Baltic area.

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Cultural regions of Latvia

Cultural regions of Latvia are several areas within Latvia formally recognised as distinct from the rest of the country.

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Curonians

The Curonians or Kurs (Curonian: Kursi; Kuren; kurši; курши; kuršiai; kuralased; Kurowie) were a Baltic tribe living on the shores of the Baltic Sea in what are now the western parts of Latvia and Lithuania from the 5th to the 16th centuries, when they merged with other Baltic tribes.

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Dana Schutz

Dana Schutz (born 1976) is an American artist who lives and works in Brooklyn, New York.

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Dano-Swedish War (1658–60)

The Dano-Swedish War of 1658–60 (Anden Karl Gustav-krig, Karl X Gustavs andra danska krig, Zweeds-Nederlandse Oorlog) was a war between Denmark–Norway and Sweden.

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Danylo Apostol

Danylo Apostol (1654–1734), was a Hetman of Zaporizhian Host from 1727 to 1734.

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Daugavgrīva Abbey

Daugavgrīva Abbey or Dünamünde Abbey (Daugavgrīvas klosteris; Kloster Dünamünde; Mons S. Nicolai) was a Cistercian monastery in Daugavgrīva (Dünamünde) in Latvia, about 12 kilometres from Riga, of which Daugavgrīva has formed a district since 1959.

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Daugirutis

Daugirutis or Dangerutis (Dangeruthe or Daugeruthe) was an early Lithuanian duke who committed suicide in 1213.

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Dūdas

The dūdas or somas stabules is a type of bagpipe native to Latvia, popular from the 16th to 18th centuries.

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Deluge (history)

The term Deluge (pоtор szwedzki, švedų tvanas) denotes a series of mid-17th-century campaigns in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

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Denis Fonvizin

Denis Ivanovich Fonvizin (Дени́с Ива́нович Фонви́зин, from von Wiesen) was a playwright of the Russian Enlightenment, whose plays are still staged today.

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Dithmarschen

Dithmarschen (Low Saxon pronunciation:, archaic English: Ditmarsh, Ditmarsken, Medieval Latin: Tedmarsgo) is a district in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany.

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Dmitry Gerasimov

Dmitry Gerasimov (Дмитрий Герасимов; also known as Demetrius Erasmius, Mitya the Translator and Dmitri the Scholastic; c. 1465 – after 1535), was a Russian translator, diplomat and philologist; he also provided some of the earliest information on Muscovy to Renaissance scholars such as Paolo Giovio and Sigismund von Herberstein.

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Dominions of Sweden

The Dominions of Sweden or Svenska besittningar ("Swedish possessions") were territories that historically came under control of the Swedish Crown, but never became fully integrated with Sweden.

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Dorpat Voivodeship

The Dorpat Voivodeship (Województwo dorpackie or województwo derpskie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Duchy of Livonia, part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, from 1598 until the Swedish conquest of Livonia in the 1620s.

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Drang nach Osten

Drang nach Osten ("Drive to the East",Ulrich Best, Transgression as a Rule: German–Polish cross-border cooperation, border discourse and EU-enlargement, 2008, p. 58,, "push eastward",Jerzy Jan Lerski, Piotr Wróbel, Richard J. Kozicki, Historical Dictionary of Poland, 966–1945, 1996, p. 118,, "drive toward the East"Edmund Jan Osmańczyk, Anthony Mango, Encyclopedia of the United Nations and International Agreements, 2003, p. 579,, or "desire to push East") was a term coined in the 19th century to designate German expansion into Slavic lands.

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Dubingiai Castle

Dubingiai Castle was a residential castle in Dubingiai, Molėtai district, Lithuania.

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Duchy of Courland and Semigallia

The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia (Ducatus Curlandiæ et Semigalliæ, Księstwo Kurlandii i Semigalii, Herzogtum Kurland und Semgallen, Kurzemes un Zemgales hercogiste) was a duchy in the Baltic region that existed from 1561 to 1569 as a vassal state of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and from 1569 to 1726 to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, incorporated into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth by Sejm in 1726, On 28 March 1795, it was annexed by the Russian Empire in the Third Partition of Poland.

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Duchy of Courland and Semigallia (1918)

The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia was briefly a client state of the German Empire.

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Duchy of Livonia

The Duchy of Livonia (Księstwo Inflanckie; Livonijos kunigaikštystė; Ducatus Ultradunensis; Üleväina-Liivimaa hertsogkond; Pārdaugavas hercogiste; also referred to as Polish Livonia or Inflanty) was a territory of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania—and later the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth—that existed from 1561 to 1621.

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Eastland Company

The Eastland Company, or North Sea Company, was an English crown-chartered company, founded in 1579 to foster trade with Scandinavia and Baltic Sea states.

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Eberhard August Wilhelm von Zimmermann

Eberhardt August Wilhelm von Zimmermann (August 17, 1743, Uelzen – July 4, 1815, Braunschweig) was a German geographer and zoologist.

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Economy of the Pskov Republic

Pskov has always played a special role in Russian trade with the West.

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Eduard von Stackelberg

Eduard Otto Emil Karl Adam Freiherr von Stackelberg (November 6, 1867 Estonia - April 7, 1943 Munich, Germany) was an Estonian chemist, landowner and politician who belonged to the Stackelberg family.

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Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk

Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk (born December 20, 1950 in Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania) is an American architect and urban planner of Polish-Livonian aristocratic roots based in Miami, Florida.

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Emilia Plater

Countess Emilia Plater (Broel-Plater, Emilija Pliaterytė; 13 November 1806 – 23 December 1831) was a noblewoman and revolutionary from the lands of the partitioned Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

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Engelhardt family

Engelhardt (Энгельгардт) was a Baltic-German noble and baronial family.

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Ernst Friedrich Knorre

Ernst Christoph Friedrich Knorre (11 December 1759 – 1 December 1810) was a German-born astronomer who lived and worked in present-day Estonia as a founding professor of mathematics at the Universität Dorpat and chief observator for the Dorpat Observatory.

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Ernst Gideon von Laudon

Baron Ernst Gideon von Laudon (German: Ernst Gideon Freiherr von Laudon (originally Laudohn or Loudon) (13 February 1717 – 14 July 1790) was an Austrian generalisimo, one of the most successful opponents of the Prussian king Frederick the Great, allegedly lauded by Alexander Suvorov as his teacher. He served the position of military governorship of Habsburg Serbia from his capture of Belgrade in 1789 until his death, cooperating with the resistance fighters of Koča Anđelković.

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Ernst Gottlieb Glück

Ernst Gottlieb Glück (Ernst Gottlieb Glück, Эрнст Готлиб Глюк, about 1698, Marienburg (modern Alūksne), Livonia, Kingdom of Sweden — 14 (25) November 1767, Saint-Petersburg, Russian Empire) was a Russian statesman.

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Ernst Jaakson

Ernst Jaakson (11 August 1905, Riga, Livonia (then Russian Empire) – 4 September 1998, New York, United States) was an Estonian diplomat whose unique contribution was to maintain Estonia's legal continuity with his uninterrupted diplomatic service for 69 years.

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Ernst Magnus Dönhoff

Ernst Magnus Dönhoff (Ernest Magnus Denhoff; 1581–1642, in Elbing (Elbląg), Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) was a Baltic German who served the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in Livonia and the Polish fief of Duchy of Prussia.

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Ernst Reissner

Ernst Reissner (September 24, 1824 – September 16, 1878) was a Baltic German anatomist from Riga, Livonia.

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Ernst Rudolf von Trautvetter

Ernst Rudolf von Trautvetter (20 February 1809, Jelgava – 24 January 1889, St. Petersburg), was a Baltic German botanist, specialising in the flora of the Caucasus and central Asia.

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Essen family

Essen or von Essen is the surname of a Baltic German and Swedish noble family.

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Estonia

Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.

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Estonia under Swedish rule

Estonia under Swedish rule signifies the time between 1558 and 1710, when parts of present-day Estonia (and after 1645 all of the present-day country) were under Swedish rule.

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Estonian Knighthood House

The Estonian Knighthood House (Estonian: Eestimaa rüütelkonna hoone, German: Haus der Estländischen Ritterschaft) is a building in Toompea, the upper part of Vanalinn, the historic inner town of Tallinn, the capital of Estonia.

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Estonian units of measurement

A number of units of measurement were used in Estonia to measure length, mass, area, capacity, etc.

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Euro gold and silver commemorative coins (Finland)

Euro gold and silver commemorative coins are special euro coins minted and issued by member states of the Eurozone, mainly in gold and silver, although other precious metals are also used in rare occasions.

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Europa regina

Europa regina, Latin for Queen Europe, is the map-like depiction of the European continent as a queen.

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Eustratie Dabija

Eustratie (or Istrate) Dabija was Prince (Voivode) of Moldavia between 1661 and his death in September 1665.

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Evangelical Lutheran Church in Lithuania

The Evangelical Lutheran Church in Lithuania (Lietuvos Evangelikų Liuteronų Bažnyčia, ELCL) is a Lutheran church body comprising congregations in Lithuania.

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Evangelical Lutheran Church in Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Central Asia

The Evangelical Lutheran Church in Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Central Asia (Евангелическо-лютеранская церковь в России, Украине, в Казахстане и Средней Азии), also known as the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Russia and the Other States (ELCROS), is a Lutheran denomination that itself comprises seven regional Lutheran denominations in Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan as well as individual congregations in Azerbaijan, Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan.

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Fabian Steinheil

Count Fabian Gotthard von Steinheil (Фадде́й Фёдорович Ште́йнгель, Faddei Fjodorovitš Šteingel; 14 October 1762 – 23 February 1831) was a Russian military officer, and the Governor-General of Finland between 1810 and 1824.

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Family of Gediminas

The family of Gediminas is a group of family members of Gediminas, Grand Duke of Lithuania (ca. 1275–1341), who interacted in the 14th century.

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Ferdinand von Tiesenhausen

Count Berend Gregor Ferdinand (Fiodor Ivanovich in Russian) von Tiesenhausen (June 1, 1782, Reval – December 2, 1805, at the Battle of Austerlitz) was a Russian noble and military officer of German Baltic origin.

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Finland under Swedish rule

Finland under Swedish rule refers to the period in the history of Finland when it was a part of Sweden.

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First Partition of Poland

The First Partition of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth took place in 1772 as the first of three partitions that ended the existence of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth by 1795.

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Frederick Heiden

Count Frederick Maurice van Heiden (Фёдор Ло́гинович/Логгинович Ге́йден; 15 September 1821 – 18 January 1900) was a general of infantry in the Imperial Russian Army.

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Frederick I of Sweden

Frederick I (Fredrik I; 28 April 1676 – 5 April 1751) was prince consort of Sweden from 1718 to 1720, and King of Sweden from 1720 until his death and (as Frederick I) also Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel from 1730.

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Frederick II of Denmark

Frederick II (1 July 1534 – 4 April 1588) was King of Denmark and Norway and Duke of Schleswig from 1559 until his death.

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Frederick II, Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg

Frederick II of Hesse-Homburg (Friedrich II.), also known as the Prince of Homburg (30 March 1633–24 January 1708) was Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg.

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Fredrik Pacius

Fredrik Pacius (born Friedrich Pacius) (March 19, 1809 – January 8, 1891) was a German composer and conductor who lived most of his life in Finland.

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Freikorps in the Baltic

After 1918, the term Freikorps was used for the anti-communist paramilitary organizations that sprang up around the German Empire, including in the Baltic states, as soldiers returned in defeat from World War I. It was one of the many Weimar paramilitary groups active during that time.

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Fretter

Fretter was an electronics and major appliance retailer based out of Detroit, Michigan, founded in the 1950s by Oliver "Ollie" Fretter.

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Freytag-Loringhoven

The family Freytag (also: Vrydach, Frydag, Friday and various other slightly different spellings) is a noble family that comes from the Uradel Westphalia and the surname was first documented in 1198 and 1217.

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Friedrich Georg von Bunge

Friedrich Georg von Bunge (13 March 1802, Kiev – 9 April 1897, Wiesbaden) was a German legal historian.

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Friedrich Karl Hermann Kruse

Friedrich Karl Hermann Kruse (21 July 1790 – 3 August 1866) was a German historian born in Oldenburg.

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Friedrich Martens

Friedrich Fromhold Martens, or Friedrich Fromhold von Martens, also known as Fyodor Fyodorovich Martens (Фёдор Фёдорович Мартенс) in Russian and Frédéric Frommhold (de) Martens in French (–) was a diplomat and jurist in service of the Russian Empire who made important contributions to the science of international law.

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Friedrich Parrot

Johann Jacob Friedrich Wilhelm Parrot (25 October 179115 January 1841) was a Baltic German naturalist, explorer, and mountaineer, who lived and worked in Dorpat (today Tartu, Estonia) in what was then the Governorate of Livonia of the Russian Empire.

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Friedrich von Löwis of Menar

Friedrich von Löwis of Menar (Germanized name; Russian: Фёдор Фёдорович Левиз / Fedor Fedorovich Leviz) (6 September 1767, Haapsalu - 16 April 1824) was a Russian lieutenant general of the Napoleonic Wars.

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Friedrich Wilhelm Rembert von Berg

Friedrich Wilhelm Rembert Graf von Berg (Frederick William Rembert, Count Berg; Russified into Граф Фёдор Фёдорович фон Берг, Graf Feodor Feodorovich von Berg) was an Baltic-German nobleman, statesman, diplomat and military leader who served in the Imperial Russian Army, the count of Austria (from 9.1849) and Finland (from 26.8.1856), and was the 5th last Field Marshal (promoted in 1866) in the history of the Russian Empire.

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Fritz Reinhardt

Fritz Reinhardt (3 April 1895, in Ilmenau – 17 June 1969, in Regensburg) was a state secretary in the German Finance Ministry in the time of the Third Reich.

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Frydag

Frydag family (also: Vrydach, Freytag, Friday and various other slightly different spellings) is a noble German family, known since the beginning of the 14th century, and who originated from the Uradel of Westphalia and were first documented between 1198 and 1217 with the person of Wecelo Vriedach.

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Fyodor Engelhardt

Fyodor Engelhardt (Федор-Христофор Антонович Энгельгардт) (March 18, 1762, Riga, Russian Empire - June 29, 1831, Riga) was a Russian brigadier general and a hero of the storming of Izmail during the Russo-Turkish War of 1787-1792.

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Gallowglass

The gallowglasses (also spelt galloglass, gallowglas or galloglas; from gall óglaigh meaning foreign warriors) were a class of elite mercenary warriors who were principally members of the Norse-Gaelic clans of Scotland between the mid 13th century and late 16th century.

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Gatchina

Gatchina (Га́тчина) is a town and the administrative center of Gatchinsky District in Leningrad Oblast, Russia.

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Gdov Kremlin

The Gdov Kremlin (Гдовский Кремль) is located on a bank of the Gdovka River, overlooking the Russian town of Gdov.

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Georg von Oettingen

Georg von Oettingen (–) was a Baltic German physician and ophthalmologist who was born at the manor Gut Wissust (today known as Visusti in Palamuse Parish, Jõgeva County, Estonia).

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George Bogislaus Staël von Holstein

George Bogislaus Staël von Holstein (born 6 December 1685 in Narva; died 17 December 1763 in Malmö) was a Swedish baron and field marshal.

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George Browne (soldier)

George Browne (Юрий Юрьевич Броун., Seoirse de Brún, Georg Reichsgraf von Browne, George de Browne), Count von Browne in the nobility of the Holy Roman Empire (15 June 1698 – 18 February 1792), was an Irish soldier of fortune who became full general in the Russian service.

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Gerardus Mercator

Gerardus Mercator (5 March 1512 – 2 December 1594) was a 16th-century German-Flemish cartographer, geographer and cosmographer.

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German town law

The German town law (Deutsches Stadtrecht) or German municipal concerns (Deutsches Städtewesen) was a set of early town privileges based on the Magdeburg rights developed by Otto I. The Magdeburg Law became the inspiration for regional town charters not only in Germany, but also in Central and Eastern Europe who modified it during the Middle Ages.

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Gertrud Elisabeth Mara

Gertrud Elisabeth Mara (23 February 1749 – 20 January 1833) was a German operatic soprano.

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Giedroyć

Giedroyć (Lithuanian: Giedraitis; Russian and Belarusian: Гедройц; French: Guedroitz) is a Polish surname, originating from the Giedroyć princely family of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

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God Is My DJ

God Is My DJ is the fifteenth studio album by Italian singer-songwriter Alice, released in 1999 on WEA/Warner Music.

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Gottfried von Hohenlohe

Gottfried von Hohenlohe (1265 – 19 October 1310) was the 14th Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, serving from 1297 to 1303.

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Gotthard Kettler

Gotthard von Kettler (also Ketteler, Gotthard Kettler, Herzog von Kurland; 2 February 1517 – 17 May 1587) was the last Master of the Livonian Order and the first Duke of Courland and Semigallia.

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Grand Duchy of Lithuania

The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state that lasted from the 13th century up to 1795, when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, and Austria.

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Grand Duke of Finland

Grand Duke of Finland or the Grand Prince of Finland (Suomen suuriruhtinas, Storfurste av Finland), was from around 1580 to 1809 a title in use by most Swedish monarchs.

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Great Northern War

The Great Northern War (1700–1721) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe.

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Great Reduction (Sweden)

In the Great Reduction of 1680, by which the ancient landed nobility lost its power base, the Swedish Crown recaptured lands earlier granted to the nobility.

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Grobiņa Castle

Grobiņa Castle is a medieval castle located in the town of Grobiņa, Latvia, in western Courland.

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Gulf of Riga

The Gulf of Riga, Bay of Riga, or Gulf of Livonia (Rīgas jūras līcis, Liivi laht, Рижский залив) is a bay of the Baltic Sea between Latvia and Estonia.

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Gunno Dahlstierna

Gunno Dahlstierna (September 7, 1661September 7, 1709) was a Swedish poet.

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Gustav Fabergé

Gustav Fabergé born 1814 in Pernau – 1893 in Dresden, was a Baltic German jeweller and father of the famous Peter Carl Fabergé, maker of Fabergé eggs.

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Gustav Heinrich Kirchenpauer

Gustav Heinrich Kirchenpauer (2 February 1808 – 3 March 1887) was a Jurist, Journalist and Natural history researcher.

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Gustav Horn, Count of Pori

Count Gustav Horn af Björneborg (October 22, 1592 – May 10, 1657) was a Swedish Nobleman, Military Officer and Governor-General.

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Gustav von Ewers

Johann Philipp Gustav von Ewers or Evers (27 July 1779 – 20 November 1830) was a German legal historian and the founder of Russian legal history as a scholarly discipline.

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Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden

Gustav II Adolf (9 December 1594 – 6 November 1632, O.S.), widely known in English by his Latinised name Gustavus Adolphus or as Gustav II Adolph, was the King of Sweden from 1611 to 1632 who is credited for the founding of Sweden as a great power (Stormaktstiden).

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Gyldenär family

Gyldenär, is the surname of an extinct Swedish noble family, enrolled in Riddarhuset with the number of 388.

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Hakkapeliitta

Hakkapeliitta (Finnish pl. hakkapeliitat) is a historiographical term used for a Finnish light cavalryman in the service of King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden during the Thirty Years' War (1618 to 1648).

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Hans von Campenhausen

Hans Erich Freiherr von Campenhausen (16 December 1903 – 6 January 1989) was a German-Baltic Protestant theologian.

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Hanseatic League

The Hanseatic League (Middle Low German: Hanse, Düdesche Hanse, Hansa; Standard German: Deutsche Hanse; Latin: Hansa Teutonica) was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe.

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Harry Elionsky

Henry Elionsky (April 12, 1893–March 14, 1956), also known as Buster Elionsky, was a champion long-distance swimmer and handicap swimmer in open water swimming.

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Hartmann von Heldrungen

Hartmann von Heldrungen (died 19 August 1283) was the 11th Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, serving from 1273 to 1283.

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Hartwig of Uthlede

Hartwig of Uthlede (died 3 November 1207) was a German nobleman who – as Hartwig II – Prince-Archbishop of Bremen (1185–1190 and de facto again 1192–1207) and one of the originators of the Livonian Crusade.

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Hedvig Strömfelt

Hedvig Strömfelt (Stockholm 11 October 1723 - Kersö), 22 May 1766), was a Swedish Baroness and psalm writer. She occupied an important place in the Moravian Church Stockholm congregation in 18th-century Sweden. She composed the psalms number 46, 59 and 63 in Sions Sånger (Songs of Sion) of 1743, and likely 72, 78, 85, 86, 105 and 108 in Sions Nya Sånger (New Songs of Sion) of 1748.

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Hedvig Ulrika De la Gardie

Hedvig Ulrika De la Gardie (29 November 1761 in Stockholm, Sweden – 7 February 1832 in Stockholm), was a Swedish lady in waiting.

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Heinrich Sylvester Theodor Tiling

Heinrich Sylvester Theodor Tiling (31 December 1818 in Wilkenhof, Livonia, now in Latvia – 6 December 1871 in Nevada City, California, USA) was a German–Russian physician and naturalist.

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Henrik von Rehbinder

Henrik von Rehbinder (1604–1680) was a Swedish soldier and Friherre of the Udriku estate in Swedish Estonia.

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Henry of Latvia

Henry of Latvia (Henricus de Lettis, Heinrich von Lettland, Latviešu Indriķis, Läti Henrik; before 1188, Magdeburg, Landgraviate of Thuringia – after 1259 in Papendorf, Livonia (currently Rubene, Kocēni parish, Kocēni Municipality, Latvia)), also known in the English speaking world as Henry of Livonia, was a priest, missionary and historian.

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Henryk Weyssenhoff

Henryk Bonawentura Kazimierz Weyssenhoff (26 July 1859, near Kaunas - 23 July 1922, Warsaw) was a Polish-Belarusian landscape painter, illustrator and sculptor of Baltic-German ancestry.

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Herman Wrangel

Herman Wrangel, born either 1584 or 1587 in Livonia, died 10 December 1643.

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Hermann Balk

Hermann Balk (died March 5, 1239, Würzburg), also known as Hermann von Balk or Hermann Balke, was a Knight-Brother of the Teutonic Order and its first Landmeister, or Provincial Master, in both Prussia and Livonia.

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Hermann of Buxhoeveden, Bishop of Ösel-Wiek

Hermann of Buxhoeveden or Bekeshoevede (1230-1285) was a medieval clergyman.

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Hermann von Keyserling

Count Hermann Alexander von Keyserling (July 20, 1880 – April 26, 1946) was a Baltic German philosopher from the Keyserlingk family.

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Hermann von Salza

Hermann von Salza (or Hermann of Salza; c. 1165 – March 20, 1239) was the fourth Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, serving from 1210 to 1239.

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Hermann Wesel

Hermann Wesel (died June 1563) was a German ecclesiastic in Livonia, and the last Roman Catholic Bishop of Dorpat (Tartu).

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Hetman of Zaporizhian Host

Hetman of Zaporizhian Host (Гетьман Війська Запорозького, Гетман Войска Запорожского, Hetman wojsk kozackich) is a former historic government office and political institution of Cossack Hetmanate (Zaporizhian Host) in Ukraine that was equivalent to a head of state.

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Hillfort

A hillfort is a type of earthworks used as a fortified refuge or defended settlement, located to exploit a rise in elevation for defensive advantage.

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Hirschaid

Hirschaid is a German market town in the Upper Franconian district of Bamberg and lies roughly twelve kilometres south of Bamberg on the Regnitz and the Main-Danube Canal.

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History of Estonia

The history of Estonia forms a part of the history of Europe.

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History of Finland

The history of Finland begins around 9,000 BCE during the end of the last glacial period.

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History of Germans in Russia, Ukraine and the Soviet Union

The German minority in Russia, Ukraine and the Soviet Union was created from several sources and in several waves.

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History of Germany

The concept of Germany as a distinct region in central Europe can be traced to Roman commander Julius Caesar, who referred to the unconquered area east of the Rhine as Germania, thus distinguishing it from Gaul (France), which he had conquered.

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History of Latvia

The history of Latvia began around 9000 BC with the end of the last glacial period in northern Europe.

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History of Lithuania

The history of Lithuania dates back to settlements founded many thousands of years ago, but the first written record of the name for the country dates back to 1009 AD.

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History of Lithuania (1219–95)

The history of Lithuania between 1219 and 1295 concerns the establishment and early history of the first Lithuanian state, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

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History of Lithuanian culture

The culture of Lithuania, dating back to 200 BC, with the settlement of the Balts and has been independent of the presence of a sovereign Lithuanian state.

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History of Poland

The history of Poland has its roots in the migrations of Slavs, who established permanent settlements in the Polish lands during the Early Middle Ages.

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History of Poland during the Jagiellonian dynasty

The rule of the Jagiellonian dynasty in Poland between 1386 and 1572 spans the late Middle Ages and early Modern Era in European history.

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History of Poland in the Early Modern era (1569–1795)

The early modern era of Polish history follows the late Middle Ages.

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History of Poland in the Middle Ages

In this time period Polish history covering roughly a millennium, from the 5th century, the way through to the 16th century.

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History of Riga

The history of Riga, the capital of Latvia, begins as early as the 2nd century with a settlement, the Duna urbs, at a natural harbor not far upriver from the mouth of the Daugava River.

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History of Russia (1721–96)

Peter changed the rules of succession to the throne after the death of his son Aleksey, who had opposed his father's reforms and served as a rallying figure for anti-reform groups.

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History of Scandinavia

The history of Scandinavia is the history of the geographical region of Scandinavia and its peoples.

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History of Sweden

During the 11th and 12th centuries, Sweden gradually became a unified Christian kingdom that later included what is today Finland.

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History of Sweden (1523–1611)

The Early Vasa era is a period that in Swedish and Finnish history lasted between 1523–1611.

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History of Sweden (1611–48)

During the 17th century, despite having scarcely more than 1 million inhabitants, Sweden emerged to have greater foreign influence, after winning wars against Denmark–Norway, the Holy Roman Empire, Russia, and the Commonwealth of Poland-Lithuania.

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History of the Jews in Latvia

The History of the Jews in Latvia dates back to the first Jewish colony established in Piltene in 1571.

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History of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569–1648)

History of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569–1648) covers a period in the history of Poland and Lithuania, before their joint state was subjected to devastating wars in the middle of the 17th century.

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History of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1648–1764)

History of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1648–1764) covers a period in the history of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, from the time their joint state became the theater of wars and invasions fought on a great scale in the middle of the 17th century, to the time just before the election of Stanisław August Poniatowski, the last king of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

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History of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1764–1795)

The History of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1764–1795) is concerned with the final decades of existence of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

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HMS Phoebe (1795)

HMS Phoebe was a 36-gun fifth rate of the British Royal Navy.

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Horn family

The Horn family coat of arms features a black drinking horn on yellow background Horn is a Swedish noble family from Finland, known since the 14th century.

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Hosius

Hosius may refer to.

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House of Croÿ

The House of Croÿ is a family of European mediatized nobility, which held a seat in the Imperial Diet from 1486, and was elevated to the rank of Princes of the Holy Roman Empire in 1594.

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House of Fabergé

The House of Fabergé (Russian: Дом Фаберже) is a jewellery firm founded in 1842 in St. Petersburg, Imperial Russia, by Gustav Faberge, using the accented name "Fabergé".

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House of Mindaugas

The House of Mindaugas was the first royal family of Grand Duchy of Lithuania, centered on Mindaugas, the first known and undoubted sovereign of Lithuania.

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House of Sobieski

Sobieski (plural: Sobiescy, feminine form: Sobieska) was a prominent magnate family of Polish nobility in the 16th and 17th centuries.

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House of the Blackheads (Tallinn)

House of the Blackheads (Estonian Mustpeade maja), or House of the Brotherhood of Black Heads, in Tallinn, the capital of Estonia, is a former headquarters of the Brotherhood of Blackheads.

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House of Vasa

The House of Vasa (Vasaätten, Wazowie, Vaza) was an early modern royal house founded in 1523 in Sweden, ruling Sweden 1523–1654, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth 1587–1668, and the Tsardom of Russia 1610–1613 (titular until 1634).

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Howard Craufurd Elphinstone

Major General Sir Howard Craufurd Elphinstone, (12 December 1829 – 8 March 1890) was a British Army officer and a recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.

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Hozjusz

*Stanislaus Hosius (1504-1579), the bishop of Chełmno and Warmia, a cardinal and leader of the Counter-Reformation.

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Hrehory Chodkiewicz

Hrehory Chodkiewicz (Grigorijus Chodkevičius, Рыгор Аляксандравіч Хадкевіч; – November 9, 1572) was a nobleman and military officer of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

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Igelström

Igelström is the surname of a Swedish noble family from Nylödöse.

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Il falegname di Livonia

Il falegname di Livonia, o Pietro il grande, czar delle Russie (The Livonian Carpenter, or Peter the Great, Tsar of the Russias) is an 1819 opera buffa in two acts with music by Gaetano Donizetti set to a libretto by Gherardo Bevilacqua-Aldobrandini.

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Inflanty

Inflanty is the Polish name for Livonia and may refer to the following historical jurisdictions.

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Inflanty Voivodeship

The Inflanty Voivodeship (Województwo inflanckie), or Livonian Voivodeship (Livonijos vaivadija), also known as Polish Livonia, was an administrative division and local government in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, since it was formed in the 1620s out of the Wenden Voivodeship and lasted until the First Partition of Poland in 1772.

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Iosif Igelström

Count Otto Heinrich Igelström (Otto Henrik Igelström, Игельстрем, Иосиф Андреевич, Iosif Andreyevich Igelström; 7 May 1737 - 1823) was a Russian general from the noble Swedish family of Igelström.

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Isidore of Kiev

Isidore of Kiev, also known as Isidore of Thessalonica (Ἰσίδωρος τοῦ Κιέβου; Исидор; Ісидор; b. Peloponnesus, 1385 – d.Rome, 27 April 1463) was a Greek Metropolitan of Kiev, cardinal, humanist, and theologian.

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Islam in Estonia

Estonia has one of the smallest Muslim communities in Europe.

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Ivan Bartolomei

Ivan Alekseyevich Bartolomei (Иван Алексеевич Бартоломей, 28 November 1813 – 5 October 1870) was an Imperial Russian military officer, antiquarian, and writer.

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Ivan Mazepa

Ivan Stepanovych Mazepa (Іван Степанович Мазепа, Jan Mazepa Kołodyński). Retrieved 10 July 2015 served as the Hetman of Zaporizhian Host in 1687–1708.

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Ivan Mikhailovich Viskovatyi

Ivan Mikhailovich Viskovatiy (Viskovatov) (Иван Михайлович Висковатый (Висковатов) in Russian) (died 25 July 1570 in Moscow) was a Russian diplomat and head of the Posolsky Prikaz (foreign ministry).

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Ivan the Terrible

Ivan IV Vasilyevich (pron; 25 August 1530 –), commonly known as Ivan the Terrible or Ivan the Fearsome (Ivan Grozny; a better translation into modern English would be Ivan the Formidable), was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1533 to 1547, then Tsar of All Rus' until his death in 1584.

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Jaan Kross

Jaan Kross (19 February 1920 – 27 December 2007) was an Estonian writer.

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Jacob Axelsson Lindblom

Jacob Axelsson Lindblom (27 July 1746, in Skeda, Östergötland – 15 February 1819, in Uppsala) was a Swedish scholar who eventually became archbishop of Uppsala, a position he held between 1805-1819.

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Jacob De la Gardie

Field Marshal and Count Jacob Pontusson De la Gardie (Reval, 20 June 1583 – Stockholm, 22 August 1652) was a statesman and a soldier of the Swedish Empire.

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Jacob Heinrich Elbfas

Jacob Heinrich Elbfas (c.1600–1664) was a portrait painter Elbfas was born in Livonia and educated in Strasbourg, in a tradition dating back to Renaissance portraits.

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Jadwiga Wajs

Jadwiga Wajs-Marcinkiewicz (30 January 1912 in Pabianice, Russian Empire – 1 February 1990) was a Polish athlete who mainly competed in the discus throw.

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Jakob Benjamin Fischer

Jakob Benjamin Fischer (13 October 1731–25 July 1793) was a Baltic German naturalist and apothecary.

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Jan Hieronimowicz Chodkiewicz

Jan Hieronimowicz Chodkiewicz (Jonas Chodkevičius) (1537 – 4 August 1579) was a 16th-century Polish-Lithuanian noble.

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Jan Swołyński

Jan Swołyński (died between 1644 and 1647) was a Polish nobleman (szlachcic) and a marshal (marszałek) of Oszmiany.

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Jan Zamoyski

Jan Zamoyski or Zamojski (Ioannes Zamoyski de Zamoscie; 19 March 1542 – 3 June 1605) was a Polish nobleman, magnate, and the 1st ordynat of Zamość.

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January 15

No description.

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Janus Cornarius

Janus Cornarius (ca. 1500 – March 16, 1558) was a Saxon humanist and friend of Erasmus.

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Jastrzębiec coat of arms

Jastrzębiec is a Polish coat of arms.

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Józef Baka

Józef Baka (Lithuanian: Juozapas Baka) was a late Baroque poet, Jesuit priest and missionary.

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Józef Kanty Ossoliński

Józef Jan Kanty Ossoliński (1707–1780) was a magnate in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

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Józef Kossakowski (bishop)

Józef Kazimierz Korwin Kossakowski (16 March 1738 – 9 May 1794), of Ślepowron coat of arms, was a Polish noble (szlachcic), bishop of Livonia from 1781, political activist, writer, and supporter of Russian Empire.

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Jüri Reinvere

Jüri Reinvere (born December 2, 1971 in Tallinn) is an Estonian composer, poet and essayist who has been living in Germany since 2005.

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Jānis Frīdrihs Baumanis

Jānis Frīdrihs Baumanis (May 23, 1834, Riga – March 19, 1891, Riga) was the first professional Latvian architect.

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Jēkabs Bukse

Jēkabs Bukse (14 June 1879 – 12 May 1942) was a Latvian cyclist.

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Jean Le Maingre

Jean II Le Maingre (in Old French, Jehan le Meingre), called Boucicaut (August 28, 1366 — June 21, 1421) was marshal of France and a knight renowned for his military skill.

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Joachim Cronman

Joachim Cronman (c.1640 – March 5, 1703) was an owner of estates in Livonia and a colonel for the Swedish Empire.

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Johann Christoph Brotze

Johann Christoph Brotze (Johans Kristofs Broce) (1 September 1742 – 4 August 1823) was a German pedagogue, artist and ethnographer.

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Johann Ernst Glück

Johann Ernst Glück (Ernsts Gliks; 10 November 1652 – 5 May 1705) was a German translator and Lutheran theologian active in Livonia, which is now in Latvia.

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Johann Freytag von Loringhoven

Johann Freitag von Loringhoven (also Johann Freytag von Loringhoven, and Johann Fridach van Loringhoffe) (c. 1430-May 26, 1494) was a member of the Freytag von Loringhoven family and was a knight of the Teutonic Knights.

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Johann Georg von Browne

Count Johann Georg von Browne (or Johann Georg von Browne-Camus; 20 September 1767 – January 1827) was an officer in the Russian army, and settled in Vienna where he was a patron of Ludwig van Beethoven during the composer's early career.

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Johann Karl Bähr

Johann Karl Bähr (1801–69) was a German painter and writer.

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Johann Leonhard Dober

Johann Leonhard Dober (born March 7, 1706, Mönchsroth, Swabia, Germany to Johann Dober and Anna Barbara Link; died April 1, 1766, Herrnhut, Saxony, Germany) was, along with David Nitschmann, one of the two first missionaries of the Moravian Brethren (Herrnhuter Brüdergemeine) in the West Indies in 1732.

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Johann Martin von Elmpt

Field Marshal Ivan Karpovich Elmpt (Ива́н Ка́рпович Эльмпт, Johann-Martin von Elmpt; 1725) was a military officer of the Russian Empire.

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Johann Steinhauer

Johann Steinhauer (Jānis Šteinhauers, born Jānis Akmeņkalis; 19 January 1705 – 21 February 1779) was a Latvian entrepreneur, social reformer and landowner, who made significant contributions to the Latvian civil rights throughout the 18th century.

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Johann von Uexküll

Johann von Uexküll (or Johann von Mentz (Menzen.

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Johannes Gezelius the elder

Johannes Gezelius the elder (February 3, 1615-January 20, 1690) was the Bishop of the Archdiocese of Turku and the Vice-Chancellor of The Royal Academy of Turku (1664–90).

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Johannes Gezelius the younger

Johannes Gezelius the younger (AD 1647 in Dorpat – AD 1718 in Uppland), was a theologian, professor in The Royal Academy of Åbo and also superintendent of Livonia as his father had been.

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Johannes Letzmann

Johannes Peter Letzmann (19 July 1885 – 21 May 1971) was an Estonian meteorologist, and a pioneering tornado researcher.

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John II Casimir Vasa

John II Casimir (Jan II Kazimierz Waza; Johann II.; Jonas Kazimieras Vaza; 22 March 1609 – 16 December 1672) was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania during the era of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Duke of Opole in Upper Silesia, and titular King of Sweden 1648–1660.

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John III Sobieski

John III Sobieski (Jan III Sobieski; Jonas III Sobieskis; Ioannes III Sobiscius; 17 August 1629 – 17 June 1696), was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1674 until his death, and one of the most notable monarchs of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

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John J. Walsh

John J. Walsh (born August 19, 1962) was a member of the Michigan House of Representatives, first elected in 2008.

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John, Duke of Östergötland

John of Sweden, Duke of Östergötland (in Swedish Johan) (18 April 1589 at Uppsala Castle – 5 March 1618 at Bråborg Castle in Östergötland) was a Swedish royal dynast.

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Jonas Kęsgaila

Jonas Kęsgaila (or Kęsgailaitis) (Jan Kieżgajło, Johannes Kyensgalowicz, died 1485) was a Lithuanian nobleman, son of Mykolas Kęsgaila of the Kęsgaila family.

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Julia von Mengden

Julia von Mengden (Augusta Juliane) (1719–1786), was a Livonian noblewoman, lady in waiting, favourite and the intimate friend and confidante of the Russian regent Grand Duchess Anna Leopoldovna.

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Karja Church

Karja Church (Karja kirik) is a medieval Lutheran church located in Linnaka village on Saaremaa island, Estonia.

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Karl Bücher

Karl Wilhelm Bücher (16 February 1847, Kirberg, Hesse – 12 November 1930, Leipzig, Saxony) was an economist, one of the founders of non-market economics, and the founder of journalism as an academic discipline.

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Karl Christian Ulmann

Karl Christian Ulmann (in Riga &ndash) was a Baltic German theologian.

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Karl Eduard von Napiersky

Karl Eduard von Napiersky (21 May 1793, Riga – 2 September 1864, Riga) was a Latvian clergyman and historian.

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Karl Gustav von Löwenwolde

Count Karl Gustav von Löwenwolde (17th century - April 30, 1735 Räpina) (Karl Gustaw von Loewenwolde, Левенвольде, Карл Густав, Kārlis Gustavs Lēvenvolde) was a Russian diplomat and military commander.

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Karl Jessen

Vice Admiral Karl Petrovich Jessen (Карл Петрович Иессен; 30 June 1852 – 30 November 1918) was an admiral in the Imperial Russian Navy during the Russo-Japanese War.

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Karl von Ditmar

Karl von Ditmar (sometimes Carl von Ditmar) (in Vändra – in Tartu) was a Baltic German geologist and explorer, who travelled in and contributed to the scientific understanding of Kamchatka.

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Karol Stanisław Radziwiłł (1734–1790)

Prince Karol Stanisław Radziwiłł (Караль Станіслаў Радзівіл II, Karolis Stanislovas Radvila II, Exonym: Charles Stanislaus: 27 February 1734 – 21 November 1790) was a Polish nobleman, politician, diplomat, prince of the Crown Kingdom of Poland and the Commonwealth, statesman of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Voivode of Vilnius, governor of Lwów and Sejm Marshal between 1767 and 1768.

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Königstein Fortress

Königstein Fortress (Festung Königstein), the "Saxon Bastille", is a hilltop fortress near Dresden, in Saxon Switzerland, Germany, above the town of Königstein on the left bank of the River Elbe.

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Kęstutis

Kęstutis (born ca. 1297, died on 3 August or 15 August 1382 in Kreva) was a ruler of medieval Lithuania.

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Keyserlingk

Keyserlingk is an old noble family from Westphalia.

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Killeedy

Killeedy (Cill Íde) is a civil parish located south of Newcastle West in Co.

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Kingdom of Livonia

The Kingdom of Livonia was a nominal state in what is now the territory of Estonia and Latvia.

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Kiril Bagration

Kiril Bagration (კირილე ბაგრატიონი, Kirile Bagrationi; Кирилл Александрович Багратион, Kirill Aleksandrovich Bagration) (1749 – 19 April 1828) was an Imperial Russian general and official of Georgian origin, descended from the royal line of the Bagrationi-Mukhraneli of Kartli.

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Klaipėda

Klaipėda (Samogitian name: Klaipieda, Polish name: Kłajpeda, German name: Memel), is a city in Lithuania on the Baltic Sea coast.

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Kolka, Latvia

Kolka (Livonian: Kūolka; Russian: "Колка") is a village in Kolka parish, Dundaga municipality, on the tip of Cape Kolka in Courland in Latvia, on the coast of the Gulf of Riga in ancient Livonia.

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Kolme katku vahel

Kolme katku vahel is a novel by Estonian author Jaan Kross.

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Konstanty Ludwik Plater

Konstanty Ludwik Plater (Konstantinas Liudvikas Pliateris) (1722 – 31 March 1778 in Krāslava), was Castellan of Troki from 1770, voivode of Mstislavl from 1758 to 1770, Castellan of Polotsk from 1754 to 1758, the great Lithuanian Magnus Scriptor from 1746 to 1754, Maréchal of the Lithuanian Tribunal in 1754, and Starosta of Livonia and Dyneburg.

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Korenbeurs (Amsterdam)

The Korenbeurs ("grain bourse") was a 17th-century commodity market in Amsterdam where grain was traded.

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Kossakowski

Józef Kazimierz Kossakowski (1738–1794) Jan Nepomucen Kossakowski (1755–1808) Józef Kossakowski (1772–1842) Kossakowski (plural: Kossakowscy, feminine: Kossakowska) (Kosakovskiai, singular forms: m: Kosakovskis, f: Kosakovskienė, Kosakovskytė) was a noble family of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth of the Masovian descent.

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Kruszyna, Silesian Voivodeship

Kruszyna is a village in Częstochowa County, Silesian Voivodeship, in southern Poland.

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Krzysztof Czarniecki

Krzysztof Czarniecki of the Łodzia coat of arms (b. ca. 1564, d. 1636) was a Polish nobleman and starosta of Żywiec.

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Landing at Humlebæk

The Landing at Humlebæk took place on August 4, 1700 (Gregorian calendar), in the Swedish invasion of Denmark during the Great Northern War 1700-1721.

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Landtag

A Landtag (State Diet) is a representative assembly (parliament) in German-speaking countries with legislative authority and competence over a federated state (Land).

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Latgalians

Latgalians, sometimes also Ancient Latvians (Letti, Lethi, modern; variant translations also include Latgallians, Lettigalls or Lettigallians), were an ancient Baltic tribe.

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Latinisation of names

Latinisation or Latinization is the practice of rendering a non-Latin name (or word) in a Latin style.

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Latvians

Latvians (latvieši; lețlizt) are a Baltic ethnic group, native to what is modern-day Latvia and the immediate geographical region.

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Lau Church

Lau Church (Lau kyrka) is a medieval Lutheran church on the Swedish island of Gotland, in the Diocese of Visby.

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Lāčplēsis

Lāčplēsis is an epic poem by Andrejs Pumpurs, a Latvian poet, who wrote it between 1872–1887 based on local legends.

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Leon Wasilewski

Leon Wasilewski (1870–1936) was an activist of the Polish Socialist Party (PPS), a coworker of Józef Piłsudski, Polish Minister of Foreign Affairs, designer of much of Second Polish Republic policy towards Eastern Europe, historian and father of Halszka Wasilewska and of Wanda Wasilewska.

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Leszczyński

Leszczyński (plural: Leszczyńscy, feminine form: Leszczyńska) was a prominent Polish noble family.

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Liège Cathedral

Liège Cathedral, otherwise St.

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Liepāja

Liepāja (pronounced) (Libau; see other names) is a city in western Latvia, located on the Baltic Sea.

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Lieven (given name)

Lieven is a Dutch language masculine given name.

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Limbaži

Limbaži (Lemsalu, Lemsal, Limbaž) is a town in the Vidzeme region of northern Latvia.

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Lisowczycy

Lisowczycy (also known as Straceńcy ('lost men' or 'forlorn hope') or chorągiew elearska (company of); or in singular form: Lisowczyk or elear) – the name of an early 17th-century irregular unit of the Polish-Lithuanian light cavalry.

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List of adjectivals and demonyms for former regions

The following is a list of adjectival forms of former regions in English and their demonymic equivalents, which denote the people or the inhabitants of these former regions.

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List of battles (alphabetical)

Alphabetical list of historical battles (see also Military history, Lists of battles): NOTE: Where a year has been used to disambiguate battles it is the year when the battle started.

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List of Catholic dioceses in Estonia

The Catholic Church in Estonia (a Baltic former Soviet republic, like Latvia and Lithuania) presently comprises only a pre-diocesan Latin rite jurisdiction, covering (only) the entire country.

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List of church ruins on Gotland

There are in total nineteen known ruined churches on the Swedish island of Gotland, in the Baltic Sea twelve of which lie in Visby, the island's main town.

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List of entomologists

The following is a list of entomologists, people who have studied insects.

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List of European regions with alternative names

Most regions and provinces of Europe have alternative names in different languages.

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List of famines

This is a selective list of known major famines, ordered by date.

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List of General Motors factories

This is a list of General Motors factories that are being or have been used to produce automobiles and automobile components.

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List of Latin names of countries

This list includes the Roman names of countries, or significant regions, known to the Roman Empire.

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List of Latin names of regions

Here is a list of principalities and regions written in the Latin language and English and other names on the right.

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List of molluscan genera represented in the fossil record

This list of molluscan genera represented in the fossil record is a list which is composed primarily of many mollusk genera which occur as fossils.

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List of Polish monarchs

Poland was ruled at various times either by dukes (the 10th–14th century) or by kings (the 11th-18th century).

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List of state leaders in 1258

No description.

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List of state leaders in 1260

No description.

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List of state leaders in 1339

No description.

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List of state leaders in 1340

No description.

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List of state leaders in 1341

No description.

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List of state leaders in 1342

No description.

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List of state leaders in 1343

No description.

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List of states in the Holy Roman Empire

This list of states which were part of the Holy Roman Empire includes any territory ruled by an authority that had been granted imperial immediacy, as well as many other feudal entities such as lordship, sous-fiefs and allodial fiefs.

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List of towns with German town law

A list of towns in Europe with German town law.

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List of wars involving Poland

This is a chronological list of military conflicts in which Polish armed forces won or took place on Polish territory from the reign of Mieszko I (960–992) to the ongoing military operations.

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List of wars involving Sweden

This is a list of wars involving the Kingdom of Sweden.

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List of wartime cross-dressers

Many people have engaged in cross-dressing during wartime under various circumstances and for various motives.

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Lithuania

Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.

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Lithuanian Civil War (1381–84)

The Lithuanian Civil War of 1381–1384 was the first struggle for power between the cousins Jogaila, Grand Duke of Lithuania and later King of Poland, and Vytautas the Great.

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Lithuanian Crusade

The Lithuanian Crusade was a series of campaigns by the Teutonic Order and the Livonian Order, two crusading military orders, to convert the pagan Grand Duchy of Lithuania into Roman Catholicism.

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Lithuanian long currency

The so-called Lithuanian long currency was a type of money used by the Baltic tribes and in the early Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the 12th–15th centuries.

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Livonia (disambiguation)

Livonia is a historical region now divided between Estonia and Latvia.

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Livonia, Michigan

Livonia is a city in the northwest part of Wayne County in the U.S. state of Michigan.

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Livonian

Livonian may refer to.

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Livonian Brothers of the Sword

The Livonian Brothers of the Sword (Fratres militiæ Christi Livoniae, Schwertbrüderorden, Ordre des Chevaliers Porte-Glaive) was a Catholic military order established by Albert, the third bishop of Riga (or possibly by Theoderich von Treyden), in 1202.

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Livonian Chronicle of Henry

The Livonian Chronicle of Henry (Heinrici Cronicon Lyvoniae) or Henry's chronicle of Livonia is a document in Latin describing historic events in Livonia (roughly corresponding to today's inland Estonia and north of Latvia) and surrounding areas from 1180 to 1227.

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Livonian Crusade

The Livonian Crusade refers to the conquest of the territory constituting modern Latvia and Estonia during the pope-sanctioned Northern Crusades, performed mostly by Germans from the Holy Roman Empire and Danes.

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Livonian cuisine

Livonian cuisine consists of the cuisine of Livonia and the Livonians, and is characterized by the rich use of local foods.

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Livonian Knighthood

The Livonian Knighthood (Livländische Ritterschaft, Liivimaa rüütelkond, Livonijas bruņniecība) was a fiefdom that existed in Livonia (now Southern Estonia and Northern Latvia).

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Livonian language

Livonian (Livonian: līvõ kēļ or rāndakēļ) is a Finnic language.

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Livonian Order

The Livonian Order was an autonomous branch of the Teutonic Order, formed in 1237.

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Livonians

The Livonians, or Livs (Livonian: līvlizt), are a Finnic ethnic group indigenous to northern Latvia and southwestern Estonia.

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Lorenzo Litta

Lorenzo Litta (25 February 1756 – 1 May 1820) was an Italian littérateur and churchman, who became a Cardinal.

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Ludwig August Mellin

Count Ludwig August Mellin (23 January 1754 in Tuhala, Governorate of Reval – 12 March 1835 in Riga, Governorate of Livonia) was a Baltic German politician, cartographer, writer and publicist.

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Ludza

Ludza (Lucyn, Люцин, Lyucin) is a town in the Latgalia region of eastern Latvia.

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Lya Mara

Lya Mara (1 August 1897 – 1 March 1960) was one of the biggest stars of the German silent cinema.

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Madonna Oriente

Madonna Oriente or Signora Oriente (Lady of the East), also known as La Signora del Gioco (The Lady of the Game), are names of an alleged religious figure, as described by two Italian women who were executed by the Inquisition in 1390 as witches.

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Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie

Count Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie (15 October 1622 – 26 April 1686) was a Swedish statesman and military man.

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Magnus Stiernstråle

Magnus Stiernstråle (died 18 December 1738) was a Swedish military colonel, and was most likely from Livonia.

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Magnus von Behm

Magnus von Behm (27 March 1727 in Livonia – 9 July 1806) was the chief commander of Kamchatka in Russia from 1773 to 1779.

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Manuel Villegas Piñateli

Manuel Villegas Piñateli was a member of the Royal Spanish Academy from 1714 to 15 October 1752.

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Maria Vladimirovna of Staritsa

Maria Vladimirovna of Staritsa(ca 1560, Staritsa – 13 May 1610) was a Russian princess.

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Marshal of Nobility (Estonia)

In the provinces of Estonia and Livonia of the Russian Empire, the title of the senior official was (Provincial) Marshal of Nobility ((Kubermangu) Aadlimarssal) during 1783-1796, when regency for the provinces of Estonia and Livonia was introduced.

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Matthew Shiffner

Matthew Shiffner (c. 1690 - December 1756) was a Russian-born merchant, of German Baltic origins.

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Matthias of Trakai

Matthias of Trakai or of Vilnius (Motiejus Trakiškis; Matthias Vilnensis; ca. 1370 – 9 May 1453 in Vilnius) was a Lithuanian Roman Catholic clergyman, the first Bishop of Samogitia from its establishment in 1417 until 1422 and the fifth Bishop of Vilnius from 4 May 1422 until 9 May 1453 and an ex officio member of the Council of Lords.

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Max Ebert

Max Ebert (4 August 1879, Stendal – 15 November 1929, Berlin) was a German prehistorian known for his studies associated with the Baltic states and South Russia.

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Maximilian III, Archduke of Austria

Maximilian III of Austria, also known as Maximilian the Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights (12 October 1558 – 2 November 1618) was the Archduke of Further Austria from 1612 until his death.

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Meister Eckhart

Eckhart von Hochheim (–), commonly known as Meister Eckhart or Eckehart, was a German theologian, philosopher and mystic, born near Gotha, in the Landgraviate of Thuringia (now central Germany) in the Holy Roman Empire.

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Melchior Hoffman

Melchior Hoffman (or Hofmann; byname: Pel(t)zer "furrier"; c. 1495c. 1543) was an Anabaptist prophet and a visionary leader in northern Germany and the Netherlands.

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Metsepole

Mõtsa Pūol or Metsepole was an ancient Livonian county inhabited by a Finnic people Livonians, on the east coast of the Gulf of Riga, at the northwest of what is now the Vidzeme region of Latvia.

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Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki

Michael I (Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki, Mykolas I Kaributas Višnioveckis; May 31, 1640 – November 10, 1673) was the ruler of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth as King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from September 29, 1669 until his death in 1673.

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Michał Pius Römer

Michał Pius Römer (originally Michael von Römer, later using the Lithuanian form Mykolas Römeris) (1880 in Bagdoniškis – 1945 in Vilnius) was a Lithuanian lawyer, scientist and politician.

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Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly

Prince Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly (–) was a Russian Field Marshal and Minister of War during Napoleon's invasion in 1812 and War of the Sixth Coalition.

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Michael Johann von der Borch

Graf Michael Johann von der Borch-Lubeschitz und Borchhoff, Baron von Borchland (Michał Jan Borch, Михаэль Иоганн фон дер Борх, Mihaels fon der Borhs, 20 June 1753 –) was a Baltic German naturalist and writer.

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Michael Reinecke

Michael Franzevich von Reinecke (Михаил Францевич Рейнеке; 10 November 1801 – 16 April 1859), better known as Mikhail Reyneke, was a Russian vice-admiral and hydrographer.

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Mikołaj "the Black" Radziwiłł

Mikołaj Krzysztof Radziwiłł (4 February 1515 – 28 May 1565), nicknamed The Black (Lithuanian: Juodasis), was a Polish-Lithuanian noble who held several administrative positions within the Grand Duchy of Lithuania: Voivode of Vilnius, Grand Lithuanian Chancellor, and Grand Hetman of Lithuania.

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Mikołaj Struś

Mikołaj Struś (1577-1627) (Korczak coat of arms) was a Colonel of the Polish Army, a starosta and commandant of the Polish-Lithuanian garrison in the occupied Moscow Kremlin.

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Military history of Denmark

Denmark has long been involved with the wars of Northern Europe and, recently, elsewhere.

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Military history of the Russian Empire

The military history of the Russian Empire encompasses the history of armed conflict in which the Russian Empire participated.

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Military of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

The military of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth evolved from the merger of the armies of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania following the 1569 Union of Lublin, which formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

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Modern history

Modern history, the modern period or the modern era, is the linear, global, historiographical approach to the time frame after post-classical history.

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Moldavian Magnate Wars

The Moldavian Magnate Wars refer to the period at the end of the 16th century and the beginning of the 17th century when the magnates of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth intervened in the affairs of Moldavia, clashing with the Habsburgs and the Ottoman Empire for domination and influence over the principality.

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Muscovite–Lithuanian Wars

The Muscovite–Lithuanian Wars (also known as Russo-Lithuanian Wars, or just either Muscovite Wars or Lithuanian Wars)The conflicts are referred to as 'Muscovite wars' (wojny moskiewskie) in Polish historiography and as 'Lithuanian wars' in Russian one; English historiography uses both, ex.

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Mustvee

Mustvee is a town and municipality in Mustvee Parish Estonia.

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Nalšia

Nalšia or Nalšėnai (sometimes Nalsen, Nalse) was an ancient land (regional duchy, a subject of Polatsk) in the early stages of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

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Napoleon Orda

Napoleon Mateusz Tadeusz Orda (Напалео́н О́рда; February 11, 1807 – April 26, 1883) was a Polish-Lithuanian musician, pianist, composer and artist, best known for numerous sketches of historical sites of present-day Belarus, Ukraine, Lithuania, and Poland.

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Nicholas II of Russia

Nicholas II or Nikolai II (r; 1868 – 17 July 1918), known as Saint Nicholas II of Russia in the Russian Orthodox Church, was the last Emperor of Russia, ruling from 1 November 1894 until his forced abdication on 15 March 1917.

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Nicolai Anders von Hartwiss

Nicolai Anhorn von Hartwiss (Николай Андерс фон Хартвис; 1793–1860) was a Livonian-born Russian botanist, plant explorer and plant breeder.

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Nicolaus Zinzendorf

Nikolaus Ludwig, Reichsgraf von Zinzendorf und Pottendorf (26 May 1700 – 9 May 1760) was a German religious and social reformer, bishop of the Moravian Church, founder of the Herrnhuter Brüdergemeine, Christian mission pioneer and a major figure of 18th century Protestantism.

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Nigula Nature Reserve

Nigula Nature Reserve (Nigula looduskaitseala) is a nature reserve situated in South-West of Estonia, in Häädemeeste and Saarde parishes of Pärnu County.

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Nikolai Berg

Nikolai Vasilyevich Berg (Никола́й Васи́льевич Берг,, Moscow, Russian Empire, -, Warsaw, Poland) was a Russian poet, journalist, translator and historian.

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Nikolay Raevsky

Nikolay Nikolayevich Raevsky (Николай Николаевич Раевский; —) was a Russian general and statesman who achieved fame for his feats of arms during the Napoleonic Wars.

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Norbert Angermann

Norbert Angermann (born November 2, 1936 in Forst (Lausitz)) is a German historian.

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Norrlands storregemente

Norrlands storregemente or Landsregementet i Norrland (Norrland Grand Regiment, Regiment of the Land in Norrland) was one of the nine grand regiments organized by Gustavus Adolphus in the late 1610s and split into smaller regiments in the 1620s.

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Norway during the Great Northern War

The Great Northern War was the war fought between a coalition of Denmark–Norway, Russia and Saxony-Poland (from 1715 also Prussia and Hanover) on one side and Sweden on the other side from 1700 to 1721.

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Norwegian exonyms

As a general rule, modern Norwegian does not use exonyms for names with endonyms in Latin script.

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Novgorod Governorate

Novgorod Governorate (Новгоро́дская губе́рния, Novgorodskaya guberniya, Government of Novgorod), was an administrative division (a guberniya) of the Russian Empire and the Russian SFSR, which existed from 1727 to 1776 and from 1796 to 1927.

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Ordensburg

Ordensburgs (plural in German: Ordensburgen, literally: castles of orders) were fortresses built by crusading German military orders during the Middle Ages.

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Order of battle for the Battle of Breitenfeld (1631)

The following units and commanders fought in the Battle of Breitenfeld of the Thirty Years War in 1631.

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Order of precedence in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

The order of precedence for members of the Sejm (parliament) of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was created at the same time as the Commonwealth itself – at the Lublin Sejm in 1569.

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Ortenberg Castle

Ortenberg Castle is the main landmark of the Ortenau and is situated above the town of Ortenberg at the end of the Kinzig Valley between Offenburg and Gengenbach.

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Ortenberg, Baden-Württemberg

Ortenberg is a municipality in the town of Ortenau, Baden-Württemberg.

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Ostsiedlung

Ostsiedlung (literally east settling), in English called the German eastward expansion, was the medieval eastward migration and settlement of Germanic-speaking peoples from the Holy Roman Empire, especially its southern and western portions, into less-populated regions of Central Europe, parts of west Eastern Europe, and the Baltics.

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Otto IV, Holy Roman Emperor

Otto IV (1175 – 19 May 1218) was one of two rival kings of Germany from 1198 on, sole king from 1208 on, and Holy Roman Emperor from 1209 until he was forced to abdicate in 1215.

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Pahlen

The Pahlen family (von der Pahlen; Пален, Palen) is a noble Estonian, Russian, Lithuanian and Swedish family of Baltic German origin.

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Parochial mission (Catholicism)

A parish mission or parochial mission is, in the terminology of the Roman Catholic Church, a term applied to certain special pastoral efforts among Catholics.

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Partitions of Poland

The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place toward the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland and Lithuania for 123 years.

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Pärnu

Pärnu (Pernau) is the fourth-largest city in Estonia.

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Põlva

Põlva is a town in southeastern Estonia, the capital of Põlva County, and the centre of Põlva Parish.

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Personal union

A personal union is the combination of two or more states that have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and interests remain distinct.

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Peter Carl Fabergé

Peter Carl Fabergé, also known as Karl Gustavovich Fabergé (Карл Гу́ставович Фаберже́, Karl Gustavovich Faberzhe; 30 May 1846 – 24 September 1920), was a Russian jeweller best known for the famous Fabergé eggs made in the style of genuine Easter eggs, but using precious metals and gemstones rather than more mundane materials.

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Peter Lacy

Count Peter von Lacy, or Pyotr Petrovich Lacy (Пётр Петро́вич Ла́сси), as he was known in Russia (26 September 1678 – 30 April 1751), was one of the most successful Russian imperial commanders before Rumyantsev and Suvorov.

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Peter the Great

Peter the Great (ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I (ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Peter Alexeyevich (p; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January.

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Peter Tordenskjold

Peter Jansen Wessel Tordenskiold (28 October 1690 – 12 November 1720), commonly referred to as Tordenskjold (lit. Thunder Shield), was a Danish-Norwegian nobleman and an eminent naval flag officer in the service of the Royal Dano-Norwegian Navy.

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Petrok Maly

Petrok Maly, also known as Petrok Maly Fryazin (Петрок Малый Фрязин, lit. Peter Junior) (? - c. 1539), was an Italian architect, who arrived in Moscow together with the envoys of Pope Clement VII in 1528.

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Pforta

Pforta, or Schulpforta, is a school located in a former Cistercian monastery, Pforta monastery (1137–1540), near Naumburg on the Saale River in the German state of Saxony-Anhalt.

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Phil Osaer

Phil Osaer (born 10 February 1980 in Livonia, Michigan) is an American former professional ice hockey goaltender, who played in the North American minor leagues before moving to partake a career abroad in Norway and Britain.

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Pieštvė

Pieštvė (also known as Beisten, Bisten, Pistene, Pista, Pestwa, etc. in medieval chronicles) was a wooden fortress of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania during the Lithuanian Crusade.

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Pirita convent

Pirita Convent (Pirita klooster) was a monastery for both monks and nuns dedicated to St. Brigitta, located in the district of Pirita in Tallinn, Estonia, between the 1417 and 1575.

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Poland

Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.

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Polish Golden Age

The Polish Golden Age refers to the period from the late 15th century Jagiellon Poland to the death of the last of the Jagiellons, Sigismund August in 1572.

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Polish historical regions

Polish historic regions are regions that were related to a former Polish state, or are within present-day Poland without being identified in its administrative division.

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Polish Navy

The Polish Navy (Marynarka Wojenna, "War Navy") is a military branch of the Polish Armed Forces responsible for naval operations.

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Polish złoty

The złoty (pronounced; sign: zł; code: PLN), which is the masculine form of the Polish adjective 'golden', is the currency of Poland.

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Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Navy

Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Navy was the navy of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

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Polish–Ottoman alliance

A Polish–Ottoman alliance, based on several treaties, occurred during the 16th century between the kingdom of Poland-Lithuania and the Ottoman Empire, as the Ottomans were expanding into Central Europe.

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Polish–Swedish War (1600–11)

The Polish–Swedish War (1600–11) was a continuation of struggle between Sweden and Poland over control of Livonia and Estonia, as well as the dispute over the Swedish throne between Charles IX of Sweden and Sigismund III of Poland.

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Polish–Swedish War (1617–18)

The Polish–Swedish War (1617–18) was a phase of the longer Polish–Swedish War (1600–29).

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Polish–Swedish War (1621–25)

The Polish–Swedish War (1621–26) was another war in the series of conflicts between the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Swedish Empire (see Polish–Swedish wars).

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Polish–Swedish War (1626–29)

The Polish–Swedish War of 1626–1629 was the fourth stage (after 1600–1611, 1617–1618, and 1620–1625) in a series of conflicts between Sweden and Poland fought in the 17th century.

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Polish–Swedish wars

The Polish–Swedish Wars were a series of wars between the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Sweden.

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Pomerania during the Early Modern Age

Pomerania during the Early Modern Age covers the history of Pomerania in the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries.

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Postage stamps and postal history of Estonia

This is a survey of the postage stamps and postal history of Estonia.

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Postage stamps and postal history of Latvia

Postal history in the territory that now constitutes Latvia began during the 13th century, when the Archbishopric of Riga was included to the area of postal operations of the Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights and the Hanseatic League.

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Preben von Magnus

Preben von Magnus (25 February 1912 - 9 August 1973) was a Danish virologist who gave name to the Von Magnus phenomenon.

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Prikaz

Prikaz (прика́з, prikaz) was an administrative (palace, civil, military, or church), judicial, territorial, and executive offices earlier in Muscovy and Russia of 15th-18th centuries.

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Prince-bishop

A prince-bishop is a bishop who is also the civil ruler of some secular principality and sovereignty.

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Principality of Koknese

The Principality of Koknese (Russian: Кукейнос (Kukeinos), German: Kokenhusen, Latin:Kukonouyes) was a small vassal state of the Principality of Polotsk on the right bank of the Daugava River in ancient Livonia (modern Latvia) during the Middle Ages.

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Principality of Pskov

The Principality of Pskov (Псковское княжество, Pskovskoye knyazhestvo) or Lordship of Pskov (государство Псковское) was a medieval state that grew out of the Rus' Khaganate in the late 9th century.

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Provinces of Sweden

The provinces of Sweden (Sveriges landskap) are historical, geographical and cultural regions.

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Prowincja

A prowincja (plural: prowincje) was the largest territorial subdivision in medieval and Renaissance-era Poland, and later in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

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Prussia

Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.

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Prussian Crusade

The Prussian Crusade was a series of 13th-century campaigns of Roman Catholic crusaders, primarily led by the Teutonic Knights, to Christianize the pagan Old Prussians.

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Prussica-Sammlung Trunz

The Prussica-Sammlung Trunz (the formal title can be informally translated as the "Prussianica Collection Trunz") is a collection of over 40,000 books about former German territories in Eastern and Central Europe, mainly Prussia.

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Pskov-Caves Monastery

Pskov-Caves Monastery or The Pskovo-Pechersky Dormition Monastery or Pskovo-Pechersky Monastery (Пско́во-Печ́ерский Успе́нский монасты́рь, Petseri klooster) is a Russian Orthodox male monastery, located in Pechory, Pskov Oblast in Russia, just a few kilometers from the Estonian border.

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Pyotr Romanovich Bagration

Pyotr Romanovich Bagration (Пётр Рома́нович Багратио́н, პეტრე რომანის (რევაზის) ძე ბაგრატიონი; 24 September 1818 – 17 January 1876), the son of general Prince Roman Bagration, was a Russian-Georgian statesman, general and scientist who invented the first dry galvanic cell.

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Radvila Astikas

Radvila Astikas or Astikaitis (baptized Nicholas; Radziwiłł Ościkowicz; died in 1477) was a magnate, a member of the Astikai and founder of the Radvila (Radziwiłł) family.

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Rūjiena

Rūjiena (Rujen; Ruhja) is a town in Latvia, seat of the homonym municipality, in the northern Vidzeme.

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Rein Taagepera

Rein Taagepera (born 28 February 1933) is an Estonian political scientist and former politician.

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Reinhold von Buxhoeveden

Reinhold von Buxhoeveden (died 1557) was bishop of the Bishopric of Saare-Lääne or Ösel–Wiek (Saare-Lääne piiskopkond; Bistum Ösel–Wiek; Low German: Bisdom Ösel–Wiek; contemporary Ecclesia Osiliensis), a semi-independent Roman Catholic prince-bishopric in what is now Saare, Hiiu and Lääne counties of Estonia, from 1532 to 1541.

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Reinhold von Hoven

Reinhold von Hoven (1607/1610/1614? – May 21, 1682) was a Danish Military Officer in Norwegian service.

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Reinholds Bērziņš

Reinholds Bērziņš was a Russian and Soviet military leader from Livonia, victim of the Great Purge in 1938.

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Religion in Lithuania

As per the 2011 census, the predominant religion in Lithuania is Christianity, with the largest confession being that of the Catholic Church.

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Rhine Campaign of 1748

The Rhine Campaign of 1748 was a campaign during the War of the Austrian Succession.

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RK Livonia

RK Livonia is a Latvian rugby club based in the village of Upesciems in the Garkalne Municipality.

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Robert Douglas, Count of Skenninge

Robert Douglas (17 March 1611 in Standingstone Estate, by Traprain Law, East Lothian - Svenskt biografiskt handlexikon at Project Runeberg – 28 May 1662 in Stockholm), Count of Skenninge, Baron of Skalby, was a Scottish cavalry general during the Thirty Years' War rising to the rank of Field Marshal (1657–1662) in the Swedish-Polish wars that followed.

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Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Vilnius

The Roman Catholic Metropolitan Archdiocese of Vilnius (Archidioecesis Vilnensis; Vilniaus arkivyskupija) is an ecclesiastical territory or diocese of the Roman Catholic Church in Lithuania.

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Roman Rosen

Baron Roman Romanovich Rosen (Роман Романович Розен) (February 24, 1847 – December 31, 1921) was a diplomat in the service of the Russian Empire.

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Romuva (temple)

Romuva or Romowe (known as Rickoyoto in the writings of Simon Grunau) was an alleged pagan worship place (a temple or a sacred area) in the western part of Sambia, one of the regions of pagan Prussia.

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Rosie Thomas (singer-songwriter)

Rosie Thomas is an American singer-songwriter and stand-up comedian, originally from Michigan.

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Runestone

A runestone is typically a raised stone with a runic inscription, but the term can also be applied to inscriptions on boulders and on bedrock.

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Russia

Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Russian bayors

Bayors, baijorer, ryss(e)baijorer, a Swedish transmogrification of бояринъ ‘boyar’, designating in the early modern era all Russian noblemen in general, and particularly a group of Russian noble families who had entered Swedish service in the late sixteenth–early seventeenth centuries and were incorporated into the Swedish nobility.

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Russian Partition

The Russian Partition (sometimes called Russian Poland) constituted the former territories of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that were invaded by the Russian Empire in the course of late-18th-century Partitions of Poland.

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Russians in Latvia

Russians have been the largest ethnic minority in Latvia for the last two centuries.

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Russification of Ukraine

The Russification of Ukraine was a body of laws, decrees, and other actions undertaken by the Imperial Russian and later Soviet authorities to strengthen Russian national, political and linguistic positions in Ukraine.

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Russo-Polish War (1654–1667)

The Russo-Polish War of 1654–1667, also called Thirteen Years' War, First Northern War, War for Ukraine or Russian Deluge (Potop rosyjski, Российский потоп), was a major conflict between Tsardom of Russia and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

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Russo-Swedish War (1656–1658)

The Russo-Swedish War of 1656–1658 was fought by Russia and Sweden as a theater of the Second Northern War.

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Saint Meinhard

Saint Meinhard (b. 1134 or 1136 - died August 14 or October 11, 1196) was a German canon regular and the first Bishop of Livonia.

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Sakala County

Sakala County (Estonian: Sakala, Latin: Saccalia) was an ancient Estonian county first mentioned in print by Henry of Latvia in the beginning of the 13th Century.

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Salacgrīva Municipality

Salacgrīva Municipality (Salacgrīvas novads) was created as a result of the territorial reform in 2009, which united several former parts of Limbaži region - Salacgriva town with its rural areas, Ainaži town with its rural territory and Liepupe parish.

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Samogitian uprisings

Samogitian uprisings refer to two uprisings by the Samogitians against the Teutonic Knights in 1401–1404 and 1409.

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Sara Grotthuis

Sara Grotthuis, born Sara Meyer, also known as Sophie Leopoldine Wilhelmine Baroness von Grotthuis and as Sara Wulff by her first marriage (1763 – 11 December 1828), was one of the most well-known "salonnières" (salon hostesses and patrons of the arts) of the late 18th and early 19th centuries in Berlin.

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Søren Norby

Søren Norby, selfstyled as Severin Norbi (died 1530) was a Danish leading naval officer in the fleets of Danish kings Hans I and Christian II.

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Schauman

Schauman is a Swedo-Finnish noble family introduced in both the Swedish House of Nobility and the Finnish House of Nobility.

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Scheidemann cabinet

The Scheidemann cabinet (German: Kabinett Scheidemann) was the first democratically elected Reichsregierung of the German Reich.

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Scottish Russians

Scottish Russians are Russians with full (or partial) Scottish ancestry.

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Second Northern War

The Second Northern War (1655–60, also First or Little Northern War) was fought between Sweden and its adversaries the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1655–60), Russia (1656–58), Brandenburg-Prussia (1657–60), the Habsburg Monarchy (1657–60) and Denmark–Norway (1657–58 and 1658–60).

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Seda, Lithuania

Seda is a city in Mažeikiai district municipality, Lithuania.

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Sejm of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

The general sejm (sejm walny, also translated as the full or ordinary sejm) was the bicameral parliament of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

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Selonians

This article is about the Baltic ethnicity.

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Shuysky

The Princes Shuysky (Шуйские) is a Rurikid Princely family of former boyars descending from Grand Duke Dmitry Konstantinovich of Vladimir-Suzdal and Prince Andrey Yaroslavich, brother to Alexander Nevsky.

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Siege of Malbork (1454)

Siege of Malbork (Siege of Marienburg) occurred during the Thirteen Years' War between the Teutonic Knights and the Kingdom of Poland.

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Siege of Pärnu

The Siege of Pärnu (Polish: Parnawa) took place between February 28 and March 2, 1609 during the Polish–Swedish War (1600–1611).

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Siege of Pskov

The Siege of Pskov, known as the Pskov Defense in Russia (оборона Пскова), took place between August 1581 and February 1582, when the army of the Polish king and Grand Duke of Lithuania Stephen Báthory laid an unsuccessful siege and successful blockade of the city of Pskov during the final stage of the Livonian War of 1558–1583.

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Siege of Velikiye Luki

The Siege of Velikiye Luki was one of battles of Livonian campaign of Stephen Báthory.

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Siege of Wesenberg (1574)

The Siege of Wesenberg (Rakvere, Rakovor) was an abortive Swedish siege of the Russian-held town of Wesenberg in Estonia from January through March 1574, during the Livonian War.

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Sigismund II Augustus

Sigismund II Augustus (Zygmunt II August, Ruthenian: Żygimont II Awgust, Žygimantas II Augustas, Sigismund II.) (1 August 1520 – 7 July 1572) was the King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, the only son of Sigismund I the Old, whom Sigismund II succeeded in 1548.

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Sigismund III Vasa

Sigismund III Vasa (also known as Sigismund III of Poland, Zygmunt III Waza, Sigismund, Žygimantas Vaza, English exonym: Sigmund; 20 June 1566 – 30 April 1632 N.S.) was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, monarch of the united Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1587 to 1632, and King of Sweden (where he is known simply as Sigismund) from 1592 as a composite monarchy until he was deposed in 1599.

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Skåne Market

The Skåne Market or Scania market (Danish Skånemarkedet, Swedish Skånemarknaden) was a major fish market for herring which took place annually in Scania during the Middle Ages.

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Skånelaholm Castle

Skånelaholm Castle (Skånelaholms slott) is a castle in Sigtuna Municipality, Stockholm County, Sweden.

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Sklandrausis

Sklandrausis (sūrkak), žograusis or dižrausis is a traditional dish in Latvian cuisine which has a Livonian origin, but it is known by Latvians for many years.

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Staël von Holstein

According to tradition, the family which originated from ancient Rhenish-German nobility, came to Sweden from Livonia during the 17th century via the Polish Major Hildebrand Staël.

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Stanisław Żółkiewski

Stanisław Żółkiewski (1547 – 7 October 1620) was a Polish nobleman of the Lubicz coat of arms, magnate and military commander of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, who took part in many campaigns of the Commonwealth and on its southern and eastern borders.

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Stanisław Koniecpolski

Stanisław Koniecpolski (1591 – 11 March 1646) was a Polish military commander, regarded as one of the most talented and capable in the history of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

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Stanisław Masłowski

Stanisław Masłowski (1853–1926), born Stanislaw Stefan Zygmunt Ludgard Masłowski (3 December 1853 in Włodawa, – 31 May 1926 in Warsaw) was a Polish painter of realistic style, the author of watercolor landscapes.

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Stanisław Swianiewicz

Stanisław Swianiewicz (November 7, 1899 – May 22, 1997) was a Polish economist and historian.

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State of the Teutonic Order

The State of the Teutonic Order (Staat des Deutschen Ordens; Civitas Ordinis Theutonici), also called Deutschordensstaat or Ordensstaat in German, was a crusader state formed by the Teutonic Knights or Teutonic Order during the 13th century Northern Crusades along the Baltic Sea.

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Stekšys

Stekšys (or Steksė) (other spellings include Stakys, Stejkint, Stekintas, Stegikintas, Stegutas) was a duke of Lithuania, killed in 1214 near Lielvārde during an attack against Livonia.

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Stephen Báthory

Stephen Báthory (Báthory István; Stefan Batory; Steponas Batoras; 27 September 1533 – 12 December 1586) was Voivode of Transylvania (1571–76), Prince of Transylvania (1576–86), from 1576 Queen Anna Jagiellon's husband and jure uxoris King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania (1576-1586).

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Street names of Soho

This is a list of the etymology of street names in the London district of Soho, in the City of Westminster.

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Streltsy

Streltsy (t; стреле́ц) were the units of Russian firearm infantry from the 16th to the early 18th centuries and also a social stratum, from which personnel for Streltsy troops were traditionally recruited.

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Suislepa

Suislepa is a village in Tarvastu Parish, Viljandi County, Estonia.

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Superintendent (ecclesiastical)

Superintendent is the head of an administrative division of a Protestant church, largely historical but still in use in Germany.

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Swedish invasion of Poland (1701–1706)

The Swedish invasion of Poland (1701–1706), also known as Charles XII's invasion of Poland or the Polish front of the Great Northern War, was a conflict in eastern Europe overshadowed by the ongoing Great Northern War fought between the Swedish Empire against the Russian Empire, Denmark-Norway, Saxony and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

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Szlachta

The szlachta (exonym: Nobility) was a legally privileged noble class in the Kingdom of Poland, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Ruthenia, Samogitia (both after Union of Lublin became a single state, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth) and the Zaporozhian Host.

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Tallinn Town Hall

The Tallinn Town Hall (Tallinna raekoda) is a building in the Tallinn Old Town, Estonia, next to the Town Hall Square.

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Tarło family

Topór coat of arms Jan Tarło (1684–1750) Alleged portrait of Adam Tarło (1713–1744) Tarło (Plural: Tarłowie) was a Polish magnate (szlachta) family.

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Tartu Cathedral

Tartu Cathedral (Tartu toomkirik), earlier also known as Dorpat Cathedral (Dorpater Domkirche), is a former Catholic church in Tartu (Dorpat), Estonia.

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Taube family

Taube is an ancient Baltic noble family, originally from Danemark, Jutland.

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Tālava

Tālava was a Latgalian county in the northern Vidzeme and northern Latgale region of today's Latvia.

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Terra Mariana

Terra Mariana (Medieval Latin for "Land of Mary") was the official name for Medieval Livonia or Old Livonia (Alt-Livland, Vana-Liivimaa, Livonija), which was formed in the aftermath of the Livonian Crusade in the territories comprising present day Estonia and Latvia.

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Territorial evolution of Russia

Territorial changes of Russia happened by means of military conquest and by ideological and political unions in the course of over five centuries (1533-today).

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Teutonic Order

The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem (official names: Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum, Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus der Heiligen Maria in Jerusalem), commonly the Teutonic Order (Deutscher Orden, Deutschherrenorden or Deutschritterorden), is a Catholic religious order founded as a military order c. 1190 in Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem.

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Tharapita

Taara (variations of the name include Tooru, Tharapita and Tarapitha) is a prominent god in Estonian mythology.

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The Czar's Madman

The Czar's Madman (Keisri hull) is a 1978 novel by Estonian writer Jaan Kross.

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The Night Battles

The Night Battles: Witchcraft and Agrarian Cults in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries is a historical study of the benandanti folk custom of 16th and 17th century Friuli, Northeastern Italy.

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Theoderich von Treyden

Theoderich (or Theoderich von Treyden) was the second known missionary in Livonia after Saint Meinhard, the first Bishop of Livonia.

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Thiess of Kaltenbrun

Thiess of Kaltenbrun, also spelled Thies, and commonly referred to as the Livonian werewolf, was a Livonian man who was put on trial for heresy in Jürgensburg, Swedish Livonia, in 1692.

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Thomas Palaiologos

Thomas Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Thomas Palaiologos; 1409 – 12 May 1465) was Despot in Morea from 1428 until the Ottoman conquest in 1460.

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Thomas Schöning

Thomas Schöning (* probably in Riga; † 11 August 1539 in Kokenhusen) was Archbishop of Riga.

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Tiesenhausen

Tiesenhausen is the name of a Baltic German nobility family.

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Timeline of Latvian history

This is a timeline of Latvian history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Latvia and its predecessor states.

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Timeline of official adoptions of Christianity

This is a timeline showing the dates when countries or polities made Christianity the official state religion, generally accompanying the baptism of the governing monarch.

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Timeline of Riga

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Riga, Latvia.

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Timeline of Russian history

This is a timeline of Russian history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Russia and its predecessor states.

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Timeline of Swedish history

This is a timeline of Swedish history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Sweden and its predecessor states.

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Treaty of Copenhagen (1441)

The Treaty of Copenhagen (or the Peace of Copenhagen) was signed in 1441 between the Hanseatic League and the Burgundian Netherlands, ending the Dutch-Hanseatic War.

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Treaty of Dorpat

The Treaty of Dorpat (Tartu) was concluded in May 1564, during the Livonian War.

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Treaty of Dubysa

The Treaty of Dubysa or Treaty of Dubissa (Dubysos sutartys) consisted of three legal acts formulated on 31 October 1382 between Jogaila, Grand Duke of Lithuania, with his brother Skirgaila and Konrad von Wallenrode, Marshal of the Teutonic Order.

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Treaty of Melno

The Treaty of Melno (Melno taika; Pokój melneński) or Treaty of Lake Melno (Friede von Melnosee) was a peace treaty ending the Gollub War.

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Treaty of Narva

The Treaty of Narva was concluded on 19 August (O.S.) / 30 August 1704 during the Great Northern War.

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Treaty of Novgorod (1557)

The Treaty, Truce or Second Peace of Novgorod was concluded in March 1557.

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Treaty of Salynas

Treaty of Salynas (Frieden von Sallinwerder, Salyno sutartis) was a peace treaty signed on 12 October 1398 by the Grand Duke of Lithuania Vytautas the Great and the Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights Konrad von Jungingen.

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Treaty of Stettin (1570)

The Treaty of Stettin (Frieden von Stettin, Freden i Stettin, Freden i Stettin) of 13 December 1570, ended the Northern Seven Years' War fought between Sweden and Denmark with her internally fragmented alliance of Lübeck and Poland.

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Treaty of Stuhmsdorf

The Treaty of Stuhmsdorf (Stilleståndet i Stuhmsdorf) or Sztumska Wieś (Rozejm w Sztumskiej Wsi) was a treaty signed on 12 September 1635 between the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Sweden in the village of Stuhmsdorf, Royal Prussia (now Sztumska Wieś, Poland), just south of Stuhm (Sztum).

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Treaty of the Three Black Eagles

The Treaty of the Three Black Eagles (because all three signatories used a black eagle as a state symbol, in contrast to the white eagle, a symbol of Poland) or the Treaty of Berlin (where it was signed by Prussia), was a secret treaty between the Austrian Empire, the Russian Empire and Prussia.

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Treaty of Valiesar

The Treaty of Valiesar (Vallisaare vaherahu, Валиесарский договор 1658) was a treaty between Russia and Sweden, which concluded the Russo–Swedish theater of the Second Northern War.

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Treaty of Vilnius (1561)

The Treaty of Vilnius or Vilna was concluded on 28 November 1561, during the Livonian War, between the Livonian Confederation and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth at Vilnius (Vilna, Wilna, Wilno).

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Trial by combat

Trial by combat (also wager of battle, trial by battle or judicial duel) was a method of Germanic law to settle accusations in the absence of witnesses or a confession in which two parties in dispute fought in single combat; the winner of the fight was proclaimed to be right.

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Truce of Altmark

The six-year Truce of Altmark (or Treaty of Stary Targ, Vertrag von Altmark, Stillståndet i Altmark, Rozejm w Altmarku) was signed on 16 (O.S.)/26 (N.S.) September 1629 at the Altmark (Stary Targ), near Danzig (Gdańsk) by Sweden and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth during Thirty Years' War, ending the Polish–Swedish War (1626–1629).

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Truce of Deulino

Truce of Deulino (also known as Peace or Treaty of Dywilino) was signed on 11 December 1618 and took effect on 4 January 1619.

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Truce of Yam-Zapolsky

The Truce or Treaty of Yam-Zapolsky (Ям-Запольский) or Jam Zapolski, signed on 15 January 1582 between the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Tsardom of Russia, was one of the treaties that ended the Livonian War.

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Trystorp

Trystorp is a Swedish estate and château in Lekeberg, Närke, Sweden.

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Tsar

Tsar (Old Bulgarian / Old Church Slavonic: ц︢рь or цар, цaрь), also spelled csar, or czar, is a title used to designate East and South Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers of Eastern Europe.

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Tsardom of Russia

The Tsardom of Russia (Русское царство, Russkoye tsarstvo or Российское царство, Rossiyskoye tsarstvo), also known as the Tsardom of Muscovy, was the name of the centralized Russian state from assumption of the title of Tsar by Ivan IV in 1547 until the foundation of the Russian Empire by Peter the Great in 1721.

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Tsarist bureaucracy

The Tsarist bureaucracy, alongside the military, the judiciary and the Russian Orthodox Church, played a major role in solidifying and maintaining the rule of the Tsars in the Tsardom of Russia (1547–1721) and in the Russian Empire (1721–1917).

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Tuļļi Lum

Tuļļi Lum (Livonian for "hot snow"; often simplified as "Tulli Lum") is an Estonian/Livonian folk music band that was formed in 1999.

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Ueckermünde

Ueckermünde is a seaport town in northeast Germany, located in the district of Vorpommern-Greifswald, Western Pomerania, near Germany's border with Poland's Police County.

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Uelzen

Uelzen (officially the Hanseatic Town of Uelzen, German: Hansestadt Uelzen,, Low German Ülz’n) is a town in northeast Lower Saxony, Germany, and capital of the county of Uelzen.

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Ulrika Eleonora Stålhammar

Ulrika Eleonora Stålhammar (1683 in Svenarum – 16 February 1733 at Björnskog in Hultsjö), was a Swedish corporal and crossdresser who served in the Great Northern War.

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United Baltic Duchy

The proposed United Baltic Duchy, (Vereinigtes Baltisches Herzogtum, Balti Hertsogiriik, Apvienotā Baltijas hercogiste) also known as the Grand Duchy of Livonia, was a state proposed by the Baltic German nobility and exiled Russian nobility after the Russian Revolution and German occupation of the Courland, Livonian, and Estonian governorates of the Russian Empire.

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University of Tartu

The University of Tartu (UT; Tartu Ülikool, Universitas Tartuensis) is a classical university in the city of Tartu, Estonia.

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Upytė

Upytė (Upita) is a small village in Panevėžys district municipality in northern Lithuania.

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Vaišvilas

Vaišvilas (Polish: Wojszwił) (14th century) was a Lithuanian noble and sometimes is considered as one of the sons of Kęstutis, Grand Duke of Lithuania.

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Vaišvilkas

Vaišelga or Vaišvilkas (also spelled as Vojszalak, Vojšalk, Vaišalgas; killed on December 9, 1268) was the Grand Duke of Lithuania (1264–1267).

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Vaidila

Vaidila (Woidiło, Voydiło, Woydylo; executed in 1381) was a favorite and brother-in-law of Jogaila, Grand Duke of Lithuania.

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Valerian Engelhardt

Valerian Engelhardt (Валериан Фёдорович Энгельгардт) (1798–1856) was a Russian lieutenant general and director of the Russian Institute of Railway Engineers.

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Valga, Estonia

Valga (Walk) is a town in southern Estonia and the capital of Valga County.

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Valka

Valka (Walk) is a city and municipality in northern Latvia, on the border with Estonia along both banks of the river Pedele.

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Viļāni

Viļāni (Welonen, Wielony) is a town in Eastern Latvia, situated in the western part of Rēzekne District.

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Viljandi Castle

Viljandi castle (Viljandi ordulinnus, Ordensburg Fellin) of Livonian Order, construction of which started 1224 in place of a former hillfort, was one of the strongest castles in Livonia.

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Visotek

Visotek Inc. is an American company, located in Livonia, Michigan, that designs, develops and manufactures individual fiber coupled diode laser modules, complete turnkey systems and peripheral components used in industrial, military, medical and research applications.

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Vistula Veneti

The Vistula Veneti (also called Baltic Veneti) were a Indo-European ethno-linguistic tribal group that inhabited the eastern regions along the Vistula river and the coastal areas around the Bay of Gdańsk.

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Von Wahl

The von Wahl family originated in Scotland and then settled in the Baltic states.

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Vooru

Vooru (locally, Vuuru) is a village in Viljandi Parish, Viljandi County, Estonia.

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Walhalla memorial

The Walhalla is a hall of fame that honors laudable and distinguished people in German history – "politicians, sovereigns, scientists and artists of the German tongue";Official Guide booklet, 2002, p. 3 thus the celebrities honored are drawn from Greater Germany, a wider area than today's Germany, and even as far away as Britain in the case of several Anglo-Saxons who are honored.

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War against Sigismund

The war against Sigismund (Kriget mot Sigismund) was a war between Duke Charles, later King Charles IX and Sigismund, King of Sweden and Poland.

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War of the Austrian Succession

The War of the Austrian Succession (1740–1748) involved most of the powers of Europe over the question of Maria Theresa's succession to the Habsburg Monarchy.

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War of the Polish Succession

The War of the Polish Succession (1733–35) was a major European war sparked by a Polish civil war over the succession to Augustus II, which the other European powers widened in pursuit of their own national interests.

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Warfare in Medieval Poland

Warfare in Medieval Poland covers the military history of Poland during the Piast and Jagiellon dynasties (10th–16th centuries).

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Władysław IV Vasa

Władysław IV Vasa (Władysław IV Waza; Vladislovas Vaza; r; Vladislaus IV Vasa or Ladislaus IV Vasa; 9 June 1595 – 20 May 1648) was a Polish prince from the Royal House of Vasa.

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Władysław Wejtko

Władysław Wejtko (1859-1933) was an Imperial Russian Army general of Polish descent.

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Werewolf

In folklore, a werewolf (werwulf, "man-wolf") or occasionally lycanthrope (λυκάνθρωπος lukánthrōpos, "wolf-person") is a human with the ability to shapeshift into a wolf (or, especially in modern film, a therianthropic hybrid wolflike creature), either purposely or after being placed under a curse or affliction (often a bite or scratch from another werewolf).

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Werewolf witch trials

Werewolf witch trials were witch trials combined with werewolf trials.

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Werner Bergengruen

Werner Bergengruen (September 16, 1892 – September 4, 1964) was a Baltic German novelist and poet.

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Werner Elert

Werner August Friedrich Immanuel Elert (19 August 1885 — 21 November 1954) was a German Lutheran theologian and professor of both church history and systematic theology at the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg.

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Wessel Freytag von Loringhoven

Wessel Freytag von Loringhoven (10 November 1899 – 26 July 1944), was a colonel in the High Command of the German Armed Forces (OKW) and a member of the German Resistance (Widerstand) against Adolf Hitler. Loringhoven was a friend of Claus von Stauffenberg, who was the leader of the 20 July Plot to assassinate Hitler in 1944.

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Western Krai

Western Krai (Западный край) is an unofficial name of the westernmost parts of the Russian Empire, excluding the territory of Congress Poland.

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Wiśniowiecki

Wiśniowiecki (Вишневе́цькі, Vyshnevetski; Višnioveckiai) was a Polish princely family of Ruthenian-Lithuanian origin, notable in the history of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

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Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient

Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient, born Wilhelmine Schröder (6 December 180426 January 1860), was a German operatic soprano.

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William of Modena

William of Modena (– 31 March 1251), also known as William of Sabina, Guglielmo de Chartreaux, Guglielmo de Savoy, Guillelmus, was an Italian clergyman and papal diplomat.

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Willingshausen

Willingshausen is a community in the Schwalm-Eder district in Hesse, Germany.

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Wincenty Korwin Gosiewski

Wincenty Aleksander Korwin Gosiewski de armis Ślepowron (c. 1620 – 29 November 1662) – was a Polish nobleman, general, Field-Commander of Lithuania from 1654, Grand Treasurer of Lithuania and Lithuanian Great-Quartermaster since 1652, General of Artillery of Lithuania from 1651, Grand-Master of the Pantry of Lithuania from 1646 (honorary court title).

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Winrich von Kniprode

Winrich von Kniprode was the 22nd Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights.

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Witches' Sabbath

The Witches' Sabbath is a meeting of those who practice witchcraft and other rites.

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Women in warfare (1500–1699)

Active warfare throughout history has mainly been a matter for men, but women have also played a role, often a leading one.

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Wrangel family

Wrangel (sometimes transliterated as Wrangell or Vrangel, from the Russian Вра́нгель) is a Baltic German noble family, included in Swedish, Russian, Spanish and Prussian nobility.

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Zamoyski Family Fee Tail

The Zamoyski Family Fee Tail (Polish: Ordynacja Zamojska) was one of the first and largest fee tails in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

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Zduhać

A zduhać (Cyrillic: здухаћ) and vetrovnjak (ветровњак) in Serbian tradition, and a dragon man in Bulgarian, Macedonian and Serbian traditions, were men believed to have an inborn supernatural ability to protect their estate, village, or region against destructive weather conditions, such as storms, hail, or torrential rains.

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Zeppelin L 30

Zeppelin "L 30" (factory number "LZ 62") was the first R-class "Super Zeppelin" of the German Empire.

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Ziemassvētki

Ziemassvētki, also Ziemsvētki is an annual festival in Latvia which observes the winter solstice and birth of Jesus Christ.

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1501

Year 1501 ('''MDI''') was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1561

Year 1561 (MDLXI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1582

Year 1582 (MDLXXXII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar, and a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Proleptic Gregorian calendar.

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1600 in art

Events from the year 1600 in art.

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1664 in art

Events from the year 1664 in art.

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1810s

The 1810s decade ran from January 1, 1810, to December 31, 1819.

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215th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

The German 215th Infantry Division (215.Infanterie-Division) was a major military unit of the German Army that served in World War II.

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4th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

The 4th Panzer Division (4th Tank Division) was an armored division in the German Army, the Wehrmacht, during World War II, established in 1938.

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707 (band)

707 was a rock band of the early 1980s, best known for the rock radio hits "I Could Be Good For You" and "Mega Force".

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77th Reserve Division (German Empire)

The 77th Reserve Division (77. Reserve-Division) was a unit of the Imperial German Army in World War I. The division was formed at the end of December 1914 and organized over the next month, arriving in the line in early February 1915.

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Redirects here:

History of Livonia, Inflants, Liefland, Lifljandija, Liflyandia, Liflyandiya, Liivimaa, Liivinmaa, Liviona, Liviona, Michigan, Livland, Livonija, Līvõmō.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Livonia

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