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Mean free path

Index Mean free path

In physics, the mean free path is the average distance traveled by a moving particle (such as an atom, a molecule, a photon) between successive impacts (collisions), which modify its direction or energy or other particle properties. [1]

149 relations: Absorption cross section, Aerodynamics, Aerogel, Aerosol, Al-Ca composite, Alpha decay, Anacoustic zone, Antimatter rocket, Atmosphere of Earth, Atmosphere of Uranus, Atmospheric escape, Atmospheric tide, Atomic-terrace low-angle shadowing, Attenuation, Attenuation coefficient, Attenuation length, Auger electron spectroscopy, Ballistic conduction, Baryon acoustic oscillations, Bohm diffusion, Bruno Rossi, Carbon nanotube, Chronology of the universe, Copper conductor, Cosmic microwave background, Critical mass, Cross section (physics), Cunningham correction factor, Decoupling (cosmology), Density of states, Dicke effect, Diffusion, Diffusion damping, Dimensionless numbers in fluid mechanics, Direct simulation Monte Carlo, Distillation, Effusion, Elastic scattering, Electric discharge in gases, Electrical mobility, Electron mobility, Electron optics, Exosphere, Felix Ehrenhaft, Fermi surface, Flight dynamics (fixed-wing aircraft), Fluid mechanics, Fluid parcel, Flux, Free molecular flow, ..., Frisch–Peierls memorandum, Gaseous diffusion, Giant magnetoresistance, Glass transition, Glow discharge, Half-value layer, Heat transfer physics, Index of electrical engineering articles, Index of physics articles (M), Intracluster medium, Ionocraft, Isotopes of lithium, Kinetic diameter, Kinetic theory of gases, Knudsen diffusion, Knudsen equation, Knudsen flow, Knudsen force, Knudsen gas, Knudsen layer, Knudsen number, L (disambiguation), Landau–Pomeranchuk–Migdal effect, Laser-based angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, Le Sage's theory of gravitation, List of dimensionless quantities, List of letters used in mathematics and science, Loschmidt constant, Low-energy ion scattering, Magneto-optical trap, Mass attenuation coefficient, Mass–luminosity relation, Mean free time, Mercury cadmium telluride, MFP, Mixing length model, Model photosphere, Molecular beam epitaxy, Molecular distillation, Multi-particle collision dynamics, Multipactor effect, Navier–Stokes existence and smoothness, Neutron bomb, Neutron cross section, No-slip condition, Noble gas (data page), Nuclear structure, Orders of magnitude (pressure), Outer space, Particle-size distribution, Paschen's law, Pencil-beam scanning, Permeability (earth sciences), Peter Tait (physicist), Plasma parameters, Project Y, Quark–gluon plasma, Radiation length, Radiative transfer equation and diffusion theory for photon transport in biological tissue, Random laser, Recombination (cosmology), Residual gas analyzer, Rigid-band model, Rudolf Clausius, Runaway breakdown, Sampson flow, Saturation velocity, Scattering theory, Scintillator, Secondary ion mass spectrometry, Sentinel program, Shock (fluid dynamics), Shock waves in astrophysics, Speed of sound, Sputter deposition, Stellar structure, Streamer discharge, Structure formation, Table of thermodynamic equations, Temperature dependence of liquid viscosity, Thermal physics, Thermal transpiration, Thermocouple, Thermodynamics of nanostructures, Townsend (unit), Townsend discharge, Transmission electron microscopy, Transport length, Turbomolecular pump, Ultra-high vacuum, Vacuum, Vacuum deposition, Vacuum distillation, Vacuum insulated panel, Vacuum tube, W71, X-ray absorption near edge structure, X-ray lithography, Zero sound. Expand index (99 more) »

Absorption cross section

Absorption cross section is a measure for the probability of an absorption process.

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Aerodynamics

Aerodynamics, from Greek ἀήρ aer (air) + δυναμική (dynamics), is the study of the motion of air, particularly its interaction with a solid object, such as an airplane wing.

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Aerogel

Aerogel is a synthetic porous ultralight material derived from a gel, in which the liquid component for the gel has been replaced with a gas.

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Aerosol

An aerosol is a suspension of fine solid particles or liquid droplets, in air or another gas.

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Al-Ca composite

Al-Ca composite is a high-conductivity, high-strength, lightweight composite consisting of sub-micron-diameter pure calcium metal filaments embedded inside a pure aluminium metal matrix.

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Alpha decay

Alpha decay or α-decay is a type of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus emits an alpha particle (helium nucleus) and thereby transforms or 'decays' into an atom with a mass number that is reduced by four and an atomic number that is reduced by two.

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Anacoustic zone

The anacoustic zone, also known as the zone of silence, is the region of the atmosphere of Earth above about where the air density becomes so low that air molecules are not close enough to support transmission of sound waves within the hearing range.

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Antimatter rocket

An antimatter rocket is a proposed class of rockets that use antimatter as their power source.

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Atmosphere of Earth

The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.

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Atmosphere of Uranus

The atmosphere of Uranus is composed primarily of hydrogen and helium.

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Atmospheric escape

Atmospheric escape is the loss of planetary atmospheric gases to outer space.

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Atmospheric tide

Atmospheric tides are global-scale periodic oscillations of the atmosphere.

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Atomic-terrace low-angle shadowing

Atomic Terrace Low Angle Shadowing (ATLAS) is a surface science technique which enables the growth of planar nanowire or nanodot arrays using molecular beam epitaxy on a vicinal surface.

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Attenuation

In physics, attenuation or, in some contexts, extinction is the gradual loss of flux intensity through a medium.

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Attenuation coefficient

Attenuation coefficient or narrow beam attenuation coefficient of the volume of a material characterizes how easily it can be penetrated by a beam of light, sound, particles, or other energy or matter.

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Attenuation length

In physics, the attenuation length or absorption length is the distance \lambda into a material when the probability has dropped to 1/e that a particle has not been absorbed.

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Auger electron spectroscopy

Hanford scientist uses an Auger electron spectrometer to determine the elemental composition of surfaces. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES; pronounced in French) is a common analytical technique used specifically in the study of surfaces and, more generally, in the area of materials science.

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Ballistic conduction

Ballistic conduction (ballistic transport) is the transport of electrons in a medium having negligible electrical resistivity caused by scattering.

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Baryon acoustic oscillations

In cosmology, baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) are regular, periodic fluctuations in the density of the visible baryonic matter (normal matter) of the universe.

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Bohm diffusion

The diffusion of plasma across a magnetic field was conjectured to follow the Bohm diffusion scaling as indicated from the early plasma experiments of very lossy machines.

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Bruno Rossi

Bruno Benedetto Rossi (13 April 1905 – 21 November 1993) was an Italian experimental physicist.

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Carbon nanotube

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are allotropes of carbon with a cylindrical nanostructure.

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Chronology of the universe

The chronology of the universe describes the history and future of the universe according to Big Bang cosmology.

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Copper conductor

Copper has been used in electrical wiring since the invention of the electromagnet and the telegraph in the 1820s.

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Cosmic microwave background

The cosmic microwave background (CMB, CMBR) is electromagnetic radiation as a remnant from an early stage of the universe in Big Bang cosmology.

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Critical mass

A critical mass is the smallest amount of fissile material needed for a sustained nuclear chain reaction.

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Cross section (physics)

When two particles interact, their mutual cross section is the area transverse to their relative motion within which they must meet in order to scatter from each other.

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Cunningham correction factor

In fluid dynamics, the Cunningham correction factor or Cunningham slip correction factor is used to account for noncontinuum effects when calculating the drag on small particles.

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Decoupling (cosmology)

In cosmology, decoupling refers to a period in the development of the universe when different types of particles fall out of thermal equilibrium with each other.

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Density of states

In solid-state and condensed matter physics, the density of states (DOS) of a system describes the number of states per interval of energy at each energy level available to be occupied.

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Dicke effect

Dicke effect, also known as Dicke narrowing (or sometimes collisional narrowing) in spectroscopy, named after Robert H. Dicke, refers to narrowing of the Doppler broadening of a spectral line due to collisions the emitting species (usually an atom or a molecule) experiences with other particles.

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Diffusion

Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential) as a result of random motion of the molecules or atoms.

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Diffusion damping

In modern cosmological theory, diffusion damping, also called photon diffusion damping, is a physical process which reduced density inequalities (anisotropies) in the early universe, making the universe itself and the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) more uniform.

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Dimensionless numbers in fluid mechanics

Dimensionless numbers in fluid mechanics are a set of dimensionless quantities that have an important role in the behaviour of fluids.

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Direct simulation Monte Carlo

Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method uses probabilistic (Monte Carlo) simulation to solve the Boltzmann equation for finite Knudsen number fluid flows.

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Distillation

Distillation is the process of separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture by selective boiling and condensation.

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Effusion

In physics and chemistry, effusion is the process in which a gas escapes through a hole of diameter considerably smaller than the mean free path of the molecules.

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Elastic scattering

Elastic scattering is a form of particle scattering in scattering theory, nuclear physics and particle physics.

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Electric discharge in gases

Electric discharge in gases occurs when electric current flows through a gaseous medium due to ionization of the gas.

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Electrical mobility

Electrical mobility is the ability of charged particles (such as electrons or protons) to move through a medium in response to an electric field that is pulling them.

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Electron mobility

In solid-state physics, the electron mobility characterizes how quickly an electron can move through a metal or semiconductor, when pulled by an electric field.

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Electron optics

Electron optics is a mathematical framework for the calculation of electron trajectories along electromagnetic fields.

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Exosphere

The exosphere (ἔξω éxō "outside, external, beyond", σφαῖρα sphaĩra "sphere") is a thin, atmosphere-like volume surrounding a planet or natural satellite where molecules are gravitationally bound to that body, but where the density is too low for them to behave as a gas by colliding with each other.

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Felix Ehrenhaft

Felix Ehrenhaft (24 April 1879 – 4 March 1952) was an Austrian physicist who contributed to atomic physics, to the measurement of electrical charges and to the optical properties of metal colloids.

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Fermi surface

In condensed matter physics, the Fermi surface is the surface in reciprocal space which separates occupied from unoccupied electron states at zero temperature.

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Flight dynamics (fixed-wing aircraft)

Flight dynamics is the science of air vehicle orientation and control in three dimensions.

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Fluid mechanics

Fluid mechanics is a branch of physics concerned with the mechanics of fluids (liquids, gases, and plasmas) and the forces on them.

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Fluid parcel

In fluid dynamics, within the framework of continuum mechanics, a fluid parcel is a very small amount of fluid, identifiable throughout its dynamic history while moving with the fluid flow.

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Flux

Flux describes the quantity which passes through a surface or substance.

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Free molecular flow

Free molecular flow describes the fluid dynamics of gas where the mean free path of the molecules is larger than the size of the chamber or of the object under test.

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Frisch–Peierls memorandum

The Frisch–Peierls memorandum was the first technical exposition of a practical nuclear weapon.

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Gaseous diffusion

Gaseous diffusion is a technology used to produce enriched uranium by forcing gaseous uranium hexafluoride (UF6) through semipermeable membranes.

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Giant magnetoresistance

Giant magnetoresistance (GMR) is a quantum mechanical magnetoresistance effect observed in multilayers composed of alternating ferromagnetic and non-magnetic conductive layers.

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Glass transition

The glass–liquid transition, or glass transition, is the gradual and reversible transition in amorphous materials (or in amorphous regions within semicrystalline materials), from a hard and relatively brittle "glassy" state into a viscous or rubbery state as the temperature is increased.

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Glow discharge

A glow discharge is a plasma formed by the passage of electric current through a gas.

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Half-value layer

A material's half-value layer (HVL), or half-value thickness, is the thickness of the material at which the intensity of radiation entering it is reduced by one half.

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Heat transfer physics

Heat transfer physics describes the kinetics of energy storage, transport, and energy transformation by principal energy carriers: phonons (lattice vibration waves), electrons, fluid particles, and photons.

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Index of electrical engineering articles

This is an alphabetical list of articles pertaining specifically to electrical and electronics engineering.

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Index of physics articles (M)

The index of physics articles is split into multiple pages due to its size.

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Intracluster medium

In astronomy, the intracluster medium (ICM) is the superheated plasma that permeates a galaxy cluster.

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Ionocraft

An ionocraft or ion-propelled aircraft (commonly known as a lifter or hexalifter) is a device that uses an electrical electrohydrodynamic (EHD) phenomenon to produce thrust in the air without requiring any combustion or moving parts.

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Isotopes of lithium

Naturally occurring lithium (3Li) is composed of two stable isotopes, lithium-6 and lithium-7, with the latter being far more abundant: about 92.5 percent of the atoms.

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Kinetic diameter

Kinetic diameter is a measure applied to atoms and molecules that expresses the likelihood that a molecule in a gas will collide with another molecule.

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Kinetic theory of gases

The kinetic theory describes a gas as a large number of submicroscopic particles (atoms or molecules), all of which are in constant rapid motion that has randomness arising from their many collisions with each other and with the walls of the container.

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Knudsen diffusion

Knudsen diffusion is a means of diffusion that occurs when the scale length of a system is comparable to or smaller than the mean free path of the particles involved.

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Knudsen equation

In fluid dynamics, the Knudsen equation is used to describe how gas flows through a tube in free molecular flow.

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Knudsen flow

Knudsen flow describes the movement of fluids with a high Knudsen number, that is, where the characteristic length in the flow space is of the same or smaller order of magnitude as the mean free path.

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Knudsen force

Knudsen force is the force experienced by two surfaces at two different temperatures that are separated by a distance comparable to a mean free path of the molecules of the ambient medium.

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Knudsen gas

A Knudsen gas is a gas in a state of such low density that the mean free path of molecules is greater than the diameter of receptacle that contains it.

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Knudsen layer

The Knudsen layer, also known as evaporation layer, is the thin layer of vapor near a liquid or solid.

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Knudsen number

The Knudsen number (Kn) is a dimensionless number defined as the ratio of the molecular mean free path length to a representative physical length scale.

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L (disambiguation)

L is the twelfth letter of the Latin alphabet.

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Landau–Pomeranchuk–Migdal effect

In high-energy physics, the Landau–Pomeranchuk–Migdal effect, also known as the Landau–Pomeranchuk effect and the Pomeranchuk effect, or simply LPM effect, is a reduction of the bremsstrahlung and pair production cross sections at high energies or high matter densities.

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Laser-based angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

Laser-based angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy is a form of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy that uses a laser as the light source.

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Le Sage's theory of gravitation

Le Sage's theory of gravitation is a kinetic theory of gravity originally proposed by Nicolas Fatio de Duillier in 1690 and later by Georges-Louis Le Sage in 1748.

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List of dimensionless quantities

This is a list of well-known dimensionless quantities illustrating their variety of forms and applications.

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List of letters used in mathematics and science

Latin and Greek letters are used in mathematics, science, engineering, and other areas where mathematical notation is used as symbols for constants, special functions, and also conventionally for variables representing certain quantities.

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Loschmidt constant

The Loschmidt constant or Loschmidt's number (symbol: n0) is the number of particles (atoms or molecules) of an ideal gas in a given volume (the number density).

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Low-energy ion scattering

Low-energy ion scattering spectroscopy (LEIS), sometimes referred to simply as ion scattering spectroscopy (ISS), is a surface-sensitive analytical technique used to characterize the chemical and structural makeup of materials.

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Magneto-optical trap

A magneto-optical trap (abbreviated MOT) is an apparatus that uses laser cooling with magneto-optical trapping in order to produce samples of cold, trapped, neutral atoms at temperatures as low as several microkelvins, two or three times the recoil limit (see Doppler cooling limit).

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Mass attenuation coefficient

The mass attenuation coefficient, mass extinction coefficient, or mass narrow beam attenuation coefficient of the volume of a material characterizes how easily it can be penetrated by a beam of light, sound, particles, or other energy or matter.

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Mass–luminosity relation

In astrophysics, the mass–luminosity relation is an equation giving the relationship between a star's mass and its luminosity, first noted by Jakob Karl Ernst Halm.

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Mean free time

Molecules in a fluid constantly collide off each other.

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Mercury cadmium telluride

HgCdTe or mercury cadmium telluride (also cadmium mercury telluride, MCT, MerCad Telluride, MerCadTel, MerCaT or CMT) is an alloy of cadmium telluride (CdTe) and mercury telluride (HgTe) with a tunable bandgap spanning the shortwave infrared to the very long wave infrared regions.

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MFP

MFP may refer to.

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Mixing length model

In fluid dynamics, the mixing length model is a method attempting to describe momentum transfer by turbulence Reynolds stresses within a Newtonian fluid boundary layer by means of an eddy viscosity.

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Model photosphere

The photosphere denotes those solar or stellar surface layers from which optical radiation escapes.

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Molecular beam epitaxy

Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) is an epitaxy method for thin-film deposition of single crystals.

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Molecular distillation

Molecular distillation is a type of short-path vacuum distillation, characterized by an extremely low vacuum pressure, 0.01 torr or below.

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Multi-particle collision dynamics

Multi-particle collision dynamics (MPC), also known as stochastic rotation dynamics (SRD), is a particle-based mesoscale simulation technique for complex fluids which fully incorporates thermal fluctuations and hydrodynamic interactions.

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Multipactor effect

The multipactor effect is a phenomenon in radio frequency (RF) amplifier vacuum tubes and waveguides, where, under certain conditions, secondary electron emission in resonance with an alternating electric field leads to exponential electron multiplication, possibly damaging and even destroying the RF device.

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Navier–Stokes existence and smoothness

The Navier–Stokes existence and smoothness problem concerns the mathematical properties of solutions to the Navier–Stokes equations, one of the pillars of fluid mechanics (such as with turbulence).

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Neutron bomb

A neutron bomb, officially defined as a type of enhanced radiation weapon (ERW), is a low yield thermonuclear weapon designed to maximize lethal neutron radiation in the immediate vicinity of the blast while minimizing the physical power of the blast itself.

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Neutron cross section

In nuclear and particle physics, the concept of a neutron cross section is used to express the likelihood of interaction between an incident neutron and a target nucleus.

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No-slip condition

In fluid dynamics, the no-slip condition for viscous fluids assumes that at a solid boundary, the fluid will have zero velocity relative to the boundary.

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Noble gas (data page)

This page provides supplementary data about the noble gases, which were excluded from the main article to conserve space and preserve focus.

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Nuclear structure

Understanding the structure of the atomic nucleus is one of the central challenges in nuclear physics.

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Orders of magnitude (pressure)

This is a tabulated listing of the orders of magnitude in relation to pressure expressed in pascals.

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Outer space

Outer space, or just space, is the expanse that exists beyond the Earth and between celestial bodies.

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Particle-size distribution

The particle-size distribution (PSD) of a powder, or granular material, or particles dispersed in fluid, is a list of values or a mathematical function that defines the relative amount, typically by mass, of particles present according to size.

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Paschen's law

Paschen's law is an equation that gives the breakdown voltage, that is, the voltage necessary to start a discharge or electric arc, between two electrodes in a gas as a function of pressure and gap length.

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Pencil-beam scanning

Pencil beam scans (Medical physics).

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Permeability (earth sciences)

Permeability in fluid mechanics and the earth sciences (commonly symbolized as κ, or k) is a measure of the ability of a porous material (often, a rock or an unconsolidated material) to allow fluids to pass through it.

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Peter Tait (physicist)

Peter Guthrie Tait FRSE (28 April 1831 – 4 July 1901) was a Scottish mathematical physicist and early pioneer in thermodynamics.

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Plasma parameters

Plasma parameters define various characteristics of a plasma, an electrically conductive collection of charged particles that responds collectively to electromagnetic forces.

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Project Y

The Los Alamos Laboratory, also known as Project Y, was a secret laboratory established by the Manhattan Project and operated by the University of California during World War II.

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Quark–gluon plasma

A quark–gluon plasma (QGP) or quark soup is a state of matter in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) which exists at extremely high temperature and/or density.

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Radiation length

In physics, the radiation length is a characteristic of a material, related to the energy loss of high energy, electromagnetic-interacting particles with it.

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Radiative transfer equation and diffusion theory for photon transport in biological tissue

Photon transport in biological tissue can be equivalently modeled numerically with Monte Carlo simulations or analytically by the radiative transfer equation (RTE).

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Random laser

A random laser is a laser that uses a highly disordered gain medium.

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Recombination (cosmology)

In cosmology, recombination refers to the epoch at which charged electrons and protons first became bound to form electrically neutral hydrogen atoms.

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Residual gas analyzer

A residual gas analyzer (RGA) is a small and usually rugged mass spectrometer, typically designed for process control and contamination monitoring in vacuum systems.

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Rigid-band model

The Rigid-Band Model (or RBM) is one of the models used to describe the behavior of metal alloys.

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Rudolf Clausius

Rudolf Julius Emanuel Clausius (2 January 1822 – 24 August 1888) was a German physicist and mathematician and is considered one of the central founders of the science of thermodynamics.

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Runaway breakdown

Runaway breakdown is a theory of lightning initiation proposed by Alex Gurevich in 1992.

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Sampson flow

Sampson flow is defined as fluid flow through an infinitely thin orifice in the viscous flow regime for low Reynolds number.

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Saturation velocity

Saturation velocity is the maximum velocity a charge carrier in a semiconductor, generally an electron, attains in the presence of very high electric fields.

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Scattering theory

In mathematics and physics, scattering theory is a framework for studying and understanding the scattering of waves and particles.

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Scintillator

A scintillator is a material that exhibits scintillation—the property of luminescence, when excited by ionizing radiation.

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Secondary ion mass spectrometry

Secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is a technique used to analyze the composition of solid surfaces and thin films by sputtering the surface of the specimen with a focused primary ion beam and collecting and analyzing ejected secondary ions.

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Sentinel program

Sentinel was a proposed US Army anti-ballistic missile (ABM) system designed to provide a light layer of protection over the entire United States, able to defend against small ICBM strikes like those expected from China, or accidental launches from the USSR or other states.

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Shock (fluid dynamics)

Shock is an abrupt discontinuity in the flow field.

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Shock waves in astrophysics

Shock waves are common in astrophysical environments.

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Speed of sound

The speed of sound is the distance travelled per unit time by a sound wave as it propagates through an elastic medium.

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Sputter deposition

Sputter deposition is a physical vapor deposition (PVD) method of thin film deposition by sputtering.

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Stellar structure

Stars of different mass and age have varying internal structures.

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Streamer discharge

A streamer discharge, also known as filamentary discharge, is a type of transient electrical discharge.

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Structure formation

In physical cosmology, structure formation is the formation of galaxies, galaxy clusters and larger structures from small early density fluctuations.

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Table of thermodynamic equations

This article is a summary of common equations and quantities in thermodynamics (see thermodynamic equations for more elaboration).

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Temperature dependence of liquid viscosity

The temperature dependence of liquid viscosity is the phenomenon by which liquid viscosity tends to decrease (or, alternatively, its fluidity tends to increase) as its temperature increases.

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Thermal physics

Thermal physics is the combined study of thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, and kinetic theory.

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Thermal transpiration

Thermal transpiration or thermal diffusion refers to the thermal force on a gas due to a temperature difference.

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Thermocouple

A thermocouple is an electrical device consisting of two dissimilar electrical conductors forming electrical junctions at differing temperatures.

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Thermodynamics of nanostructures

As the devices continue to shrink further into the sub-100 nm range following the trend predicted by Moore’s law, the topic of thermal properties and transport in such nanoscale devices becomes increasingly important.

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Townsend (unit)

The Townsend (symbol Td) is a physical unit of the reduced electric field (ratio E/N), where E is electric field and N is concentration of neutral particles.

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Townsend discharge

The Townsend discharge or Townsend avalanche is a gas ionisation process where free electrons are accelerated by an electric field, collide with gas molecules, and consequently free additional electrons.

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Transmission electron microscopy

Transmission electron microscopy (TEM, also sometimes conventional transmission electron microscopy or CTEM) is a microscopy technique in which a beam of electrons is transmitted through a specimen to form an image.

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Transport length

The transport length in a strongly diffusing medium (noted l*) is the length over which the direction of propagation of the photon is randomized.

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Turbomolecular pump

A turbomolecular pump is a type of vacuum pump, superficially similar to a turbopump, used to obtain and maintain high vacuum.

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Ultra-high vacuum

Ultra-high vacuum (UHV) is the vacuum regime characterised by pressures lower than about 10−7 pascal or 100 nanopascals (10−9 mbar, ~10−9 torr).

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Vacuum

Vacuum is space devoid of matter.

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Vacuum deposition

Vacuum deposition is a family of processes used to deposit layers of material atom-by-atom or molecule-by-molecule on a solid surface.

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Vacuum distillation

Vacuum distillation is a method of distillation performed under reduced pressure.

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Vacuum insulated panel

A vacuum insulated panel (VIP) is a form of thermal insulation consisting of a gas-tight enclosure surrounding a rigid core, from which the air has been evacuated.

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Vacuum tube

In electronics, a vacuum tube, an electron tube, or just a tube (North America), or valve (Britain and some other regions) is a device that controls electric current between electrodes in an evacuated container.

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W71

The W-71 nuclear warhead was a US thermonuclear warhead developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California and deployed on the LIM-49A Spartan missile, a component of the Safeguard Program, an anti-ballistic missile (ABM) defense system briefly deployed by the US in the 1970s.

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X-ray absorption near edge structure

X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), also known as near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS), is a type of absorption spectroscopy that indicates the features in the X-ray absorption spectra (XAS) of condensed matter due to the photoabsorption cross section for electronic transitions from an atomic core level to final states in the energy region of 50–100 eV above the selected atomic core level ionization energy, where the wavelength of the photoelectron is larger than the interatomic distance between the absorbing atom and its first neighbour atoms.

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X-ray lithography

X-ray lithography, is a process used in electronic industry to selectively remove parts of a thin film.

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Zero sound

Zero sound is the name given by Landau to the unique quantum vibrations in quantum Fermi liquids.

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Mean Free Path, Mean FreePath, Mean path.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mean_free_path

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