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Livonian Order

Index Livonian Order

The Livonian Order was an autonomous branch of the Teutonic Order, formed in 1237. [1]

345 relations: Administrative divisions of the Novgorod Republic, Aizkraukle, Aizkraukle Castle, Aizpute, Aizpute Castle, Alūksne, Alūksne Castle, Albert Suerbeer, Alexander Nevsky, Alexander Nevsky (Prokofiev), Alsunga Castle, Andrei of Polotsk, Anna Jagiellon, Anno von Sangershausen, Apuolė, Šešuoliai, Šiauliai, Šlokenbeka Castle, Žagarė, Balthasar Russow, Baltic states, Bandava, Battle of Aizkraukle, Battle of Ashmyany, Battle of Bornholm (1456), Battle of Durbe, Battle of Garoza, Battle of Grunwald, Battle of Karuse, Battle of Lubawa, Battle of Memel (1257), Battle of Memel (1323), Battle of Pagastin, Battle of Pokarwis, Battle of Skuodas, Battle of the Siritsa River, Battle of the Vikhra River, Battle of Turaida, Battle of Ula, Battle of Wesenberg (1268), Battle of Wilkomierz, Battle on the Ice, Battles of Wenden (1577–78), Bauska, Bauska Castle, Bauska District, Bēne Manor, Bebrene Manor, Bishopric of Ösel–Wiek, Bishopric of Dorpat, ..., Braslaw, Burtnieki Castle, Butigeidis, Cēsis Castle, Charles X Gustav of Sweden, Christianization of Lithuania, Chronica Jutensis, Colonization attempts by Poland, Congress of Lutsk, Counties of Estonia, Courland, Crusades, Curonian Kings, Curonians, Daniil Kholmsky, Daniil Shchenya, Daugavgrīva Abbey, Daugavpils, Daugirutis, Daumantas of Lithuania, Daumantas of Pskov, David of Hrodna, Demetrius I Starshy, Dinaburga Castle, Dobele Castle, Dominions of Sweden, Duchy of Courland and Semigallia, Duchy of Livonia, Duchy of Samogitia, Dundaga Castle, Economy of the Pskov Republic, Eltz, Embūte Castle, Ernst von Ratzeburg, Estland, Estonia, Estonia under Swedish rule, Estonia–Latvia relations, Family of Gediminas, February 16, February 18, Freytag-Loringhoven, Friedrich Wilhelm Rembert von Berg, Frydag, Gauja Valley, Gdov Kremlin, Gdovsky District, Gediminas, Gedvydas, German town law, Gotthard Kettler, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Grobiņa Castle, Gulbene, Harju County, Hartmann von Heldrungen, Heinrich von Hohenlohe, Heinrich von Plauen, Helme, Estonia, Hermann Castle, Hermann of Buxhoeveden, Bishop of Ösel-Wiek, Hermann von Wartberge, Hiiu County, Hiiumaa, History of Estonia, History of Europe, History of Latvia, History of Lithuania, History of Lithuania (1219–95), History of Riga, History of Sweden (1523–1611), House of Plettenberg, House of the Livonian Noble Corporation, Iacob Heraclid, Ilūkste, Jaunpils Castle, Jaunutis, Jelgava, Jelgava Palace, Jogentagana, Johann Freytag von Loringhoven, Jonas Kęsgaila, July 13, June 1, Kaarma-Kirikuküla, Kandava, Kavilda stronghold, Kõpu Lighthouse, Königsberg, Keila, Ketteler, Kihelkonna St. Michael's Church, Kingdom of Lithuania, Klaipėda Region, Kneiphof, Krasnogorodsk, Krasnogorodsky District, Kreenholm, Krimulda Castle, Krustpils Castle, Kuldīga, Laiuse Castle, Laiusevälja, Latgale, Latgalians, Latvia, Lübeck, Lengvenis, Lengvenis (13th century), Limbaži, List of Baltic Germans, List of battles 301–1300, List of churches in Estonia, List of civil wars, List of defunct Catholic religious institutes, List of divided islands, List of dukes in Europe, List of Estonian flags, List of Russian saints, List of Russian saints (until 15th century), List of state leaders in 1260, List of state leaders in 1348, List of state leaders in 1520, List of states in the Holy Roman Empire, List of states in the Holy Roman Empire (L), List of wars 1000–1499, List of wars 1500–1799, List of wars involving Denmark, List of wars involving Estonia, List of wars involving Poland, List of wars involving Russia, List of wars involving Ukraine, Lithuania, Lithuania Minor, Lithuanian Civil War (1381–84), Lithuanian Civil War (1432–1438), Lithuanian Crusade, Livonia, Livonian Brothers of the Sword, Livonian campaign against Rus', Livonian Crusade, Livonian Rhymed Chronicle, Livonian War, Livonians, Ludza, Ludza Castle, Lutsk, Maasi, Maasilinna Castle, Mažeikiai, March 5, Margaret I of Denmark, Marshal, Mārtiņi, Mikołaj "the Black" Radziwiłł, Military order (monastic 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Secularization, Semigallians, Semyon Olshanski, Siege of Kaunas, Siege of Königsberg, Siege of Malbork (1454), Siege of Marienburg (1410), Sigismund Kęstutaitis, Sigulda Medieval Castle, Sillamäe, Sloka, Latvia, Solovetsky Monastery, Staël von Holstein, Stanislovas Kęsgaila, State of the Teutonic Order, Stende, Tallinn, Tautvilas, Tērvete, Terra Mariana, Teutonic Order, Thirteen Years' War (1454–66), Thomas Schöning, Timeline of Estonian history, Timeline of historical geopolitical changes, Timeline of Latvian history, Toompea, Traidenis, Treaty of Christmemel, Treaty of Dovydiškės, Treaty of Dubysa, Treaty of Königsberg (1384), Treaty of Königsberg (1390), Treaty of Melno, Treaty of Salynas, Treaty of Vilnius (1559), Treaty of Vilnius (1561), Treniota, Truce of Łęczyca, Tukums, Ukmergė, Union of Krewo, Upytė, Vaišvilkas, Vainius, Valdemar IV of Denmark, Valjala Church, Valmiera, Valmiera Castle, Vasknarva, Vastseliina Castle, Vecmīlgrāvis, Vends (Latvia), Ventspils, Ventspils Castle, Viljandi, Viljandi Castle, Vilnius Castle Complex, Visaginas, Vitas (bishop), Vykintas, Vyshgorodok, Vytenis, Walter von Cronberg, Wilhelm von Urenbach, Wolter von Plettenberg, Zaļenieki Manor, Zarasai District Municipality, 1237, 1238, 1241, 1260, 1261, 1268, 1270, 1279, 1298, 1343, 1344, 1346, 1501. 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Administrative divisions of the Novgorod Republic

The administrative division of Novgorod Republic is not definitely known; the country was divided into several tysyachas (lit. thousands) and volosts.

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Aizkraukle

Aizkraukle (Ascheraden) is a town in Vidzeme region in Latvia, the administrative centre of Aizkraukle Municipality on the right bank of the Daugava River.

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Aizkraukle Castle

Aizkraukle Castle (Aizkraukles pils; Ascheraden) is a ruined medieval castle, located on the right bank of the river Daugava in Latvia to the west of the modern town of Aizkraukle.

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Aizpute

Aizpute (Hasenpoth) is a town in western Latvia's Aizpute Municipality in the valley of Tebra River, northeast of Liepāja.

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Aizpute Castle

Aizpute Castle is a Livonian Order castle in the town of Aizpute in the historical region of Courland, in western Latvia.

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Alūksne

Alūksne is a town on the shores of Lake Alūksne in northeastern Latvia near the borders with Estonia and Russia.

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Alūksne Castle

Alūksne Castle (Marienburgas pils, Alūksnes pils; Marienburg) is a castle of Teutonic Knights in current Alūksne, North-Eastern Latvia.

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Albert Suerbeer

Albert Suerbeer (ca. 1200 – 1273) was the first Archbishop of Riga in Livonia.

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Alexander Nevsky

St.

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Alexander Nevsky (Prokofiev)

Alexander Nevsky (Александр Невский) is the score composed by Sergei Prokofiev for Sergei Eisenstein's 1938 film Alexander Nevsky.

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Alsunga Castle

Alsunga Castle (Alsungas pils; Schloss Alschwangen) is a castle in Alsunga village, in the historical region of Courland, in western Latvia.

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Andrei of Polotsk

Andrei of Polotsk (Андрэй Альгердавіч, Andrius Algirdaitis, Andrzej Olgierdowic, ca. 1325 – 12 August 1399, in the Battle of the Vorskla River) was the eldest son of Algirdas, Grand Duke of Lithuania, and his first wife Maria of Vitebsk.

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Anna Jagiellon

Anna Jagiellon (Anna Jagiellonka, Ona Jogailaitė; 18 October 1523 – 12 November 1596) was Queen of Poland and Grand Duchess of Lithuania in her own right from 1575 to 1586.

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Anno von Sangershausen

Anno von Sangerhausen (died 8 July 1273) served as the Grand Master of the Teutonic Order from 1256 to 1273.

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Apuolė

Apuolė is a historic village in Skuodas district municipality, Lithuania.

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Šešuoliai

Šešuoliai is a small town in central Lithuania.

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Šiauliai

Šiauliai is the fourth largest city in Lithuania, with a population of 107,086.

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Šlokenbeka Castle

Šlokenbeka Castle (Šlokenbekas pils) is a fortified manor in the historical region of Semigallia, in Latvia.

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Žagarė

Žagarė (see also other names) is a city located in the Joniškis district, northern Lithuania, close to the border with Latvia.

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Balthasar Russow

Balthasar Russow (1536–1600) was one of the most important Livonian and Estonian chroniclers.

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Baltic states

The Baltic states, also known as the Baltic countries, Baltic republics, Baltic nations or simply the Baltics (Balti riigid, Baltimaad, Baltijas valstis, Baltijos valstybės), is a geopolitical term used for grouping the three sovereign countries in Northern Europe on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.

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Bandava

Bandava (in Latvian and Lithuanian; Bandowe) - and old Curonian land which existed in the territory of the Latvia during the late iron age until it was conquered and divided in 1253 by Bishopric of Courland and Livonian Order.

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Battle of Aizkraukle

The Battle of Aizkraukle or Ascheraden was a battle fought on March 5, 1279, between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, led by Traidenis, and the Livonian branch of the Teutonic Order near Aizkraukle (Ascheraden) in present-day Latvia.

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Battle of Ashmyany

The Battle of Ashmiany was a medieval battle fought on 8 December 1432 at Ashmiany between the armies of Švitrigaila and Sigismund Kęstutaitis, two pretenders to the throne of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania during the Lithuanian Civil War (1432–1438).

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Battle of Bornholm (1456)

The Battle of Bornholm was a naval battle which took place near the Danish island of Bornholm, between privateers from the city of Gdańsk (Danzig) and a transport convoy of Danish and Livonian ships which were attempting to bring supplies and reinforcements to the Teutonic Knights in Prussia, during the Thirteen Years' War (1454–66) between the Kingdom of Poland and the Prussian Confederation on one hand, and the Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights on the other.

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Battle of Durbe

The Battle of Durbe (Durbes kauja, Durbės mūšis, Schlacht an der Durbe) was a medieval battle fought near Durbe, east of Liepāja, in present-day Latvia during the Livonian Crusade.

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Battle of Garoza

The Battle of Garoza was one of the biggest battles of the Livonian crusade which occurred in 1287 between the Livonian Order and Semigallians in the territory of modern Latvia.

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Battle of Grunwald

The Battle of Grunwald, First Battle of Tannenberg or Battle of Žalgiris, was fought on 15 July 1410 during the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War.

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Battle of Karuse

The Battle of Karuse or Battle on the Ice was fought on 16 February 1270 between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Livonian Order on the frozen Baltic Sea between the island of Muhu and the mainland.

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Battle of Lubawa

Battle of Lubawa or Löbau was a battle fought between the Teutonic Order and Prussians in 1263 during the Great Prussian Uprising.

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Battle of Memel (1257)

The Battle of Memel was fought between the Samogitians and the Livonian Order in 1257 near Memel (now Klaipėda in Lithuania).

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Battle of Memel (1323)

The Battle of Memel was fought between the Samogitians and the Livonian branch of the Teutonic Knights in 1323.

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Battle of Pagastin

Battle of Pagastin was a medieval battle fought between the Teutonic Knights and Prussians in 1271 during the Great Prussian Uprising (1260–1274).

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Battle of Pokarwis

The Battle of Pokarwis was a medieval battle fought in several skirmishes between pagan Old Prussians and the crusading Teutonic Knights on January 22, 1261 during the Great Prussian Uprising that followed the failed first Prussian Uprising of 1242-1249.

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Battle of Skuodas

The Battle of Skuodas or Schoden was a medieval battle fought in ca.

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Battle of the Siritsa River

The Battle of the Siritsa River (also Seritsa) took place on 27 August 1501 between the forces of the Livonian Order under Grand Master Wolter von Plettenberg on the one side and the forces of the Grand Duchy of Moscow and Pskov Republic on the other.

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Battle of the Vikhra River

The Battle of the Vikhra River (Битва на реке Вихре, Мсціслаўская бітва) took place on 29 April 1386 on the Vikhra River, tributary of the Sozh River, near Mstislavl between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Principality of Smolensk.

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Battle of Turaida

The Battle of Turaida or Treiden (also known as the Battle on Aa) was fought on June 1, 1298 on the banks of the Gauja River (Livländische Aa) near the Turaida Castle (German: Treiden).

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Battle of Ula

The Battle of Ula or Battle of Chashniki was fought during the Livonian War on 26 January 1564 between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Tsardom of Russia on the Ula River (tributary of the Daugava River) north of Chashniki in the Vitebsk Region.

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Battle of Wesenberg (1268)

The Battle of Wesenberg, Rakvere or Rakovor was a battle fought on February 18, 1268, between the combined forces of Danish Duchy of Estonia, Bishopric of Dorpat, Livonian branch of the Teutonic Knights and local Estonian militia on one side and the forces of Novgorod and Pskov, led by Dmitry of Pereslavl, on the other.

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Battle of Wilkomierz

The Battle of Wilkomierz (see other names) took place on September 1, 1435, near Ukmergė in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

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Battle on the Ice

The Battle on the Ice (Ледовое побоище, Ledovoye poboish'ye); Schlacht auf dem Eise; Jäälahing; Schlacht auf dem Peipussee) was fought between the Republic of Novgorod led by prince Alexander Nevsky and the crusader army led by the Livonian branch of the Teutonic Knights on April 5, 1242, at Lake Peipus. The battle is notable for having been fought largely on the frozen lake, and this gave the battle its name. The battle was a significant defeat sustained by the crusaders during the Northern Crusades, which were directed against pagans and Eastern Orthodox Christians rather than Muslims in the Holy Land. The Crusaders' defeat in the battle marked the end of their campaigns against the Orthodox Novgorod Republic and other Slavic territories for the next century. The event was glorified in Sergei Eisenstein's historical drama film Alexander Nevsky, released in 1938, which created a popular image of the battle often mistaken for the real events. Sergei Prokofiev turned his score for the film into a concert cantata of the same title, with "The Battle on the Ice" being its longest movement.

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Battles of Wenden (1577–78)

The Battles of Wenden were a series of battles for control of the stronghold of Wenden (Cēsis, Kiesia, Võnnu), in present-day Latvia, fought during the Livonian War in 1577 and 1578.

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Bauska

Bauska is a town in Bauska Municipality, in the Zemgale region of southern Latvia.

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Bauska Castle

Bauska Castle (Schloss Bauske) is a complex consisting of the ruins of an earlier castle and a later palace on the outskirts of the Latvian city of Bauska.

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Bauska District

Bauska District (Bauskas rajons) was an administrative division of Latvia, located in Semigallia region, in the country's centre.

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Bēne Manor

Bēne Manor is a manor house in the historical region of Zemgale, in Latvia.

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Bebrene Manor

Bebrene Manor (Bebrenes muiža, Rittergut Bewern) is a manor house in Bebrene, Ilūkste municipality, Latvia, in the historical region of Selonia.

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Bishopric of Ösel–Wiek

The Bishopric of Ösel–Wiek (Saare-Lääne piiskopkond; Bistum Ösel–Wiek; Low German: Bisdom Ösel–Wiek; contemporary Ecclesia Osiliensis) was a Roman Catholic diocese and semi-independent prince-bishopric (parto of Terra Mariana, i.e. Livonia) in the Holy Roman Empire, covering what are now Saare, Hiiu and Lääne counties of Estonia.

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Bishopric of Dorpat

The Bishopric of Dorpat (Tartu piiskopkond; Bisdom Dorpat; Ecclesia Tarbatensis) was a medieval prince-bishopric, i;e; both a diocese of the Roman Catholic Church and a temporal principality ruled by the bishop of the diocese.

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Braslaw

Braslaw or Braslaŭ (translit; Браслав; Brasław) is a town in the Vitebsk Region of Belarus, an administrative center of the Braslaw District.

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Burtnieki Castle

Burtnieki Castle (Schloss Burtneck; Asti ordulinnus) is a castle in the historical region of Vidzeme, in northern Latvia.

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Butigeidis

Butigeidis (Budikid; Будзікід) was the Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1285 to 1291.

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Cēsis Castle

Cēsis Castle is a Livonian castle situated in Cēsis, Latvia.

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Charles X Gustav of Sweden

Charles X Gustav, also Carl Gustav (Karl X Gustav; 8 November 1622 – 13 February 1660), was King of Sweden from 1654 until his death.

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Christianization of Lithuania

The Christianization of Lithuania (Lietuvos krikštas) occurred in 1387, initiated by King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania Władysław II Jagiełło and his cousin Vytautas the Great.

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Chronica Jutensis

Chronica Jutensis (Danish: Jyske Krønike English: Jutland Chronicle) also known as Continuatio compendii Saxonis or Chronica Danorum, is a small Danish historical work from the middle of the 14th century, written in Latin.

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Colonization attempts by Poland

Poland never formally had any colonial territories, however over its history the acquisition of such territories was at times contemplated, but never attempted.

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Congress of Lutsk

The Congress of Lutsk was a diplomatic gathering held in Lubart's Castle in Lutsk, Grand Duchy of Lithuania over a 13-week period beginning on January 6, 1429.

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Counties of Estonia

Counties (maakond, plural maakonnad) are the first-level administrative subdivisions of Estonia.

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Courland

Courland, or Kurzeme (in Latvian; Kurāmō; German and Kurland; Curonia/Couronia; Курляндия; Kuršas; Kurlandia), is one of the historical and cultural regions in western Latvia.

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Crusades

The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.

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Curonian Kings

Curonian Kings (Kurische Könige; Kuršu ķoniņi) are a Latvian cultural group, originally lesser vassals and free farmers that lived in seven villages between Goldingen (Kuldīga) and Hasenpoth (Aizpute) in Courland.

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Curonians

The Curonians or Kurs (Curonian: Kursi; Kuren; kurši; курши; kuršiai; kuralased; Kurowie) were a Baltic tribe living on the shores of the Baltic Sea in what are now the western parts of Latvia and Lithuania from the 5th to the 16th centuries, when they merged with other Baltic tribes.

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Daniil Kholmsky

Daniel of Kholm (Russian Даниил Дмитриевич Холмский; died in 1493) was a Russian knyaz, boyar and voyevoda, one of the most prominent military leaders of Ivan the Great.

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Daniil Shchenya

Prince Daniil Vasiliyevich Shchenya (? – no later than 1519) was a leading Russian military leader during the reigns of Ivan III and Vasili III.

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Daugavgrīva Abbey

Daugavgrīva Abbey or Dünamünde Abbey (Daugavgrīvas klosteris; Kloster Dünamünde; Mons S. Nicolai) was a Cistercian monastery in Daugavgrīva (Dünamünde) in Latvia, about 12 kilometres from Riga, of which Daugavgrīva has formed a district since 1959.

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Daugavpils

Daugavpils (Daugpiļs; Даугавпилс; see other names) is a city in southeastern Latvia, located on the banks of the Daugava River, from which the city gets its name.

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Daugirutis

Daugirutis or Dangerutis (Dangeruthe or Daugeruthe) was an early Lithuanian duke who committed suicide in 1213.

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Daumantas of Lithuania

Daumantas or Dovmont was the Grand Duke of Lithuania in 1282–1285.

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Daumantas of Pskov

Daumantas or Dovmont (Russian: Довмонт, Belarusian: Даўмонт, Christian name Timothy (Тимофей),; c. 1240? – May 17, 1299), was a Lithuanian princeling best remembered as a military leader of the Principality of Pskov between 1266 and 1299.

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David of Hrodna

David (Давыд Гарадзенскі, Dovydas Gardiniškis, killed in 1326) was a castellan of Hrodna and one of the most famous military commanders of Gediminas, Grand Duke of Lithuania.

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Demetrius I Starshy

Dmitry I Starshy or Dmitry of Bryansk (Dmitrijus Algirdaitis, died on 12 August 1399 in the Battle of the Vorskla River) was the second eldest son of Algirdas, Grand Duke of Lithuania, and his first wife Maria of Vitebsk.

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Dinaburga Castle

Dinaburga Castle (German: Dünaburg), also known as Vecdaugavpils or Vecpils, is a castle located in Naujene parish east of Daugavpils, in the historical region of Latgalia, in eastern Latvia.

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Dobele Castle

Dobele Castle is a castle in the town of Dobele on the west bank of the river, in the historical region of Zemgale, in Latvia.

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Dominions of Sweden

The Dominions of Sweden or Svenska besittningar ("Swedish possessions") were territories that historically came under control of the Swedish Crown, but never became fully integrated with Sweden.

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Duchy of Courland and Semigallia

The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia (Ducatus Curlandiæ et Semigalliæ, Księstwo Kurlandii i Semigalii, Herzogtum Kurland und Semgallen, Kurzemes un Zemgales hercogiste) was a duchy in the Baltic region that existed from 1561 to 1569 as a vassal state of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and from 1569 to 1726 to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, incorporated into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth by Sejm in 1726, On 28 March 1795, it was annexed by the Russian Empire in the Third Partition of Poland.

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Duchy of Livonia

The Duchy of Livonia (Księstwo Inflanckie; Livonijos kunigaikštystė; Ducatus Ultradunensis; Üleväina-Liivimaa hertsogkond; Pārdaugavas hercogiste; also referred to as Polish Livonia or Inflanty) was a territory of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania—and later the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth—that existed from 1561 to 1621.

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Duchy of Samogitia

The Duchy of Samogitia (Žemaičių seniūnija, Žemaitėjės seniūnėjė, Księstwo żmudzkie)Grzegorz Błaszczyk, Żmudź w XVII i XVIII wieku: zaludnienie i struktura społeczna, Uniwersytet im.

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Dundaga Castle

Dundaga Castle is a medieval castle in Dundaga, Latvia, in the Dundaga municipality.

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Economy of the Pskov Republic

Pskov has always played a special role in Russian trade with the West.

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Eltz

The House of Eltz is a noted German noble family of the Uradel.

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Embūte Castle

The ruins of Embūte Castle are located in Embūte, Latvia (Amboten), in the Embūte parish, Vaiņode municipality, not far from an ancient castle hill erected by Curonians.

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Ernst von Ratzeburg

Ernst von Ratzeburg or Rassburg (died 5 March 1279) was a member of the Livonian Order.

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Estland

* Estland is the modern name for Estonia in German, Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, Dutch and some other Germanic languages, with the notable exception of modern English (Old English did use the term).

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Estonia

Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.

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Estonia under Swedish rule

Estonia under Swedish rule signifies the time between 1558 and 1710, when parts of present-day Estonia (and after 1645 all of the present-day country) were under Swedish rule.

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Estonia–Latvia relations

Estonia and Latvia, the two northernmost Baltic states, share 343 km of common borders.

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Family of Gediminas

The family of Gediminas is a group of family members of Gediminas, Grand Duke of Lithuania (ca. 1275–1341), who interacted in the 14th century.

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February 16

No description.

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February 18

No description.

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Freytag-Loringhoven

The family Freytag (also: Vrydach, Frydag, Friday and various other slightly different spellings) is a noble family that comes from the Uradel Westphalia and the surname was first documented in 1198 and 1217.

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Friedrich Wilhelm Rembert von Berg

Friedrich Wilhelm Rembert Graf von Berg (Frederick William Rembert, Count Berg; Russified into Граф Фёдор Фёдорович фон Берг, Graf Feodor Feodorovich von Berg) was an Baltic-German nobleman, statesman, diplomat and military leader who served in the Imperial Russian Army, the count of Austria (from 9.1849) and Finland (from 26.8.1856), and was the 5th last Field Marshal (promoted in 1866) in the history of the Russian Empire.

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Frydag

Frydag family (also: Vrydach, Freytag, Friday and various other slightly different spellings) is a noble German family, known since the beginning of the 14th century, and who originated from the Uradel of Westphalia and were first documented between 1198 and 1217 with the person of Wecelo Vriedach.

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Gauja Valley

The Gauja Valley (Gaujas senleja) is a valley of the Gauja river in Latvia, which is 1 to 2.5 km wide, and the maximum depth near Sigulda is 85 m. The valley is the main constituent of the Gauja National Park founded in 1973.

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Gdov Kremlin

The Gdov Kremlin (Гдовский Кремль) is located on a bank of the Gdovka River, overlooking the Russian town of Gdov.

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Gdovsky District

Gdovsky District (Гдо́вский райо́н) is an administrativeLaw #833-oz and municipalLaw #420-oz district (raion), one of the twenty-four in Pskov Oblast, Russia.

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Gediminas

Gediminas (– December 1341) was Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1315 or 1316 until his death.

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Gedvydas

Gedvydas (or Edivid) (believed to have died ca. 1253) was one of the sons of Dausprungas and nephews of King of Lithuania Mindaugas.

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German town law

The German town law (Deutsches Stadtrecht) or German municipal concerns (Deutsches Städtewesen) was a set of early town privileges based on the Magdeburg rights developed by Otto I. The Magdeburg Law became the inspiration for regional town charters not only in Germany, but also in Central and Eastern Europe who modified it during the Middle Ages.

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Gotthard Kettler

Gotthard von Kettler (also Ketteler, Gotthard Kettler, Herzog von Kurland; 2 February 1517 – 17 May 1587) was the last Master of the Livonian Order and the first Duke of Courland and Semigallia.

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Grand Duchy of Lithuania

The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state that lasted from the 13th century up to 1795, when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, and Austria.

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Grobiņa Castle

Grobiņa Castle is a medieval castle located in the town of Grobiņa, Latvia, in western Courland.

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Gulbene

Gulbene (Schwanenburg) is a town in northeastern Latvia.

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Harju County

Harju County (Harju maakond), or Harjumaa (Harrien or Rugel, Harria) is one of the 15 counties of Estonia.

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Hartmann von Heldrungen

Hartmann von Heldrungen (died 19 August 1283) was the 11th Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, serving from 1273 to 1283.

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Heinrich von Hohenlohe

Heinrich von Hohenlohe (died 15 July 1249) was the seventh Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, serving between 1244 and 1249.

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Heinrich von Plauen

Heinrich von Plauen (the Elder) (ca. 1370–1429) was the 27th Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, serving from November 1410 to October 1413.

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Helme, Estonia

Helme is a small borough (alevik) in Helme Parish, Valga County, in southern Estonia.

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Hermann Castle

Hermann Castle (also Hermannsfeste, Herman Castle, Narva Castle, and Narva fortress. (Hermanni linnus) is a castle in Narva, eastern Estonia. It was founded in 1256 by the Danes and the first stone castle was built in the beginning of the 14th century. The German Livonian Teutonic knights order purchased the castle on 29 August 1346, and for most of its history the castle was German Teutonic.

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Hermann of Buxhoeveden, Bishop of Ösel-Wiek

Hermann of Buxhoeveden or Bekeshoevede (1230-1285) was a medieval clergyman.

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Hermann von Wartberge

Hermann von Wartberge (died ca. 1380) was a chronicler of the Livonian Order.

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Hiiu County

Hiiu County (Hiiu maakond), or Hiiumaa, is one of 15 counties of Estonia, being the smallest county both in terms of area and population.

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Hiiumaa

Hiiumaa (German & Dagö; Dagø; Hiidenmaa) is the second largest island (989 km²) in Estonia.

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History of Estonia

The history of Estonia forms a part of the history of Europe.

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History of Europe

The history of Europe covers the peoples inhabiting Europe from prehistory to the present.

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History of Latvia

The history of Latvia began around 9000 BC with the end of the last glacial period in northern Europe.

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History of Lithuania

The history of Lithuania dates back to settlements founded many thousands of years ago, but the first written record of the name for the country dates back to 1009 AD.

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History of Lithuania (1219–95)

The history of Lithuania between 1219 and 1295 concerns the establishment and early history of the first Lithuanian state, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

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History of Riga

The history of Riga, the capital of Latvia, begins as early as the 2nd century with a settlement, the Duna urbs, at a natural harbor not far upriver from the mouth of the Daugava River.

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History of Sweden (1523–1611)

The Early Vasa era is a period that in Swedish and Finnish history lasted between 1523–1611.

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House of Plettenberg

Plettenberg is a Westphalian noble family of the Uradel.

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House of the Livonian Noble Corporation

The House of the Livonian Noble Corporation (Vidzemes bruņniecības nams) is a historical building in Riga, Latvia, constructed to house the Landtag of the Livonian Noble Corporation in the Governorate of Livonia.

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Iacob Heraclid

Iacob Heraclid (or Eraclid; Ἰάκωβος Ἡρακλείδης; 1527 – November 5, 1563), born Basilicò and also known as Iacobus Heraclides, Heraclid Despotul, or Despot Vodă ("Despot the Voivode"), was a Greek Maltese soldier, adventurer and intellectual, who reigned as Prince of Moldavia from November 1561 to November 1563.

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Ilūkste

Ilūkste (Alūksta, Ilūkšta; Illuxt) is a town and a seat of Ilūkste Municipality, southeastern Latvia.

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Jaunpils Castle

Jaunpils Castle (Schloß Neuenburg) is a castle in the historical region of Zemgale, in Latvia.

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Jaunutis

Jaunutis (Jawnuta, Яўнут; literally young man; baptized: Ioann, "Jawnuta", "John" or "Ivan"; ca. 1300 – after 1366) was the Grand Duke of Lithuania from his father Gediminas' death in 1341 until he was deposed by his elder brothers Algirdas and Kęstutis in 1345.

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Jelgava

Jelgava (Mitau; see also other names) is a city in central Latvia about southwest of Riga with about 63,000 inhabitants.

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Jelgava Palace

Jelgava Palace (Jelgavas pils) or Mitau Palace is the largest Baroque-style palace in the Baltic states.

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Jogentagana

Jogentagana (Latin: Jogentagania) was a small landlocked ancient Estonian county in the eastern part of the territory of Estonia.

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Johann Freytag von Loringhoven

Johann Freitag von Loringhoven (also Johann Freytag von Loringhoven, and Johann Fridach van Loringhoffe) (c. 1430-May 26, 1494) was a member of the Freytag von Loringhoven family and was a knight of the Teutonic Knights.

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Jonas Kęsgaila

Jonas Kęsgaila (or Kęsgailaitis) (Jan Kieżgajło, Johannes Kyensgalowicz, died 1485) was a Lithuanian nobleman, son of Mykolas Kęsgaila of the Kęsgaila family.

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July 13

No description.

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June 1

No description.

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Kaarma-Kirikuküla

Kaarma-Kirikuküla is a village in Saaremaa Parish, Saare County in western Estonia.

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Kandava

Kandava (Kandau; Kāndav) is a town in Latvia.

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Kavilda stronghold

The Kavilda stronghold (Kavilda vasallilinnus, Kawelecht) was a castle in Tartu County, Estonia, on the western slope of the Kavilda River.

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Kõpu Lighthouse

Kõpu Lighthouse (Kõpu tuletorn) is one of the best known symbols and tourist sights on the Estonian island of Hiiumaa.

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Königsberg

Königsberg is the name for a former German city that is now Kaliningrad, Russia.

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Keila

Keila (Kegel) is a town and an urban municipality in Harju County in north-western Estonia.

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Ketteler

Ketteler (also Kettler) is the name of a German noble family that originated in Westphalia.

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Kihelkonna St. Michael's Church

Kihelkonna St.

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Kingdom of Lithuania

The Kingdom of Lithuania was a Lithuanian monarchy which existed from 1251 to roughly 1263.

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Klaipėda Region

The Klaipėda Region (Klaipėdos kraštas) or Memel Territory (Memelland or Memelgebiet) was defined by the Treaty of Versailles in 1920 and refers to the most northern part of the German province of East Prussia, when as Memelland it was put under the administration of the Council of Ambassadors.

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Kneiphof

Coat of arms of Kneiphof Postcard of Kneiphöfsche Langgasse Reconstruction of Kneiphof in Kaliningrad's museum Kneiphof (Knypava; Knipawa) was a quarter of central Königsberg, Germany.

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Krasnogorodsk

Krasnogorodsk (Красногородск; Kraasna) is an urban locality (a work settlement) and the administrative center of Krasnogorodsky District of Pskov Oblast, Russia, located on the Sinyaya River south of Pskov.

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Krasnogorodsky District

Krasnogorodsky District (Красногоро́дский райо́н) is an administrativeLaw #833-oz and municipalLaw #420-oz district (raion), one of the twenty-four in Pskov Oblast, Russia.

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Kreenholm

Kreenholm (Krähnholm, meaning crow islet) is an island in the Narva River, in the city of Narva belonging to Estonia.

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Krimulda Castle

The Krimulda Castle is located just outside Sigulda, Sigulda municipality, Latvia and is a tourist attraction.

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Krustpils Castle

Krustpils Castle (German: Kreutzburg, Polish: Krzyżbork) is a castle in Jēkabpils, Latvia.

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Kuldīga

Kuldīga (Goldingen) is a town in western Latvia.

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Laiuse Castle

Laiuse Castle (Estonian: Laiuse ordulinnus, German: Schloß Lais) was a Livonian Order castle in Laiusevälja, Jõgeva Parish, Estonia.

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Laiusevälja

Laiusevälja is a village in Jõgeva Parish, Jõgeva County, Estonia.

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Latgale

Latgale (Latgola; Латгалия; Lettgallia) is one of the four historical and cultural regions of Latvia recognised in the Constitution of the Latvian Republic.

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Latgalians

Latgalians, sometimes also Ancient Latvians (Letti, Lethi, modern; variant translations also include Latgallians, Lettigalls or Lettigallians), were an ancient Baltic tribe.

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Latvia

Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.

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Lübeck

Lübeck is a city in Schleswig-Holstein, northern Germany, and one of the major ports of Germany.

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Lengvenis

Lengvenis (Simeon Lingwen, born ca. 1360 – died after 1431; Лугвен-Сымон, Łuhvien; Лугвений, Лугвен, Лугвень, Lugven(y), Lingwen Semen Olgierdowicz) was one of the sons of Algirdas, Grand Duke of Lithuania, and the ruler of Great Novgorod Republic (1389–1392, 1406–1411).

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Lengvenis (13th century)

Lengvenis (Lengewin, Langwinus) was one of the local dukes in the early Grand Duchy of Lithuania during the reign of King Mindaugas (1230s–1263).

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Limbaži

Limbaži (Lemsalu, Lemsal, Limbaž) is a town in the Vidzeme region of northern Latvia.

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List of Baltic Germans

This is a list of notable Baltic Germans.

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List of battles 301–1300

No description.

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List of churches in Estonia

This is the List of churches in Estonia.

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List of civil wars

The Latin term bellum civile was first used of the Roman civil wars that began in the last third of the second century BC.

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List of defunct Catholic religious institutes

This page lists religious institutes of the Catholic Church that are now defunct.

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List of divided islands

This is a list of islands whose land is divided by one or more international borders.

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List of dukes in Europe

The following is a list of historic duchies in Europe.

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List of Estonian flags

The national flag of Estonia is a tricolour featuring three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), black, and white.

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List of Russian saints

This list of Russian saints includes the saints canonized by the Russian Orthodox Church and the Russian saints canonized by other Orthodox Churches.

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List of Russian saints (until 15th century)

Saints in the Russian Orthodox Church are confirmed by canonization which lists the decedent into the Community of Saints.

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List of state leaders in 1260

No description.

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List of state leaders in 1348

No description.

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List of state leaders in 1520

No description.

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List of states in the Holy Roman Empire

This list of states which were part of the Holy Roman Empire includes any territory ruled by an authority that had been granted imperial immediacy, as well as many other feudal entities such as lordship, sous-fiefs and allodial fiefs.

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List of states in the Holy Roman Empire (L)

This is a list of states in the Holy Roman Empire beginning with the letter L.

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List of wars 1000–1499

This is a list of wars that began between 1000 to 1499. Other wars can be found in the historical lists of wars and the list of wars extended by diplomatic irregularity.

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List of wars 1500–1799

This is a list of wars that began between 1500 to 1799. Other wars can be found in the historical lists of wars and the list of wars extended by diplomatic irregularity.

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List of wars involving Denmark

This is a list of wars involving the Kingdom of Denmark.

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List of wars involving Estonia

Below is a list of military conflicts in which Estonians participated on a larger scale or took place on Estonian territory.

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List of wars involving Poland

This is a chronological list of military conflicts in which Polish armed forces won or took place on Polish territory from the reign of Mieszko I (960–992) to the ongoing military operations.

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List of wars involving Russia

The following is an incomplete list of armed conflicts and wars fought by Russia, by Russian people, from antiquity to the present day.

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List of wars involving Ukraine

The following is an incomplete list of major wars fought by Ukraine, by Ukrainian people or regular armies during periods when independent Ukrainian states existed, from antiquity to the present day.

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Lithuania

Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.

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Lithuania Minor

Lithuania Minor (Mažoji Lietuva; Kleinlitauen; Litwa Mniejsza; Máлая Литвá) or Prussian Lithuania (Prūsų Lietuva; Preußisch-Litauen, Litwa Pruska) is a historical ethnographic region of Prussia, later East Prussia in Germany, where Prussian Lithuanians or Lietuvininkai lived.

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Lithuanian Civil War (1381–84)

The Lithuanian Civil War of 1381–1384 was the first struggle for power between the cousins Jogaila, Grand Duke of Lithuania and later King of Poland, and Vytautas the Great.

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Lithuanian Civil War (1432–1438)

The Lithuanian Civil War of 1432–1438 was a conflict over the succession to the throne of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after Vytautas the Great died in 1430 without leaving an heir.

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Lithuanian Crusade

The Lithuanian Crusade was a series of campaigns by the Teutonic Order and the Livonian Order, two crusading military orders, to convert the pagan Grand Duchy of Lithuania into Roman Catholicism.

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Livonia

Livonia (Līvõmō, Liivimaa, German and Scandinavian languages: Livland, Latvian and Livonija, Inflanty, archaic English Livland, Liwlandia; Liflyandiya) is a historical region on the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea.

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Livonian Brothers of the Sword

The Livonian Brothers of the Sword (Fratres militiæ Christi Livoniae, Schwertbrüderorden, Ordre des Chevaliers Porte-Glaive) was a Catholic military order established by Albert, the third bishop of Riga (or possibly by Theoderich von Treyden), in 1202.

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Livonian campaign against Rus'

The Livonian campaign against Rus' was a military campaign that lasted from 1240 to 1242, and was carried out by the Teutonic Knights of the Livonian Order with the aim to conquer the lands of Pskov and Novgorod and convert them to Catholicism.

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Livonian Crusade

The Livonian Crusade refers to the conquest of the territory constituting modern Latvia and Estonia during the pope-sanctioned Northern Crusades, performed mostly by Germans from the Holy Roman Empire and Danes.

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Livonian Rhymed Chronicle

The Livonian Rhymed Chronicle (Livländische Reimchronik) was a chronicle written in High German by an anonymous writer.

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Livonian War

The Livonian War (1558–1583) was fought for control of Old Livonia (in the territory of present-day Estonia and Latvia), when the Tsardom of Russia faced a varying coalition of Denmark–Norway, the Kingdom of Sweden, and the Union (later Commonwealth) of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Poland.

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Livonians

The Livonians, or Livs (Livonian: līvlizt), are a Finnic ethnic group indigenous to northern Latvia and southwestern Estonia.

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Ludza

Ludza (Lucyn, Люцин, Lyucin) is a town in the Latgalia region of eastern Latvia.

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Ludza Castle

Ludza Castle (Ludzas pils) was a medieval castle built in Gothic style located next to a Catholic church, on the site of a former Latgalian wooden castle in the centre Ludza, Latvia, a small town in eastern Latgale.

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Lutsk

Lutsk (Luc'k,, Łuck, Luck) is a city on the Styr River in northwestern Ukraine.

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Maasi

Maasi is a village in Saaremaa Parish, Saare County, on the eastern part of Saaremaa Island, Estonia.

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Maasilinna Castle

Maasilinn Castle (Soneburg) is located in Maasi village in Orissaare Parish, Saare County, Estonia.

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Mažeikiai

Mažeikiai (Samogitian: Mažeikē) is a city in the north-western Lithuania, on the Venta River.

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March 5

No description.

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Margaret I of Denmark

Margaret I (Margrete Valdemarsdatter, Margrete Valdemarsdatter, Margareta Valdemarsdotter, Margrét Valdimarsdóttir; 15 March 1353 – 28 October 1412) was queen consort of Norway (1363–1380) and Sweden (1363–1364) and later ruler in her own right of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, from which later period there are ambiguities regarding her specific titles.

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Marshal

Marshal is a term used in several official titles in various branches of society.

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Mārtiņi

Mārtiņi or Mārtiņdiena is an ancient Latvian winter welcoming holiday, when the time of pieguļa and shepherding came to an end.

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Mikołaj "the Black" Radziwiłł

Mikołaj Krzysztof Radziwiłł (4 February 1515 – 28 May 1565), nicknamed The Black (Lithuanian: Juodasis), was a Polish-Lithuanian noble who held several administrative positions within the Grand Duchy of Lithuania: Voivode of Vilnius, Grand Lithuanian Chancellor, and Grand Hetman of Lithuania.

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Military order (monastic society)

A military order (Militaris ordinis) is a chivalric order with military elements.

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Mindaugas

Mindaugas (Myndowen, Mindowe, Мендог, Міндоўг, c. 1203 – autumn 1263) was the first known Grand Duke of Lithuania and the only King of Lithuania.

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Morta

Morta (died c. 1263) was wife of Mindaugas, the first known ruler of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

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Muhu St. Catherine's Church

Muhu St.

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Muscovite–Lithuanian Wars

The Muscovite–Lithuanian Wars (also known as Russo-Lithuanian Wars, or just either Muscovite Wars or Lithuanian Wars)The conflicts are referred to as 'Muscovite wars' (wojny moskiewskie) in Polish historiography and as 'Lithuanian wars' in Russian one; English historiography uses both, ex.

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Nameisis

Nameisis or Namejs (also Nameise, Nameyxe) was a Semigallian duke in the second half of the 13th century.

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Narva

Narva (Нарва) is the third largest city in Estonia.

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Narva River

The Narva (Narva jõgi, Нарва) (or Narova) is a river flowing into the Baltic Sea, the largest river in Estonia by discharge.

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Narva-Jõesuu

Narva-Jõesuu (Усть-Нарва, Ust'-Narva) is a town in Ida-Viru County, in north-eastern Estonia.

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Northern Crusades

The Northern Crusades or Baltic Crusades were religious wars undertaken by Catholic Christian military orders and kingdoms, primarily against the pagan Baltic, Finnic and West Slavic peoples around the southern and eastern shores of the Baltic Sea, and to a lesser extent also against Orthodox Christian Slavs (East Slavs).

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Oeselians

The Oeselians, Osilians, Esths, or Ests were a historical subdivision of Estonians inhabiting Saaremaa (Oesel or Osilia), an Estonian island in the Baltic Sea.

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Olshanski

Olshanski (Alšėniškiai or Alšėnų kunigaikščiai, Гальшанскі, Holszański) was a Lithuanian princely family of Hipocentaur coat of arms from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

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Order of Dobrzyń

The Order of Dobrzyń (Zakon Dobrzyński) or Order of Dobrin (Orden von Dobrin), also known as the Brothers of Dobrzyń (Bracia Dobrzyńscy), was a military order created in the borderland of Masovia and Prussia (today's Dobrzyń Land, Poland) during the 13th century Prussian Crusade to 'defend against Baltic Prussian raids'.

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Ostrov, Ostrovsky District, Pskov Oblast

Ostrov (О́стров, lit. island) is a town and the administrative center of Ostrovsky District in Pskov Oblast, Russia, located on the Velikaya River, south of Pskov, the administrative center of the oblast.

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Ostrovsky District, Pskov Oblast

Ostrovsky District (О́стровский райо́н) is an administrativeLaw #833-oz and municipalLaw #420-oz district (raion), one of the twenty-four in Pskov Oblast, Russia.

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Ostsiedlung

Ostsiedlung (literally east settling), in English called the German eastward expansion, was the medieval eastward migration and settlement of Germanic-speaking peoples from the Holy Roman Empire, especially its southern and western portions, into less-populated regions of Central Europe, parts of west Eastern Europe, and the Baltics.

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Otto von Lutterberg

Otto von Lutterberg (died 16 February 1270) was the Landmeister of the Livonian Order of the Teutonic Knights from 1266 to 1270.

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Pabaiskas

Pabaiskas is a small town in Ukmergė district of Vilnius County, Lithuania, south-west of Ukmergė, with 249 inhabitants.

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Padise Abbey

Padise Abbey (Padise klooster) was a former Cistercian monastery in Padise in Harju County, Estonia, settled in 1310 by the dispossessed monks of Dünamünde Abbey in Latvia.

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Paide

Paide (Weißenstein) is the capital of Järva County, Estonia.

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Papilė

Papilė is a town in Šiauliai County, Lithuania, near the Venta River.

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Pasvalys

Pasvalys (פּאָסװאָל Posvol) is a city in Panevėžys County, Lithuania, located near the bank of the Svalia River.

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Pärnu

Pärnu (Pernau) is the fourth-largest city in Estonia.

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Põltsamaa Castle

Põltsamaa Castle (Põltsamaa linnus; Schloss Oberpahlen), also Põltsamaa Order Castle, (Põltsamaa ordulinnus), is a castle in Põltsamaa, Jõgeva County, in eastern Estonia.

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Pöide Church

Pöide Church (Pöide kirik) is located on Saaremaa island, in Pöide Commune, Saare County, Estonia.

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Pöide Parish

Pöide Parish was a municipality in Saare County, Estonia.

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Pāvilosta

Pāvilosta (Paulshafen) is a small port town in Latvia located at the mouth of Saka river in Courland.

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Peace of Brześć Kujawski

Peace of Brześć Kujawski was a peace treaty signed on December 31, 1435 in Brześć Kujawski that ended the Polish–Teutonic War (1431–1435).

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Philipp Schall von Bell

Philipp Schall von Bell (died 1560) was the commander-in-chief (Landmarschall) of the Livonian Order forces during the first two years of the Livonian War (1558–1583).

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Piemare

Piemare (Piemarė; Bihavelanc) was one of the main Curonian kihelkonds with an administrative center in Esestua (Seeburg) before the 13th century.

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Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War

The Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War or Great War occurred between 1409 and 1411, pitting the allied Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania against the Teutonic Knights.

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Polish–Teutonic War (1431–35)

The Polish–Teutonic War (1431–1435) was an armed conflict between the Kingdom of Poland and the Teutonic Knights.

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Preiļi Palace

Preiļi Palace (Preiļu pils, Pałac w Prelach) is a palace near the town of Preiļi in the historical region of Latgale, in eastern Latvia.

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Prince of Polotsk

The Princes of Polotsk ruled the Principality of Polotsk within the realm of Kievan Rus or within the Grand Duchy of Lithuania from the mid ninth century to 1307.

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Prince-bishop

A prince-bishop is a bishop who is also the civil ruler of some secular principality and sovereignty.

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Principality of Jersika

The principality of Jersika (Gerzika, terra Lettia, Gerzika, Zargrad, Ерсика, Герцике; also known as Лотыголa) was an early medieval Latgalian principality in eastern modern-day Latvia and one of the largest early states in Latvia before the German conquests.

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Prussian uprisings

The Prussian uprisings were two major and three smaller uprisings by the Prussians, one of the Baltic tribes, against the Teutonic Knights that took place in the 13th century during the Prussian Crusade.

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Pskov Republic

Pskov, known at various times as the Principality of Pskov (Псковское княжество, Pskovskoye knyazhestvo) or the Pskov Republic (Псковская Республика, Pskovskaya Respublika), was a medieval state on the south shore of Lake Pskov.

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Rakvere

Rakvere (Wesenberg or Wesenbergh) is a town in northern Estonia and the county seat of Lääne-Viru County, 20 km south of the Gulf of Finland.

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Raseiniai

Raseiniai (Samogitian: Raseinē, Rosienie, ראַסיין) is a city in Lithuania.

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Rauna Castle

Rauna Castle (Rownenborgh, Ronneburg) ruins are located in the village of Rauna in Cēsis District, Latvia.

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Rēzekne

Rēzekne (Latgalian Rēzekne or Rēzne, Rēzekne; see other names) is a city in the Rēzekne River valley in Latgale region of eastern Latvia.

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Rēzekne Castle

Rēzekne Castle ruins are located in the centre of Rēzekne, Latvia, a city in the centre of Latgale.

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Reinhold von Buxhoeveden

Reinhold von Buxhoeveden (died 1557) was bishop of the Bishopric of Saare-Lääne or Ösel–Wiek (Saare-Lääne piiskopkond; Bistum Ösel–Wiek; Low German: Bisdom Ösel–Wiek; contemporary Ecclesia Osiliensis), a semi-independent Roman Catholic prince-bishopric in what is now Saare, Hiiu and Lääne counties of Estonia, from 1532 to 1541.

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Religion in Latvia

The main religion traditionally practiced in Latvia is Christianity.

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Riga

Riga (Rīga) is the capital and largest city of Latvia.

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Riga Castle

Riga Castle (Rīgas pils) is a castle on the banks of River Daugava in Riga, the capital of Latvia.

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Roman Catholic Diocese of Reval

The Bishopric of Reval was created in Duchy of Estonia by Valdemar II of Denmark in 1240.

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Ropaži Municipality

Ropaži Municipality (Ropažu novads) is a municipality in Vidzeme, Latvia.

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Rusnė Island

Rusnė Island is an island in Nemunas Delta, Šilutė District Municipality, Lithuania.

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Russians in Estonia

The population of Russians in Estonia is estimated at 320,000, most of whom live in the urban areas of Harju and Ida-Viru counties.

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Saare County

Saare County (Saare maakond), or Saaremaa; (Oesel; Ösel) is one of 15 counties of Estonia.

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Sabile

Sabile (Zabeln) is a town in Talsi municipality, Latvia.

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Saint George's Night Uprising

Saint George’s Night Uprising in 1343–1345 (Jüriöö ülestõus) was an unsuccessful attempt by the indigenous Estonian population in the Duchy of Estonia, the Bishopric of Ösel-Wiek, and the insular territories of the State of the Teutonic Order to rid themselves of the Danish and German rulers and landlords, who had conquered the country in the 13th century during the Livonian crusade, and to eradicate the non-indigenous Christian religion.

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Samogitian dialect

Samogitian (Samogitian: žemaitiu ruoda, žemaitiu kalba, žemaitiu rokunda, žemaičių tarmė) is a dialect of the Lithuanian language, considered a separate language by most linguists outside Lithuania, however, recognition as such is increasing in recent years, spoken mostly in Samogitia (in the western part of Lithuania), in Northern Europe.

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Samogitian uprisings

Samogitian uprisings refer to two uprisings by the Samogitians against the Teutonic Knights in 1401–1404 and 1409.

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Sandu Tudor

Sandu Tudor (born Alexandru Al. Teodorescu, known in church records as Brother Agathon, later Daniil Teodorescu, Daniil Sandu Tudor, Daniil de la Rarău; December 22 or December 24, 1896 – November 17, 1962) was a Romanian poet, journalist, theologian and Orthodox monk.

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Sēlpils Castle

Sēlpils Castle (Sēlpils pils) is an ancient castle in Latvia.

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Seal of Mindaugas

The Seal of Mindaugas (Mindaugo antspaudas) is a medieval seal affixed to the October 1255 act by Mindaugas, King of Lithuania, granting Selonia to the Teutonic Knights.

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Secularization

Secularization (or secularisation) is the transformation of a society from close identification and affiliation with religious values and institutions toward nonreligious values and secular institutions.

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Semigallians

Semigallians (Latvian Zemgaļi; Žiemgaliai, also Zemgalians, Semigalls, Semigalians) were the Baltic tribe that lived in the southcentral part of contemporary Latvia and northern Lithuania.

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Semyon Olshanski

Prince Semyon Yurievich of Halshany (Simonas Juravičius Alšėniškis; died in 1505 or 1506) was a noble from the Olshanski family in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

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Siege of Kaunas

The Siege of Kaunas was laid by the Teutonic Order on the newly built Kaunas Castle in spring 1362.

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Siege of Königsberg

The Siege of Königsberg was a siege laid upon Königsberg Castle, one of the main strongholds of the Teutonic Knights, by Prussians during the Great Prussian Uprising from 1262 possibly though 1265.

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Siege of Malbork (1454)

Siege of Malbork (Siege of Marienburg) occurred during the Thirteen Years' War between the Teutonic Knights and the Kingdom of Poland.

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Siege of Marienburg (1410)

The Siege of Marienburg was an unsuccessful two-month siege of the castle in Marienburg (Malbork), the capital of the monastic state of the Teutonic Knights.

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Sigismund Kęstutaitis

Sigismund Kęstutaitis (Žygimantas I Kęstutaitis; Zygmunt Kiejstutowicz; c. 1365 – 20 March 1440) was the Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1432 to 1440.

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Sigulda Medieval Castle

Sigulda Medieval Castle ruins are located on the edge of the Gauja valley in Latvia.

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Sillamäe

Sillamäe (Силламяэ), known also in Germanized version as Sillamäggi or Sillamägi (Estonian for "Bridge Hill"), is a town in Ida-Viru County in the northern part of Estonia, on the southern coast of the Gulf of Finland.

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Sloka, Latvia

Sloka is a residential area and neighbourhood of the city Jūrmala, Latvia.

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Solovetsky Monastery

The Solovetsky Monastery (p) is a fortified monastery located on the Solovetsky Islands in the White Sea in northern Russia.

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Staël von Holstein

According to tradition, the family which originated from ancient Rhenish-German nobility, came to Sweden from Livonia during the 17th century via the Polish Major Hildebrand Staël.

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Stanislovas Kęsgaila

Stanislovas Kęsgaila Jonaitis (Stanisław Janowicz Kieżgajło; died 1527) was a Lithuanian nobleman, son of Jonas Kęsgaila from the Kęsgailos family.

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State of the Teutonic Order

The State of the Teutonic Order (Staat des Deutschen Ordens; Civitas Ordinis Theutonici), also called Deutschordensstaat or Ordensstaat in German, was a crusader state formed by the Teutonic Knights or Teutonic Order during the 13th century Northern Crusades along the Baltic Sea.

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Stende

Stende (Stenden) is a town in Latvia.

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Tallinn

Tallinn (or,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Estonia.

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Tautvilas

Tautvilas (or Tautvila; died 1263) was Duke of Polatsk and one of the sons of Dausprungas and nephews of King of Lithuania Mindaugas.

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Tērvete

Tērvete (liv. Terwenden) is a village in Tērvete municipality, Latvia.

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Terra Mariana

Terra Mariana (Medieval Latin for "Land of Mary") was the official name for Medieval Livonia or Old Livonia (Alt-Livland, Vana-Liivimaa, Livonija), which was formed in the aftermath of the Livonian Crusade in the territories comprising present day Estonia and Latvia.

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Teutonic Order

The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem (official names: Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum, Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus der Heiligen Maria in Jerusalem), commonly the Teutonic Order (Deutscher Orden, Deutschherrenorden or Deutschritterorden), is a Catholic religious order founded as a military order c. 1190 in Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem.

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Thirteen Years' War (1454–66)

The Thirteen Years' War (Dreizehnjähriger Krieg; wojna trzynastoletnia), also called the War of the Cities, was a conflict fought in 1454–66 between the Prussian Confederation, allied with the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, and the State of the Teutonic Order.

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Thomas Schöning

Thomas Schöning (* probably in Riga; † 11 August 1539 in Kokenhusen) was Archbishop of Riga.

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Timeline of Estonian history

This is a timeline of Estonian history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Estonia and its predecessor states.

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Timeline of historical geopolitical changes

This is a timeline of country and capital changes around the world.

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Timeline of Latvian history

This is a timeline of Latvian history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Latvia and its predecessor states.

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Toompea

Toompea (from Domberg, "Cathedral Hill") is a limestone hill in the central part of the city of Tallinn, the capital of Estonia.

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Traidenis

Traidenis (Trojden, Трайдзень) (died 1282) was the Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1270 (or 1269) till 1282.

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Treaty of Christmemel

The Treaty of Christmemel (Skirsnemunės sutartis) was a treaty signed on 19 June 1431 between Paul von Rusdorf, Grand Master the Teutonic Knights, and Švitrigaila, Grand Duke of Lithuania.

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Treaty of Dovydiškės

The Treaty of Dovydiškės (Dovydiškių sutartis; Vertrag von Daudisken), Daudiske, or Daudisken was a secret treaty signed on May 31, 1380 between Jogaila, the Grand Duke of Lithuania, and Winrich von Kniprode, the Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights.

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Treaty of Dubysa

The Treaty of Dubysa or Treaty of Dubissa (Dubysos sutartys) consisted of three legal acts formulated on 31 October 1382 between Jogaila, Grand Duke of Lithuania, with his brother Skirgaila and Konrad von Wallenrode, Marshal of the Teutonic Order.

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Treaty of Königsberg (1384)

The Treaty of Königsberg was signed in Königsberg (Królewiec) on 30 January 1384, during the Lithuanian Civil War (1381–1384) between Vytautas the Great and representatives of the Teutonic Knights.

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Treaty of Königsberg (1390)

The Treaty of Königsberg was signed in Königsberg(Królewiec) on May 26, 1390 during the Lithuanian Civil War (1389–1392) between Samogitian nobles and representatives of the Teutonic Knights.

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Treaty of Melno

The Treaty of Melno (Melno taika; Pokój melneński) or Treaty of Lake Melno (Friede von Melnosee) was a peace treaty ending the Gollub War.

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Treaty of Salynas

Treaty of Salynas (Frieden von Sallinwerder, Salyno sutartis) was a peace treaty signed on 12 October 1398 by the Grand Duke of Lithuania Vytautas the Great and the Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights Konrad von Jungingen.

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Treaty of Vilnius (1559)

The Treaty of Vilnius or Vilna was concluded on 31 August 1559, during the Livonian War, between the Livonian Order and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth at Vilnius (Vilna, Wilna, Wilno).

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Treaty of Vilnius (1561)

The Treaty of Vilnius or Vilna was concluded on 28 November 1561, during the Livonian War, between the Livonian Confederation and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth at Vilnius (Vilna, Wilna, Wilno).

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Treniota

Treniota (Транята; Troniata; ca. 1210–1264) was the Grand Duke of Lithuania (1263–1264).

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Truce of Łęczyca

The Truce of Łęczyca was signed during the Polish–Teutonic War (1431–1435) between the Kingdom of Poland and the Teutonic Order in Łęczyca on 15 December 1433 (this has also led some Polish historians to divide this Polish–Teutonic War into two wars, in 1431–1433 and in 1435).

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Tukums

Tukums (Tuckum; Tukāmō) is a town in Latvia.

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Ukmergė

Ukmergė ((Vilkomiria, Wiłkomierz, Вилькомир, ווילקאמיר Vilkomir) is a city in Vilnius County, Lithuania, located northwest of Vilnius, with a population of about 21,000 (2017).

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Union of Krewo

In a strict sense, the Union of Krewo or "Act of Krėva" (also spelled "Union of Krevo", "Act of Kreva"; Krėvos sutartis) was a set of prenuptial promises made in the Kreva Castle on 14 August 1385 by Jogaila, Grand Duke of Lithuania, in exchange for marriage to the underage reigning Queen Jadwiga of Poland.

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Upytė

Upytė (Upita) is a small village in Panevėžys district municipality in northern Lithuania.

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Vaišvilkas

Vaišelga or Vaišvilkas (also spelled as Vojszalak, Vojšalk, Vaišalgas; killed on December 9, 1268) was the Grand Duke of Lithuania (1264–1267).

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Vainius

Vainius or Voin (died between 1338 and 1342) was the Prince of Polotsk from 1315 to his death.

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Valdemar IV of Denmark

Valdemar IV Atterdag (the epithet meaning "A New Dawn"), or Waldemar (132024 October 1375; Valdemar Atterdag), was King of Denmark from 1340 to 1375.

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Valjala Church

Saint Martin's Church of Valjala is a Lutheran church in Valjala, on the island of Saaremaa, Estonia.

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Valmiera

Valmiera (Wolmar; Wolmar see other names) is the largest city of the historical Vidzeme region, Latvia, with a total area of.

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Valmiera Castle

Valmiera Castle (Valmieras pils, Schloß Wolmar) was a castle in Valmiera, Latvia.

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Vasknarva

Vasknarva (Сыренец, Syrenets; Neuschloss) is a village in Alutaguse Parish, Ida-Viru County in northeastern Estonia.

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Vastseliina Castle

Vastseliina Castle ('Vastseliina piiskopilinnus', 'Neuhausen', Novgorodok) was a castle of the Livonian Order, Bishopric of Dorpat.

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Vecmīlgrāvis

Vecmīlgrāvis is a neighbourhood in Riga, the capital of Latvia, located in the northern part of the city, about 12–14 km from the city centre.

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Vends (Latvia)

The Vends (Vendi, Венды) were a small tribe that lived in the 12th to 16th centuries in the area around the town of Wenden (now Cēsis) in present-day north-central Latvia.

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Ventspils

Ventspils (see other names) is a town in northwestern Latvia in the historical Courland region of Latvia, and is the sixth largest city in the country.

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Ventspils Castle

Ventspils Castle (Windau) is located in Ventspils, Latvia.

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Viljandi

Viljandi (Fellin) is a town and municipality in southern Estonia with a population of 17,473 in 2013.

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Viljandi Castle

Viljandi castle (Viljandi ordulinnus, Ordensburg Fellin) of Livonian Order, construction of which started 1224 in place of a former hillfort, was one of the strongest castles in Livonia.

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Vilnius Castle Complex

The Vilnius Castle Complex (Vilniaus pilių kompleksas or Vilniaus pilys) is a group of cultural, and historic structures on the left bank of the Neris River, near its confluence with the Vilnia River, in Vilnius, Lithuania.

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Visaginas

Visaginas is the centre of Lithuania's youngest municipality, located on the north-eastern edge of the country.

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Vitas (bishop)

The Blessed Vitas, O.P., or Wit (died ca. 1269) was a Polish Dominican friar from the Kraków convent and the first bishop in Lithuania (1253–1255).

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Vykintas

Monument to Duke Vykintas in Tverai Vykintas (died ca. 1253) was Duke of Samogitia and a rival to the future King of Lithuania, Mindaugas.

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Vyshgorodok

Vyshgorodok (Вышгородок) (Višgorodoka or Augšpils) is a rural locality (village) in Gavry volost, Pytalovsky District of Pskov Oblast, Russia, founded in the 15th century as a borderline fortress.

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Vytenis

Vytenis (Віцень, Vićien') was the Grand Duke of Lithuania from c. 1295 to c. 1316.

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Walter von Cronberg

Walter von Cronberg (1477 or 1479 – 4 April 1545) was the 38th Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, serving from 1527 to 1543.

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Wilhelm von Urenbach

Wilhelm von Urenbach was chosen as the Grand Master of the Teutonic Order in 1253 in opposition to Grand Master Poppo von Osterna, elected by the majority of the knights.

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Wolter von Plettenberg

Wolter (or Walter) von Plettenberg (c. 1450 – February 28, 1535) was the Master (Landmeister) of the Livonian Order from 1494 to 1535 and one of the greatest leaders of the Teutonic knights.

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Zaļenieki Manor

Zaļenieki Manor, also called Zaļā Manor because of the German word Grünhof, is a manor house in the historical region of Zemgale, in Latvia.

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Zarasai District Municipality

Zarasai District Municipality is one of 60 municipalities in Lithuania.

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1237

Year 1237 (MCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1238

Year 1238 (MCCXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1241

Year 1241 (MCCXLI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1260

Year 1260 (MCCLX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1261

Year 1261 (MCCLXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1268

Year 1268 (MCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1270

Year 1270 (MCCLXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1279

Year 1279 A.D (MCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1298

Year 1298 (MCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1343

Year 1343 (MCCCXLIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1344

Year 1344 (MCCCXLIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1346

Year 1346 (MCCCXLVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1501

Year 1501 ('''MDI''') was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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Redirects here:

Livonian branch of the Teutonic Order, Livonian order, Order of Livonia, Teutonic Order in Livonia.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Livonian_Order

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