642 relations: Abraham Neumann, Abrene County, Adam Heinrich von Steinau, Administrative division of Polish–Lithuanian territories after Partitions, Adolf IV of Holstein, Adolf von Harnack, Afanasy Ordin-Nashchokin, Ahoy (greeting), Ainaži, Albert I, Duke of Mecklenburg-Stargard, Albert of Riga, Albert Suerbeer, Aleksander Józef Lisowski, Aleksander Korwin Gosiewski, Aleksey Adashev, Aleksey Korol, Alexander Buturlin, Alexander Friedrich von Hueck, Alexander II of Russia, Alexander Mikhailovich Golitsyn, Alexander von Oettingen, Alexis of Russia, Alice (singer), Andrei Budberg, Andrey Bolotov, Andrey Glebov, Anikita Repnin, Anna Jöransdotter, Anna of Mecklenburg, Anna Sophia of Prussia, Anrep family, Anti Selart, Antonio Possevino, Archbishopric of Riga, Arka Noego, Arnolds Spekke, Arvid Stålarm the Younger, August von Kotzebue, Augustinus Rotundus, Augustus II the Strong, Augustus III of Poland, Ļaudona, Babtai, Bad Mergentheim, Baltadvaris Castle, Balthasar Russow, Balthasar von 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Abraham Neumann, a Jewish painter, was born in Sierpc, Poland, on February 6, 1873, and died in the Krakow Ghetto in June 4, 1942.
The Abrene County (Abrenes apriņķis) was an administrative district in the Republic of Latvia with an area of 4292 square kilometers, formed in 1925 from the northern part of the Ludza district and the western part of the Ostrov region as the Jaunlatgale (New Latgale) district, but this was renamed Abrene in 1938.
Adam Heinrich Graf von Steinau (died 1712) was a Saxon Generalfeldmarschall.
The three consecutive partitions of Poland carried out in the late 18th century by the Austrian, Prussian and the Russian empires, between 1772 and 1795, resulted in the complete disappearance of sovereign Poland from the map of Europe until the end of World War One in 1918.
Adolf IV (before 1205 – 8 July 1261), was a Count of Schauenburg (1225–1238) and of Holstein (1227–1238), of the House of Schaumburg.
Carl Gustav Adolf von Harnack (7 May 1851 – 10 June 1930) was a German Lutheran theologian and prominent church historian.
Afanasy Lavrentievich Ordin-Nashchokin (Афанасий Лаврентьевич Ордин-Нащокин) (1605–1680) was one of the most important Russian statesmen of the 17th century.
Ahoy or Ah Hoy() is a signal word used to call to a ship or boat, stemming from the Middle English cry, 'Hoy!'.
Ainaži (pronounced; Heinaste, Haynasch) is a harbour town in the Vidzeme region of Latvia.
Albert I, Duke of Mecklenburg-Stargard (before 1377 – between 11 February and 15 July 1397) was Duke of Mecklenburg-Stargard from 1392 until his death and also Coadjutor of the Bishopric of Dorpat.
Albert of Riga or Albert of Livonia (Alberts fon Buksthēvdens; Albert von Buxthoeven; c.1165 – 17 January 1229) was the third Bishop of Riga in Livonia.
Albert Suerbeer (ca. 1200 – 1273) was the first Archbishop of Riga in Livonia.
Aleksander Józef Lisowski HNG (c. 1580 – October 11, 1616) was a Polish–Lithuanian noble (szlachcic), commander of a mercenary group that after his death adopted the name "Lisowczycy." His coat of arms was ''Jeż'' (Hedgehog).
Aleksander Korwin Gosiewski (Aleksandras Korvinas Gosievskis) ''de armis'' Ślepowron (b. – d. 1639), was a Polish nobleman, military commander and diplomat, Lithuanian Field-Quartermaster since 1630, Palatine-Governor of Smolensk from 1625, Lithuanian Great-Quartermaster since 1615, Speaker of the Parliament in 1613, Great-Secretary of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania from 1610 and District-Governor of Wieliż, Puńsk, Kupise, Biel, and Markowa.
Aleksey Fyodorovich Adashev (Адашев, Алексей Фёдорович, died 1561) was a Russian statesman, okolnichy,, voivode of Livonia.
Aleksey Korol (Олексій Король; born 14 October 1977 in Kyiv) is a Ukrainian soccer forward and coach who has spent most of his career in the United States.
Count Aleksander Borisovich Buturlin (Russian, in full: граф Александр Борисович Бутурлин; 1694 – 1767) was a Russian general and courtier whose career was much furthered by his good looks and personal affection of Empress Elizabeth.
Alexander Friedrich von Hueck (1802–1842) was a Baltic-German professor of anatomy at the University of Tartu, and a notable estophile.
Alexander II (p; 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881) was the Emperor of Russia from the 2nd March 1855 until his assassination on 13 March 1881.
Alexander Mikhailovich Golitsyn (17 November 1718 – 8 October 1783) was a Russian prince of the House of Golitsyn and field marshal.
Alexander von Oettingen (–) was a Baltic German Lutheran theologian and statistician.
Aleksey Mikhailovich (p; –) was the tsar of Russia from 12 July 1645 until his death, 29 January 1676.
Alice, also known as Alice Visconti (born Carla Bissi, 26 September 1954, Forlì, Province of Forlì-Cesena, Italy) is an Italian singer-songwriter and pianist, active since 1971.
Count Andrei Yakovlevich Budberg (Андрей Яковлевич Будберг; Andreas Eberhard von Budberg) (10 August 1750 – 1 September 1812) was a Russian Empire diplomat who served as Foreign Minister in 1806–07.
Andrey Timofeyevich Bolotov (18 October 1738 – 16 October 1833) was the most prolific memoirist and the most distinguished agriculturist of the 18th-century Russian Empire.
Andrey Saviichevich Glebov (Андрей Савиичевич Глебов; 1770 in Berezna – 24 September 1854) was a colonel of the Russian Empire.
Prince Anikita Ivanovich Repnin (Аники́та Ива́нович Репни́н; 1668 – 3 July 1726, in Riga) was a prominent Russian general during the Great Northern War who superintended the taking of Riga in 1710 and served as the Governor of Livland from 1719 until his death.
Anna Jöransdotter (floruit 1714), was a Finnish soldier.
Anna of Mecklenburg (14 October 15334 July 1602), was a Duchess consort of Courland by marriage to the Duke of Courland, Gotthard Kettler.
Anna Sophia of Prussia (11 June 1527 in Königsberg – 6 February 1591 in Lübz) was Duchess of Mecklenburg by marriage to John Albert I, Duke of Mecklenburg.
Anrep is a family, belonging to Swedish and Russian nobility.
Anti Selart (born 11 August 1973 in Tallinn) is an Estonian historian.
Antonio Possevino (Antonius Possevinus) (10 July 1533 – 26 February 1611) was a Jesuit protagonist of Counter Reformation as a papal diplomat and a Jesuit controversialist, encyclopedist and bibliographer.
The Archbishopric of Riga (Archiepiscopatus Rigensis, Erzbisdom Riga) was an archbishopric in Medieval Livonia, a subject to the Holy See.
Arka Noego was a war pinnace in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Navy that played an important role in two naval battles of the Polish–Swedish War (1626–29). Small, fast and lightly armed when compared to the impressive man-of-war galleons of the Swedish Navy, excellent leadership, a fine crew and aggressive marines combined to bring the Arka Noego into parity with her larger opponents. Major roles in two impressive victories followed in the fall of 1627.
Arnolds Spekke (or Arnolds Speke; born 14 June 1887, Vecmuiža parish, Russian Empire — died 27 July 1972, Washington, D.C., USA) received a doctorate in philology from the University of Latvia in 1927.
Arvid Stålarm, actually Arvid Eriksson (Stålarm) till Lindö i Tenala (c. 1540 or 1549 – May 1620, Gripsholm Castle) was a Swedish noble and soldier from the Finland-based Stålarm family.
August Friedrich Ferdinand von Kotzebue (–) was a German dramatist and writer who also worked as a consul in Russia and Germany.
Augustinus Rotundus (Augustyn Rotundus, Augustinas Rotundas, 1520–1582) was a Christian and Renaissance humanist, erudite, jurist, political writer, first historian and apologist of Lithuania.
Augustus II the Strong (August II.; August II Mocny; Augustas II; 12 May 16701 February 1733) of the Albertine line of the House of Wettin was Elector of Saxony (as Frederick Augustus I), Imperial Vicar and elected King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania.
Augustus III (August III Sas, Augustas III; 17 October 1696 5 October 1763) was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1734 until 1763, as well as Elector of Saxony in the Holy Roman Empire from 1733 until 1763 where he was known as Frederick Augustus II (Friedrich August II).
Ļaudona (Laudohn) is a village in the Vidzeme region of northeastern Latvia.
Babtai is a small town north of Kaunas, in Kaunas County, in central Lithuania.
Bad Mergentheim (Mergentheim until 1926) is a town in the Main-Tauber-Kreis district in the German state of Baden-Württemberg.
Baltadvaris Castle (Baltadvario pilis) was a fortified manor house, earlier sometimes classed as a bastion castle, in:lt:Baltadvaris (Molėtai), near Videniškiai in Molėtai district, Lithuania.
Balthasar Russow (1536–1600) was one of the most important Livonian and Estonian chroniclers.
Balthasar Balthasarovich Campenhausen (Балтазар Балтазарович Кампенгаузен) (1772, Lenzenhof, –1823) was a Russian statesman who held the ranks of Privy Councilor and Chamberlain.
The Baltic area runestones are Varangian runestones in memory of men who took part in peaceful or warlike expeditions across the Baltic Sea, where Finland and the Baltic states are presently located.
The Baltic Cross (German: Das Baltenkreuz) was a military decoration of the German Weimar Republic.
The Baltic Germans (Deutsch-Balten or Deutschbalten, later Baltendeutsche) are ethnic German inhabitants of the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea, in what today are Estonia and Latvia.
Baltic Noble Corporations of Courland, Livonia, Estonia, and Oesel (Ösel) were medieval fiefdoms formed by German nobles in the 13th century under vassalage to the Teutonic Knights and Denmark in modern Latvia and Estonia.
Baltic maritime trade began in the late Middle Ages and would continue to develop into the early modern era.
The terms Baltic region, Baltic Rim countries (or simply Baltic Rim), and the Baltic Sea countries refer to slightly different combinations of countries in the general area surrounding the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe.
Barclay de Tolly is the name of a Russian noble family of Scottish origin, that came to Russia during the times of the Revolution of 1688, from Towy (Towie) in Aberdeenshire.
Basilica of the Assumption in Aglona, Latvia is one of the most important Catholic spiritual centers in Latvia.
The Battle of Bornholm was a naval battle which took place near the Danish island of Bornholm, between privateers from the city of Gdańsk (Danzig) and a transport convoy of Danish and Livonian ships which were attempting to bring supplies and reinforcements to the Teutonic Knights in Prussia, during the Thirteen Years' War (1454–66) between the Kingdom of Poland and the Prussian Confederation on one hand, and the Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights on the other.
The Battle of Daugavgrīva took place October 6, 1609 during the Polish–Swedish War (1600–1611).
The Battle of Durbe (Durbes kauja, Durbės mūšis, Schlacht an der Durbe) was a medieval battle fought near Durbe, east of Liepāja, in present-day Latvia during the Livonian Crusade.
The Battle of Gross-Jägersdorf (30 August 1757) was a victory for the Russian force under Field Marshal Stepan Fyodorovich Apraksin over a smaller Prussian force commanded by Field Marshal Hans von Lehwaldt, during the Seven Years' War.
The Battle of Kokenhausen (Kokenhuza, Koknese) was a major battle opening the Polish–Swedish War (1600–1611).
The Battle of Kroppenhof was fought during the Polish–Swedish War (1621–1625), between Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Swedish Empire in November 28, 1621.
The Battle of Lesnaya (Битва при Лесной Bitva pri Lesnoy, Slaget vid Lesna, Bitwa pod Leśną), was one of the major battles of the Great Northern War.
The Battle of Listenhoff was fought during the Polish–Swedish War (1621–1625), between Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Swedish Empire in October 12, 1625.
The Battle of Lindanise was a battle which helped King Valdemar II of Denmark establish the territory of Danish Estonia during the Northern Crusades, which were undertaken in response to calls from the Pope.
The Battle of Napue was fought on February 19, 1714 (O.S.) / March 2, 1714 (N.S.) at the villages of Napue and Laurola in the Isokyrö parish of the Swedish Empire (modern Finland) between the Swedish Empire and the Tsardom of Russia.
The Battle of Narva (Битва при Нарве; Slaget vid Narva) on (20 November in the Swedish transitional calendar) was an early battle in the Great Northern War.
The Battle of Nowy Dwór was fought during September 20 – September 30, 1655 between forces of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth commanded by Jan Kazimierz Krasiński on one side, and on the other Swedish Empire forces commanded by Gustaf Otto Stenbock.
The Battle of Riga was an attempt by native Estonian forces to repel the Crusader knights (known as the Livonian Brothers of the Sword) and their allies during the Livonian Crusade.
The Battle of Selburg was fought during the Polish–Swedish War (1626–1629), between Sweden and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in September 1626.
The Battle of Treiden was fought during the Polish–Swedish War (1626–1629), between Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Swedish Empire in February 1, 1628.
The Battle of Ula or Battle of Chashniki was fought during the Livonian War on 26 January 1564 between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Tsardom of Russia on the Ula River (tributary of the Daugava River) north of Chashniki in the Vitebsk Region.
The Battle of Wenden (also known as Battle of Kieś) took place on January 7, 1601, during the Polish–Swedish War (1600–1611).
Battle of Wenden (also known as Battle of Kieś) was a battle fought during the Polish–Swedish War (1626–1629), between Sweden and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth on December 3, 1626 at Wenden (Cēsis, Kiesia) in present-day Latvia.
The Battle of Wesenberg, Rakvere or Rakovor was a battle fought on February 18, 1268, between the combined forces of Danish Duchy of Estonia, Bishopric of Dorpat, Livonian branch of the Teutonic Knights and local Estonian militia on one side and the forces of Novgorod and Pskov, led by Dmitry of Pereslavl, on the other.
The Battles of Wenden were a series of battles for control of the stronghold of Wenden (Cēsis, Kiesia, Võnnu), in present-day Latvia, fought during the Livonian War in 1577 and 1578.
Būtingė (German: Butendiekshof or Budendiekshof) is a small village at the coast of the Baltic Sea in the north of Lithuania, at the border to Latvia.
The benandanti ("Good Walkers") were members of an agrarian visionary tradition in the Friuli district of Northeastern Italy during the 16th and 17th centuries.
Bengt Oxenstierna Count Bengt Gabrielsson Oxenstierna (1623–1702) was a Swedish statesman.
Bengt Gottfried Forselius (ca 1660, Harju-Madise, Harju County, Swedish Estonia – November 16, 1688, Baltic Sea) was a founder of public education in Estonia, author of the first ABC-book in the Estonian language, and creator of a spelling system which made the teaching and learning of Estonian easier.
The Berezan' Runestone (X UaFv1914;47) was discovered in 1905 by Ernst von Stern, professor at Odessa, on Berezan' Island (also known as the Island of St Aitherios) where the Dnieper River meets the Black Sea.
Bexhövede is a town in the Cuxhaven district of Lower Saxony, Germany which was incorporated into the municipality of Loxstedt in 1974.
The Bishopric of Ösel–Wiek (Saare-Lääne piiskopkond; Bistum Ösel–Wiek; Low German: Bisdom Ösel–Wiek; contemporary Ecclesia Osiliensis) was a Roman Catholic diocese and semi-independent prince-bishopric (parto of Terra Mariana, i.e. Livonia) in the Holy Roman Empire, covering what are now Saare, Hiiu and Lääne counties of Estonia.
Bolesław Romanowski (21 March 1910 – 12 August 1968) was a submarine commander of the Polish Navy during World War II.
Boris Fyodorovich Godunov (Бори́с Фёдорович Годуно́в,; c. 1551) ruled the Tsardom of Russia as de facto regent from c. 1585 to 1598 and then as the first non-Rurikid tsar from 1598 to 1605.
Brick Gothic (Backsteingotik, Gotyk ceglany, Baksteengotiek) is a specific style of Gothic architecture common in Northwest and Central Europe especially in the regions in and around the Baltic Sea, which do not have resources of standing rock, but in many places a lot of glacial boulders.
The Brotherhood of Blackheads (Mustpeade vennaskond; Bruderschaft der Schwarzhäupter; Melngalvju brālības) is an association of local unmarried merchants, ship owners, and foreigners that was active in Livonia (present-day Estonia and Latvia) from the mid-14th century till 1940 but still remains active in present day Hamburg.
Brownsville is a residential neighborhood located in eastern Brooklyn in New York City.
Burchard von Schwanden (also Burkhard; died 1310) was the 12th Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, serving from 1282 or 1283-1290.
The Campaign of Grodno was a plan developed by Johann Patkul and Otto Arnold von Paykull during the Swedish invasion of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, a part of the Great Northern War.
The Canons Regular of the Order of the Holy Cross, commonly called Crosiers, are a Roman Catholic religious order.
Cape Kolka (Kūolka nanā, Kolkasrags, Old German name - Domesnes, Russian - Колка or мыс Домеснес) - cape on the Baltic Sea, near the entry to Gulf of Riga, in Livonian coast, in the Courland Peninsula of Latvia.
The Capture of Daugavgriva by Swedish forces in July 1608 occurred during the Polish–Swedish War (1600–1611).
Carl Christian Vogel von Vogelstein (26 June 1788, Wildenfels, Kursachsen – 4 March 1868, Munich), born Vogel, was a German painter.
Carta marina et descriptio septentrionalium terrarum (Latin for Marine map and description of the Northern lands; commonly abbreviated Carta marina) is the first map of the Nordic countries to give details and place names, created by Swedish ecclesiastic Olaus Magnus and initially published in 1539.
Case of Schlitte is a trial against Hans Schlitte which was held in 1548 in Lübeck.
Castellans of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth were the lower rank officials who could sit in the Senate of Poland.
A castle (from castellum) is a type of fortified structure built during the Middle Ages by predominantly the nobility or royalty and by military orders.
Castle Risk is a version of the board game Risk that is played on a map of Europe.
Catherine Jagiellon (Katarzyna Jagiellonka; Katarina Jagellonica, Lithuanian: Kotryna Jogailatė; 1 November 1526 – 16 September 1583) was a Polish princess and the wife of John III of Sweden.
The Roman Catholic Church of Latvia is part of the worldwide Roman Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope in Rome.
Cēsis Castle is a Livonian castle situated in Cēsis, Latvia.
Charles Eugène de Croÿ (Карл Евгений де Круа) (1651–1702) was a field marshal and duke from the House of Croÿ.
Charles II (11 September 1364 – 25 January 1431), called the Bold (le Hardi) was the Duke of Lorraine from 1390 to his death and Constable of France from 1418 to 1425.
Charles IV (Karel IV., Karl IV., Carolus IV; 14 May 1316 – 29 November 1378Karl IV. In: (1960): Geschichte in Gestalten (History in figures), vol. 2: F-K. 38, Frankfurt 1963, p. 294), born Wenceslaus, was a King of Bohemia and the first King of Bohemia to also become Holy Roman Emperor.
Prince Charles Philip of Sweden, Duke of Södermanland, (Swedish: Carl Filip; Alt-Anzen (Vana-Antsla), 22 April 1601 – Narva, 25 January 1622) was a Swedish prince, Duke of Södermanland, Närke and Värmland.
Charles XII, also Carl (Karl XII; 17 June 1682 – 30 November 1718 O.S.), Latinized to Carolus Rex, was the King of Sweden from 1697 to 1718.
Chernyakhovsk (Черняхо́вск); prior to 1946 known by its German name (Įsrutis; Wystruć) is a town and the administrative center of Chernyakhovsky District in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located at the confluence of the Instruch and Angrapa Rivers, forming the Pregolya.
Chicklet are Julie Park (vocals, guitar) and Daniel Barida (guitar, vocals, synth).
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Christina (– 19 April 1689) reigned as Queen of Sweden from 1632 until her abdication in 1654.
A Christmas tree is a decorated tree, usually an evergreen conifer such as spruce, pine, or fir or an artificial tree of similar appearance, associated with the celebration of Christmas.
Christoffer Valkendorff (1 September 152517 January 1601) was a Danish statesman and landowner.
Prince Christopher Henry von Lieven, Lord of Mesothen (Kristofers Heinrihs fon Līvens; Христофор Андреевич Ливен; Christoph Heinrich von Liewen; Christoffer Henrik von Liewen af Eksjö; Christophe de Lieven; 6 May 1774 – 10 January 1839) was a Livonian nobleman, Russian general, ambassador to London in 1812–1834, and educator of tsesarevich Alexander Nikolaievitch.
Clan Barclay is a Lowland Scottish clan.
Clan Ostoja (ancient Polish: Ostoya) was a powerful group of knights and lords in late-medieval Europe.
Conrad von Rosen (1628, Straupe – 1715) was a soldier from Livonia, noted for his long service in the French Army.
Thomas M. Cooley High School is located at the intersection of Hubbell Avenue and Chalfonte Street, on the northwest side of Detroit, Michigan.
Cornelius Didrikson Thijsen Anckarstierna (25 January 1655 – 19 April 1714) was a Swedish admiral of Dutch origin and a member of the Swedish House of Nobility.
The Cosmographia ("Cosmography") by Sebastian Münster (1488–1552) from 1544 is the earliest German-language description of the world.
The County of Dassel (Grafschaft Dassel) emerged shortly after the turn of the 11th and 12th centuries when, after the extinction of the male line of the Billungs, its seat in Suilbergau, north of the Solling hills was divided into the domains of Einbeck and Dassel.
The Crossing of the Düna (also known as Battle of Riga) took place during the Great Northern War on July 8 (Julian calendar) / July 9 (Swedish calendar) / July 19 (Gregorian calendar) 1701 near the city of Riga, present-day Latvia.
The Crusader states, also known as Outremer, were a number of mostly 12th- and 13th-century feudal Christian states created by Western European crusaders in Asia Minor, Greece and the Holy Land, and during the Northern Crusades in the eastern Baltic area.
Cultural regions of Latvia are several areas within Latvia formally recognised as distinct from the rest of the country.
The Curonians or Kurs (Curonian: Kursi; Kuren; kurši; курши; kuršiai; kuralased; Kurowie) were a Baltic tribe living on the shores of the Baltic Sea in what are now the western parts of Latvia and Lithuania from the 5th to the 16th centuries, when they merged with other Baltic tribes.
Dana Schutz (born 1976) is an American artist who lives and works in Brooklyn, New York.
The Dano-Swedish War of 1658–60 (Anden Karl Gustav-krig, Karl X Gustavs andra danska krig, Zweeds-Nederlandse Oorlog) was a war between Denmark–Norway and Sweden.
Danylo Apostol (1654–1734), was a Hetman of Zaporizhian Host from 1727 to 1734.
Daugavgrīva Abbey or Dünamünde Abbey (Daugavgrīvas klosteris; Kloster Dünamünde; Mons S. Nicolai) was a Cistercian monastery in Daugavgrīva (Dünamünde) in Latvia, about 12 kilometres from Riga, of which Daugavgrīva has formed a district since 1959.
Daugirutis or Dangerutis (Dangeruthe or Daugeruthe) was an early Lithuanian duke who committed suicide in 1213.
The dūdas or somas stabules is a type of bagpipe native to Latvia, popular from the 16th to 18th centuries.
The term Deluge (pоtор szwedzki, švedų tvanas) denotes a series of mid-17th-century campaigns in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Denis Ivanovich Fonvizin (Дени́с Ива́нович Фонви́зин, from von Wiesen) was a playwright of the Russian Enlightenment, whose plays are still staged today.
Dithmarschen (Low Saxon pronunciation:, archaic English: Ditmarsh, Ditmarsken, Medieval Latin: Tedmarsgo) is a district in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany.
Dmitry Gerasimov (Дмитрий Герасимов; also known as Demetrius Erasmius, Mitya the Translator and Dmitri the Scholastic; c. 1465 – after 1535), was a Russian translator, diplomat and philologist; he also provided some of the earliest information on Muscovy to Renaissance scholars such as Paolo Giovio and Sigismund von Herberstein.
The Dominions of Sweden or Svenska besittningar ("Swedish possessions") were territories that historically came under control of the Swedish Crown, but never became fully integrated with Sweden.
The Dorpat Voivodeship (Województwo dorpackie or województwo derpskie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Duchy of Livonia, part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, from 1598 until the Swedish conquest of Livonia in the 1620s.
Drang nach Osten ("Drive to the East",Ulrich Best, Transgression as a Rule: German–Polish cross-border cooperation, border discourse and EU-enlargement, 2008, p. 58,, "push eastward",Jerzy Jan Lerski, Piotr Wróbel, Richard J. Kozicki, Historical Dictionary of Poland, 966–1945, 1996, p. 118,, "drive toward the East"Edmund Jan Osmańczyk, Anthony Mango, Encyclopedia of the United Nations and International Agreements, 2003, p. 579,, or "desire to push East") was a term coined in the 19th century to designate German expansion into Slavic lands.
Dubingiai Castle was a residential castle in Dubingiai, Molėtai district, Lithuania.
The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia (Ducatus Curlandiæ et Semigalliæ, Księstwo Kurlandii i Semigalii, Herzogtum Kurland und Semgallen, Kurzemes un Zemgales hercogiste) was a duchy in the Baltic region that existed from 1561 to 1569 as a vassal state of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and from 1569 to 1726 to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, incorporated into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth by Sejm in 1726, On 28 March 1795, it was annexed by the Russian Empire in the Third Partition of Poland.
The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia was briefly a client state of the German Empire.
The Duchy of Livonia (Księstwo Inflanckie; Livonijos kunigaikštystė; Ducatus Ultradunensis; Üleväina-Liivimaa hertsogkond; Pārdaugavas hercogiste; also referred to as Polish Livonia or Inflanty) was a territory of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania—and later the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth—that existed from 1561 to 1621.
The Eastland Company, or North Sea Company, was an English crown-chartered company, founded in 1579 to foster trade with Scandinavia and Baltic Sea states.
Eberhardt August Wilhelm von Zimmermann (August 17, 1743, Uelzen – July 4, 1815, Braunschweig) was a German geographer and zoologist.
Pskov has always played a special role in Russian trade with the West.
Eduard Otto Emil Karl Adam Freiherr von Stackelberg (November 6, 1867 Estonia - April 7, 1943 Munich, Germany) was an Estonian chemist, landowner and politician who belonged to the Stackelberg family.
Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk (born December 20, 1950 in Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania) is an American architect and urban planner of Polish-Livonian aristocratic roots based in Miami, Florida.
Countess Emilia Plater (Broel-Plater, Emilija Pliaterytė; 13 November 1806 – 23 December 1831) was a noblewoman and revolutionary from the lands of the partitioned Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Engelhardt (Энгельгардт) was a Baltic-German noble and baronial family.
Ernst Christoph Friedrich Knorre (11 December 1759 – 1 December 1810) was a German-born astronomer who lived and worked in present-day Estonia as a founding professor of mathematics at the Universität Dorpat and chief observator for the Dorpat Observatory.
Baron Ernst Gideon von Laudon (German: Ernst Gideon Freiherr von Laudon (originally Laudohn or Loudon) (13 February 1717 – 14 July 1790) was an Austrian generalisimo, one of the most successful opponents of the Prussian king Frederick the Great, allegedly lauded by Alexander Suvorov as his teacher. He served the position of military governorship of Habsburg Serbia from his capture of Belgrade in 1789 until his death, cooperating with the resistance fighters of Koča Anđelković.
Ernst Gottlieb Glück (Ernst Gottlieb Glück, Эрнст Готлиб Глюк, about 1698, Marienburg (modern Alūksne), Livonia, Kingdom of Sweden — 14 (25) November 1767, Saint-Petersburg, Russian Empire) was a Russian statesman.
Ernst Jaakson (11 August 1905, Riga, Livonia (then Russian Empire) – 4 September 1998, New York, United States) was an Estonian diplomat whose unique contribution was to maintain Estonia's legal continuity with his uninterrupted diplomatic service for 69 years.
Ernst Magnus Dönhoff (Ernest Magnus Denhoff; 1581–1642, in Elbing (Elbląg), Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) was a Baltic German who served the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in Livonia and the Polish fief of Duchy of Prussia.
Ernst Reissner (September 24, 1824 – September 16, 1878) was a Baltic German anatomist from Riga, Livonia.
Ernst Rudolf von Trautvetter (20 February 1809, Jelgava – 24 January 1889, St. Petersburg), was a Baltic German botanist, specialising in the flora of the Caucasus and central Asia.
Essen or von Essen is the surname of a Baltic German and Swedish noble family.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
Estonia under Swedish rule signifies the time between 1558 and 1710, when parts of present-day Estonia (and after 1645 all of the present-day country) were under Swedish rule.
The Estonian Knighthood House (Estonian: Eestimaa rüütelkonna hoone, German: Haus der Estländischen Ritterschaft) is a building in Toompea, the upper part of Vanalinn, the historic inner town of Tallinn, the capital of Estonia.
A number of units of measurement were used in Estonia to measure length, mass, area, capacity, etc.
Euro gold and silver commemorative coins are special euro coins minted and issued by member states of the Eurozone, mainly in gold and silver, although other precious metals are also used in rare occasions.
Europa regina, Latin for Queen Europe, is the map-like depiction of the European continent as a queen.
Eustratie (or Istrate) Dabija was Prince (Voivode) of Moldavia between 1661 and his death in September 1665.
The Evangelical Lutheran Church in Lithuania (Lietuvos Evangelikų Liuteronų Bažnyčia, ELCL) is a Lutheran church body comprising congregations in Lithuania.
The Evangelical Lutheran Church in Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Central Asia (Евангелическо-лютеранская церковь в России, Украине, в Казахстане и Средней Азии), also known as the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Russia and the Other States (ELCROS), is a Lutheran denomination that itself comprises seven regional Lutheran denominations in Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan as well as individual congregations in Azerbaijan, Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan.
Count Fabian Gotthard von Steinheil (Фадде́й Фёдорович Ште́йнгель, Faddei Fjodorovitš Šteingel; 14 October 1762 – 23 February 1831) was a Russian military officer, and the Governor-General of Finland between 1810 and 1824.
The family of Gediminas is a group of family members of Gediminas, Grand Duke of Lithuania (ca. 1275–1341), who interacted in the 14th century.
Count Berend Gregor Ferdinand (Fiodor Ivanovich in Russian) von Tiesenhausen (June 1, 1782, Reval – December 2, 1805, at the Battle of Austerlitz) was a Russian noble and military officer of German Baltic origin.
Finland under Swedish rule refers to the period in the history of Finland when it was a part of Sweden.
The First Partition of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth took place in 1772 as the first of three partitions that ended the existence of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth by 1795.
Count Frederick Maurice van Heiden (Фёдор Ло́гинович/Логгинович Ге́йден; 15 September 1821 – 18 January 1900) was a general of infantry in the Imperial Russian Army.
Frederick I (Fredrik I; 28 April 1676 – 5 April 1751) was prince consort of Sweden from 1718 to 1720, and King of Sweden from 1720 until his death and (as Frederick I) also Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel from 1730.
Frederick II (1 July 1534 – 4 April 1588) was King of Denmark and Norway and Duke of Schleswig from 1559 until his death.
Frederick II of Hesse-Homburg (Friedrich II.), also known as the Prince of Homburg (30 March 1633–24 January 1708) was Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg.
Fredrik Pacius (born Friedrich Pacius) (March 19, 1809 – January 8, 1891) was a German composer and conductor who lived most of his life in Finland.
After 1918, the term Freikorps was used for the anti-communist paramilitary organizations that sprang up around the German Empire, including in the Baltic states, as soldiers returned in defeat from World War I. It was one of the many Weimar paramilitary groups active during that time.
Fretter was an electronics and major appliance retailer based out of Detroit, Michigan, founded in the 1950s by Oliver "Ollie" Fretter.
The family Freytag (also: Vrydach, Frydag, Friday and various other slightly different spellings) is a noble family that comes from the Uradel Westphalia and the surname was first documented in 1198 and 1217.
Friedrich Georg von Bunge (13 March 1802, Kiev – 9 April 1897, Wiesbaden) was a German legal historian.
Friedrich Karl Hermann Kruse (21 July 1790 – 3 August 1866) was a German historian born in Oldenburg.
Friedrich Fromhold Martens, or Friedrich Fromhold von Martens, also known as Fyodor Fyodorovich Martens (Фёдор Фёдорович Мартенс) in Russian and Frédéric Frommhold (de) Martens in French (–) was a diplomat and jurist in service of the Russian Empire who made important contributions to the science of international law.
Johann Jacob Friedrich Wilhelm Parrot (25 October 179115 January 1841) was a Baltic German naturalist, explorer, and mountaineer, who lived and worked in Dorpat (today Tartu, Estonia) in what was then the Governorate of Livonia of the Russian Empire.
Friedrich von Löwis of Menar (Germanized name; Russian: Фёдор Фёдорович Левиз / Fedor Fedorovich Leviz) (6 September 1767, Haapsalu - 16 April 1824) was a Russian lieutenant general of the Napoleonic Wars.
Friedrich Wilhelm Rembert Graf von Berg (Frederick William Rembert, Count Berg; Russified into Граф Фёдор Фёдорович фон Берг, Graf Feodor Feodorovich von Berg) was an Baltic-German nobleman, statesman, diplomat and military leader who served in the Imperial Russian Army, the count of Austria (from 9.1849) and Finland (from 26.8.1856), and was the 5th last Field Marshal (promoted in 1866) in the history of the Russian Empire.
Fritz Reinhardt (3 April 1895, in Ilmenau – 17 June 1969, in Regensburg) was a state secretary in the German Finance Ministry in the time of the Third Reich.
Frydag family (also: Vrydach, Freytag, Friday and various other slightly different spellings) is a noble German family, known since the beginning of the 14th century, and who originated from the Uradel of Westphalia and were first documented between 1198 and 1217 with the person of Wecelo Vriedach.
Fyodor Engelhardt (Федор-Христофор Антонович Энгельгардт) (March 18, 1762, Riga, Russian Empire - June 29, 1831, Riga) was a Russian brigadier general and a hero of the storming of Izmail during the Russo-Turkish War of 1787-1792.
The gallowglasses (also spelt galloglass, gallowglas or galloglas; from gall óglaigh meaning foreign warriors) were a class of elite mercenary warriors who were principally members of the Norse-Gaelic clans of Scotland between the mid 13th century and late 16th century.
Gatchina (Га́тчина) is a town and the administrative center of Gatchinsky District in Leningrad Oblast, Russia.
The Gdov Kremlin (Гдовский Кремль) is located on a bank of the Gdovka River, overlooking the Russian town of Gdov.
Georg von Oettingen (–) was a Baltic German physician and ophthalmologist who was born at the manor Gut Wissust (today known as Visusti in Palamuse Parish, Jõgeva County, Estonia).
George Bogislaus Staël von Holstein (born 6 December 1685 in Narva; died 17 December 1763 in Malmö) was a Swedish baron and field marshal.
George Browne (Юрий Юрьевич Броун., Seoirse de Brún, Georg Reichsgraf von Browne, George de Browne), Count von Browne in the nobility of the Holy Roman Empire (15 June 1698 – 18 February 1792), was an Irish soldier of fortune who became full general in the Russian service.
Gerardus Mercator (5 March 1512 – 2 December 1594) was a 16th-century German-Flemish cartographer, geographer and cosmographer.
The German town law (Deutsches Stadtrecht) or German municipal concerns (Deutsches Städtewesen) was a set of early town privileges based on the Magdeburg rights developed by Otto I. The Magdeburg Law became the inspiration for regional town charters not only in Germany, but also in Central and Eastern Europe who modified it during the Middle Ages.
Gertrud Elisabeth Mara (23 February 1749 – 20 January 1833) was a German operatic soprano.
Giedroyć (Lithuanian: Giedraitis; Russian and Belarusian: Гедройц; French: Guedroitz) is a Polish surname, originating from the Giedroyć princely family of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
God Is My DJ is the fifteenth studio album by Italian singer-songwriter Alice, released in 1999 on WEA/Warner Music.
Gottfried von Hohenlohe (1265 – 19 October 1310) was the 14th Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, serving from 1297 to 1303.
Gotthard von Kettler (also Ketteler, Gotthard Kettler, Herzog von Kurland; 2 February 1517 – 17 May 1587) was the last Master of the Livonian Order and the first Duke of Courland and Semigallia.
The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state that lasted from the 13th century up to 1795, when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, and Austria.
Grand Duke of Finland or the Grand Prince of Finland (Suomen suuriruhtinas, Storfurste av Finland), was from around 1580 to 1809 a title in use by most Swedish monarchs.
The Great Northern War (1700–1721) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe.
In the Great Reduction of 1680, by which the ancient landed nobility lost its power base, the Swedish Crown recaptured lands earlier granted to the nobility.
Grobiņa Castle is a medieval castle located in the town of Grobiņa, Latvia, in western Courland.
The Gulf of Riga, Bay of Riga, or Gulf of Livonia (Rīgas jūras līcis, Liivi laht, Рижский залив) is a bay of the Baltic Sea between Latvia and Estonia.
Gunno Dahlstierna (September 7, 1661September 7, 1709) was a Swedish poet.
Gustav Fabergé born 1814 in Pernau – 1893 in Dresden, was a Baltic German jeweller and father of the famous Peter Carl Fabergé, maker of Fabergé eggs.
Gustav Heinrich Kirchenpauer (2 February 1808 – 3 March 1887) was a Jurist, Journalist and Natural history researcher.
Count Gustav Horn af Björneborg (October 22, 1592 – May 10, 1657) was a Swedish Nobleman, Military Officer and Governor-General.
Johann Philipp Gustav von Ewers or Evers (27 July 1779 – 20 November 1830) was a German legal historian and the founder of Russian legal history as a scholarly discipline.
Gustav II Adolf (9 December 1594 – 6 November 1632, O.S.), widely known in English by his Latinised name Gustavus Adolphus or as Gustav II Adolph, was the King of Sweden from 1611 to 1632 who is credited for the founding of Sweden as a great power (Stormaktstiden).
Gyldenär, is the surname of an extinct Swedish noble family, enrolled in Riddarhuset with the number of 388.
Hakkapeliitta (Finnish pl. hakkapeliitat) is a historiographical term used for a Finnish light cavalryman in the service of King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden during the Thirty Years' War (1618 to 1648).
Hans Erich Freiherr von Campenhausen (16 December 1903 – 6 January 1989) was a German-Baltic Protestant theologian.
The Hanseatic League (Middle Low German: Hanse, Düdesche Hanse, Hansa; Standard German: Deutsche Hanse; Latin: Hansa Teutonica) was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe.
Henry Elionsky (April 12, 1893–March 14, 1956), also known as Buster Elionsky, was a champion long-distance swimmer and handicap swimmer in open water swimming.
Hartmann von Heldrungen (died 19 August 1283) was the 11th Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, serving from 1273 to 1283.
Hartwig of Uthlede (died 3 November 1207) was a German nobleman who – as Hartwig II – Prince-Archbishop of Bremen (1185–1190 and de facto again 1192–1207) and one of the originators of the Livonian Crusade.
Hedvig Strömfelt (Stockholm 11 October 1723 - Kersö), 22 May 1766), was a Swedish Baroness and psalm writer. She occupied an important place in the Moravian Church Stockholm congregation in 18th-century Sweden. She composed the psalms number 46, 59 and 63 in Sions Sånger (Songs of Sion) of 1743, and likely 72, 78, 85, 86, 105 and 108 in Sions Nya Sånger (New Songs of Sion) of 1748.
Hedvig Ulrika De la Gardie (29 November 1761 in Stockholm, Sweden – 7 February 1832 in Stockholm), was a Swedish lady in waiting.
Heinrich Sylvester Theodor Tiling (31 December 1818 in Wilkenhof, Livonia, now in Latvia – 6 December 1871 in Nevada City, California, USA) was a German–Russian physician and naturalist.
Henrik von Rehbinder (1604–1680) was a Swedish soldier and Friherre of the Udriku estate in Swedish Estonia.
Henry of Latvia (Henricus de Lettis, Heinrich von Lettland, Latviešu Indriķis, Läti Henrik; before 1188, Magdeburg, Landgraviate of Thuringia – after 1259 in Papendorf, Livonia (currently Rubene, Kocēni parish, Kocēni Municipality, Latvia)), also known in the English speaking world as Henry of Livonia, was a priest, missionary and historian.
Henryk Bonawentura Kazimierz Weyssenhoff (26 July 1859, near Kaunas - 23 July 1922, Warsaw) was a Polish-Belarusian landscape painter, illustrator and sculptor of Baltic-German ancestry.
Herman Wrangel, born either 1584 or 1587 in Livonia, died 10 December 1643.
Hermann Balk (died March 5, 1239, Würzburg), also known as Hermann von Balk or Hermann Balke, was a Knight-Brother of the Teutonic Order and its first Landmeister, or Provincial Master, in both Prussia and Livonia.
Hermann of Buxhoeveden or Bekeshoevede (1230-1285) was a medieval clergyman.
Count Hermann Alexander von Keyserling (July 20, 1880 – April 26, 1946) was a Baltic German philosopher from the Keyserlingk family.
Hermann von Salza (or Hermann of Salza; c. 1165 – March 20, 1239) was the fourth Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, serving from 1210 to 1239.
Hermann Wesel (died June 1563) was a German ecclesiastic in Livonia, and the last Roman Catholic Bishop of Dorpat (Tartu).
Hetman of Zaporizhian Host (Гетьман Війська Запорозького, Гетман Войска Запорожского, Hetman wojsk kozackich) is a former historic government office and political institution of Cossack Hetmanate (Zaporizhian Host) in Ukraine that was equivalent to a head of state.
A hillfort is a type of earthworks used as a fortified refuge or defended settlement, located to exploit a rise in elevation for defensive advantage.
Hirschaid is a German market town in the Upper Franconian district of Bamberg and lies roughly twelve kilometres south of Bamberg on the Regnitz and the Main-Danube Canal.
The history of Estonia forms a part of the history of Europe.
The history of Finland begins around 9,000 BCE during the end of the last glacial period.
The German minority in Russia, Ukraine and the Soviet Union was created from several sources and in several waves.
The concept of Germany as a distinct region in central Europe can be traced to Roman commander Julius Caesar, who referred to the unconquered area east of the Rhine as Germania, thus distinguishing it from Gaul (France), which he had conquered.
The history of Latvia began around 9000 BC with the end of the last glacial period in northern Europe.
The history of Lithuania dates back to settlements founded many thousands of years ago, but the first written record of the name for the country dates back to 1009 AD.
The history of Lithuania between 1219 and 1295 concerns the establishment and early history of the first Lithuanian state, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
The culture of Lithuania, dating back to 200 BC, with the settlement of the Balts and has been independent of the presence of a sovereign Lithuanian state.
The history of Poland has its roots in the migrations of Slavs, who established permanent settlements in the Polish lands during the Early Middle Ages.
The rule of the Jagiellonian dynasty in Poland between 1386 and 1572 spans the late Middle Ages and early Modern Era in European history.
The early modern era of Polish history follows the late Middle Ages.
In this time period Polish history covering roughly a millennium, from the 5th century, the way through to the 16th century.
The history of Riga, the capital of Latvia, begins as early as the 2nd century with a settlement, the Duna urbs, at a natural harbor not far upriver from the mouth of the Daugava River.
Peter changed the rules of succession to the throne after the death of his son Aleksey, who had opposed his father's reforms and served as a rallying figure for anti-reform groups.
The history of Scandinavia is the history of the geographical region of Scandinavia and its peoples.
During the 11th and 12th centuries, Sweden gradually became a unified Christian kingdom that later included what is today Finland.
The Early Vasa era is a period that in Swedish and Finnish history lasted between 1523–1611.
During the 17th century, despite having scarcely more than 1 million inhabitants, Sweden emerged to have greater foreign influence, after winning wars against Denmark–Norway, the Holy Roman Empire, Russia, and the Commonwealth of Poland-Lithuania.
The History of the Jews in Latvia dates back to the first Jewish colony established in Piltene in 1571.
History of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569–1648) covers a period in the history of Poland and Lithuania, before their joint state was subjected to devastating wars in the middle of the 17th century.
History of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1648–1764) covers a period in the history of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, from the time their joint state became the theater of wars and invasions fought on a great scale in the middle of the 17th century, to the time just before the election of Stanisław August Poniatowski, the last king of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The History of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1764–1795) is concerned with the final decades of existence of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
HMS Phoebe was a 36-gun fifth rate of the British Royal Navy.
The Horn family coat of arms features a black drinking horn on yellow background Horn is a Swedish noble family from Finland, known since the 14th century.
Hosius may refer to.
The House of Croÿ is a family of European mediatized nobility, which held a seat in the Imperial Diet from 1486, and was elevated to the rank of Princes of the Holy Roman Empire in 1594.
The House of Fabergé (Russian: Дом Фаберже) is a jewellery firm founded in 1842 in St. Petersburg, Imperial Russia, by Gustav Faberge, using the accented name "Fabergé".
The House of Mindaugas was the first royal family of Grand Duchy of Lithuania, centered on Mindaugas, the first known and undoubted sovereign of Lithuania.
Sobieski (plural: Sobiescy, feminine form: Sobieska) was a prominent magnate family of Polish nobility in the 16th and 17th centuries.
House of the Blackheads (Estonian Mustpeade maja), or House of the Brotherhood of Black Heads, in Tallinn, the capital of Estonia, is a former headquarters of the Brotherhood of Blackheads.
The House of Vasa (Vasaätten, Wazowie, Vaza) was an early modern royal house founded in 1523 in Sweden, ruling Sweden 1523–1654, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth 1587–1668, and the Tsardom of Russia 1610–1613 (titular until 1634).
Major General Sir Howard Craufurd Elphinstone, (12 December 1829 – 8 March 1890) was a British Army officer and a recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.
*Stanislaus Hosius (1504-1579), the bishop of Chełmno and Warmia, a cardinal and leader of the Counter-Reformation.
Hrehory Chodkiewicz (Grigorijus Chodkevičius, Рыгор Аляксандравіч Хадкевіч; – November 9, 1572) was a nobleman and military officer of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
Igelström is the surname of a Swedish noble family from Nylödöse.
Il falegname di Livonia, o Pietro il grande, czar delle Russie (The Livonian Carpenter, or Peter the Great, Tsar of the Russias) is an 1819 opera buffa in two acts with music by Gaetano Donizetti set to a libretto by Gherardo Bevilacqua-Aldobrandini.
Inflanty is the Polish name for Livonia and may refer to the following historical jurisdictions.
The Inflanty Voivodeship (Województwo inflanckie), or Livonian Voivodeship (Livonijos vaivadija), also known as Polish Livonia, was an administrative division and local government in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, since it was formed in the 1620s out of the Wenden Voivodeship and lasted until the First Partition of Poland in 1772.
Count Otto Heinrich Igelström (Otto Henrik Igelström, Игельстрем, Иосиф Андреевич, Iosif Andreyevich Igelström; 7 May 1737 - 1823) was a Russian general from the noble Swedish family of Igelström.
Isidore of Kiev, also known as Isidore of Thessalonica (Ἰσίδωρος τοῦ Κιέβου; Исидор; Ісидор; b. Peloponnesus, 1385 – d.Rome, 27 April 1463) was a Greek Metropolitan of Kiev, cardinal, humanist, and theologian.
Estonia has one of the smallest Muslim communities in Europe.
Ivan Alekseyevich Bartolomei (Иван Алексеевич Бартоломей, 28 November 1813 – 5 October 1870) was an Imperial Russian military officer, antiquarian, and writer.
Ivan Stepanovych Mazepa (Іван Степанович Мазепа, Jan Mazepa Kołodyński). Retrieved 10 July 2015 served as the Hetman of Zaporizhian Host in 1687–1708.
Ivan Mikhailovich Viskovatiy (Viskovatov) (Иван Михайлович Висковатый (Висковатов) in Russian) (died 25 July 1570 in Moscow) was a Russian diplomat and head of the Posolsky Prikaz (foreign ministry).
Ivan IV Vasilyevich (pron; 25 August 1530 –), commonly known as Ivan the Terrible or Ivan the Fearsome (Ivan Grozny; a better translation into modern English would be Ivan the Formidable), was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1533 to 1547, then Tsar of All Rus' until his death in 1584.
Jaan Kross (19 February 1920 – 27 December 2007) was an Estonian writer.
Jacob Axelsson Lindblom (27 July 1746, in Skeda, Östergötland – 15 February 1819, in Uppsala) was a Swedish scholar who eventually became archbishop of Uppsala, a position he held between 1805-1819.
Field Marshal and Count Jacob Pontusson De la Gardie (Reval, 20 June 1583 – Stockholm, 22 August 1652) was a statesman and a soldier of the Swedish Empire.
Jacob Heinrich Elbfas (c.1600–1664) was a portrait painter Elbfas was born in Livonia and educated in Strasbourg, in a tradition dating back to Renaissance portraits.
Jadwiga Wajs-Marcinkiewicz (30 January 1912 in Pabianice, Russian Empire – 1 February 1990) was a Polish athlete who mainly competed in the discus throw.
Jakob Benjamin Fischer (13 October 1731–25 July 1793) was a Baltic German naturalist and apothecary.
Jan Hieronimowicz Chodkiewicz (Jonas Chodkevičius) (1537 – 4 August 1579) was a 16th-century Polish-Lithuanian noble.
Jan Swołyński (died between 1644 and 1647) was a Polish nobleman (szlachcic) and a marshal (marszałek) of Oszmiany.
Jan Zamoyski or Zamojski (Ioannes Zamoyski de Zamoscie; 19 March 1542 – 3 June 1605) was a Polish nobleman, magnate, and the 1st ordynat of Zamość.
Janus Cornarius (ca. 1500 – March 16, 1558) was a Saxon humanist and friend of Erasmus.
Jastrzębiec is a Polish coat of arms.
Józef Baka (Lithuanian: Juozapas Baka) was a late Baroque poet, Jesuit priest and missionary.
Józef Jan Kanty Ossoliński (1707–1780) was a magnate in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Józef Kazimierz Korwin Kossakowski (16 March 1738 – 9 May 1794), of Ślepowron coat of arms, was a Polish noble (szlachcic), bishop of Livonia from 1781, political activist, writer, and supporter of Russian Empire.
Jüri Reinvere (born December 2, 1971 in Tallinn) is an Estonian composer, poet and essayist who has been living in Germany since 2005.
Jānis Frīdrihs Baumanis (May 23, 1834, Riga – March 19, 1891, Riga) was the first professional Latvian architect.
Jēkabs Bukse (14 June 1879 – 12 May 1942) was a Latvian cyclist.
Jean II Le Maingre (in Old French, Jehan le Meingre), called Boucicaut (August 28, 1366 — June 21, 1421) was marshal of France and a knight renowned for his military skill.
Joachim Cronman (c.1640 – March 5, 1703) was an owner of estates in Livonia and a colonel for the Swedish Empire.
Johann Christoph Brotze (Johans Kristofs Broce) (1 September 1742 – 4 August 1823) was a German pedagogue, artist and ethnographer.
Johann Ernst Glück (Ernsts Gliks; 10 November 1652 – 5 May 1705) was a German translator and Lutheran theologian active in Livonia, which is now in Latvia.
Johann Freitag von Loringhoven (also Johann Freytag von Loringhoven, and Johann Fridach van Loringhoffe) (c. 1430-May 26, 1494) was a member of the Freytag von Loringhoven family and was a knight of the Teutonic Knights.
Count Johann Georg von Browne (or Johann Georg von Browne-Camus; 20 September 1767 – January 1827) was an officer in the Russian army, and settled in Vienna where he was a patron of Ludwig van Beethoven during the composer's early career.
Johann Karl Bähr (1801–69) was a German painter and writer.
Johann Leonhard Dober (born March 7, 1706, Mönchsroth, Swabia, Germany to Johann Dober and Anna Barbara Link; died April 1, 1766, Herrnhut, Saxony, Germany) was, along with David Nitschmann, one of the two first missionaries of the Moravian Brethren (Herrnhuter Brüdergemeine) in the West Indies in 1732.
Field Marshal Ivan Karpovich Elmpt (Ива́н Ка́рпович Эльмпт, Johann-Martin von Elmpt; 1725) was a military officer of the Russian Empire.
Johann Steinhauer (Jānis Šteinhauers, born Jānis Akmeņkalis; 19 January 1705 – 21 February 1779) was a Latvian entrepreneur, social reformer and landowner, who made significant contributions to the Latvian civil rights throughout the 18th century.
Johann von Uexküll (or Johann von Mentz (Menzen.
Johannes Gezelius the elder (February 3, 1615-January 20, 1690) was the Bishop of the Archdiocese of Turku and the Vice-Chancellor of The Royal Academy of Turku (1664–90).
Johannes Gezelius the younger (AD 1647 in Dorpat – AD 1718 in Uppland), was a theologian, professor in The Royal Academy of Åbo and also superintendent of Livonia as his father had been.
Johannes Peter Letzmann (19 July 1885 – 21 May 1971) was an Estonian meteorologist, and a pioneering tornado researcher.
John II Casimir (Jan II Kazimierz Waza; Johann II.; Jonas Kazimieras Vaza; 22 March 1609 – 16 December 1672) was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania during the era of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Duke of Opole in Upper Silesia, and titular King of Sweden 1648–1660.
John III Sobieski (Jan III Sobieski; Jonas III Sobieskis; Ioannes III Sobiscius; 17 August 1629 – 17 June 1696), was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1674 until his death, and one of the most notable monarchs of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
John J. Walsh (born August 19, 1962) was a member of the Michigan House of Representatives, first elected in 2008.
John of Sweden, Duke of Östergötland (in Swedish Johan) (18 April 1589 at Uppsala Castle – 5 March 1618 at Bråborg Castle in Östergötland) was a Swedish royal dynast.
Jonas Kęsgaila (or Kęsgailaitis) (Jan Kieżgajło, Johannes Kyensgalowicz, died 1485) was a Lithuanian nobleman, son of Mykolas Kęsgaila of the Kęsgaila family.
Julia von Mengden (Augusta Juliane) (1719–1786), was a Livonian noblewoman, lady in waiting, favourite and the intimate friend and confidante of the Russian regent Grand Duchess Anna Leopoldovna.
Karja Church (Karja kirik) is a medieval Lutheran church located in Linnaka village on Saaremaa island, Estonia.
Karl Wilhelm Bücher (16 February 1847, Kirberg, Hesse – 12 November 1930, Leipzig, Saxony) was an economist, one of the founders of non-market economics, and the founder of journalism as an academic discipline.
Karl Christian Ulmann (in Riga &ndash) was a Baltic German theologian.
Karl Eduard von Napiersky (21 May 1793, Riga – 2 September 1864, Riga) was a Latvian clergyman and historian.
Count Karl Gustav von Löwenwolde (17th century - April 30, 1735 Räpina) (Karl Gustaw von Loewenwolde, Левенвольде, Карл Густав, Kārlis Gustavs Lēvenvolde) was a Russian diplomat and military commander.
Vice Admiral Karl Petrovich Jessen (Карл Петрович Иессен; 30 June 1852 – 30 November 1918) was an admiral in the Imperial Russian Navy during the Russo-Japanese War.
Karl von Ditmar (sometimes Carl von Ditmar) (in Vändra – in Tartu) was a Baltic German geologist and explorer, who travelled in and contributed to the scientific understanding of Kamchatka.
Prince Karol Stanisław Radziwiłł (Караль Станіслаў Радзівіл II, Karolis Stanislovas Radvila II, Exonym: Charles Stanislaus: 27 February 1734 – 21 November 1790) was a Polish nobleman, politician, diplomat, prince of the Crown Kingdom of Poland and the Commonwealth, statesman of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Voivode of Vilnius, governor of Lwów and Sejm Marshal between 1767 and 1768.
Königstein Fortress (Festung Königstein), the "Saxon Bastille", is a hilltop fortress near Dresden, in Saxon Switzerland, Germany, above the town of Königstein on the left bank of the River Elbe.
Kęstutis (born ca. 1297, died on 3 August or 15 August 1382 in Kreva) was a ruler of medieval Lithuania.
Keyserlingk is an old noble family from Westphalia.
Killeedy (Cill Íde) is a civil parish located south of Newcastle West in Co.
The Kingdom of Livonia was a nominal state in what is now the territory of Estonia and Latvia.
Kiril Bagration (კირილე ბაგრატიონი, Kirile Bagrationi; Кирилл Александрович Багратион, Kirill Aleksandrovich Bagration) (1749 – 19 April 1828) was an Imperial Russian general and official of Georgian origin, descended from the royal line of the Bagrationi-Mukhraneli of Kartli.
Klaipėda (Samogitian name: Klaipieda, Polish name: Kłajpeda, German name: Memel), is a city in Lithuania on the Baltic Sea coast.
Kolka (Livonian: Kūolka; Russian: "Колка") is a village in Kolka parish, Dundaga municipality, on the tip of Cape Kolka in Courland in Latvia, on the coast of the Gulf of Riga in ancient Livonia.
Kolme katku vahel is a novel by Estonian author Jaan Kross.
Konstanty Ludwik Plater (Konstantinas Liudvikas Pliateris) (1722 – 31 March 1778 in Krāslava), was Castellan of Troki from 1770, voivode of Mstislavl from 1758 to 1770, Castellan of Polotsk from 1754 to 1758, the great Lithuanian Magnus Scriptor from 1746 to 1754, Maréchal of the Lithuanian Tribunal in 1754, and Starosta of Livonia and Dyneburg.
The Korenbeurs ("grain bourse") was a 17th-century commodity market in Amsterdam where grain was traded.
Józef Kazimierz Kossakowski (1738–1794) Jan Nepomucen Kossakowski (1755–1808) Józef Kossakowski (1772–1842) Kossakowski (plural: Kossakowscy, feminine: Kossakowska) (Kosakovskiai, singular forms: m: Kosakovskis, f: Kosakovskienė, Kosakovskytė) was a noble family of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth of the Masovian descent.
Kruszyna is a village in Częstochowa County, Silesian Voivodeship, in southern Poland.
Krzysztof Czarniecki of the Łodzia coat of arms (b. ca. 1564, d. 1636) was a Polish nobleman and starosta of Żywiec.
The Landing at Humlebæk took place on August 4, 1700 (Gregorian calendar), in the Swedish invasion of Denmark during the Great Northern War 1700-1721.
A Landtag (State Diet) is a representative assembly (parliament) in German-speaking countries with legislative authority and competence over a federated state (Land).
Latgalians, sometimes also Ancient Latvians (Letti, Lethi, modern; variant translations also include Latgallians, Lettigalls or Lettigallians), were an ancient Baltic tribe.
Latinisation or Latinization is the practice of rendering a non-Latin name (or word) in a Latin style.
Latvians (latvieši; lețlizt) are a Baltic ethnic group, native to what is modern-day Latvia and the immediate geographical region.
Lau Church (Lau kyrka) is a medieval Lutheran church on the Swedish island of Gotland, in the Diocese of Visby.
Lāčplēsis is an epic poem by Andrejs Pumpurs, a Latvian poet, who wrote it between 1872–1887 based on local legends.
Leon Wasilewski (1870–1936) was an activist of the Polish Socialist Party (PPS), a coworker of Józef Piłsudski, Polish Minister of Foreign Affairs, designer of much of Second Polish Republic policy towards Eastern Europe, historian and father of Halszka Wasilewska and of Wanda Wasilewska.
Leszczyński (plural: Leszczyńscy, feminine form: Leszczyńska) was a prominent Polish noble family.
Liège Cathedral, otherwise St.
Liepāja (pronounced) (Libau; see other names) is a city in western Latvia, located on the Baltic Sea.
Lieven is a Dutch language masculine given name.
Limbaži (Lemsalu, Lemsal, Limbaž) is a town in the Vidzeme region of northern Latvia.
Lisowczycy (also known as Straceńcy ('lost men' or 'forlorn hope') or chorągiew elearska (company of); or in singular form: Lisowczyk or elear) – the name of an early 17th-century irregular unit of the Polish-Lithuanian light cavalry.
The following is a list of adjectival forms of former regions in English and their demonymic equivalents, which denote the people or the inhabitants of these former regions.
Alphabetical list of historical battles (see also Military history, Lists of battles): NOTE: Where a year has been used to disambiguate battles it is the year when the battle started.
The Catholic Church in Estonia (a Baltic former Soviet republic, like Latvia and Lithuania) presently comprises only a pre-diocesan Latin rite jurisdiction, covering (only) the entire country.
There are in total nineteen known ruined churches on the Swedish island of Gotland, in the Baltic Sea twelve of which lie in Visby, the island's main town.
The following is a list of entomologists, people who have studied insects.
Most regions and provinces of Europe have alternative names in different languages.
This is a selective list of known major famines, ordered by date.
This is a list of General Motors factories that are being or have been used to produce automobiles and automobile components.
This list includes the Roman names of countries, or significant regions, known to the Roman Empire.
Here is a list of principalities and regions written in the Latin language and English and other names on the right.
This list of molluscan genera represented in the fossil record is a list which is composed primarily of many mollusk genera which occur as fossils.
Poland was ruled at various times either by dukes (the 10th–14th century) or by kings (the 11th-18th century).
This list of states which were part of the Holy Roman Empire includes any territory ruled by an authority that had been granted imperial immediacy, as well as many other feudal entities such as lordship, sous-fiefs and allodial fiefs.
A list of towns in Europe with German town law.
This is a chronological list of military conflicts in which Polish armed forces won or took place on Polish territory from the reign of Mieszko I (960–992) to the ongoing military operations.
This is a list of wars involving the Kingdom of Sweden.
Many people have engaged in cross-dressing during wartime under various circumstances and for various motives.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
The Lithuanian Civil War of 1381–1384 was the first struggle for power between the cousins Jogaila, Grand Duke of Lithuania and later King of Poland, and Vytautas the Great.
The Lithuanian Crusade was a series of campaigns by the Teutonic Order and the Livonian Order, two crusading military orders, to convert the pagan Grand Duchy of Lithuania into Roman Catholicism.
The so-called Lithuanian long currency was a type of money used by the Baltic tribes and in the early Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the 12th–15th centuries.
Livonia is a historical region now divided between Estonia and Latvia.
Livonia is a city in the northwest part of Wayne County in the U.S. state of Michigan.
Livonian may refer to.
The Livonian Brothers of the Sword (Fratres militiæ Christi Livoniae, Schwertbrüderorden, Ordre des Chevaliers Porte-Glaive) was a Catholic military order established by Albert, the third bishop of Riga (or possibly by Theoderich von Treyden), in 1202.
The Livonian Chronicle of Henry (Heinrici Cronicon Lyvoniae) or Henry's chronicle of Livonia is a document in Latin describing historic events in Livonia (roughly corresponding to today's inland Estonia and north of Latvia) and surrounding areas from 1180 to 1227.
The Livonian Crusade refers to the conquest of the territory constituting modern Latvia and Estonia during the pope-sanctioned Northern Crusades, performed mostly by Germans from the Holy Roman Empire and Danes.
Livonian cuisine consists of the cuisine of Livonia and the Livonians, and is characterized by the rich use of local foods.
The Livonian Knighthood (Livländische Ritterschaft, Liivimaa rüütelkond, Livonijas bruņniecība) was a fiefdom that existed in Livonia (now Southern Estonia and Northern Latvia).
Livonian (Livonian: līvõ kēļ or rāndakēļ) is a Finnic language.
The Livonian Order was an autonomous branch of the Teutonic Order, formed in 1237.
The Livonians, or Livs (Livonian: līvlizt), are a Finnic ethnic group indigenous to northern Latvia and southwestern Estonia.
Lorenzo Litta (25 February 1756 – 1 May 1820) was an Italian littérateur and churchman, who became a Cardinal.
Count Ludwig August Mellin (23 January 1754 in Tuhala, Governorate of Reval – 12 March 1835 in Riga, Governorate of Livonia) was a Baltic German politician, cartographer, writer and publicist.
Ludza (Lucyn, Люцин, Lyucin) is a town in the Latgalia region of eastern Latvia.
Lya Mara (1 August 1897 – 1 March 1960) was one of the biggest stars of the German silent cinema.
Madonna Oriente or Signora Oriente (Lady of the East), also known as La Signora del Gioco (The Lady of the Game), are names of an alleged religious figure, as described by two Italian women who were executed by the Inquisition in 1390 as witches.
Count Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie (15 October 1622 – 26 April 1686) was a Swedish statesman and military man.
Magnus Stiernstråle (died 18 December 1738) was a Swedish military colonel, and was most likely from Livonia.
Magnus von Behm (27 March 1727 in Livonia – 9 July 1806) was the chief commander of Kamchatka in Russia from 1773 to 1779.
Manuel Villegas Piñateli was a member of the Royal Spanish Academy from 1714 to 15 October 1752.
Maria Vladimirovna of Staritsa(ca 1560, Staritsa – 13 May 1610) was a Russian princess.
In the provinces of Estonia and Livonia of the Russian Empire, the title of the senior official was (Provincial) Marshal of Nobility ((Kubermangu) Aadlimarssal) during 1783-1796, when regency for the provinces of Estonia and Livonia was introduced.
Matthew Shiffner (c. 1690 - December 1756) was a Russian-born merchant, of German Baltic origins.
Matthias of Trakai or of Vilnius (Motiejus Trakiškis; Matthias Vilnensis; ca. 1370 – 9 May 1453 in Vilnius) was a Lithuanian Roman Catholic clergyman, the first Bishop of Samogitia from its establishment in 1417 until 1422 and the fifth Bishop of Vilnius from 4 May 1422 until 9 May 1453 and an ex officio member of the Council of Lords.
Max Ebert (4 August 1879, Stendal – 15 November 1929, Berlin) was a German prehistorian known for his studies associated with the Baltic states and South Russia.
Maximilian III of Austria, also known as Maximilian the Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights (12 October 1558 – 2 November 1618) was the Archduke of Further Austria from 1612 until his death.
Eckhart von Hochheim (–), commonly known as Meister Eckhart or Eckehart, was a German theologian, philosopher and mystic, born near Gotha, in the Landgraviate of Thuringia (now central Germany) in the Holy Roman Empire.
Melchior Hoffman (or Hofmann; byname: Pel(t)zer "furrier"; c. 1495c. 1543) was an Anabaptist prophet and a visionary leader in northern Germany and the Netherlands.
Mõtsa Pūol or Metsepole was an ancient Livonian county inhabited by a Finnic people Livonians, on the east coast of the Gulf of Riga, at the northwest of what is now the Vidzeme region of Latvia.
Michael I (Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki, Mykolas I Kaributas Višnioveckis; May 31, 1640 – November 10, 1673) was the ruler of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth as King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from September 29, 1669 until his death in 1673.
Michał Pius Römer (originally Michael von Römer, later using the Lithuanian form Mykolas Römeris) (1880 in Bagdoniškis – 1945 in Vilnius) was a Lithuanian lawyer, scientist and politician.
Prince Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly (–) was a Russian Field Marshal and Minister of War during Napoleon's invasion in 1812 and War of the Sixth Coalition.
Graf Michael Johann von der Borch-Lubeschitz und Borchhoff, Baron von Borchland (Michał Jan Borch, Михаэль Иоганн фон дер Борх, Mihaels fon der Borhs, 20 June 1753 –) was a Baltic German naturalist and writer.
Michael Franzevich von Reinecke (Михаил Францевич Рейнеке; 10 November 1801 – 16 April 1859), better known as Mikhail Reyneke, was a Russian vice-admiral and hydrographer.
Mikołaj Krzysztof Radziwiłł (4 February 1515 – 28 May 1565), nicknamed The Black (Lithuanian: Juodasis), was a Polish-Lithuanian noble who held several administrative positions within the Grand Duchy of Lithuania: Voivode of Vilnius, Grand Lithuanian Chancellor, and Grand Hetman of Lithuania.
Mikołaj Struś (1577-1627) (Korczak coat of arms) was a Colonel of the Polish Army, a starosta and commandant of the Polish-Lithuanian garrison in the occupied Moscow Kremlin.
Denmark has long been involved with the wars of Northern Europe and, recently, elsewhere.
The military history of the Russian Empire encompasses the history of armed conflict in which the Russian Empire participated.
The military of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth evolved from the merger of the armies of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania following the 1569 Union of Lublin, which formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Modern history, the modern period or the modern era, is the linear, global, historiographical approach to the time frame after post-classical history.
The Moldavian Magnate Wars refer to the period at the end of the 16th century and the beginning of the 17th century when the magnates of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth intervened in the affairs of Moldavia, clashing with the Habsburgs and the Ottoman Empire for domination and influence over the principality.
The Muscovite–Lithuanian Wars (also known as Russo-Lithuanian Wars, or just either Muscovite Wars or Lithuanian Wars)The conflicts are referred to as 'Muscovite wars' (wojny moskiewskie) in Polish historiography and as 'Lithuanian wars' in Russian one; English historiography uses both, ex.
Mustvee is a town and municipality in Mustvee Parish Estonia.
Nalšia or Nalšėnai (sometimes Nalsen, Nalse) was an ancient land (regional duchy, a subject of Polatsk) in the early stages of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
Napoleon Mateusz Tadeusz Orda (Напалео́н О́рда; February 11, 1807 – April 26, 1883) was a Polish-Lithuanian musician, pianist, composer and artist, best known for numerous sketches of historical sites of present-day Belarus, Ukraine, Lithuania, and Poland.
Nicholas II or Nikolai II (r; 1868 – 17 July 1918), known as Saint Nicholas II of Russia in the Russian Orthodox Church, was the last Emperor of Russia, ruling from 1 November 1894 until his forced abdication on 15 March 1917.
Nicolai Anhorn von Hartwiss (Николай Андерс фон Хартвис; 1793–1860) was a Livonian-born Russian botanist, plant explorer and plant breeder.
Nikolaus Ludwig, Reichsgraf von Zinzendorf und Pottendorf (26 May 1700 – 9 May 1760) was a German religious and social reformer, bishop of the Moravian Church, founder of the Herrnhuter Brüdergemeine, Christian mission pioneer and a major figure of 18th century Protestantism.
Nigula Nature Reserve (Nigula looduskaitseala) is a nature reserve situated in South-West of Estonia, in Häädemeeste and Saarde parishes of Pärnu County.
Nikolai Vasilyevich Berg (Никола́й Васи́льевич Берг,, Moscow, Russian Empire, -, Warsaw, Poland) was a Russian poet, journalist, translator and historian.
Nikolay Nikolayevich Raevsky (Николай Николаевич Раевский; —) was a Russian general and statesman who achieved fame for his feats of arms during the Napoleonic Wars.
Norbert Angermann (born November 2, 1936 in Forst (Lausitz)) is a German historian.
Norrlands storregemente or Landsregementet i Norrland (Norrland Grand Regiment, Regiment of the Land in Norrland) was one of the nine grand regiments organized by Gustavus Adolphus in the late 1610s and split into smaller regiments in the 1620s.
The Great Northern War was the war fought between a coalition of Denmark–Norway, Russia and Saxony-Poland (from 1715 also Prussia and Hanover) on one side and Sweden on the other side from 1700 to 1721.
As a general rule, modern Norwegian does not use exonyms for names with endonyms in Latin script.
Novgorod Governorate (Новгоро́дская губе́рния, Novgorodskaya guberniya, Government of Novgorod), was an administrative division (a guberniya) of the Russian Empire and the Russian SFSR, which existed from 1727 to 1776 and from 1796 to 1927.
Ordensburgs (plural in German: Ordensburgen, literally: castles of orders) were fortresses built by crusading German military orders during the Middle Ages.
The following units and commanders fought in the Battle of Breitenfeld of the Thirty Years War in 1631.
The order of precedence for members of the Sejm (parliament) of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was created at the same time as the Commonwealth itself – at the Lublin Sejm in 1569.
Ortenberg Castle is the main landmark of the Ortenau and is situated above the town of Ortenberg at the end of the Kinzig Valley between Offenburg and Gengenbach.
Ortenberg is a municipality in the town of Ortenau, Baden-Württemberg.
Ostsiedlung (literally east settling), in English called the German eastward expansion, was the medieval eastward migration and settlement of Germanic-speaking peoples from the Holy Roman Empire, especially its southern and western portions, into less-populated regions of Central Europe, parts of west Eastern Europe, and the Baltics.
Otto IV (1175 – 19 May 1218) was one of two rival kings of Germany from 1198 on, sole king from 1208 on, and Holy Roman Emperor from 1209 until he was forced to abdicate in 1215.
The Pahlen family (von der Pahlen; Пален, Palen) is a noble Estonian, Russian, Lithuanian and Swedish family of Baltic German origin.
A parish mission or parochial mission is, in the terminology of the Roman Catholic Church, a term applied to certain special pastoral efforts among Catholics.
The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place toward the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland and Lithuania for 123 years.
Pärnu (Pernau) is the fourth-largest city in Estonia.
Põlva is a town in southeastern Estonia, the capital of Põlva County, and the centre of Põlva Parish.
A personal union is the combination of two or more states that have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and interests remain distinct.
Peter Carl Fabergé, also known as Karl Gustavovich Fabergé (Карл Гу́ставович Фаберже́, Karl Gustavovich Faberzhe; 30 May 1846 – 24 September 1920), was a Russian jeweller best known for the famous Fabergé eggs made in the style of genuine Easter eggs, but using precious metals and gemstones rather than more mundane materials.
Count Peter von Lacy, or Pyotr Petrovich Lacy (Пётр Петро́вич Ла́сси), as he was known in Russia (26 September 1678 – 30 April 1751), was one of the most successful Russian imperial commanders before Rumyantsev and Suvorov.
Peter the Great (ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I (ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Peter Alexeyevich (p; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January.
Peter Jansen Wessel Tordenskiold (28 October 1690 – 12 November 1720), commonly referred to as Tordenskjold (lit. Thunder Shield), was a Danish-Norwegian nobleman and an eminent naval flag officer in the service of the Royal Dano-Norwegian Navy.
Petrok Maly, also known as Petrok Maly Fryazin (Петрок Малый Фрязин, lit. Peter Junior) (? - c. 1539), was an Italian architect, who arrived in Moscow together with the envoys of Pope Clement VII in 1528.
Pforta, or Schulpforta, is a school located in a former Cistercian monastery, Pforta monastery (1137–1540), near Naumburg on the Saale River in the German state of Saxony-Anhalt.
Phil Osaer (born 10 February 1980 in Livonia, Michigan) is an American former professional ice hockey goaltender, who played in the North American minor leagues before moving to partake a career abroad in Norway and Britain.
Pieštvė (also known as Beisten, Bisten, Pistene, Pista, Pestwa, etc. in medieval chronicles) was a wooden fortress of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania during the Lithuanian Crusade.
Pirita Convent (Pirita klooster) was a monastery for both monks and nuns dedicated to St. Brigitta, located in the district of Pirita in Tallinn, Estonia, between the 1417 and 1575.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
The Polish Golden Age refers to the period from the late 15th century Jagiellon Poland to the death of the last of the Jagiellons, Sigismund August in 1572.
Polish historic regions are regions that were related to a former Polish state, or are within present-day Poland without being identified in its administrative division.
The Polish Navy (Marynarka Wojenna, "War Navy") is a military branch of the Polish Armed Forces responsible for naval operations.
The złoty (pronounced; sign: zł; code: PLN), which is the masculine form of the Polish adjective 'golden', is the currency of Poland.
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Navy was the navy of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
A Polish–Ottoman alliance, based on several treaties, occurred during the 16th century between the kingdom of Poland-Lithuania and the Ottoman Empire, as the Ottomans were expanding into Central Europe.
The Polish–Swedish War (1600–11) was a continuation of struggle between Sweden and Poland over control of Livonia and Estonia, as well as the dispute over the Swedish throne between Charles IX of Sweden and Sigismund III of Poland.
The Polish–Swedish War (1617–18) was a phase of the longer Polish–Swedish War (1600–29).
The Polish–Swedish War (1621–26) was another war in the series of conflicts between the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Swedish Empire (see Polish–Swedish wars).
The Polish–Swedish War of 1626–1629 was the fourth stage (after 1600–1611, 1617–1618, and 1620–1625) in a series of conflicts between Sweden and Poland fought in the 17th century.
The Polish–Swedish Wars were a series of wars between the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Sweden.
Pomerania during the Early Modern Age covers the history of Pomerania in the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries.
This is a survey of the postage stamps and postal history of Estonia.
Postal history in the territory that now constitutes Latvia began during the 13th century, when the Archbishopric of Riga was included to the area of postal operations of the Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights and the Hanseatic League.
Preben von Magnus (25 February 1912 - 9 August 1973) was a Danish virologist who gave name to the Von Magnus phenomenon.
Prikaz (прика́з, prikaz) was an administrative (palace, civil, military, or church), judicial, territorial, and executive offices earlier in Muscovy and Russia of 15th-18th centuries.
A prince-bishop is a bishop who is also the civil ruler of some secular principality and sovereignty.
The Principality of Koknese (Russian: Кукейнос (Kukeinos), German: Kokenhusen, Latin:Kukonouyes) was a small vassal state of the Principality of Polotsk on the right bank of the Daugava River in ancient Livonia (modern Latvia) during the Middle Ages.
The Principality of Pskov (Псковское княжество, Pskovskoye knyazhestvo) or Lordship of Pskov (государство Псковское) was a medieval state that grew out of the Rus' Khaganate in the late 9th century.
The provinces of Sweden (Sveriges landskap) are historical, geographical and cultural regions.
A prowincja (plural: prowincje) was the largest territorial subdivision in medieval and Renaissance-era Poland, and later in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
The Prussian Crusade was a series of 13th-century campaigns of Roman Catholic crusaders, primarily led by the Teutonic Knights, to Christianize the pagan Old Prussians.
The Prussica-Sammlung Trunz (the formal title can be informally translated as the "Prussianica Collection Trunz") is a collection of over 40,000 books about former German territories in Eastern and Central Europe, mainly Prussia.
Pskov-Caves Monastery or The Pskovo-Pechersky Dormition Monastery or Pskovo-Pechersky Monastery (Пско́во-Печ́ерский Успе́нский монасты́рь, Petseri klooster) is a Russian Orthodox male monastery, located in Pechory, Pskov Oblast in Russia, just a few kilometers from the Estonian border.
Pyotr Romanovich Bagration (Пётр Рома́нович Багратио́н, პეტრე რომანის (რევაზის) ძე ბაგრატიონი; 24 September 1818 – 17 January 1876), the son of general Prince Roman Bagration, was a Russian-Georgian statesman, general and scientist who invented the first dry galvanic cell.
Radvila Astikas or Astikaitis (baptized Nicholas; Radziwiłł Ościkowicz; died in 1477) was a magnate, a member of the Astikai and founder of the Radvila (Radziwiłł) family.
Rūjiena (Rujen; Ruhja) is a town in Latvia, seat of the homonym municipality, in the northern Vidzeme.
Rein Taagepera (born 28 February 1933) is an Estonian political scientist and former politician.
Reinhold von Buxhoeveden (died 1557) was bishop of the Bishopric of Saare-Lääne or Ösel–Wiek (Saare-Lääne piiskopkond; Bistum Ösel–Wiek; Low German: Bisdom Ösel–Wiek; contemporary Ecclesia Osiliensis), a semi-independent Roman Catholic prince-bishopric in what is now Saare, Hiiu and Lääne counties of Estonia, from 1532 to 1541.
Reinhold von Hoven (1607/1610/1614? – May 21, 1682) was a Danish Military Officer in Norwegian service.
Reinholds Bērziņš was a Russian and Soviet military leader from Livonia, victim of the Great Purge in 1938.
As per the 2011 census, the predominant religion in Lithuania is Christianity, with the largest confession being that of the Catholic Church.
The Rhine Campaign of 1748 was a campaign during the War of the Austrian Succession.
RK Livonia is a Latvian rugby club based in the village of Upesciems in the Garkalne Municipality.
Robert Douglas (17 March 1611 in Standingstone Estate, by Traprain Law, East Lothian - Svenskt biografiskt handlexikon at Project Runeberg – 28 May 1662 in Stockholm), Count of Skenninge, Baron of Skalby, was a Scottish cavalry general during the Thirty Years' War rising to the rank of Field Marshal (1657–1662) in the Swedish-Polish wars that followed.
The Roman Catholic Metropolitan Archdiocese of Vilnius (Archidioecesis Vilnensis; Vilniaus arkivyskupija) is an ecclesiastical territory or diocese of the Roman Catholic Church in Lithuania.
Baron Roman Romanovich Rosen (Роман Романович Розен) (February 24, 1847 – December 31, 1921) was a diplomat in the service of the Russian Empire.
Romuva or Romowe (known as Rickoyoto in the writings of Simon Grunau) was an alleged pagan worship place (a temple or a sacred area) in the western part of Sambia, one of the regions of pagan Prussia.
Rosie Thomas is an American singer-songwriter and stand-up comedian, originally from Michigan.
A runestone is typically a raised stone with a runic inscription, but the term can also be applied to inscriptions on boulders and on bedrock.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Bayors, baijorer, ryss(e)baijorer, a Swedish transmogrification of бояринъ ‘boyar’, designating in the early modern era all Russian noblemen in general, and particularly a group of Russian noble families who had entered Swedish service in the late sixteenth–early seventeenth centuries and were incorporated into the Swedish nobility.
The Russian Partition (sometimes called Russian Poland) constituted the former territories of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that were invaded by the Russian Empire in the course of late-18th-century Partitions of Poland.
Russians have been the largest ethnic minority in Latvia for the last two centuries.
The Russification of Ukraine was a body of laws, decrees, and other actions undertaken by the Imperial Russian and later Soviet authorities to strengthen Russian national, political and linguistic positions in Ukraine.
The Russo-Polish War of 1654–1667, also called Thirteen Years' War, First Northern War, War for Ukraine or Russian Deluge (Potop rosyjski, Российский потоп), was a major conflict between Tsardom of Russia and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The Russo-Swedish War of 1656–1658 was fought by Russia and Sweden as a theater of the Second Northern War.
Saint Meinhard (b. 1134 or 1136 - died August 14 or October 11, 1196) was a German canon regular and the first Bishop of Livonia.
Sakala County (Estonian: Sakala, Latin: Saccalia) was an ancient Estonian county first mentioned in print by Henry of Latvia in the beginning of the 13th Century.
Salacgrīva Municipality (Salacgrīvas novads) was created as a result of the territorial reform in 2009, which united several former parts of Limbaži region - Salacgriva town with its rural areas, Ainaži town with its rural territory and Liepupe parish.
Samogitian uprisings refer to two uprisings by the Samogitians against the Teutonic Knights in 1401–1404 and 1409.
Sara Grotthuis, born Sara Meyer, also known as Sophie Leopoldine Wilhelmine Baroness von Grotthuis and as Sara Wulff by her first marriage (1763 – 11 December 1828), was one of the most well-known "salonnières" (salon hostesses and patrons of the arts) of the late 18th and early 19th centuries in Berlin.
Søren Norby, selfstyled as Severin Norbi (died 1530) was a Danish leading naval officer in the fleets of Danish kings Hans I and Christian II.
Schauman is a Swedo-Finnish noble family introduced in both the Swedish House of Nobility and the Finnish House of Nobility.
The Scheidemann cabinet (German: Kabinett Scheidemann) was the first democratically elected Reichsregierung of the German Reich.
Scottish Russians are Russians with full (or partial) Scottish ancestry.
The Second Northern War (1655–60, also First or Little Northern War) was fought between Sweden and its adversaries the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1655–60), Russia (1656–58), Brandenburg-Prussia (1657–60), the Habsburg Monarchy (1657–60) and Denmark–Norway (1657–58 and 1658–60).
Seda is a city in Mažeikiai district municipality, Lithuania.
The general sejm (sejm walny, also translated as the full or ordinary sejm) was the bicameral parliament of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
This article is about the Baltic ethnicity.
The Princes Shuysky (Шуйские) is a Rurikid Princely family of former boyars descending from Grand Duke Dmitry Konstantinovich of Vladimir-Suzdal and Prince Andrey Yaroslavich, brother to Alexander Nevsky.
Siege of Malbork (Siege of Marienburg) occurred during the Thirteen Years' War between the Teutonic Knights and the Kingdom of Poland.
The Siege of Pärnu (Polish: Parnawa) took place between February 28 and March 2, 1609 during the Polish–Swedish War (1600–1611).
The Siege of Pskov, known as the Pskov Defense in Russia (оборона Пскова), took place between August 1581 and February 1582, when the army of the Polish king and Grand Duke of Lithuania Stephen Báthory laid an unsuccessful siege and successful blockade of the city of Pskov during the final stage of the Livonian War of 1558–1583.
The Siege of Velikiye Luki was one of battles of Livonian campaign of Stephen Báthory.
The Siege of Wesenberg (Rakvere, Rakovor) was an abortive Swedish siege of the Russian-held town of Wesenberg in Estonia from January through March 1574, during the Livonian War.
Sigismund II Augustus (Zygmunt II August, Ruthenian: Żygimont II Awgust, Žygimantas II Augustas, Sigismund II.) (1 August 1520 – 7 July 1572) was the King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, the only son of Sigismund I the Old, whom Sigismund II succeeded in 1548.
Sigismund III Vasa (also known as Sigismund III of Poland, Zygmunt III Waza, Sigismund, Žygimantas Vaza, English exonym: Sigmund; 20 June 1566 – 30 April 1632 N.S.) was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, monarch of the united Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1587 to 1632, and King of Sweden (where he is known simply as Sigismund) from 1592 as a composite monarchy until he was deposed in 1599.
The Skåne Market or Scania market (Danish Skånemarkedet, Swedish Skånemarknaden) was a major fish market for herring which took place annually in Scania during the Middle Ages.
Skånelaholm Castle (Skånelaholms slott) is a castle in Sigtuna Municipality, Stockholm County, Sweden.
Sklandrausis (sūrkak), žograusis or dižrausis is a traditional dish in Latvian cuisine which has a Livonian origin, but it is known by Latvians for many years.
According to tradition, the family which originated from ancient Rhenish-German nobility, came to Sweden from Livonia during the 17th century via the Polish Major Hildebrand Staël.
Stanisław Żółkiewski (1547 – 7 October 1620) was a Polish nobleman of the Lubicz coat of arms, magnate and military commander of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, who took part in many campaigns of the Commonwealth and on its southern and eastern borders.
Stanisław Koniecpolski (1591 – 11 March 1646) was a Polish military commander, regarded as one of the most talented and capable in the history of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Stanisław Masłowski (1853–1926), born Stanislaw Stefan Zygmunt Ludgard Masłowski (3 December 1853 in Włodawa, – 31 May 1926 in Warsaw) was a Polish painter of realistic style, the author of watercolor landscapes.
Stanisław Swianiewicz (November 7, 1899 – May 22, 1997) was a Polish economist and historian.
The State of the Teutonic Order (Staat des Deutschen Ordens; Civitas Ordinis Theutonici), also called Deutschordensstaat or Ordensstaat in German, was a crusader state formed by the Teutonic Knights or Teutonic Order during the 13th century Northern Crusades along the Baltic Sea.
Stekšys (or Steksė) (other spellings include Stakys, Stejkint, Stekintas, Stegikintas, Stegutas) was a duke of Lithuania, killed in 1214 near Lielvārde during an attack against Livonia.
Stephen Báthory (Báthory István; Stefan Batory; Steponas Batoras; 27 September 1533 – 12 December 1586) was Voivode of Transylvania (1571–76), Prince of Transylvania (1576–86), from 1576 Queen Anna Jagiellon's husband and jure uxoris King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania (1576-1586).
This is a list of the etymology of street names in the London district of Soho, in the City of Westminster.
Streltsy (t; стреле́ц) were the units of Russian firearm infantry from the 16th to the early 18th centuries and also a social stratum, from which personnel for Streltsy troops were traditionally recruited.
Suislepa is a village in Tarvastu Parish, Viljandi County, Estonia.
Superintendent is the head of an administrative division of a Protestant church, largely historical but still in use in Germany.
The Swedish invasion of Poland (1701–1706), also known as Charles XII's invasion of Poland or the Polish front of the Great Northern War, was a conflict in eastern Europe overshadowed by the ongoing Great Northern War fought between the Swedish Empire against the Russian Empire, Denmark-Norway, Saxony and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The szlachta (exonym: Nobility) was a legally privileged noble class in the Kingdom of Poland, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Ruthenia, Samogitia (both after Union of Lublin became a single state, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth) and the Zaporozhian Host.
The Tallinn Town Hall (Tallinna raekoda) is a building in the Tallinn Old Town, Estonia, next to the Town Hall Square.
Topór coat of arms Jan Tarło (1684–1750) Alleged portrait of Adam Tarło (1713–1744) Tarło (Plural: Tarłowie) was a Polish magnate (szlachta) family.
Tartu Cathedral (Tartu toomkirik), earlier also known as Dorpat Cathedral (Dorpater Domkirche), is a former Catholic church in Tartu (Dorpat), Estonia.
Taube is an ancient Baltic noble family, originally from Danemark, Jutland.
Tālava was a Latgalian county in the northern Vidzeme and northern Latgale region of today's Latvia.
Terra Mariana (Medieval Latin for "Land of Mary") was the official name for Medieval Livonia or Old Livonia (Alt-Livland, Vana-Liivimaa, Livonija), which was formed in the aftermath of the Livonian Crusade in the territories comprising present day Estonia and Latvia.
Territorial changes of Russia happened by means of military conquest and by ideological and political unions in the course of over five centuries (1533-today).
The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem (official names: Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum, Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus der Heiligen Maria in Jerusalem), commonly the Teutonic Order (Deutscher Orden, Deutschherrenorden or Deutschritterorden), is a Catholic religious order founded as a military order c. 1190 in Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem.
Taara (variations of the name include Tooru, Tharapita and Tarapitha) is a prominent god in Estonian mythology.
The Czar's Madman (Keisri hull) is a 1978 novel by Estonian writer Jaan Kross.
The Night Battles: Witchcraft and Agrarian Cults in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries is a historical study of the benandanti folk custom of 16th and 17th century Friuli, Northeastern Italy.
Theoderich (or Theoderich von Treyden) was the second known missionary in Livonia after Saint Meinhard, the first Bishop of Livonia.
Thiess of Kaltenbrun, also spelled Thies, and commonly referred to as the Livonian werewolf, was a Livonian man who was put on trial for heresy in Jürgensburg, Swedish Livonia, in 1692.
Thomas Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Thomas Palaiologos; 1409 – 12 May 1465) was Despot in Morea from 1428 until the Ottoman conquest in 1460.
Thomas Schöning (* probably in Riga; † 11 August 1539 in Kokenhusen) was Archbishop of Riga.
Tiesenhausen is the name of a Baltic German nobility family.
This is a timeline of Latvian history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Latvia and its predecessor states.
This is a timeline showing the dates when countries or polities made Christianity the official state religion, generally accompanying the baptism of the governing monarch.
The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Riga, Latvia.
This is a timeline of Russian history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Russia and its predecessor states.
This is a timeline of Swedish history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Sweden and its predecessor states.
The Treaty of Copenhagen (or the Peace of Copenhagen) was signed in 1441 between the Hanseatic League and the Burgundian Netherlands, ending the Dutch-Hanseatic War.
The Treaty of Dorpat (Tartu) was concluded in May 1564, during the Livonian War.
The Treaty of Dubysa or Treaty of Dubissa (Dubysos sutartys) consisted of three legal acts formulated on 31 October 1382 between Jogaila, Grand Duke of Lithuania, with his brother Skirgaila and Konrad von Wallenrode, Marshal of the Teutonic Order.
The Treaty of Melno (Melno taika; Pokój melneński) or Treaty of Lake Melno (Friede von Melnosee) was a peace treaty ending the Gollub War.
The Treaty of Narva was concluded on 19 August (O.S.) / 30 August 1704 during the Great Northern War.
The Treaty, Truce or Second Peace of Novgorod was concluded in March 1557.
Treaty of Salynas (Frieden von Sallinwerder, Salyno sutartis) was a peace treaty signed on 12 October 1398 by the Grand Duke of Lithuania Vytautas the Great and the Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights Konrad von Jungingen.
The Treaty of Stettin (Frieden von Stettin, Freden i Stettin, Freden i Stettin) of 13 December 1570, ended the Northern Seven Years' War fought between Sweden and Denmark with her internally fragmented alliance of Lübeck and Poland.
The Treaty of Stuhmsdorf (Stilleståndet i Stuhmsdorf) or Sztumska Wieś (Rozejm w Sztumskiej Wsi) was a treaty signed on 12 September 1635 between the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Sweden in the village of Stuhmsdorf, Royal Prussia (now Sztumska Wieś, Poland), just south of Stuhm (Sztum).
The Treaty of the Three Black Eagles (because all three signatories used a black eagle as a state symbol, in contrast to the white eagle, a symbol of Poland) or the Treaty of Berlin (where it was signed by Prussia), was a secret treaty between the Austrian Empire, the Russian Empire and Prussia.
The Treaty of Valiesar (Vallisaare vaherahu, Валиесарский договор 1658) was a treaty between Russia and Sweden, which concluded the Russo–Swedish theater of the Second Northern War.
The Treaty of Vilnius or Vilna was concluded on 28 November 1561, during the Livonian War, between the Livonian Confederation and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth at Vilnius (Vilna, Wilna, Wilno).
Trial by combat (also wager of battle, trial by battle or judicial duel) was a method of Germanic law to settle accusations in the absence of witnesses or a confession in which two parties in dispute fought in single combat; the winner of the fight was proclaimed to be right.
The six-year Truce of Altmark (or Treaty of Stary Targ, Vertrag von Altmark, Stillståndet i Altmark, Rozejm w Altmarku) was signed on 16 (O.S.)/26 (N.S.) September 1629 at the Altmark (Stary Targ), near Danzig (Gdańsk) by Sweden and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth during Thirty Years' War, ending the Polish–Swedish War (1626–1629).
Truce of Deulino (also known as Peace or Treaty of Dywilino) was signed on 11 December 1618 and took effect on 4 January 1619.
The Truce or Treaty of Yam-Zapolsky (Ям-Запольский) or Jam Zapolski, signed on 15 January 1582 between the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Tsardom of Russia, was one of the treaties that ended the Livonian War.
Trystorp is a Swedish estate and château in Lekeberg, Närke, Sweden.
Tsar (Old Bulgarian / Old Church Slavonic: ц︢рь or цар, цaрь), also spelled csar, or czar, is a title used to designate East and South Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers of Eastern Europe.
The Tsardom of Russia (Русское царство, Russkoye tsarstvo or Российское царство, Rossiyskoye tsarstvo), also known as the Tsardom of Muscovy, was the name of the centralized Russian state from assumption of the title of Tsar by Ivan IV in 1547 until the foundation of the Russian Empire by Peter the Great in 1721.
The Tsarist bureaucracy, alongside the military, the judiciary and the Russian Orthodox Church, played a major role in solidifying and maintaining the rule of the Tsars in the Tsardom of Russia (1547–1721) and in the Russian Empire (1721–1917).
Tuļļi Lum (Livonian for "hot snow"; often simplified as "Tulli Lum") is an Estonian/Livonian folk music band that was formed in 1999.
Ueckermünde is a seaport town in northeast Germany, located in the district of Vorpommern-Greifswald, Western Pomerania, near Germany's border with Poland's Police County.
Uelzen (officially the Hanseatic Town of Uelzen, German: Hansestadt Uelzen,, Low German Ülz’n) is a town in northeast Lower Saxony, Germany, and capital of the county of Uelzen.
Ulrika Eleonora Stålhammar (1683 in Svenarum – 16 February 1733 at Björnskog in Hultsjö), was a Swedish corporal and crossdresser who served in the Great Northern War.
The proposed United Baltic Duchy, (Vereinigtes Baltisches Herzogtum, Balti Hertsogiriik, Apvienotā Baltijas hercogiste) also known as the Grand Duchy of Livonia, was a state proposed by the Baltic German nobility and exiled Russian nobility after the Russian Revolution and German occupation of the Courland, Livonian, and Estonian governorates of the Russian Empire.
The University of Tartu (UT; Tartu Ülikool, Universitas Tartuensis) is a classical university in the city of Tartu, Estonia.
Upytė (Upita) is a small village in Panevėžys district municipality in northern Lithuania.
Vaišvilas (Polish: Wojszwił) (14th century) was a Lithuanian noble and sometimes is considered as one of the sons of Kęstutis, Grand Duke of Lithuania.
Vaišelga or Vaišvilkas (also spelled as Vojszalak, Vojšalk, Vaišalgas; killed on December 9, 1268) was the Grand Duke of Lithuania (1264–1267).
Vaidila (Woidiło, Voydiło, Woydylo; executed in 1381) was a favorite and brother-in-law of Jogaila, Grand Duke of Lithuania.
Valerian Engelhardt (Валериан Фёдорович Энгельгардт) (1798–1856) was a Russian lieutenant general and director of the Russian Institute of Railway Engineers.
Valga (Walk) is a town in southern Estonia and the capital of Valga County.
Valka (Walk) is a city and municipality in northern Latvia, on the border with Estonia along both banks of the river Pedele.
Viļāni (Welonen, Wielony) is a town in Eastern Latvia, situated in the western part of Rēzekne District.
Viljandi castle (Viljandi ordulinnus, Ordensburg Fellin) of Livonian Order, construction of which started 1224 in place of a former hillfort, was one of the strongest castles in Livonia.
Visotek Inc. is an American company, located in Livonia, Michigan, that designs, develops and manufactures individual fiber coupled diode laser modules, complete turnkey systems and peripheral components used in industrial, military, medical and research applications.
The Vistula Veneti (also called Baltic Veneti) were a Indo-European ethno-linguistic tribal group that inhabited the eastern regions along the Vistula river and the coastal areas around the Bay of Gdańsk.
The von Wahl family originated in Scotland and then settled in the Baltic states.
Vooru (locally, Vuuru) is a village in Viljandi Parish, Viljandi County, Estonia.
The Walhalla is a hall of fame that honors laudable and distinguished people in German history – "politicians, sovereigns, scientists and artists of the German tongue";Official Guide booklet, 2002, p. 3 thus the celebrities honored are drawn from Greater Germany, a wider area than today's Germany, and even as far away as Britain in the case of several Anglo-Saxons who are honored.
The war against Sigismund (Kriget mot Sigismund) was a war between Duke Charles, later King Charles IX and Sigismund, King of Sweden and Poland.
The War of the Austrian Succession (1740–1748) involved most of the powers of Europe over the question of Maria Theresa's succession to the Habsburg Monarchy.
The War of the Polish Succession (1733–35) was a major European war sparked by a Polish civil war over the succession to Augustus II, which the other European powers widened in pursuit of their own national interests.
Warfare in Medieval Poland covers the military history of Poland during the Piast and Jagiellon dynasties (10th–16th centuries).
Władysław IV Vasa (Władysław IV Waza; Vladislovas Vaza; r; Vladislaus IV Vasa or Ladislaus IV Vasa; 9 June 1595 – 20 May 1648) was a Polish prince from the Royal House of Vasa.
Władysław Wejtko (1859-1933) was an Imperial Russian Army general of Polish descent.
In folklore, a werewolf (werwulf, "man-wolf") or occasionally lycanthrope (λυκάνθρωπος lukánthrōpos, "wolf-person") is a human with the ability to shapeshift into a wolf (or, especially in modern film, a therianthropic hybrid wolflike creature), either purposely or after being placed under a curse or affliction (often a bite or scratch from another werewolf).
Werewolf witch trials were witch trials combined with werewolf trials.
Werner Bergengruen (September 16, 1892 – September 4, 1964) was a Baltic German novelist and poet.
Werner August Friedrich Immanuel Elert (19 August 1885 — 21 November 1954) was a German Lutheran theologian and professor of both church history and systematic theology at the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg.
Wessel Freytag von Loringhoven (10 November 1899 – 26 July 1944), was a colonel in the High Command of the German Armed Forces (OKW) and a member of the German Resistance (Widerstand) against Adolf Hitler. Loringhoven was a friend of Claus von Stauffenberg, who was the leader of the 20 July Plot to assassinate Hitler in 1944.
Western Krai (Западный край) is an unofficial name of the westernmost parts of the Russian Empire, excluding the territory of Congress Poland.
Wiśniowiecki (Вишневе́цькі, Vyshnevetski; Višnioveckiai) was a Polish princely family of Ruthenian-Lithuanian origin, notable in the history of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient, born Wilhelmine Schröder (6 December 180426 January 1860), was a German operatic soprano.
William of Modena (– 31 March 1251), also known as William of Sabina, Guglielmo de Chartreaux, Guglielmo de Savoy, Guillelmus, was an Italian clergyman and papal diplomat.
Willingshausen is a community in the Schwalm-Eder district in Hesse, Germany.
Wincenty Aleksander Korwin Gosiewski de armis Ślepowron (c. 1620 – 29 November 1662) – was a Polish nobleman, general, Field-Commander of Lithuania from 1654, Grand Treasurer of Lithuania and Lithuanian Great-Quartermaster since 1652, General of Artillery of Lithuania from 1651, Grand-Master of the Pantry of Lithuania from 1646 (honorary court title).
Winrich von Kniprode was the 22nd Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights.
The Witches' Sabbath is a meeting of those who practice witchcraft and other rites.
Active warfare throughout history has mainly been a matter for men, but women have also played a role, often a leading one.
Wrangel (sometimes transliterated as Wrangell or Vrangel, from the Russian Вра́нгель) is a Baltic German noble family, included in Swedish, Russian, Spanish and Prussian nobility.
The Zamoyski Family Fee Tail (Polish: Ordynacja Zamojska) was one of the first and largest fee tails in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
A zduhać (Cyrillic: здухаћ) and vetrovnjak (ветровњак) in Serbian tradition, and a dragon man in Bulgarian, Macedonian and Serbian traditions, were men believed to have an inborn supernatural ability to protect their estate, village, or region against destructive weather conditions, such as storms, hail, or torrential rains.
Zeppelin "L 30" (factory number "LZ 62") was the first R-class "Super Zeppelin" of the German Empire.
Ziemassvētki, also Ziemsvētki is an annual festival in Latvia which observes the winter solstice and birth of Jesus Christ.
Year 1501 ('''MDI''') was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1561 (MDLXI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1582 (MDLXXXII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar, and a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Proleptic Gregorian calendar.
Events from the year 1600 in art.
Events from the year 1664 in art.
The 1810s decade ran from January 1, 1810, to December 31, 1819.
The German 215th Infantry Division (215.Infanterie-Division) was a major military unit of the German Army that served in World War II.
The 4th Panzer Division (4th Tank Division) was an armored division in the German Army, the Wehrmacht, during World War II, established in 1938.
707 was a rock band of the early 1980s, best known for the rock radio hits "I Could Be Good For You" and "Mega Force".
The 77th Reserve Division (77. Reserve-Division) was a unit of the Imperial German Army in World War I. The division was formed at the end of December 1914 and organized over the next month, arriving in the line in early February 1915.