345 relations: Administrative divisions of the Novgorod Republic, Aizkraukle, Aizkraukle Castle, Aizpute, Aizpute Castle, Alūksne, Alūksne Castle, Albert Suerbeer, Alexander Nevsky, Alexander Nevsky (Prokofiev), Alsunga Castle, Andrei of Polotsk, Anna Jagiellon, Anno von Sangershausen, Apuolė, Šešuoliai, Šiauliai, Šlokenbeka Castle, Žagarė, Balthasar Russow, Baltic states, Bandava, Battle of Aizkraukle, Battle of Ashmyany, Battle of Bornholm (1456), Battle of Durbe, Battle of Garoza, Battle of Grunwald, Battle of Karuse, Battle of Lubawa, Battle of Memel (1257), Battle of Memel (1323), Battle of Pagastin, Battle of Pokarwis, Battle of Skuodas, Battle of the Siritsa River, Battle of the Vikhra River, Battle of Turaida, Battle of Ula, Battle of Wesenberg (1268), Battle of Wilkomierz, Battle on the Ice, Battles of Wenden (1577–78), Bauska, Bauska Castle, Bauska District, Bēne Manor, Bebrene Manor, Bishopric of Ösel–Wiek, Bishopric of Dorpat, ..., Braslaw, Burtnieki Castle, Butigeidis, Cēsis Castle, Charles X Gustav of Sweden, Christianization of Lithuania, Chronica Jutensis, Colonization attempts by Poland, Congress of Lutsk, Counties of Estonia, Courland, Crusades, Curonian Kings, Curonians, Daniil Kholmsky, Daniil Shchenya, Daugavgrīva Abbey, Daugavpils, Daugirutis, Daumantas of Lithuania, Daumantas of Pskov, David of Hrodna, Demetrius I Starshy, Dinaburga Castle, Dobele Castle, Dominions of Sweden, Duchy of Courland and Semigallia, Duchy of Livonia, Duchy of Samogitia, Dundaga Castle, Economy of the Pskov Republic, Eltz, Embūte Castle, Ernst von Ratzeburg, Estland, Estonia, Estonia under Swedish rule, Estonia–Latvia relations, Family of Gediminas, February 16, February 18, Freytag-Loringhoven, Friedrich Wilhelm Rembert von Berg, Frydag, Gauja Valley, Gdov Kremlin, Gdovsky District, Gediminas, Gedvydas, German town law, Gotthard Kettler, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Grobiņa Castle, Gulbene, Harju County, Hartmann von Heldrungen, Heinrich von Hohenlohe, Heinrich von Plauen, Helme, Estonia, Hermann Castle, Hermann of Buxhoeveden, Bishop of Ösel-Wiek, Hermann von Wartberge, Hiiu County, Hiiumaa, History of Estonia, History of Europe, History of Latvia, History of Lithuania, History of Lithuania (1219–95), History of Riga, History of Sweden (1523–1611), House of Plettenberg, House of the Livonian Noble Corporation, Iacob Heraclid, Ilūkste, Jaunpils Castle, Jaunutis, Jelgava, Jelgava Palace, Jogentagana, Johann Freytag von Loringhoven, Jonas Kęsgaila, July 13, June 1, Kaarma-Kirikuküla, Kandava, Kavilda stronghold, Kõpu Lighthouse, Königsberg, Keila, Ketteler, Kihelkonna St. Michael's Church, Kingdom of Lithuania, Klaipėda Region, Kneiphof, Krasnogorodsk, Krasnogorodsky District, Kreenholm, Krimulda Castle, Krustpils Castle, Kuldīga, Laiuse Castle, Laiusevälja, Latgale, Latgalians, Latvia, Lübeck, Lengvenis, Lengvenis (13th century), Limbaži, List of Baltic Germans, List of battles 301–1300, List of churches in Estonia, List of civil wars, List of defunct Catholic religious institutes, List of divided islands, List of dukes in Europe, List of Estonian flags, List of Russian saints, List of Russian saints (until 15th century), List of state leaders in 1260, List of state leaders in 1348, List of state leaders in 1520, List of states in the Holy Roman Empire, List of states in the Holy Roman Empire (L), List of wars 1000–1499, List of wars 1500–1799, List of wars involving Denmark, List of wars involving Estonia, List of wars involving Poland, List of wars involving Russia, List of wars involving Ukraine, Lithuania, Lithuania Minor, Lithuanian Civil War (1381–84), Lithuanian Civil War (1432–1438), Lithuanian Crusade, Livonia, Livonian Brothers of the Sword, Livonian campaign against Rus', Livonian Crusade, Livonian Rhymed Chronicle, Livonian War, Livonians, Ludza, Ludza Castle, Lutsk, Maasi, Maasilinna Castle, Mažeikiai, March 5, Margaret I of Denmark, Marshal, Mārtiņi, Mikołaj "the Black" Radziwiłł, Military order (monastic 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Secularization, Semigallians, Semyon Olshanski, Siege of Kaunas, Siege of Königsberg, Siege of Malbork (1454), Siege of Marienburg (1410), Sigismund Kęstutaitis, Sigulda Medieval Castle, Sillamäe, Sloka, Latvia, Solovetsky Monastery, Staël von Holstein, Stanislovas Kęsgaila, State of the Teutonic Order, Stende, Tallinn, Tautvilas, Tērvete, Terra Mariana, Teutonic Order, Thirteen Years' War (1454–66), Thomas Schöning, Timeline of Estonian history, Timeline of historical geopolitical changes, Timeline of Latvian history, Toompea, Traidenis, Treaty of Christmemel, Treaty of Dovydiškės, Treaty of Dubysa, Treaty of Königsberg (1384), Treaty of Königsberg (1390), Treaty of Melno, Treaty of Salynas, Treaty of Vilnius (1559), Treaty of Vilnius (1561), Treniota, Truce of Łęczyca, Tukums, Ukmergė, Union of Krewo, Upytė, Vaišvilkas, Vainius, Valdemar IV of Denmark, Valjala Church, Valmiera, Valmiera Castle, Vasknarva, Vastseliina Castle, Vecmīlgrāvis, Vends (Latvia), Ventspils, Ventspils Castle, Viljandi, Viljandi Castle, Vilnius Castle Complex, Visaginas, Vitas (bishop), Vykintas, Vyshgorodok, Vytenis, Walter von Cronberg, Wilhelm von Urenbach, Wolter von Plettenberg, Zaļenieki Manor, Zarasai District Municipality, 1237, 1238, 1241, 1260, 1261, 1268, 1270, 1279, 1298, 1343, 1344, 1346, 1501. 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The administrative division of Novgorod Republic is not definitely known; the country was divided into several tysyachas (lit. thousands) and volosts.
Aizkraukle (Ascheraden) is a town in Vidzeme region in Latvia, the administrative centre of Aizkraukle Municipality on the right bank of the Daugava River.
Aizkraukle Castle (Aizkraukles pils; Ascheraden) is a ruined medieval castle, located on the right bank of the river Daugava in Latvia to the west of the modern town of Aizkraukle.
Aizpute (Hasenpoth) is a town in western Latvia's Aizpute Municipality in the valley of Tebra River, northeast of Liepāja.
Aizpute Castle is a Livonian Order castle in the town of Aizpute in the historical region of Courland, in western Latvia.
Alūksne is a town on the shores of Lake Alūksne in northeastern Latvia near the borders with Estonia and Russia.
Alūksne Castle (Marienburgas pils, Alūksnes pils; Marienburg) is a castle of Teutonic Knights in current Alūksne, North-Eastern Latvia.
Albert Suerbeer (ca. 1200 – 1273) was the first Archbishop of Riga in Livonia.
Alexander Nevsky (Александр Невский) is the score composed by Sergei Prokofiev for Sergei Eisenstein's 1938 film Alexander Nevsky.
Alsunga Castle (Alsungas pils; Schloss Alschwangen) is a castle in Alsunga village, in the historical region of Courland, in western Latvia.
Andrei of Polotsk (Андрэй Альгердавіч, Andrius Algirdaitis, Andrzej Olgierdowic, ca. 1325 – 12 August 1399, in the Battle of the Vorskla River) was the eldest son of Algirdas, Grand Duke of Lithuania, and his first wife Maria of Vitebsk.
Anna Jagiellon (Anna Jagiellonka, Ona Jogailaitė; 18 October 1523 – 12 November 1596) was Queen of Poland and Grand Duchess of Lithuania in her own right from 1575 to 1586.
Anno von Sangerhausen (died 8 July 1273) served as the Grand Master of the Teutonic Order from 1256 to 1273.
Apuolė is a historic village in Skuodas district municipality, Lithuania.
Šešuoliai is a small town in central Lithuania.
Šiauliai is the fourth largest city in Lithuania, with a population of 107,086.
Šlokenbeka Castle (Šlokenbekas pils) is a fortified manor in the historical region of Semigallia, in Latvia.
Žagarė (see also other names) is a city located in the Joniškis district, northern Lithuania, close to the border with Latvia.
Balthasar Russow (1536–1600) was one of the most important Livonian and Estonian chroniclers.
The Baltic states, also known as the Baltic countries, Baltic republics, Baltic nations or simply the Baltics (Balti riigid, Baltimaad, Baltijas valstis, Baltijos valstybės), is a geopolitical term used for grouping the three sovereign countries in Northern Europe on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.
Bandava (in Latvian and Lithuanian; Bandowe) - and old Curonian land which existed in the territory of the Latvia during the late iron age until it was conquered and divided in 1253 by Bishopric of Courland and Livonian Order.
The Battle of Aizkraukle or Ascheraden was a battle fought on March 5, 1279, between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, led by Traidenis, and the Livonian branch of the Teutonic Order near Aizkraukle (Ascheraden) in present-day Latvia.
The Battle of Ashmiany was a medieval battle fought on 8 December 1432 at Ashmiany between the armies of Švitrigaila and Sigismund Kęstutaitis, two pretenders to the throne of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania during the Lithuanian Civil War (1432–1438).
The Battle of Bornholm was a naval battle which took place near the Danish island of Bornholm, between privateers from the city of Gdańsk (Danzig) and a transport convoy of Danish and Livonian ships which were attempting to bring supplies and reinforcements to the Teutonic Knights in Prussia, during the Thirteen Years' War (1454–66) between the Kingdom of Poland and the Prussian Confederation on one hand, and the Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights on the other.
The Battle of Durbe (Durbes kauja, Durbės mūšis, Schlacht an der Durbe) was a medieval battle fought near Durbe, east of Liepāja, in present-day Latvia during the Livonian Crusade.
The Battle of Garoza was one of the biggest battles of the Livonian crusade which occurred in 1287 between the Livonian Order and Semigallians in the territory of modern Latvia.
The Battle of Grunwald, First Battle of Tannenberg or Battle of Žalgiris, was fought on 15 July 1410 during the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War.
The Battle of Karuse or Battle on the Ice was fought on 16 February 1270 between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Livonian Order on the frozen Baltic Sea between the island of Muhu and the mainland.
Battle of Lubawa or Löbau was a battle fought between the Teutonic Order and Prussians in 1263 during the Great Prussian Uprising.
The Battle of Memel was fought between the Samogitians and the Livonian Order in 1257 near Memel (now Klaipėda in Lithuania).
The Battle of Memel was fought between the Samogitians and the Livonian branch of the Teutonic Knights in 1323.
Battle of Pagastin was a medieval battle fought between the Teutonic Knights and Prussians in 1271 during the Great Prussian Uprising (1260–1274).
The Battle of Pokarwis was a medieval battle fought in several skirmishes between pagan Old Prussians and the crusading Teutonic Knights on January 22, 1261 during the Great Prussian Uprising that followed the failed first Prussian Uprising of 1242-1249.
The Battle of Skuodas or Schoden was a medieval battle fought in ca.
The Battle of the Siritsa River (also Seritsa) took place on 27 August 1501 between the forces of the Livonian Order under Grand Master Wolter von Plettenberg on the one side and the forces of the Grand Duchy of Moscow and Pskov Republic on the other.
The Battle of the Vikhra River (Битва на реке Вихре, Мсціслаўская бітва) took place on 29 April 1386 on the Vikhra River, tributary of the Sozh River, near Mstislavl between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Principality of Smolensk.
The Battle of Turaida or Treiden (also known as the Battle on Aa) was fought on June 1, 1298 on the banks of the Gauja River (Livländische Aa) near the Turaida Castle (German: Treiden).
The Battle of Ula or Battle of Chashniki was fought during the Livonian War on 26 January 1564 between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Tsardom of Russia on the Ula River (tributary of the Daugava River) north of Chashniki in the Vitebsk Region.
The Battle of Wesenberg, Rakvere or Rakovor was a battle fought on February 18, 1268, between the combined forces of Danish Duchy of Estonia, Bishopric of Dorpat, Livonian branch of the Teutonic Knights and local Estonian militia on one side and the forces of Novgorod and Pskov, led by Dmitry of Pereslavl, on the other.
The Battle of Wilkomierz (see other names) took place on September 1, 1435, near Ukmergė in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
The Battle on the Ice (Ледовое побоище, Ledovoye poboish'ye); Schlacht auf dem Eise; Jäälahing; Schlacht auf dem Peipussee) was fought between the Republic of Novgorod led by prince Alexander Nevsky and the crusader army led by the Livonian branch of the Teutonic Knights on April 5, 1242, at Lake Peipus. The battle is notable for having been fought largely on the frozen lake, and this gave the battle its name. The battle was a significant defeat sustained by the crusaders during the Northern Crusades, which were directed against pagans and Eastern Orthodox Christians rather than Muslims in the Holy Land. The Crusaders' defeat in the battle marked the end of their campaigns against the Orthodox Novgorod Republic and other Slavic territories for the next century. The event was glorified in Sergei Eisenstein's historical drama film Alexander Nevsky, released in 1938, which created a popular image of the battle often mistaken for the real events. Sergei Prokofiev turned his score for the film into a concert cantata of the same title, with "The Battle on the Ice" being its longest movement.
The Battles of Wenden were a series of battles for control of the stronghold of Wenden (Cēsis, Kiesia, Võnnu), in present-day Latvia, fought during the Livonian War in 1577 and 1578.
Bauska is a town in Bauska Municipality, in the Zemgale region of southern Latvia.
Bauska Castle (Schloss Bauske) is a complex consisting of the ruins of an earlier castle and a later palace on the outskirts of the Latvian city of Bauska.
Bauska District (Bauskas rajons) was an administrative division of Latvia, located in Semigallia region, in the country's centre.
Bēne Manor is a manor house in the historical region of Zemgale, in Latvia.
Bebrene Manor (Bebrenes muiža, Rittergut Bewern) is a manor house in Bebrene, Ilūkste municipality, Latvia, in the historical region of Selonia.
The Bishopric of Ösel–Wiek (Saare-Lääne piiskopkond; Bistum Ösel–Wiek; Low German: Bisdom Ösel–Wiek; contemporary Ecclesia Osiliensis) was a Roman Catholic diocese and semi-independent prince-bishopric (parto of Terra Mariana, i.e. Livonia) in the Holy Roman Empire, covering what are now Saare, Hiiu and Lääne counties of Estonia.
The Bishopric of Dorpat (Tartu piiskopkond; Bisdom Dorpat; Ecclesia Tarbatensis) was a medieval prince-bishopric, i;e; both a diocese of the Roman Catholic Church and a temporal principality ruled by the bishop of the diocese.
Braslaw or Braslaŭ (translit; Браслав; Brasław) is a town in the Vitebsk Region of Belarus, an administrative center of the Braslaw District.
Burtnieki Castle (Schloss Burtneck; Asti ordulinnus) is a castle in the historical region of Vidzeme, in northern Latvia.
Butigeidis (Budikid; Будзікід) was the Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1285 to 1291.
Cēsis Castle is a Livonian castle situated in Cēsis, Latvia.
Charles X Gustav, also Carl Gustav (Karl X Gustav; 8 November 1622 – 13 February 1660), was King of Sweden from 1654 until his death.
The Christianization of Lithuania (Lietuvos krikštas) occurred in 1387, initiated by King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania Władysław II Jagiełło and his cousin Vytautas the Great.
Chronica Jutensis (Danish: Jyske Krønike English: Jutland Chronicle) also known as Continuatio compendii Saxonis or Chronica Danorum, is a small Danish historical work from the middle of the 14th century, written in Latin.
Poland never formally had any colonial territories, however over its history the acquisition of such territories was at times contemplated, but never attempted.
The Congress of Lutsk was a diplomatic gathering held in Lubart's Castle in Lutsk, Grand Duchy of Lithuania over a 13-week period beginning on January 6, 1429.
Counties (maakond, plural maakonnad) are the first-level administrative subdivisions of Estonia.
Courland, or Kurzeme (in Latvian; Kurāmō; German and Kurland; Curonia/Couronia; Курляндия; Kuršas; Kurlandia), is one of the historical and cultural regions in western Latvia.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
Curonian Kings (Kurische Könige; Kuršu ķoniņi) are a Latvian cultural group, originally lesser vassals and free farmers that lived in seven villages between Goldingen (Kuldīga) and Hasenpoth (Aizpute) in Courland.
The Curonians or Kurs (Curonian: Kursi; Kuren; kurši; курши; kuršiai; kuralased; Kurowie) were a Baltic tribe living on the shores of the Baltic Sea in what are now the western parts of Latvia and Lithuania from the 5th to the 16th centuries, when they merged with other Baltic tribes.
Daniel of Kholm (Russian Даниил Дмитриевич Холмский; died in 1493) was a Russian knyaz, boyar and voyevoda, one of the most prominent military leaders of Ivan the Great.
Prince Daniil Vasiliyevich Shchenya (? – no later than 1519) was a leading Russian military leader during the reigns of Ivan III and Vasili III.
Daugavgrīva Abbey or Dünamünde Abbey (Daugavgrīvas klosteris; Kloster Dünamünde; Mons S. Nicolai) was a Cistercian monastery in Daugavgrīva (Dünamünde) in Latvia, about 12 kilometres from Riga, of which Daugavgrīva has formed a district since 1959.
Daugavpils (Daugpiļs; Даугавпилс; see other names) is a city in southeastern Latvia, located on the banks of the Daugava River, from which the city gets its name.
Daugirutis or Dangerutis (Dangeruthe or Daugeruthe) was an early Lithuanian duke who committed suicide in 1213.
Daumantas or Dovmont was the Grand Duke of Lithuania in 1282–1285.
Daumantas or Dovmont (Russian: Довмонт, Belarusian: Даўмонт, Christian name Timothy (Тимофей),; c. 1240? – May 17, 1299), was a Lithuanian princeling best remembered as a military leader of the Principality of Pskov between 1266 and 1299.
David (Давыд Гарадзенскі, Dovydas Gardiniškis, killed in 1326) was a castellan of Hrodna and one of the most famous military commanders of Gediminas, Grand Duke of Lithuania.
Dmitry I Starshy or Dmitry of Bryansk (Dmitrijus Algirdaitis, died on 12 August 1399 in the Battle of the Vorskla River) was the second eldest son of Algirdas, Grand Duke of Lithuania, and his first wife Maria of Vitebsk.
Dinaburga Castle (German: Dünaburg), also known as Vecdaugavpils or Vecpils, is a castle located in Naujene parish east of Daugavpils, in the historical region of Latgalia, in eastern Latvia.
Dobele Castle is a castle in the town of Dobele on the west bank of the river, in the historical region of Zemgale, in Latvia.
The Dominions of Sweden or Svenska besittningar ("Swedish possessions") were territories that historically came under control of the Swedish Crown, but never became fully integrated with Sweden.
The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia (Ducatus Curlandiæ et Semigalliæ, Księstwo Kurlandii i Semigalii, Herzogtum Kurland und Semgallen, Kurzemes un Zemgales hercogiste) was a duchy in the Baltic region that existed from 1561 to 1569 as a vassal state of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and from 1569 to 1726 to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, incorporated into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth by Sejm in 1726, On 28 March 1795, it was annexed by the Russian Empire in the Third Partition of Poland.
The Duchy of Livonia (Księstwo Inflanckie; Livonijos kunigaikštystė; Ducatus Ultradunensis; Üleväina-Liivimaa hertsogkond; Pārdaugavas hercogiste; also referred to as Polish Livonia or Inflanty) was a territory of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania—and later the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth—that existed from 1561 to 1621.
The Duchy of Samogitia (Žemaičių seniūnija, Žemaitėjės seniūnėjė, Księstwo żmudzkie)Grzegorz Błaszczyk, Żmudź w XVII i XVIII wieku: zaludnienie i struktura społeczna, Uniwersytet im.
Dundaga Castle is a medieval castle in Dundaga, Latvia, in the Dundaga municipality.
Pskov has always played a special role in Russian trade with the West.
The House of Eltz is a noted German noble family of the Uradel.
The ruins of Embūte Castle are located in Embūte, Latvia (Amboten), in the Embūte parish, Vaiņode municipality, not far from an ancient castle hill erected by Curonians.
Ernst von Ratzeburg or Rassburg (died 5 March 1279) was a member of the Livonian Order.
* Estland is the modern name for Estonia in German, Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, Dutch and some other Germanic languages, with the notable exception of modern English (Old English did use the term).
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
Estonia under Swedish rule signifies the time between 1558 and 1710, when parts of present-day Estonia (and after 1645 all of the present-day country) were under Swedish rule.
Estonia and Latvia, the two northernmost Baltic states, share 343 km of common borders.
The family of Gediminas is a group of family members of Gediminas, Grand Duke of Lithuania (ca. 1275–1341), who interacted in the 14th century.
The family Freytag (also: Vrydach, Frydag, Friday and various other slightly different spellings) is a noble family that comes from the Uradel Westphalia and the surname was first documented in 1198 and 1217.
Friedrich Wilhelm Rembert Graf von Berg (Frederick William Rembert, Count Berg; Russified into Граф Фёдор Фёдорович фон Берг, Graf Feodor Feodorovich von Berg) was an Baltic-German nobleman, statesman, diplomat and military leader who served in the Imperial Russian Army, the count of Austria (from 9.1849) and Finland (from 26.8.1856), and was the 5th last Field Marshal (promoted in 1866) in the history of the Russian Empire.
Frydag family (also: Vrydach, Freytag, Friday and various other slightly different spellings) is a noble German family, known since the beginning of the 14th century, and who originated from the Uradel of Westphalia and were first documented between 1198 and 1217 with the person of Wecelo Vriedach.
The Gauja Valley (Gaujas senleja) is a valley of the Gauja river in Latvia, which is 1 to 2.5 km wide, and the maximum depth near Sigulda is 85 m. The valley is the main constituent of the Gauja National Park founded in 1973.
The Gdov Kremlin (Гдовский Кремль) is located on a bank of the Gdovka River, overlooking the Russian town of Gdov.
Gdovsky District (Гдо́вский райо́н) is an administrativeLaw #833-oz and municipalLaw #420-oz district (raion), one of the twenty-four in Pskov Oblast, Russia.
Gediminas (– December 1341) was Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1315 or 1316 until his death.
Gedvydas (or Edivid) (believed to have died ca. 1253) was one of the sons of Dausprungas and nephews of King of Lithuania Mindaugas.
The German town law (Deutsches Stadtrecht) or German municipal concerns (Deutsches Städtewesen) was a set of early town privileges based on the Magdeburg rights developed by Otto I. The Magdeburg Law became the inspiration for regional town charters not only in Germany, but also in Central and Eastern Europe who modified it during the Middle Ages.
Gotthard von Kettler (also Ketteler, Gotthard Kettler, Herzog von Kurland; 2 February 1517 – 17 May 1587) was the last Master of the Livonian Order and the first Duke of Courland and Semigallia.
The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state that lasted from the 13th century up to 1795, when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, and Austria.
Grobiņa Castle is a medieval castle located in the town of Grobiņa, Latvia, in western Courland.
Gulbene (Schwanenburg) is a town in northeastern Latvia.
Harju County (Harju maakond), or Harjumaa (Harrien or Rugel, Harria) is one of the 15 counties of Estonia.
Hartmann von Heldrungen (died 19 August 1283) was the 11th Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, serving from 1273 to 1283.
Heinrich von Hohenlohe (died 15 July 1249) was the seventh Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, serving between 1244 and 1249.
Heinrich von Plauen (the Elder) (ca. 1370–1429) was the 27th Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, serving from November 1410 to October 1413.
Helme is a small borough (alevik) in Helme Parish, Valga County, in southern Estonia.
Hermann Castle (also Hermannsfeste, Herman Castle, Narva Castle, and Narva fortress. (Hermanni linnus) is a castle in Narva, eastern Estonia. It was founded in 1256 by the Danes and the first stone castle was built in the beginning of the 14th century. The German Livonian Teutonic knights order purchased the castle on 29 August 1346, and for most of its history the castle was German Teutonic.
Hermann of Buxhoeveden or Bekeshoevede (1230-1285) was a medieval clergyman.
Hermann von Wartberge (died ca. 1380) was a chronicler of the Livonian Order.
Hiiu County (Hiiu maakond), or Hiiumaa, is one of 15 counties of Estonia, being the smallest county both in terms of area and population.
Hiiumaa (German & Dagö; Dagø; Hiidenmaa) is the second largest island (989 km²) in Estonia.
The history of Estonia forms a part of the history of Europe.
The history of Europe covers the peoples inhabiting Europe from prehistory to the present.
The history of Latvia began around 9000 BC with the end of the last glacial period in northern Europe.
The history of Lithuania dates back to settlements founded many thousands of years ago, but the first written record of the name for the country dates back to 1009 AD.
The history of Lithuania between 1219 and 1295 concerns the establishment and early history of the first Lithuanian state, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
The history of Riga, the capital of Latvia, begins as early as the 2nd century with a settlement, the Duna urbs, at a natural harbor not far upriver from the mouth of the Daugava River.
The Early Vasa era is a period that in Swedish and Finnish history lasted between 1523–1611.
Plettenberg is a Westphalian noble family of the Uradel.
The House of the Livonian Noble Corporation (Vidzemes bruņniecības nams) is a historical building in Riga, Latvia, constructed to house the Landtag of the Livonian Noble Corporation in the Governorate of Livonia.
Iacob Heraclid (or Eraclid; Ἰάκωβος Ἡρακλείδης; 1527 – November 5, 1563), born Basilicò and also known as Iacobus Heraclides, Heraclid Despotul, or Despot Vodă ("Despot the Voivode"), was a Greek Maltese soldier, adventurer and intellectual, who reigned as Prince of Moldavia from November 1561 to November 1563.
Ilūkste (Alūksta, Ilūkšta; Illuxt) is a town and a seat of Ilūkste Municipality, southeastern Latvia.
Jaunpils Castle (Schloß Neuenburg) is a castle in the historical region of Zemgale, in Latvia.
Jaunutis (Jawnuta, Яўнут; literally young man; baptized: Ioann, "Jawnuta", "John" or "Ivan"; ca. 1300 – after 1366) was the Grand Duke of Lithuania from his father Gediminas' death in 1341 until he was deposed by his elder brothers Algirdas and Kęstutis in 1345.
Jelgava (Mitau; see also other names) is a city in central Latvia about southwest of Riga with about 63,000 inhabitants.
Jelgava Palace (Jelgavas pils) or Mitau Palace is the largest Baroque-style palace in the Baltic states.
Jogentagana (Latin: Jogentagania) was a small landlocked ancient Estonian county in the eastern part of the territory of Estonia.
Johann Freitag von Loringhoven (also Johann Freytag von Loringhoven, and Johann Fridach van Loringhoffe) (c. 1430-May 26, 1494) was a member of the Freytag von Loringhoven family and was a knight of the Teutonic Knights.
Jonas Kęsgaila (or Kęsgailaitis) (Jan Kieżgajło, Johannes Kyensgalowicz, died 1485) was a Lithuanian nobleman, son of Mykolas Kęsgaila of the Kęsgaila family.
Kaarma-Kirikuküla is a village in Saaremaa Parish, Saare County in western Estonia.
Kandava (Kandau; Kāndav) is a town in Latvia.
The Kavilda stronghold (Kavilda vasallilinnus, Kawelecht) was a castle in Tartu County, Estonia, on the western slope of the Kavilda River.
Kõpu Lighthouse (Kõpu tuletorn) is one of the best known symbols and tourist sights on the Estonian island of Hiiumaa.
Königsberg is the name for a former German city that is now Kaliningrad, Russia.
Keila (Kegel) is a town and an urban municipality in Harju County in north-western Estonia.
Ketteler (also Kettler) is the name of a German noble family that originated in Westphalia.
The Kingdom of Lithuania was a Lithuanian monarchy which existed from 1251 to roughly 1263.
The Klaipėda Region (Klaipėdos kraštas) or Memel Territory (Memelland or Memelgebiet) was defined by the Treaty of Versailles in 1920 and refers to the most northern part of the German province of East Prussia, when as Memelland it was put under the administration of the Council of Ambassadors.
Coat of arms of Kneiphof Postcard of Kneiphöfsche Langgasse Reconstruction of Kneiphof in Kaliningrad's museum Kneiphof (Knypava; Knipawa) was a quarter of central Königsberg, Germany.
Krasnogorodsk (Красногородск; Kraasna) is an urban locality (a work settlement) and the administrative center of Krasnogorodsky District of Pskov Oblast, Russia, located on the Sinyaya River south of Pskov.
Krasnogorodsky District (Красногоро́дский райо́н) is an administrativeLaw #833-oz and municipalLaw #420-oz district (raion), one of the twenty-four in Pskov Oblast, Russia.
Kreenholm (Krähnholm, meaning crow islet) is an island in the Narva River, in the city of Narva belonging to Estonia.
The Krimulda Castle is located just outside Sigulda, Sigulda municipality, Latvia and is a tourist attraction.
Krustpils Castle (German: Kreutzburg, Polish: Krzyżbork) is a castle in Jēkabpils, Latvia.
Kuldīga (Goldingen) is a town in western Latvia.
Laiuse Castle (Estonian: Laiuse ordulinnus, German: Schloß Lais) was a Livonian Order castle in Laiusevälja, Jõgeva Parish, Estonia.
Laiusevälja is a village in Jõgeva Parish, Jõgeva County, Estonia.
Latgale (Latgola; Латгалия; Lettgallia) is one of the four historical and cultural regions of Latvia recognised in the Constitution of the Latvian Republic.
Latgalians, sometimes also Ancient Latvians (Letti, Lethi, modern; variant translations also include Latgallians, Lettigalls or Lettigallians), were an ancient Baltic tribe.
Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.
Lübeck is a city in Schleswig-Holstein, northern Germany, and one of the major ports of Germany.
Lengvenis (Simeon Lingwen, born ca. 1360 – died after 1431; Лугвен-Сымон, Łuhvien; Лугвений, Лугвен, Лугвень, Lugven(y), Lingwen Semen Olgierdowicz) was one of the sons of Algirdas, Grand Duke of Lithuania, and the ruler of Great Novgorod Republic (1389–1392, 1406–1411).
Lengvenis (Lengewin, Langwinus) was one of the local dukes in the early Grand Duchy of Lithuania during the reign of King Mindaugas (1230s–1263).
Limbaži (Lemsalu, Lemsal, Limbaž) is a town in the Vidzeme region of northern Latvia.
This is a list of notable Baltic Germans.
This is the List of churches in Estonia.
The Latin term bellum civile was first used of the Roman civil wars that began in the last third of the second century BC.
This page lists religious institutes of the Catholic Church that are now defunct.
This is a list of islands whose land is divided by one or more international borders.
The following is a list of historic duchies in Europe.
The national flag of Estonia is a tricolour featuring three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), black, and white.
This list of Russian saints includes the saints canonized by the Russian Orthodox Church and the Russian saints canonized by other Orthodox Churches.
Saints in the Russian Orthodox Church are confirmed by canonization which lists the decedent into the Community of Saints.
This list of states which were part of the Holy Roman Empire includes any territory ruled by an authority that had been granted imperial immediacy, as well as many other feudal entities such as lordship, sous-fiefs and allodial fiefs.
This is a list of states in the Holy Roman Empire beginning with the letter L.
This is a list of wars that began between 1000 to 1499. Other wars can be found in the historical lists of wars and the list of wars extended by diplomatic irregularity.
This is a list of wars that began between 1500 to 1799. Other wars can be found in the historical lists of wars and the list of wars extended by diplomatic irregularity.
This is a list of wars involving the Kingdom of Denmark.
Below is a list of military conflicts in which Estonians participated on a larger scale or took place on Estonian territory.
This is a chronological list of military conflicts in which Polish armed forces won or took place on Polish territory from the reign of Mieszko I (960–992) to the ongoing military operations.
The following is an incomplete list of armed conflicts and wars fought by Russia, by Russian people, from antiquity to the present day.
The following is an incomplete list of major wars fought by Ukraine, by Ukrainian people or regular armies during periods when independent Ukrainian states existed, from antiquity to the present day.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
Lithuania Minor (Mažoji Lietuva; Kleinlitauen; Litwa Mniejsza; Máлая Литвá) or Prussian Lithuania (Prūsų Lietuva; Preußisch-Litauen, Litwa Pruska) is a historical ethnographic region of Prussia, later East Prussia in Germany, where Prussian Lithuanians or Lietuvininkai lived.
The Lithuanian Civil War of 1381–1384 was the first struggle for power between the cousins Jogaila, Grand Duke of Lithuania and later King of Poland, and Vytautas the Great.
The Lithuanian Civil War of 1432–1438 was a conflict over the succession to the throne of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after Vytautas the Great died in 1430 without leaving an heir.
The Lithuanian Crusade was a series of campaigns by the Teutonic Order and the Livonian Order, two crusading military orders, to convert the pagan Grand Duchy of Lithuania into Roman Catholicism.
Livonia (Līvõmō, Liivimaa, German and Scandinavian languages: Livland, Latvian and Livonija, Inflanty, archaic English Livland, Liwlandia; Liflyandiya) is a historical region on the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea.
The Livonian Brothers of the Sword (Fratres militiæ Christi Livoniae, Schwertbrüderorden, Ordre des Chevaliers Porte-Glaive) was a Catholic military order established by Albert, the third bishop of Riga (or possibly by Theoderich von Treyden), in 1202.
The Livonian campaign against Rus' was a military campaign that lasted from 1240 to 1242, and was carried out by the Teutonic Knights of the Livonian Order with the aim to conquer the lands of Pskov and Novgorod and convert them to Catholicism.
The Livonian Crusade refers to the conquest of the territory constituting modern Latvia and Estonia during the pope-sanctioned Northern Crusades, performed mostly by Germans from the Holy Roman Empire and Danes.
The Livonian Rhymed Chronicle (Livländische Reimchronik) was a chronicle written in High German by an anonymous writer.
The Livonian War (1558–1583) was fought for control of Old Livonia (in the territory of present-day Estonia and Latvia), when the Tsardom of Russia faced a varying coalition of Denmark–Norway, the Kingdom of Sweden, and the Union (later Commonwealth) of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Poland.
The Livonians, or Livs (Livonian: līvlizt), are a Finnic ethnic group indigenous to northern Latvia and southwestern Estonia.
Ludza (Lucyn, Люцин, Lyucin) is a town in the Latgalia region of eastern Latvia.
Ludza Castle (Ludzas pils) was a medieval castle built in Gothic style located next to a Catholic church, on the site of a former Latgalian wooden castle in the centre Ludza, Latvia, a small town in eastern Latgale.
Lutsk (Luc'k,, Łuck, Luck) is a city on the Styr River in northwestern Ukraine.
Maasi is a village in Saaremaa Parish, Saare County, on the eastern part of Saaremaa Island, Estonia.
Maasilinn Castle (Soneburg) is located in Maasi village in Orissaare Parish, Saare County, Estonia.
Mažeikiai (Samogitian: Mažeikē) is a city in the north-western Lithuania, on the Venta River.
Margaret I (Margrete Valdemarsdatter, Margrete Valdemarsdatter, Margareta Valdemarsdotter, Margrét Valdimarsdóttir; 15 March 1353 – 28 October 1412) was queen consort of Norway (1363–1380) and Sweden (1363–1364) and later ruler in her own right of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, from which later period there are ambiguities regarding her specific titles.
Marshal is a term used in several official titles in various branches of society.
Mārtiņi or Mārtiņdiena is an ancient Latvian winter welcoming holiday, when the time of pieguļa and shepherding came to an end.
Mikołaj Krzysztof Radziwiłł (4 February 1515 – 28 May 1565), nicknamed The Black (Lithuanian: Juodasis), was a Polish-Lithuanian noble who held several administrative positions within the Grand Duchy of Lithuania: Voivode of Vilnius, Grand Lithuanian Chancellor, and Grand Hetman of Lithuania.
A military order (Militaris ordinis) is a chivalric order with military elements.
Mindaugas (Myndowen, Mindowe, Мендог, Міндоўг, c. 1203 – autumn 1263) was the first known Grand Duke of Lithuania and the only King of Lithuania.
Morta (died c. 1263) was wife of Mindaugas, the first known ruler of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
The Muscovite–Lithuanian Wars (also known as Russo-Lithuanian Wars, or just either Muscovite Wars or Lithuanian Wars)The conflicts are referred to as 'Muscovite wars' (wojny moskiewskie) in Polish historiography and as 'Lithuanian wars' in Russian one; English historiography uses both, ex.
Nameisis or Namejs (also Nameise, Nameyxe) was a Semigallian duke in the second half of the 13th century.
Narva (Нарва) is the third largest city in Estonia.
The Narva (Narva jõgi, Нарва) (or Narova) is a river flowing into the Baltic Sea, the largest river in Estonia by discharge.
Narva-Jõesuu (Усть-Нарва, Ust'-Narva) is a town in Ida-Viru County, in north-eastern Estonia.
The Northern Crusades or Baltic Crusades were religious wars undertaken by Catholic Christian military orders and kingdoms, primarily against the pagan Baltic, Finnic and West Slavic peoples around the southern and eastern shores of the Baltic Sea, and to a lesser extent also against Orthodox Christian Slavs (East Slavs).
The Oeselians, Osilians, Esths, or Ests were a historical subdivision of Estonians inhabiting Saaremaa (Oesel or Osilia), an Estonian island in the Baltic Sea.
Olshanski (Alšėniškiai or Alšėnų kunigaikščiai, Гальшанскі, Holszański) was a Lithuanian princely family of Hipocentaur coat of arms from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
The Order of Dobrzyń (Zakon Dobrzyński) or Order of Dobrin (Orden von Dobrin), also known as the Brothers of Dobrzyń (Bracia Dobrzyńscy), was a military order created in the borderland of Masovia and Prussia (today's Dobrzyń Land, Poland) during the 13th century Prussian Crusade to 'defend against Baltic Prussian raids'.
Ostrov (О́стров, lit. island) is a town and the administrative center of Ostrovsky District in Pskov Oblast, Russia, located on the Velikaya River, south of Pskov, the administrative center of the oblast.
Ostrovsky District (О́стровский райо́н) is an administrativeLaw #833-oz and municipalLaw #420-oz district (raion), one of the twenty-four in Pskov Oblast, Russia.
Ostsiedlung (literally east settling), in English called the German eastward expansion, was the medieval eastward migration and settlement of Germanic-speaking peoples from the Holy Roman Empire, especially its southern and western portions, into less-populated regions of Central Europe, parts of west Eastern Europe, and the Baltics.
Otto von Lutterberg (died 16 February 1270) was the Landmeister of the Livonian Order of the Teutonic Knights from 1266 to 1270.
Pabaiskas is a small town in Ukmergė district of Vilnius County, Lithuania, south-west of Ukmergė, with 249 inhabitants.
Padise Abbey (Padise klooster) was a former Cistercian monastery in Padise in Harju County, Estonia, settled in 1310 by the dispossessed monks of Dünamünde Abbey in Latvia.
Paide (Weißenstein) is the capital of Järva County, Estonia.
Papilė is a town in Šiauliai County, Lithuania, near the Venta River.
Pasvalys (פּאָסװאָל Posvol) is a city in Panevėžys County, Lithuania, located near the bank of the Svalia River.
Pärnu (Pernau) is the fourth-largest city in Estonia.
Põltsamaa Castle (Põltsamaa linnus; Schloss Oberpahlen), also Põltsamaa Order Castle, (Põltsamaa ordulinnus), is a castle in Põltsamaa, Jõgeva County, in eastern Estonia.
Pöide Church (Pöide kirik) is located on Saaremaa island, in Pöide Commune, Saare County, Estonia.
Pöide Parish was a municipality in Saare County, Estonia.
Pāvilosta (Paulshafen) is a small port town in Latvia located at the mouth of Saka river in Courland.
Peace of Brześć Kujawski was a peace treaty signed on December 31, 1435 in Brześć Kujawski that ended the Polish–Teutonic War (1431–1435).
Philipp Schall von Bell (died 1560) was the commander-in-chief (Landmarschall) of the Livonian Order forces during the first two years of the Livonian War (1558–1583).
Piemare (Piemarė; Bihavelanc) was one of the main Curonian kihelkonds with an administrative center in Esestua (Seeburg) before the 13th century.
The Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War or Great War occurred between 1409 and 1411, pitting the allied Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania against the Teutonic Knights.
The Polish–Teutonic War (1431–1435) was an armed conflict between the Kingdom of Poland and the Teutonic Knights.
Preiļi Palace (Preiļu pils, Pałac w Prelach) is a palace near the town of Preiļi in the historical region of Latgale, in eastern Latvia.
The Princes of Polotsk ruled the Principality of Polotsk within the realm of Kievan Rus or within the Grand Duchy of Lithuania from the mid ninth century to 1307.
A prince-bishop is a bishop who is also the civil ruler of some secular principality and sovereignty.
The principality of Jersika (Gerzika, terra Lettia, Gerzika, Zargrad, Ерсика, Герцике; also known as Лотыголa) was an early medieval Latgalian principality in eastern modern-day Latvia and one of the largest early states in Latvia before the German conquests.
The Prussian uprisings were two major and three smaller uprisings by the Prussians, one of the Baltic tribes, against the Teutonic Knights that took place in the 13th century during the Prussian Crusade.
Pskov, known at various times as the Principality of Pskov (Псковское княжество, Pskovskoye knyazhestvo) or the Pskov Republic (Псковская Республика, Pskovskaya Respublika), was a medieval state on the south shore of Lake Pskov.
Rakvere (Wesenberg or Wesenbergh) is a town in northern Estonia and the county seat of Lääne-Viru County, 20 km south of the Gulf of Finland.
Raseiniai (Samogitian: Raseinē, Rosienie, ראַסיין) is a city in Lithuania.
Rauna Castle (Rownenborgh, Ronneburg) ruins are located in the village of Rauna in Cēsis District, Latvia.
Rēzekne (Latgalian Rēzekne or Rēzne, Rēzekne; see other names) is a city in the Rēzekne River valley in Latgale region of eastern Latvia.
Rēzekne Castle ruins are located in the centre of Rēzekne, Latvia, a city in the centre of Latgale.
Reinhold von Buxhoeveden (died 1557) was bishop of the Bishopric of Saare-Lääne or Ösel–Wiek (Saare-Lääne piiskopkond; Bistum Ösel–Wiek; Low German: Bisdom Ösel–Wiek; contemporary Ecclesia Osiliensis), a semi-independent Roman Catholic prince-bishopric in what is now Saare, Hiiu and Lääne counties of Estonia, from 1532 to 1541.
The main religion traditionally practiced in Latvia is Christianity.
Riga (Rīga) is the capital and largest city of Latvia.
Riga Castle (Rīgas pils) is a castle on the banks of River Daugava in Riga, the capital of Latvia.
The Bishopric of Reval was created in Duchy of Estonia by Valdemar II of Denmark in 1240.
Ropaži Municipality (Ropažu novads) is a municipality in Vidzeme, Latvia.
Rusnė Island is an island in Nemunas Delta, Šilutė District Municipality, Lithuania.
The population of Russians in Estonia is estimated at 320,000, most of whom live in the urban areas of Harju and Ida-Viru counties.
Saare County (Saare maakond), or Saaremaa; (Oesel; Ösel) is one of 15 counties of Estonia.
Sabile (Zabeln) is a town in Talsi municipality, Latvia.
Saint George’s Night Uprising in 1343–1345 (Jüriöö ülestõus) was an unsuccessful attempt by the indigenous Estonian population in the Duchy of Estonia, the Bishopric of Ösel-Wiek, and the insular territories of the State of the Teutonic Order to rid themselves of the Danish and German rulers and landlords, who had conquered the country in the 13th century during the Livonian crusade, and to eradicate the non-indigenous Christian religion.
Samogitian (Samogitian: žemaitiu ruoda, žemaitiu kalba, žemaitiu rokunda, žemaičių tarmė) is a dialect of the Lithuanian language, considered a separate language by most linguists outside Lithuania, however, recognition as such is increasing in recent years, spoken mostly in Samogitia (in the western part of Lithuania), in Northern Europe.
Samogitian uprisings refer to two uprisings by the Samogitians against the Teutonic Knights in 1401–1404 and 1409.
Sandu Tudor (born Alexandru Al. Teodorescu, known in church records as Brother Agathon, later Daniil Teodorescu, Daniil Sandu Tudor, Daniil de la Rarău; December 22 or December 24, 1896 – November 17, 1962) was a Romanian poet, journalist, theologian and Orthodox monk.
Sēlpils Castle (Sēlpils pils) is an ancient castle in Latvia.
The Seal of Mindaugas (Mindaugo antspaudas) is a medieval seal affixed to the October 1255 act by Mindaugas, King of Lithuania, granting Selonia to the Teutonic Knights.
Secularization (or secularisation) is the transformation of a society from close identification and affiliation with religious values and institutions toward nonreligious values and secular institutions.
Semigallians (Latvian Zemgaļi; Žiemgaliai, also Zemgalians, Semigalls, Semigalians) were the Baltic tribe that lived in the southcentral part of contemporary Latvia and northern Lithuania.
Prince Semyon Yurievich of Halshany (Simonas Juravičius Alšėniškis; died in 1505 or 1506) was a noble from the Olshanski family in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
The Siege of Kaunas was laid by the Teutonic Order on the newly built Kaunas Castle in spring 1362.
The Siege of Königsberg was a siege laid upon Königsberg Castle, one of the main strongholds of the Teutonic Knights, by Prussians during the Great Prussian Uprising from 1262 possibly though 1265.
Siege of Malbork (Siege of Marienburg) occurred during the Thirteen Years' War between the Teutonic Knights and the Kingdom of Poland.
The Siege of Marienburg was an unsuccessful two-month siege of the castle in Marienburg (Malbork), the capital of the monastic state of the Teutonic Knights.
Sigismund Kęstutaitis (Žygimantas I Kęstutaitis; Zygmunt Kiejstutowicz; c. 1365 – 20 March 1440) was the Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1432 to 1440.
Sigulda Medieval Castle ruins are located on the edge of the Gauja valley in Latvia.
Sillamäe (Силламяэ), known also in Germanized version as Sillamäggi or Sillamägi (Estonian for "Bridge Hill"), is a town in Ida-Viru County in the northern part of Estonia, on the southern coast of the Gulf of Finland.
Sloka is a residential area and neighbourhood of the city Jūrmala, Latvia.
The Solovetsky Monastery (p) is a fortified monastery located on the Solovetsky Islands in the White Sea in northern Russia.
According to tradition, the family which originated from ancient Rhenish-German nobility, came to Sweden from Livonia during the 17th century via the Polish Major Hildebrand Staël.
Stanislovas Kęsgaila Jonaitis (Stanisław Janowicz Kieżgajło; died 1527) was a Lithuanian nobleman, son of Jonas Kęsgaila from the Kęsgailos family.
The State of the Teutonic Order (Staat des Deutschen Ordens; Civitas Ordinis Theutonici), also called Deutschordensstaat or Ordensstaat in German, was a crusader state formed by the Teutonic Knights or Teutonic Order during the 13th century Northern Crusades along the Baltic Sea.
Stende (Stenden) is a town in Latvia.
Tallinn (or,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Estonia.
Tautvilas (or Tautvila; died 1263) was Duke of Polatsk and one of the sons of Dausprungas and nephews of King of Lithuania Mindaugas.
Tērvete (liv. Terwenden) is a village in Tērvete municipality, Latvia.
Terra Mariana (Medieval Latin for "Land of Mary") was the official name for Medieval Livonia or Old Livonia (Alt-Livland, Vana-Liivimaa, Livonija), which was formed in the aftermath of the Livonian Crusade in the territories comprising present day Estonia and Latvia.
The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem (official names: Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum, Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus der Heiligen Maria in Jerusalem), commonly the Teutonic Order (Deutscher Orden, Deutschherrenorden or Deutschritterorden), is a Catholic religious order founded as a military order c. 1190 in Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem.
The Thirteen Years' War (Dreizehnjähriger Krieg; wojna trzynastoletnia), also called the War of the Cities, was a conflict fought in 1454–66 between the Prussian Confederation, allied with the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, and the State of the Teutonic Order.
Thomas Schöning (* probably in Riga; † 11 August 1539 in Kokenhusen) was Archbishop of Riga.
This is a timeline of Estonian history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Estonia and its predecessor states.
This is a timeline of country and capital changes around the world.
This is a timeline of Latvian history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Latvia and its predecessor states.
Toompea (from Domberg, "Cathedral Hill") is a limestone hill in the central part of the city of Tallinn, the capital of Estonia.
Traidenis (Trojden, Трайдзень) (died 1282) was the Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1270 (or 1269) till 1282.
The Treaty of Christmemel (Skirsnemunės sutartis) was a treaty signed on 19 June 1431 between Paul von Rusdorf, Grand Master the Teutonic Knights, and Švitrigaila, Grand Duke of Lithuania.
The Treaty of Dovydiškės (Dovydiškių sutartis; Vertrag von Daudisken), Daudiske, or Daudisken was a secret treaty signed on May 31, 1380 between Jogaila, the Grand Duke of Lithuania, and Winrich von Kniprode, the Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights.
The Treaty of Dubysa or Treaty of Dubissa (Dubysos sutartys) consisted of three legal acts formulated on 31 October 1382 between Jogaila, Grand Duke of Lithuania, with his brother Skirgaila and Konrad von Wallenrode, Marshal of the Teutonic Order.
The Treaty of Königsberg was signed in Königsberg (Królewiec) on 30 January 1384, during the Lithuanian Civil War (1381–1384) between Vytautas the Great and representatives of the Teutonic Knights.
The Treaty of Königsberg was signed in Königsberg(Królewiec) on May 26, 1390 during the Lithuanian Civil War (1389–1392) between Samogitian nobles and representatives of the Teutonic Knights.
The Treaty of Melno (Melno taika; Pokój melneński) or Treaty of Lake Melno (Friede von Melnosee) was a peace treaty ending the Gollub War.
Treaty of Salynas (Frieden von Sallinwerder, Salyno sutartis) was a peace treaty signed on 12 October 1398 by the Grand Duke of Lithuania Vytautas the Great and the Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights Konrad von Jungingen.
The Treaty of Vilnius or Vilna was concluded on 31 August 1559, during the Livonian War, between the Livonian Order and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth at Vilnius (Vilna, Wilna, Wilno).
The Treaty of Vilnius or Vilna was concluded on 28 November 1561, during the Livonian War, between the Livonian Confederation and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth at Vilnius (Vilna, Wilna, Wilno).
Treniota (Транята; Troniata; ca. 1210–1264) was the Grand Duke of Lithuania (1263–1264).
The Truce of Łęczyca was signed during the Polish–Teutonic War (1431–1435) between the Kingdom of Poland and the Teutonic Order in Łęczyca on 15 December 1433 (this has also led some Polish historians to divide this Polish–Teutonic War into two wars, in 1431–1433 and in 1435).
Tukums (Tuckum; Tukāmō) is a town in Latvia.
Ukmergė ((Vilkomiria, Wiłkomierz, Вилькомир, ווילקאמיר Vilkomir) is a city in Vilnius County, Lithuania, located northwest of Vilnius, with a population of about 21,000 (2017).
In a strict sense, the Union of Krewo or "Act of Krėva" (also spelled "Union of Krevo", "Act of Kreva"; Krėvos sutartis) was a set of prenuptial promises made in the Kreva Castle on 14 August 1385 by Jogaila, Grand Duke of Lithuania, in exchange for marriage to the underage reigning Queen Jadwiga of Poland.
Upytė (Upita) is a small village in Panevėžys district municipality in northern Lithuania.
Vaišelga or Vaišvilkas (also spelled as Vojszalak, Vojšalk, Vaišalgas; killed on December 9, 1268) was the Grand Duke of Lithuania (1264–1267).
Vainius or Voin (died between 1338 and 1342) was the Prince of Polotsk from 1315 to his death.
Valdemar IV Atterdag (the epithet meaning "A New Dawn"), or Waldemar (132024 October 1375; Valdemar Atterdag), was King of Denmark from 1340 to 1375.
Saint Martin's Church of Valjala is a Lutheran church in Valjala, on the island of Saaremaa, Estonia.
Valmiera (Wolmar; Wolmar see other names) is the largest city of the historical Vidzeme region, Latvia, with a total area of.
Valmiera Castle (Valmieras pils, Schloß Wolmar) was a castle in Valmiera, Latvia.
Vasknarva (Сыренец, Syrenets; Neuschloss) is a village in Alutaguse Parish, Ida-Viru County in northeastern Estonia.
Vastseliina Castle ('Vastseliina piiskopilinnus', 'Neuhausen', Novgorodok) was a castle of the Livonian Order, Bishopric of Dorpat.
Vecmīlgrāvis is a neighbourhood in Riga, the capital of Latvia, located in the northern part of the city, about 12–14 km from the city centre.
The Vends (Vendi, Венды) were a small tribe that lived in the 12th to 16th centuries in the area around the town of Wenden (now Cēsis) in present-day north-central Latvia.
Ventspils (see other names) is a town in northwestern Latvia in the historical Courland region of Latvia, and is the sixth largest city in the country.
Ventspils Castle (Windau) is located in Ventspils, Latvia.
Viljandi (Fellin) is a town and municipality in southern Estonia with a population of 17,473 in 2013.
Viljandi castle (Viljandi ordulinnus, Ordensburg Fellin) of Livonian Order, construction of which started 1224 in place of a former hillfort, was one of the strongest castles in Livonia.
The Vilnius Castle Complex (Vilniaus pilių kompleksas or Vilniaus pilys) is a group of cultural, and historic structures on the left bank of the Neris River, near its confluence with the Vilnia River, in Vilnius, Lithuania.
Visaginas is the centre of Lithuania's youngest municipality, located on the north-eastern edge of the country.
The Blessed Vitas, O.P., or Wit (died ca. 1269) was a Polish Dominican friar from the Kraków convent and the first bishop in Lithuania (1253–1255).
Monument to Duke Vykintas in Tverai Vykintas (died ca. 1253) was Duke of Samogitia and a rival to the future King of Lithuania, Mindaugas.
Vyshgorodok (Вышгородок) (Višgorodoka or Augšpils) is a rural locality (village) in Gavry volost, Pytalovsky District of Pskov Oblast, Russia, founded in the 15th century as a borderline fortress.
Vytenis (Віцень, Vićien') was the Grand Duke of Lithuania from c. 1295 to c. 1316.
Walter von Cronberg (1477 or 1479 – 4 April 1545) was the 38th Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, serving from 1527 to 1543.
Wilhelm von Urenbach was chosen as the Grand Master of the Teutonic Order in 1253 in opposition to Grand Master Poppo von Osterna, elected by the majority of the knights.
Wolter (or Walter) von Plettenberg (c. 1450 – February 28, 1535) was the Master (Landmeister) of the Livonian Order from 1494 to 1535 and one of the greatest leaders of the Teutonic knights.
Zaļenieki Manor, also called Zaļā Manor because of the German word Grünhof, is a manor house in the historical region of Zemgale, in Latvia.
Zarasai District Municipality is one of 60 municipalities in Lithuania.
Year 1237 (MCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1238 (MCCXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1241 (MCCXLI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1260 (MCCLX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1261 (MCCLXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1268 (MCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1270 (MCCLXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1279 A.D (MCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1298 (MCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1343 (MCCCXLIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1344 (MCCCXLIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1346 (MCCCXLVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 1501 ('''MDI''') was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.