3089 relations: 'Ali ibn al-'Abbas al-Majusi, A Fistful of Stances, A Frank Statement, A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, A.G. Lafley, Aanjaneya Lifecare Limited, AarhusKarlshamn, Aarti Industries, Abacavir, ABB Group, Abbreviated New Drug Application, AbbVie Inc., Abby Lippman, Abdominal obesity, Abia State, Absolute molar mass, Absorption (skin), Abu Dhabi Medical Congress, Abunidazole, Access to Medicine Index, Access to medicines, ACE inhibitor, Acefylline, Acetanilide, Acetohexamide, Acetone, Acetonitrile, Acetylcysteine, Acetylsalicylic acid/dipyridamole, Acme United Corporation, Acquired characteristic, Acquired hemolytic anemia, Acronyms in healthcare, ACS Chemical Neuroscience, ACS Macro Letters, Actavis, Active ingredient, Active packaging, Acute inhalation injury, Acute intermittent porphyria, Adcock Ingram, Adcon-L, Adenoiditis, Adenosine, Adenosine receptor agonist, ADME, Administration, Admission note, Adoption of Electronic Medical Records in U.S. Hospitals, Adrenaline, ..., Adrenergic agonist, Adrenocorticotropic hormone (medication), Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Advance market commitments, Advanced Accelerator Applications, Advanced airway management, Advanced life support, Advanced manufacturing, Adverse drug reaction, Adverse effect, Adwya, Aflibercept, Agence Nationale de Sécurité du Médicament et des Produits de Santé, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Aggregate Spend, Aging in the American workforce, Agitated Nutsche Filter, Agomelatine, Agonist, Agouti-related peptide, Agriculture in Australia, Agriculture in Iran, Aho report, AIDS amendments of 1988, AIDS Memoir Quartet, Air conditioning, Air medical services, Ajanta Pharma, Ajay Piramal, Ajinomoto, AkzoNobel, Al-Annazah, Al-Ma'mun, Alagappa College of Technology, Albert Hofmann, Albiglutide, Alcoholic drink, Alcon, Aldol condensation, Aldose reductase inhibitor, Alembic Group, Alembic Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Alemtuzumab, Alendronic acid, Alex Azar, Alexander Trees, Baron Trees, Alfatradiol/dexamethasone, Alfentanil, Alfred Wolfsohn, Alfred Wolfsohn Voice Research Centre, Alfuzosin, Algaculture, Alginic acid, Alice Faye, Alimera Sciences, Aliskiren/amlodipine, Aliskiren/amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide, ALK-Abelló, Alkaline diet, Alkaloid, Alkaloid (company), Alkem Laboratories, Alkyl nitrites, Allegiance bias, Allen & Hanburys, Allen Jones (whistleblower), Allen Ludden, Allen McClay, Allergan, Allergan, Inc., Allergy, Alliance Healthcare, Allopregnanolone, Allyl chloride, Almorexant, Almotriptan, Alnwick, Aloysius Pendergast, Alpha Zeta Omega, Alpha-1 antitrypsin, Alpha-Amanitin, AlphaBay, Alphabody, Altogen Labs CRO, Alvinella pompejana, ALZA, Alzheon, Amantadine, Ambergris, American Competitiveness Initiative, American Cyanamid, American Elements, American Enterprise Institute, American Society for Quality, American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, American Well, AmerisourceBergen, Amineptine, Amino acid, Amiodarone, Ammonia, Ammonium iodide, AMNOG, Ampoule, Ampyrone, AMRI Global, Amrutanjan Healthcare, Anagestone, Analgesic, Analgesic adjuvant, Anaphrodisiac, Anaphylaxis, Anatabine, Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System, Anderson Water Systems, Androgen, Androgen deprivation therapy, Andrology, Androstanolone, Anejaculation, Anesthesia awareness, Anfatis, Angina, Angiodysplasia, Angioedema, Angiogenesis, Angiotech Pharmaceuticals, Animal drug, Animal euthanasia, Animal testing, Anisole, Ann McNamara, Anorectic, Antenatal steroid, Anthea Group, Anthera Pharmaceuticals, Anthon Berg, Anti-obesity medication, Antianginal, Antiarrhythmic agent, Antibiotic, Antibiotice Iași, Anticoagulant, Anticonvulsant, Antidepressant, Antidiarrhoeal, Antidiuretic, Antiemetic, Antifibrinolytic, Antifungal, Antigua and Barbuda–India relations, Antihemorrhagic, Antihistamine, Antihormone therapy, Antihypertensive drug, Antiparasitic, Antiprotozoal, Antipruritic, Antipsychotic, Antispasmodic, Antiviral drug, Anton Ludwig Ernst Horn, Anurag Anand, Anusol, Anxiolytic, Apigenin, APMCCPER, Apnea, Apollinaire Bouchardat, Apophlegmatism, Apotekernes Fællesindkjøp, Apoteket, Apotex, Application site reaction, Approved drug, Apricus Biosciences, Aprotinin, Apteka95, Arab Pharmaceutical Manufacturing, Aranjuez, Argentina–Azerbaijan relations, Arginase, Ariel Fernandez, Armand Hammer, Armed Forces of the Philippines Medal of Valor, Armour and Company, Aromatase inhibitor, Aromatization, Arotinolol, Arrowsmith System, Arsphenamine, Artemisinin, Arthralgia, Artsana, Arylcyclohexylamine, Asahi Kasei, Ascidiacea, Aseptic processing, Asperger syndrome, Aspirin, Asset-Centricity, Association of British Healthcare Industries, Asthma, AstraZeneca, Asymmetric addition of alkynylzinc compounds to aldehydes, Asymmetric hydrogenation, Atom economy, Atosiban, Atovaquone/proguanil, Atropa belladonna, Atrophic vaginitis, ATS Automation Tooling Systems, Attar of Nishapur, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder controversies, Atypical antidepressant, ATyr Pharma, August Hesselbo, Aurobindo Pharma, Aurora Biosciences, Australia–Malaysia relations, Australia–United States Free Trade Agreement, Australian Drug Evaluation Committee, Austria–Denmark relations, Austria–Indonesia relations, Autoimmune disease in women, Autoinjector, AV nodal reentrant tachycardia, Aveeno, Aveva, Avimer, Axovant Sciences, Azane, Azomethine ylide, Özgür Özel, Back injury, Baclofen, Bagsværd, Baidyanath Group, Bala S. Manian, Baloxavir marboxil, Band-Aid, Bangkok Adventist Hospital, Bangladesh, Bangladesh–Cambodia relations, Bangladesh–Canada relations, Barber National Institute, Barbiturate, Barcelona, Barceloneta, Puerto Rico, Barcode technology in healthcare, Bargn Farmaceutici Phils Co, Bariatric surgery, BASF, Basilea Pharmaceutica, Batch coding machine, Batch reactor, Bathroom cabinet, Baxalta, Bayer Corporation, Bazedoxifene, Bülent Eczacıbaşı, BDORT, Beacon Pharmaceuticals, Beclamide, Beecham Group, Beerse, Beijing Economic and Technological Development Area, Beijing United Family Hospital, Belo Horizonte, Ben Feringa, Benadryl, Benfotiamine, Bengal tiger, Benign fasciculation syndrome, Benzenesulfonic acid, Benzoyl chloride, Benzoyl peroxide/clindamycin, Benzyl cyanide, Benzylamine, Bernard Fraisse, Bernard L. Oser, Besifovir, Beta1-adrenergic agonist, Beta2-adrenergic agonist, Betamethasone, Betty Ting, Beximco, Beximco Pharma, Bharathidasan Institute of Technology, Bial, Biginelli reaction, Bilina, Bilirubin, Bill Maher, Bio 360 Life Sciences Park, Bio Farma, Bioanalysis, Bioavailability, Bioburden, Biocatalysis, Biochemist, Biochemistry, Bioconjugation, Biodefense and Pandemic Vaccine and Drug Development Act of 2005, Bioderma, Biofilter, Biolex, Biological database, Biological response modifiers, Biological target, Biologist, Biomanufacturing, Biomedical engineering, Biomolecular engineering, Biomolecular Object Network Databank, Biomolecule, BIONIC Hill Innovation Park, Biopharmaceutical, Bioprocess engineering, Biotech Week, Biotechnology, Biotechnology Innovation Organization, Biovail, Biphenyl, Bipolar disorder, Bipolar I disorder, Birch, Biricodar, Blackburn Rovers F.C. Under-23s and Academy, Bliss GVS Pharma, Blistex, Incorporated, Block Drug, Blockbuster, Blood pressure, Blood pressure measurement, Blood test, BMI Research, Bob McDonnell, Body fluid, Body odor, Boehringer Ingelheim, Boldenone, Bolus (medicine), Bone, Boots UK, Bornaprine, Boron tribromide, Borough of Broxbourne, Boshan District, Botanischer Garten der Universität Tübingen, Botany, Bowl feeder, Box, Boxed warning, Bracco (company), Bradley County, Tennessee, Brain damage, Brand Institute, Brasília, Breast cyst, Breastfeeding and medications, Brendan Canty, Brian Hooker (bioengineer), Bribery, Bright Packaging, Brimonidine, Bristol-Myers Squibb, British Approved Name, British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, British National Formulary for Children, Broken Saints, Bromine, Bronchodilator, Bronopol, Buccal administration, Buckley's, Bukovinian State Medical University, Bulk density, Bunnythorpe, Bupropion, Butylated hydroxytoluene, Butyrfentanyl, Butyryl chloride, BWT AG, Cadila Healthcare, Cadila Pharmaceuticals, Cadmium, Caesar DePaço, Caffeine/ergotamine, Calcilytic, Calcimimetic, Calcium carbonate, Calcium nitrite, Cali Cartel, California Master Plan for Higher Education, Caliper Life Sciences, Cambrex Corporation, Camelid, Camphoric acid, Campinas, Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse, CancerVax, Cannabidiol, Cape Medical Museum, Captain Stingaree, Captive bolt pistol, Carbamazepine, Carbidopa, Carbon dioxide, Carbon–carbon bond, Cardiac nursing, Cardinal Health, Cardiology, Cardioversion, Carl Warburg, Carmustine, Caroline Peyton, Carte Blanche (novel), Carter-Wallace, Cartoning machine, Casiano Communications, Cassella, Castor oil, Castration, Castres Olympique, Casualty@Holby City, Cat food, Catabasis Pharmaceuticals, Catania, Catharanthus roseus, Catheter, Caustic pencil, Cavernous hemangioma, Călărași District, CBA UAV, CD36, Cdc25, Celesio, Celiprolol, Cell therapy, Cellulose acetate phthalate, Celobar incident, Central Operative Unit, Central venous catheter, Centre for Dermatology and Genetic Medicine, Centre for Research on Multinational Corporations, Cephalic disorder, Cerebellum, Cerebral vasculitis, Cerebrovascular disease, Cerilliant Corporation, Certoparin sodium, Cetraxate, CFR Pharmaceuticals, Chaetochromin, Chaldean Mafia, Chan-Lam coupling, Changchun, Charles of the Ritz, Charles River Laboratories, Charlie Monroe, Chasing Dogma, Chūō, Tokyo, Chelation, ChemAxon, Chemical change, Chemical Computing Group, Chemical engineer, Chemical industry, Chemical process, Chemical restraint, Chemical substance, Chemical technologist, Chemical waste, Chemical Weapons Convention, Chemistry, Chemists Without Borders, ChemNutra, Chemoprophylaxis, Chendooram, ChestEze, Child-resistant packaging, Childhood arthritis, Children in clinical research, Children Without Worms, China, China Center of Adoption Affairs, China Nepstar, China Wu Culture Expo Park, China's Circular Economy, Chinese herbology, Chitosan, Chittagong, Chlamydomonas nivalis, Chloral hydrate, Chlormadinone, Chloroacetic acids, Chloroxine, Cholecalciferol, Cholesterol, Christian Jourquin, Christian monasticism, Christianity in the 12th century, Christopher Glaser, Christopher v. SmithKline Beecham Corp., Chromane, Chromatophore, Chronic airway-digestive inflammatory disease, Chronic care, Chronic wound, Cicletanine, CIECH, Cilostazol, Cinacalcet, Cinnamic acid, CIOMS/RUCAM scale, Cipla, Cipla Quality Chemical Industries Limited, Circassia Pharmaceuticals, Circulation evaporator, Cirrhosis, Cisapride, Citalopram, Citric acid, City hospital No. 40, City of Hope National Medical Center, Clairol, Claude Castonguay, Claude Roy (politician), Claviceps purpurea, Clean Harbors, Clermont-Ferrand, Cleveland, Tennessee, Clindamycin/tretinoin, Clinical data management system, Clinical endpoint, Clinical pharmaceutical scientist, Clinical pharmacology, Clinical pharmacy, Clinical research, Clinical trial, Clinical trial management system, Clofexamide, Clonogenic assay, Cluj County, Coal mining in the United Kingdom, Coca eradication, Coca-Cola, Cocoa butter, Codex Alimentarius, Codexis, Cognitive bias modification, Coimbra, Cold chain, Cold turkey, Colestilan, College of Health Sciences General Achmad Yani Yogyakarta, Colombia, Colors of biotechnology, Combination therapy, Combinatorial chemistry, Combined oral contraceptive pill, Combretum micranthum, Commercially useful enzymes, Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use, Committee on Safety of Medicines, Commodity chemicals, Community-based clinical trial, Comparison of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, Comparison of imports vs exports of the United States, Compendium of Pharmaceuticals and Specialties, Compliance (physiology), Complication (medicine), Composting toilet, Compounding, Concordia Healthcare, Concurrent tandem catalysis, Condeixa-a-Nova, Cone snail, Confederation of Women Entrepreneurs, Congenital heart defect, Constructive ambiguity, Consultant pharmacist, Consumer Protection Act 1987, Consumer service, Contact Singapore, Contamination, Contamination control, Contract manufacturer, Contract packager, Controversy surrounding psychiatry, Cool warehouse, Copeinca, Copenhagen, Corixa (company), Cork Harbour, Corn oil, Cornerstone Research, Coronary care unit, Corporate venture capital, Corticosteroid, Cosco Busan oil spill, COSHH, Cosmeceutical, Cosmetic, Cosmetics in Ancient Rome, Cosolvent, Cost of drug development, Costa Mesa, California, CoTherix, Count Vertigo, Counterfeit, Counterfeit medications, Course (medicine), Covance, CP-226,269, Craig Venter, Crane High School (Chicago), Cream (pharmaceutical), Creature from the Black Lagoon, Critical Psychiatry Network, Criticism of technology, Criticism of the Food and Drug Administration, Croatian brands, Crohn's disease, Cross-linked enzyme aggregate, Crown Bioscience International, Crude drug, Cryobiology, Crystal structure prediction, Crystallization, CSL Limited, Cuba, Cubist Pharmaceuticals, Culture and menstruation, Culture of microalgae in hatcheries, Curative care, Cure, Curtis Gates Lloyd, Cyclic olefin copolymer, Cycloheptane, Cyclone Carmen, Cyclooxygenase, Cyclopentamine, Cyclopropane, Cyclothymia, Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, Cystoisospora, Cytel, Cytisine, Cytochrome P450 engineering, Daewoong Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd, Daiichi Sankyo, Daily Mail and General Trust, Daniel Amen, Daniel Pearl, Daniela Santanchè, Daoud Khan Military Hospital, Darapladib, Darifenacin, Darknet market, Daryl L. Thompson, Dauricine, David Blanchflower, David Kalergis, David Mervyn Blow, David Newsome, David Zarling, Dawa Limited, De-linkage, Dechra Pharmaceuticals, Decitabine, Decongestant, Decriminalization of non-medical cannabis in the United States, Defined daily dose, Dehns, Dehydroepiandrosterone, Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, Delayed ejaculation, Deleted Scenes (band), Delton AG, Delusional disorder, Den norske Eterfabrikk, Denka (company), Denmark–Kazakhstan relations, Dennis Considen, Dennis M. Jones, Denufosol, Department of Health and Social Care, Depomed, Deprescribing, Dermal patch, Dermatitis herpetiformis, Derwent Drug File, Desiccated thyroid extract, Desorption electrospray ionization, Detonation flame arrester, Deurali-Janta Pharmaceuticals, Development zones of Shenyang, Dewatering screw press, Dextrin, Dextro-Transposition of the great arteries, DHL Supply Chain, Diaphragm valve, Diastase, Dibudinic acid, Dibutyl sebacate, Dienogest, Dietary supplement, Differential scanning calorimetry, Dihydrotestosterone, Diketene, Dilek Ecza Deposu, Dimercaprol, Dimethylacetamide, Dimethylamine, Dimethylethanolamine, Diminazene, Dino Campana, Diomede, Alaska, Diphenylmethanol, Dipyridamole, Direct electron ionization liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry interface, Direct thrombin inhibitor, Direct Xa inhibitor, Discovery and development of TRPV1 antagonists, Disease, Diseases Database, Dishman Pharmaceuticals and Chemicals, Disopyramide, Dispensary, Distillation Design, Distributive shock, Disulfiram, Diversion Investigator, Dmitry Medvedev, Do No Harm (TV series), Docking@Home, Dodecanol, Dodworth, Dog Aging Project, Dollar General, Domestic medicine, Don Panoz, Donald Rumsfeld, Donoghue v Stevenson, Dopamine, Dopamine antagonist, Dorian Gray syndrome, Dosage form, Dose dumping, Double depression, Douglas Pharmaceuticals, Doula, Dow Chemical Company, Dow Jones Industrial Average, Dr. Reddy's Laboratories, Dref Friction Spinning, Dron & Dickson, Dronedarone, Drooling, Droperidol, Drospirenone, Drug, Drug (disambiguation), Drug allergy, Drug class, Drug coupon, Drug delivery, Drug design, Drug development, Drug discovery, Drug distribution, Drug Effectiveness Review Project, Drug Enforcement Agency, Drug Houses of Australia, Drug interaction, Drug Master File, Drug metabolism, Drug nomenclature, Drug of last resort, Drug packaging, Drug pipeline, Drug pollution, Drug reaction testing, Drug reference standard, Drug repositioning, Drug Target Insights, Drug therapy problems, Drug titration, Drug treatment, Drug use, Drug withdrawal, Drug-induced hyperthermia, Drug-induced lupus erythematosus, Drugs for acid-related disorders, Drugs I Need, Drugs in pregnancy, Drying, Dublin Institute of Technology, Dulé Hill, DUSA Pharmaceuticals, Dynamic covalent chemistry, Dysfunctional uterine bleeding, Dystonia, Early Islamic philosophy, Earth, Earth Orbit Stations, East Port Said Industrial Zone, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group, Ecallantide, Ecarin clotting time, Eco-industrial park, Economics and patents, Economy of Algeria, Economy of Andhra Pradesh, Economy of Angola, Economy of Argentina, Economy of Aurangabad, Maharashtra, Economy of Australia, Economy of Bangladesh, Economy of Beijing, Economy of Belo Horizonte, Economy of Bratislava, Economy of China, Economy of Costa Rica, Economy of Denmark, Economy of Egypt, Economy of Georgia (country), Economy of Gujarat, Economy of Hungary, Economy of India, Economy of Iraqi Kurdistan, Economy of Jamaica, Economy of Jordan, Economy of Maharashtra, Economy of Malaysia, Economy of Malta, Economy of Mangalore, Economy of Montreal, Economy of Myanmar, Economy of New South Wales, Economy of Nigeria, Economy of Northern Cyprus, Economy of Pakistan, Economy of Peru, Economy of Portugal, Economy of Puerto Rico, Economy of Saint Petersburg, Economy of Sarajevo, Economy of São Paulo, Economy of Serbia, Economy of Singapore, Economy of Sweden, Economy of Switzerland, Economy of Taiwan, Economy of Telangana, Economy of the Bahamas, Economy of the Central African Republic, Economy of the Czech Republic, Economy of the Dominican Republic, Economy of the European Union, Economy of the Republic of Ireland, Economy of the Western Cape, Economy of Visakhapatnam, Ecosystem services, ECRI Institute, Ectopic beat, Edgar T. Brackett, Edgewood Arsenal human experiments, Edmund T. Pratt Jr., Edward Stanley Gibbons, Efalizumab, Effective dose (pharmacology), Effects of global warming on human health, Efficacy, Effy Stonem, Eflornithine, Efungumab, Ego Pharmaceuticals, Elder Pharmaceuticals, Electroextraction, Electronic health record confidentiality, Eletriptan, Elevated alkaline phosphatase, Eli Lilly, Eli Lilly (industrialist), Eli Lilly and Company, Elmer Holmes Bobst, Els Vanheusden, Eltrombopag, EMBiology, Embryomics, Emcure Pharmaceuticals, EMDEX, Emergency medical services, Emetophobia, Emily Murphy, Emmenin, Employee Polygraph Protection Act, EMS (pharmaceuticals), Enantiomer, Enantiopure drug, Enantioselective synthesis, Endo International plc, Endothelin receptor antagonist, Energy Star, Engineering controls for nanomaterials, England, English Indian Clays, EnPro Industries, Enteric coating, Envigo, Environmental impact of pharmaceuticals and personal care products, Environmental persistent pharmaceutical pollutant, Environmental xenobiotic, Enzyme inhibitor, Eosinophil, Eosinophilic pneumonia, Ephedra (plant), Epilepsy, Epinephrine (medication), Epirubicin, Ergot, Ergotism, Erica Johnson, Erlotinib, Ernesto Bertarelli, Ernst Hallier, Erythropoiesis-stimulating agent, Esalen Institute, Esophagus, Essential medicines, Essential medicines policies, Estetrol, Esteve, Estradiol, Estradiol (medication), Estradiol benzoate, Estradiol stearate, Estradiol sulfate, Estriol, Estrogen, Estrogen (medication), Estrogen conjugate, Estrone, Estrone sulfate, ETH Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, Ether, Ethinamate, Ethnomedicine, Ethoxzolamide, Ethyl methylphenylglycidate, Ethyl nitrate, Ethylene oxide, Etidorhpa, Etretinate, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus oil, EudraLex, EudraVigilance, Eurofins Scientific, European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals, European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines, European Medicines Agency, European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer, European Pharmacopoeia, European Spallation Source, Eurotrials, Eva Eriksson (politician), Evacetrapib, Evalar, Evaporator, Evergreening, Evidence-based pharmacy in developing countries, Evolution, Evolvability, Ewing Kauffman, Exceedra Software, Excipient, Experimental cancer treatment, Experimental drug, Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents, Express Scripts, Expression vector, Eyenovia Inc., Factitious disorder imposed on self, Fagron, Fall prevention, Fallout (series), False Claims Act, Fareva, Farmacotherapeutisch Kompas, Farnesyltransferase inhibitor, Fatigue, Fault tree analysis, Fazl-e-Omar Hospital, Fecal impaction, Federal Commission for the Protection against Sanitary Risk, Felisha Terrell, Felix Zymalkowski, Femi Olubanwo, Fenfluramine/phentermine, Fenjal, Fenofibrate, Fevipiprant, Fexofenadine, Field experiment, Filgotinib, Final maturation induction, Fine chemical, Firestone Institute for Respiratory Health, First pass effect, Fisher Scientific, Fisons, Flavonoid, Fleming–Tamao oxidation, Flexion Therapeutics, Flexlink, Flippin–Lodge angle, Florence, South Carolina, Fluocinolone/hydroquinone/tretinoin, Fluvastatin, Folding boxboard, Food and Drug Administration, Food coloring, Food engineering, Food rheology, Food technology, Foreign direct investment in Iran, Foreign relations of Greece, Foreign relations of India, Foreign relations of Malaysia, Foreign trade of Communist Czechoslovakia, Formamide, Formulary (pharmacy), Fort Dodge, Iowa, Fort Washington, Pennsylvania, Forum spam, Fouad Abdulhameed Alkhateeb, Fox River (Wisconsin), Framnaes, France–Turkey relations, Frances Oldham Kelsey, Frankincense, Franz Wilhelm Schweigger-Seidel, Freddy Schauwecker, Frederick Curzon, 7th Earl Howe, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Freeze-drying, Fresenius (company), Front-end engineering, Front-end loading, Frovatriptan, Fulvestrant, Fungus, Funke Abimbola, G. V. Prasad, G.F. Harvey Company, Gabe Lewis, Gabriele Falloppio, Galactorrhea hyperprolactinemia, Galderma, Galectin-3, Gallium, Gamma-Decalactone, Gary Morsch, Gaza Strip smuggling tunnels, GE Healthcare, Gedeon Richter plc, Gefitinib, Gelatin, Gen-Probe, Genedata, Generalized anxiety disorder, Generic drug, Genetically modified organism, Genetics of aggression, Genome Valley, Genome-wide association study, Genome@home, Genomics data sharing, Genstat, Gentisic acid, George Claridge Druce, George S. Armstrong, Gerard Schouw, Geriatric anesthesia, Geriatric psychology, Geriatric trauma, Geriatrics, German Oil Museum, German submarine Deutschland, German University in Cairo, Germany–Malaysia relations, Gertrude B. Elion, GFS Chemicals, Ghanaian Indian, Gideon Koren, Gideon Mantell, Gigantism, Gilbane Building Company, Gilead Sciences, Gill-man, Giuseppe Caron, Glass microsphere, GlaxoSmithKline, GlaxoSmithKline Pakistan, GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Glenmark Pharmaceuticals, Global Investors Summit, Glossary of climbing terms, Glossary of clinical research, Glossary of medicine, Glucosamine, Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, Gluten-free diet, Glycerol, Glycerol kinase deficiency, Glycopeptide antibiotic, Glycopyrronium bromide, Glycorandomization, Glycoside, Goiana, Golden Age of Science Fiction, Gonadorelin, Gonadotropin, Gonadotropin-releasing hormone, Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue, Gonorrhea, Good manufacturing practice, Gordon McVie, GOT2, Goubuli, Government interest, GPR35, Grand Challenges, Granular material, Granules India Limited, Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, Gray-bellied night monkey, Great Book of Interpretation of Dreams, Greece–Malaysia relations, Greece–Norway relations, Greenpeace Arctic Sunrise ship case, Grindeks, Groton, Connecticut, Groundwater pollution, Group O, Growth factor receptor inhibitor, Growth hormone–releasing hormone, Grupo Insud, GSE Composite Index, Guaifenesin, Gualberto Ruaño, Guar gum, Guiding Light (1960–69), Guilin, Gum arabic, Guru Nanak Institute of Technology, Gusmer Enterprises, Inc., Gustavus Franklin Swift, Guttural pouch, Gymnasium (ancient Greece), H. O. West, H1 antagonist, H2 antagonist, H3 receptor antagonist, Hadley Richardson, Hafslund Nycomed, Hagop Baronian, Haier, Hair removal, HAL Allergy Group, Hallucinogenic plants in Chinese herbals, Haloalkane, Halozyme, Inc., Hamdard (Wakf) Laboratories, Handroanthus impetiginosus, Harlan (company), Harry Steenbock, Harry Stratford, Hasma, Hassan Khosrowshahi, HD Medicine, Heads of Medicines Agencies, Healing, Healing of periapical lesions, Health and appearance of Michael Jackson, Health Care Card, Health care finance in the United States, Health care in the United States, Health care reform, Health in Cuba, Health policy, Health Protection Agency, Health Resources and Services Administration, Health Sciences Authority, Health systems engineering, Health Utilities Index, Healthcare in Azerbaijan, Healthcare in Brazil, Healthcare in Canada, Healthcare in Cuba, Healthcare in Germany, Healthcare in Iran, Healthcare in Kosovo, Healthcare in Senegal, Healthcare industry, Healthcare transport, Heart nanotechnology, Heart Protection Study, Heart to Heart International, Heat stroke, Heated hose, Heavy-chain antibody, Hebridean Brewing Company, Hedonic hunger, Heinrich Wilhelm Ferdinand Wackenroder, Help Conquer Cancer, Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, Hemofarm a.d., Hemolytic anemia, Hendricks Holding Company, Henk van Gerven, Henry Cotton (doctor), Henry Hoke, HEPA, Hepatitis, Hepatocyte, Herbal, Herbalism, Herbert A. Allen Sr., Heroic measure, Hesse, Hetero Drugs, Hexylamine, High-content screening, High-frequency vibrating screens, High-shear mixer, Hikma Pharmaceuticals, Hillerød, Hinduism in Nigeria, Hinduja Group, Hindustan Antibiotics, Hippulin, Hisamitsu Pharmaceutical, Histamine dihydrochloride, Histidine decarboxylase, History and culture of substituted amphetamines, History of Benzedrine, History of botany, History of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, History of chemical engineering, History of chemistry, History of Chinese Americans, History of herbalism, History of Indiana, History of Islamic economics, History of lysergic acid diethylamide, History of mineralogy, History of science and technology in China, History of the ambulance, History of United States drug prohibition, HIV/AIDS in India, Hlohovec District, Hoffmann-La Roche, Holoprosencephaly, Homatropine, Home automation for the elderly and disabled, Homoeriodictyol, Hormonal breast enhancement, Hormone, Hormone antagonist, Horse care, Hospira, Host tropism, HT-0712, Huang Minlon, Huangdao District, Huhtamäki, Hum (band), Human cannibalism, Human digestive system, Human equivalent, Human fat, Human milk banking in North America, Human serum albumin, Human skeleton, Human subject research, Humanistic medicine, Huntingdon Life Sciences, Huw Davies (chemist), Hwabyeong, Hyaluronidase, Hyderabad, Hyderabad Pharma City, Hydrazine, Hydrazobenzene, Hydrochloric acid, Hydrocodone/ibuprofen, Hydrogenation, Hydroxybenzoquinone, Hydroxylation, Hydroxynaphthoquinone, Hydroxyquinone, Hypera Pharma, Hypercalcaemia, Hypercholesterolemia, Hyperkalemia, Hypersomnia, Hypertension, Hyperuricemia, Hypoestrogenism, Hypoprothrombinemia, Hypoventilation, Iatrogenesis, Ibandronic acid, Ibercivis, Ibuprofen brand names, Ibuprofen/paracetamol, ICD-10 Chapter IV: Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases, ICD-10 Chapter V: Mental and behavioural disorders, ICD-10 Chapter VII: Diseases of the eye, adnexa, ICD-10 Chapter XII: Diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, ICD-10 Chapter XIV: Diseases of the genitourinary system, ICD-10 Chapter XIX: Injury, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes, ICD-10 Chapter XVI: Certain conditions originating in the perinatal period, ICD-10 Chapter XVIII: Symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, ICD-10 Chapter XX: External causes of morbidity and mortality, Iceland–European Union relations, Ichigeki Sacchu!! HoiHoi-san, ICI Pakistan, Idebenone, Idrocilamide, IG Farben Building, Igor V. Komarov, Igus, IIT Research Institute, ILAI Fund, ILC Dover, Ilchi Lee, Ileus, IMA (company), IMA Life S.r.l, Imagabalin, Imidazopyridine, IMM-101, Immigrant health in Australia, Immune thrombocytopenic purpura, Immunology, Immunosuppressive drug, Imperial Chemical Industries, In silico clinical trials, In vitro toxicology, Incepta Pharmaceuticals, Inclusion (disability rights), Indapamide, Indegene, Inc., Index of biochemistry articles, Index of biomedical engineering articles, Index of health articles, India–Poland relations, India–Ukraine relations, India–United States relations, Indiabulls, Indian Drugs and Pharmaceuticals, Indianapolis, Indium (111In) biciromab, Indivior, Indole, Indonesia–Switzerland relations, Indorama Ventures, Induction sealing, Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, Industrial Area Khushkhera, Industrial crop, Industrial enyzmes, Industrial enzymes, Industrial gas, Industry of Iran, Infection, Infiltration analgesia, Infinity Fluids, Influenza treatment, Influenza-like illness, Information Services Division, Infusion pump, Ingestion, Ingredion, Inibsa, Injury, Inland saline aquaculture, Inman Harvey, Inorganic chemistry, Inotrope, Insomnia, Institute of Pharmacology and Structural Biology, Insulated shipping container, Insulin (medication), Insulin resistance, Intangible asset finance, Integrated Security Unit, Intelligen, Interaction, Interdisciplinary Nursing Quality Research Initiative, Interferon alfa, Interferon alpha-n3, Interferon type I, Internal bleeding, Internal medicine, International (Nice) Classification of Goods and Services, International Diabetes Center at Park Nicollet, International nonproprietary name, International Society for Pharmaceutical Engineering, International Society of Pharmacovigilance, International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology, International unit, Interstitial granulomatous drug reaction, Interstitial lung disease, Intervention, Intima-media thickness, Intramuscular injection, Intraocular pressure, Intrapulmonary percussive ventilator, Intravenous therapy, Introduction to the metric system, Ion Ioanid, Ipca Laboratories, Ipsen, IQnovate, Irofulven, Irradiated mail, Ischemic hepatitis, Islamic philosophy, Isomethadone, Isoprenaline, Isotropic formulations, Isovaleraldehyde, Israel Export Institute, ITH Pharma, Ivabradine, Ivacaftor, Ivan Ostromislensky, Jaber Ebne Hayyan Pharmaceutical Company, Jaider Villa, James B. Aguayo-Martel, James Murray (physician), James P. Hogan (writer), Jan Fletcher, Janssen Biotech, Japanese Accepted Name, Japanese patent law, Jason Cook (actor), Jason Erkes, Jatene procedure, Jaundice, Jean Coutu Group, Jeedimetla, Jeff Aronin, Jeff Bagwell, Jeff Bleckner, Jenapharm, Jesse Eisinger, Jewish views on suicide, Jilin Aodong Medicine, JNJ-26990990, Jo Fletcher, Joachim Jose, Johann Friedrich Klotzsch, Johann Nepomuk Rust, Johann Rudolf Glauber, Johannes Hartmann, John Earnshaw, John Forbes Nash Jr., John L. Gainer, John Warner (chemist), Johnson Matthey, Jordan Investment Commission, Jordan Phosphate Mines, Josef Mengele, Joseph C. Papa, Joseph Fuisz, Josiah K. Lilly Jr., Journal of Experimental Nanoscience, Jucu, Julphar, Jun Matsumoto (politician), Kafi Benz, Kallam Anji Reddy, Kalundborg Eco-industrial Park, Kanamycin A, Kank-A, Kantar Group, Kaopectate, Kappa Psi, Karl Slotta, Karma, Karuk, Katwe, Kava, Kcomber, Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary, Keith Ellison, Kempegowda International Airport, Ken Harvey (professor), Kendra's Law, Kennedy's Brain, Kenneth Parcell, Ketamine, Keyence, Kharkhana Zinda Tilismath, Khed, Ratnagiri, Khwaja Muhammad Yusuf, Kian Gwan, Kidney Foundation of Iran, Kikkoman, Kimberly Bryant (technologist), Kimia Farma, Kind Consumer, King Pharmaceuticals, Kirin Company, Kirkland, Quebec, Kisangani, Kiso Tsuru, Kiss (Dekker novel), Knight Therapeutics, Knowledge process outsourcing, Korean Oriental Pharmacist, Kosan Biosciences, Krka (company), Kulmbach, Kunitz domain, KV Pharmaceutical, Kyowa Hakko Kirin, La Follette-Bulwinkle Act, Labeling theory, Laboratórios BASI, Laboratoires Servier, Laboratory, Laboratory robotics, Labyrinthitis, Lactose intolerance, Lactylate, Lamella (materials), Lanterman Developmental Disabilities Act, Lanthanide trifluoromethanesulfonates, Las Piñas Chamber, LAUGFS Holdings, Laupheim, Law of the United States, Lawrence Batley, Lawrence Liang, Lawrence Ricci, Leerom Segal, Legal drug trade, Legal history of cannabis in the United States, Leimgruber–Batcho indole synthesis, Leo Pharma, Leonhard Thurneysser, Leonora O'Brien, Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, Lethal dose, Letter box, Leukemia, Levocabastine, Levomepromazine, Levomethadone, Levorphanol, Lewis acids and bases, Lexicon Pharmaceuticals, Li Shizhen, Liaoning Chengda, Liberation (pharmacology), Libya–Switzerland relations, Lieve Fransen, Lifestyle drug, LIFSE, Ligand binding assay, Liliales, Lilioid monocots, Linati schema for Ulysses, Lincoln, Rhode Island, Lindane, Linden Ashby, Ling Ling (giant panda), Ling-Temco-Vought, Linguamatics, Linthwaite, Lion Corporation, Lipase inhibitors, Lipoic acid, Liposome, Liquorice (confectionery), List of 30 Days episodes, List of adrenergic drugs, List of African-American inventors and scientists, List of Babylon 5 characters, List of Big Brother 9 houseguests (U.S.), List of Breaking Bad and Better Call Saul characters, List of Burn Notice characters, List of cardiac pharmaceutical agents, List of chemical compounds with unusual names, List of companies of Iran, List of companies traded on the JSE, List of confidence tricks, List of countries by pharmaceutical exports, List of domesticated fungi and microorganisms, List of dopaminergic drugs, List of English apocopations, List of exports of Canada, List of exports of France, List of exports of Germany, List of exports of India, List of exports of Italy, List of exports of Poland, List of exports of the United Kingdom, List of exports of the United States, List of fictional scientists and engineers, List of French people by net worth, List of Frontline (PBS) episodes, List of German Americans, List of GS1 country codes, List of ICD-9 codes 800–999: injury and poisoning, List of important publications in medicine, List of imports of the United States, List of incurable diseases, List of instruments used in toxicology, List of Korean inventions and discoveries, List of largest chemical producers, List of largest companies by revenue, List of largest European manufacturing companies by revenue, List of Lead Balloon episodes, List of life sciences, List of medical ethics cases, List of medical roots, suffixes and prefixes, List of medical specialty colleges in the United States, List of medicine contamination incidents, List of MeSH codes, List of MeSH codes (D15), List of multinational companies with research and development centres in Israel, List of National Historic Landmarks in Michigan, List of patient-reported quality of life surveys, List of pharmaceutical compound number prefixes, List of phobias, List of placeholder names by language, List of plants used in herbalism, List of recurring alien characters in Stargate SG-1, List of recurring Skins characters, List of Resident Evil characters, List of Russian people by net worth, List of Six Feet Under characters, List of steroid medications available in the United States, List of The Goon characters, List of top international rankings by country, List of Trinity Blood episodes, List of Ugandans by net worth, List of vegetable oils, List of venture capital firms, List of Walmart brands, List of withdrawn drugs, Lists about the pharmaceutical industry, Liu Yiqian, Liver biopsy, Living things in culture, Lizard, LloydsPharmacy, Lobe pump, Local anesthesia, Local anesthetic, Loghman Pharmaceuticals, London Drugs, Lonza Group, Loperamide/simethicone, Lorajmine, Loratadine, Loránd Kesztyűs, Lori L. Altshuler, Los Saicos, Losigamone, Lost to follow-up, Lotion, Louis Aronne, Love Hearts, Low molecular weight heparin, Loxapine, Lubiprostone, Lubrizol, Ludwig Clamor Marquart, Lug Healthcare Technology, Luke Howard, Lund, Lundbeck, Lung, Lupin Limited, Luther Blissett (nom de plume), Lyari River, Lymphatic filariasis, Lymphocytopenia, Lysergic acid, M56 motorway, Macclesfield, MacFarlan Smith, Macrolide, Magaldrate, Magnus Andreas Thulstrup, Mahad, Mahlon Kline, Maidenhead, Major depressive disorder, Malaria, Male waxing, Malta House of Care, Mambalgins, Management of depression, Management of Parkinson's disease, Management of strabismus, Mankind Pharma, Mannich reaction, Manuel Córdova-Rios, Manufacturing execution system, Manufacturing in Ghana, Manufacturing in Japan, Manzoor Ahmad, MareNostrum, Marie Brémont, Marie Krogh, Marine Drugs, Marion Merrell Dow, Maritigrella crozierae, Mark E. Smith, Marketing Authorization Application, Marksans Pharma, Martie Maguire, Martin R. Dinnes, Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Massive Dynamic, Mast cell stabilizer, Matas (drug store), Matthew Chervenak, Maulana Azad College of Arts and Science, Maureen Pugh, Max Baucus, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Max von Zedtwitz, Maxygen, May & Baker, Maya medicine, Mayaro virus disease, Mónica Fein, Möbius syndrome, Mölndal, McKesson Corporation, McNeil Consumer Healthcare, MDLinx, Me-too compound, Mean systemic pressure, Meander, Tasmania, Mebeverine, Mechanical Engineering Heritage (Japan), Mechanism of action, Mechanism of action of aspirin, MED, Med Ad News, Meda AB, Medac, Medherant, Median lethal dose, Medical abortion, Medical debt, Medical device, Medical director, Medical education in the United States, Medical error, Medical escort, Medical history, Medical prescription, Medical psychology, Medical record, Medical research, Medical response dog, Medical restraint, Medical science liaison, Medical toxicology, Medical writing, MedicAlert, Medicalization, Medicare Prompt Pay Correction Act, Medication (disambiguation), Medicinal chemistry, Medicinal fungi, Medicine, Medicine (disambiguation), Medicine chest (idiom), Medicine: Prep Manual for Undergraduates, Medicines Act 1968, Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency, Medicines reconciliation, Medimix International, Medinfar, Medochemie, Medvedev modernisation programme, Mefloquine, Mega-City One, Megestrol, Meibomian gland, Meir Jakobsohn, Melior Discovery, Melphalan, Membrane protein, Membrane technology, Memory and aging, Menarini, Meningitis, Menlo Capital Group, Mennen, Mental health nurse, Mentholatum, Mepacrine, Merchant submarine, Merck Consumer Health, Merck Group, Merck Headquarters Building, Merck Index, Merck Millipore, Merck Serono, Mercury in fish, Mercury(I) iodide, Mervyn Bibb, Mesylate, Meta-selective C–H functionalization, Metabolic engineering, Metabolic gene cluster, Metabolomics, Metagenomics, Metal ammine complex, Metallopharmaceutical, Methaqualone in popular culture, Methoxetamine, Methoxsalen, Methyl 2-bromoacetate, Methylhomatropine, Methylscopolamine bromide, Metro Cebu, Mevalonate pathway, Mewburn Ellis, Micellar electrokinetic chromatography, Micellar liquid chromatography, Michael Clapham (industrialist), Michael D. Horowitz, Michael J. Wytrwal, Michael Tan, Michel Bouvier, Michel Lescanne, Michelle Chang, Micro-encapsulation, Microbial genetics, Microdialysis, Microfiltration, Micronization, MicroRNA, MidMeds, Miguel Rolando Covian, Mild cognitive impairment, Mindbend, Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers, Ministry of Health (Malaysia), Ministry of Health (Soviet Union), Ministry of Industry (Myanmar), Minor depressive disorder, Minoxidil, Minusheet perfusion culture system, Miodrag Radulovacki, Miriam Stoppard, Misoprostol, Mitch Daniels, Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma, Mixing (process engineering), Mochida Pharmaceutical, Mode of action, Model organism, Modelling of particle breakage, Modified starch, Moisture vapor transmission rate, Molecular binding, Monico Limited, Monoamine oxidase inhibitor, Monocotyledon, Monolithic HPLC column, Monsanto, Monster Island (Wellington novel), Montreal, Mood stabilizer, Moredun Research Institute, Morphine/naltrexone, Mortar and pestle, Motherisk, Moti Lal Dhar, Motion Industries, Motus, LLC, MSR - The Israel Center for Medical Simulation, Mucoprotective, Multi-modal International Cargo Hub and Airport at Nagpur, Multiangle light scattering, Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies, Multiple morbidities, Mummy, Mummy paper, Mundra Port, Municipal solid waste, Music of Washington, D.C., MY Corp., Myeloid-derived suppressor cell, Mylan, Mylan Classic, Mylanta, Myocarditis, N-Butylamine, N-linked glycosylation, N-Phenethyl-4-piperidinone, Naari, Naltrexone, Nambassa, Nanjing Ange Pharmaceutical, Nanofiltration, Nanofoundry, NanoInk, Nanorobotics, Naphcon-A, Naptumomab estafenatox, Naratriptan, Narcotoline, Nasal septum deviation, Nashebaaz, Natilus, National Agency of Drug and Food Control of Republic of Indonesia, National Association for Chiropractic Medicine, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, National Drug Code, National Institute of Animal Biotechnology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Hajipur, National Medicinal Drugs Policy, National Office of Animal Health, National Physicians Alliance, National Poison Prevention Week, National Registry of Emergency Medical Technicians, National Sanitary Surveillance Agency, National Youth in Care Network, Natriuresis, Natural Science and Technical Academy Isny, Naturopathy, Nazareth College (Michigan), Nazi human experimentation, Near-infrared spectroscopy, Near-sightedness, Nectar Lifesciences, Ned Flanders, Ned Roberto, Nedocromil, Nejat Eczacıbaşı, Nelson Horatio Darton, Neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, Neonatal stroke, Neosalvarsan, Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, Nephrology, Nephrotoxicity, Nereus Pharmaceuticals, Nestlé, Network medicine, Neural tissue engineering, Neurocognitive, Neurogenesis, Neurolaw, Neurological disorder, Neutralizing antibody, Neutrophil, New Clicks Holdings Limited, New Freedom Commission on Mental Health, New Jersey Inventors Hall of Fame, New Oakland Child-Adolescent and Family Center, New Orleans Morial Convention Center, New York Rescue Workers Detoxification Project, New Zealand rabbit, Newark, Delaware, Newsmax, Newton Abbot, Nial J. Wheate, Nicardipine, Nicholas Culpeper, Nicholas Sparks, Nick Palmer, Nicolaou Taxol total synthesis, Nicomide, NicOx, Night terror, Nikkhil Advani, Nikolai Kravkov, Nimmagadda Prasad, Nippon Kayaku, Nippon Soda Co., Ltd., Nipro, NIPTE, Nitisinone, Nitrobenzene, No Free Lunch (organization), Nomeco, Nonsteroidal estrogen, Nootropic, Norbrook Group, Nordoxepin, Norepinephrine (medication), Norfolk House, Basingstoke, Norm Gardner, North East England, North East Institute of Science and Technology, Jorhat, North East of England Process Industry Cluster, Northumberland, Norwegian Food Safety Authority, Norwegian Medicines Agency, Norwegian Pharmacy Museum, Nostoc commune var. sphaeroides, Novartis, Novator Partners, Novo Nordisk, NPS MedicineWise, NSF International, Nußbaum, Nucleotide sugar, Number needed to treat, Nurse Ratched, Nursing in the United States, Nursing shortage, Nutmeg, Nutraceutical, Nutritional genomics, Nycomed, Nystagmus, Obaidul Karim, Obay, Obesity, Obesogen, Obliquity (book), Obstetrical nursing, OdanLaboratories, Off-label use, Official Medicines Control Laboratory, Officinal, Ogataea polymorpha, Oil, Olainfarm, Old Thong Chai Medical Institution, Olefin metathesis, Oleg Zherebtsov, Oligospermia, Oliguria, Olive oil, Olmesartan/amlodipine, Olusegun Obasanjo, Omega Pharma, Omigapil, Omphalocele, Omya, Oncocare, OncoMed, Onepharm, Opium Law, OPKO Health, Oral administration, Oral contraceptive pill, Oral glucose gel, Orchid Chemicals & Pharmaceuticals, Orexigenic, Orexo, Organic chemistry, Organic reaction, Organised crime in India, Organizations of Alias, Organofluorine chemistry, Organorhodium chemistry, Orion Corporation, Orion Group (Bangladesh), Orphan drug, Orphan-Nor, Orrin Devinsky, Ortho-Vanillin, Orthomolecular medicine, Orthomolecular psychiatry, Orthopaedic sports medicine, Orthostatic intolerance, OSI Pharmaceuticals, Osmosis Jones, Osotspa, Oss, Oswald Schmiedeberg, Otto Röhm, Otto Unverdorben, Outline of biochemistry, Outline of biology, Outline of cardiology, Outline of chemistry, Outline of clinical research, Outline of health sciences, Outline of medicine, Outline of physical science, Outsert, Ovation Pharmaceuticals, Over-the-counter drug, Overflow incontinence, Overmedication, Oviya MedSafe Pvt. Ltd, Oxygen transmission rate, Oxytocin, Oxytocin (medication), Ozone, P-glycoprotein, Pabna, Pabna District, Package testing, Packaging and labeling, Pain assessment, Pain management during childbirth, Pallor, Panacea Biotec, Pancytopenia, Pandanus, Panic attack, Panic disorder, Papaver somniferum, Paper engineering, Paraben, Paramedic, Paramedics in Australia, Paramedics in Canada, Paramedics in the United States, Parasitology, Parasomnia, Parenteral Drug Association, Paresthesia, Pareve, PAREXEL, Paricalcitol, Particle counter, Partners in Crime (short story collection), Passive sampling, Patent medicine, Pathophysiology of asthma, Patient, Patient recruitment, Patiromer, Patternation, Paul Appermont, Paul Sacher, Pavlos Giannakopoulos, Payment for ecosystem services, Pítati, PDE5 inhibitor, Pearson Commission, Pediatric Oncall, Pedro L. Marín, Pee Dee, Peeler centrifuge, Pegsunercept, PEGylation, Penbutolol, Penny (The Big Bang Theory), Pentamidine, Pentethylcyclanone, Percy Lavon Julian, Pericarditis, Period 2 element, Peripheral neuropathy, Perrigo, Persistent organic pollutant, Persomics, Personal health application, Personal health record, Personal medicine, Personally Controlled Electronic Health Record, Pervasive refusal syndrome, Pesticide research, Peter Moylan, Peter Young (banker), Petrochemical, Petroleum, Petroleum industry, Pexelizumab, Pfizer UK, Phantom limb, Pharma, Pharma Documentation Ring, Pharma Medica, Pharma Nord, Pharmaceutical code, Pharmaceutical Export Promotion Council, Pharmaceutical formulation, Pharmaceutical industry, Pharmaceutical industry in Bangladesh, Pharmaceutical industry in China, Pharmaceutical Inspection Convention and Pharmaceutical Inspection Co-operation Scheme, Pharmaceutical lobby, Pharmaceutical manufacturing, Pharmaceutical marketing, Pharmaceutical microbiology, Pharmaceutical Product Development, Pharmaciens Sans Frontières, Pharmacist, Pharmacodiagnostic testing, Pharmacodynamics, Pharmacoeconomics, Pharmacogenomics, Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacology, Pharmacometabolomics, Pharmacopoeia, Pharmacosmos, Pharmacotherapy, Pharmacotoxicology, Pharmacovigilance, Pharmacy, Pharmacy and Poisons Board, Pharmacy automation, Pharmacy research, Pharmacy technician, Pharmadule, Pharmahuasca, PharmFree, Pharming (genetics), Pharmstandard, Phenazocine, Phenibut, Phenol, Phenoxyethanol, Phenylpropanolamine, Philadelphia Water Department, Philip K. Bates, Philip Le Couteur, Philipp Daniel Merckle, Philosophy of healthcare, Phloroglucinol, Phoenix Pharmahandel, Phonocardiogram, Phosphate binder, Phosphodiesterase inhibitor, Phosphorus tribromide, Photocure, Phototoxicity, Phua Chu Kang Pte Ltd, Phulwara oil, Physician dispensing, Pictet–Spengler reaction, Pierce Biotechnology, Pierre Fabre (businessman), Pill dispenser, Pill organizer, Pimozide, Pin mill, Pink Dot, Pinworm infection, Pioglitazone, Pipe fitting, Piper cubeba, Piperidinedione, Piprozolin, Piramal Glass, Piramal Group, Pirenoxine, Pitavastatin, Place cell, Planet Earth (1986 TV series), Plant, Plant breeding, Plant defense against herbivory, Plasmonic solar cell, Platinum-based antineoplastic, Plectranthus barbatus, Pliva, Pneumonia, Poison, Poison control center, Poisoning, Pollution, Poly drug use, Poly-World, Polyacrylic acid, Polycarbophil calcium, Polyethylene glycol, Polymorphism (materials science), Polyneuropathy, Polypharmacy, Polypill, Polypure, Polyvinyl acetate phthalate, Pomezia, Ponce, Puerto Rico, Ponders End, Port Louis, Portage, Michigan, Porto Empedocle, Positions of medical organizations on electronic cigarettes, Positive behavior support, Post-chemotherapy cognitive impairment, Post-traumatic stress disorder among athletes, Postmarketing surveillance, Potassium iodide, Potion, Poultry farming, Pouso Alegre, Powder, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, PPAR agonist, Prafulla Chandra Ray, Prasterone, Pre-start-up audit, Precautionary principle, Precipitated silica, Prednisolone/promethazine, Pregnenolone, Premedication, Prescription drug, Prescription Drug Marketing Act, Prescription drug prices in the United States, Prescription Drug User Fee Act, Preservative, Presidency of Dmitry Medvedev, Priapism, Processing Magazine, Procyclidine, Prodrug, Product certification, Professional Compounding Centers of America, Progesterone, Progesterone (medication), Progestin, Progynon, Prohibition of drugs, ProMetic Life Sciences, Propargyl bromide, Propionic acid, Propylene glycol, Propylhexedrine, Prospective memory, Prostatic acid phosphatase, Proteins produced and secreted by the liver, Proteon Therapeutics, Proton-pump inhibitor, Proximal tubule, Prucalopride, Pseudoephedrine, Psoriasis, Psychiatric hospital, Psychiatric medication, Psychiatric somatotherapy, Psychiatric technician, Psychological effects of male infertility, Psychosis, Public Readiness and Emergency Preparedness Act, Public service, Pulgaon, Pulmonary artery catheter, Pulmonary atresia, Pulmonology, Purple, Pyin Oo Lwin, Pyrazolopyrimidine, Pyridine, PZ Cussons Ghana, Qualified person (European Union), Quality (business), Quality Chemicals Limited, Quality control in tissue engineering, Quality use of medicines, Quillaja saponaria, Quingestanol, Quinidine, Quinine, R. K. Kamboj, Racemization, Rachel Fuller Brown, Radionuclide, Radiopharmaceutical, Radiopharmacology, Raeapteek, Rajiv Gandhi International Airport, Ralf Reski, Raman spectroscopy, Ranbaxy Laboratories, Randal J. Kirk, Rapastinel, Rapid Exchange of Information System, Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, Rasburicase, Rash, Rationalization (sociology), Ratiopharm, Raw material, Rawabi, Real Options Group, Rebound effect, Recession, Reclaimed water, Recovery approach, Rectal administration, Redcliffe Partners, Reflex syncope, Reflux suppressant, Regulation of nanotechnology, Regulatory affairs, Reinfeldt Cabinet, Rejuvenation (aging), Relapse, Reliability of Wikipedia, Religion and drugs, Religion and schizophrenia, RELIS, Remacemide, Remedy, Remifentanil, Renal function, Renin inhibitor, Reperfusion therapy, Repurposing, Rescinnamine, Research exemption, Research on Adverse Drug Events and Reports, Respiratory center, Restenosis, Retail, Reuptake inhibitor, Reuse of excreta, Rezina District, Rhabdomyolysis, Rhetoric of health and medicine, Rhinofebral, Rho Pi Phi, Rhodocene, Ribeirão Preto, Rice bran wax, Richard Axel, Richard B. Brewer, Richard Battley, Richard Dresser, Richard Smith (editor), Richard W. Guenther, Richmond Pharmacology, Ricky Williams, Rigoberta Menchú, Rilpivirine, Riluzole, Rimeporide, Riyadh Techno Valley, Rizatriptan, RNA Automation, Robert D. Walter, Robert H. Grubbs, Robert Hippolyte Chodat, Robot, Roche Applied Science, Rockland, Massachusetts, Rohto Pharmaceutical, Roivant Sciences, Roland Daggett, Romance (play), Romat, Romifidine, Ronald D. Stewart, Ronald MacKeith, Room temperature, Roquette Frères, Rosin, Ross Piper, Rostral migratory stream, Rosuvastatin, Rotherham, Route of administration, Roy Hart, Royal Australian College of General Practitioners, RPG Group, RPG Life Sciences, Rubicon Research, Russia, Russian Club of Financial Directors, Ruth Lilly, Ruth M. Rothstein CORE Center, Ruxolitinib, RxNorm, S. E. Massengill Company, S.A.C.I. Falabella, Sachtleben Chemie, Sacrosidase, SAFE-BioPharma Association, Saffron, Safinamide, Saidal, Saint Boniface Hospital, Saint Catherine Parish, Salad (disambiguation), Salicylate sensitivity, Salisbury, Maryland, Salvia officinalis, Samuel Barbour, Samuel Conway, Sanctuary of Our Lady of Lourdes, Sandwich, Kent, Sanofi, Santaris Pharma, Santen Pharmaceutical, Sartorius AG, Sassari, Satoko Kitahara, Satoshi Ōmura, São José dos Campos, Scavenger resin, Schering AG, Schering-Plough, School of Chemical and Life Sciences, Nanyang Polytechnic, Schwartz Communications, Science and technology in China, Science and technology in Israel, Science and technology in Russia, Science and technology of the Song dynasty, Science in newly industrialized countries, Science park, Scienceindustries, Scrip World Pharmaceutical News, Scrubs (season 2), Seattle Genetics, Secondary hypertension, Secrets and Words, SEICAP, Seirogan, Sekisui House, Selective androgen receptor degrader, Selective estrogen receptor degrader, Self-medication, Seliciclib, Selumetinib, SemBioSys Genetics, Semicarbazide, Semtech Solutions, Seneka Bibile, Separation of prescribing and dispensing, Series A round, Serono, Serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine releasing agent, Serum-separating tube, Sessile drop technique, Seth Lederman, Setipiprant, Severin Schwan, Sevoflurane, Sewage sludge, Sewage treatment, Sex effects of water pollution, Sexual arousal disorder, Sexual health clinic, Shanghai Innovative Research Center of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shelf life, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenzhou 4, Shiina macrolactonization, Shilpa Shetty, Shionogi, Shire (pharmaceutical company), Shire of Moyne, Shortages in Venezuela, Shri Gangajali Education Society, Shuja ul-Mulk, Siberian Serpentarium, Siberian State Medical University, Sigismond Jaccoud, Sigma-Aldrich, Sigma-Tau, Sildenafil, Silver, Silver diammine fluoride, Simcere Pharmaceutical, Simon Williams (sociologist), Single use components, Single-nucleotide polymorphism, Sinopharm Group, Sir Harry Jephcott, 1st Baronet, Sistema Único de Saúde, Site management organization, Skins (series 4), SLC10A2, Slovenia, Small modular immunopharmaceutical, Small molecule, Small-angle X-ray scattering, Smart polymer, SME Craiova, Smith Drug Company, Smiths Group, Smoke, SMT D002, Society of Pharmacovigilance, India, Sodium methoxide, Sodium thiopental, Sofalcone, Solagran, Solanum erianthum, Solvent, SOM Biotech, Somnogen Canada Inc, Sonia Shah, Southern Research, Spark Therapeutics, Special Relationship, Specification (technical standard), Spectrum Pharmaceuticals, SPIC (Indian company), Spirometer, Spironolactone, Spotlight Innovation, Spray drying, Spy Fiction, Square Pharmaceuticals, Sri Lanka National Pharmaceuticals Policy, St Vincent's Hospital, Sydney, Stability testing, Stacey Castor, Standard data model, Standing Committee on Health and Care Services, Stanley Adams (whistleblower), Starwin Products, State Pharmaceuticals Corporation of Sri Lanka, Statin, Step therapy, Sterculia urens, Stereochemistry, Steric effects, Sterne, Kessler, Goldstein & Fox, Steroid, Steve Silberman, Steven Laureys, Stewart Smith (politician), Stiefel Laboratories, Stillbirth, Stinger (medicine), Stothert’s & Sons Ltd, Strange Bedfellows (ER), Strange Voices, Streptomyces caespitosus, Strides Shasun, STS-61-B, Styphnolobium japonicum, Su Shi, Sublabial administration, Subscription business model, Substituted tryptamine, Sucralfate, Sudocrem, Sufficiency of disclosure, Sugar candy, Suicide methods, Suitcase Clinic, Sulfacetamide/sulfur, Sulfinpyrazone, Sulfite process, Sulfur, Sulfuric acid, Sumitomo Chemical, Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma, Summary of Product Characteristics, Sun Pharmaceutical, Sunburn, Sunday Times 2008 Young Rich List, Sunil Suri, Sunny Kurian, Supercritical carbon dioxide, Supercritical fluid chromatography, Supersaturation, Supersoldier, Suppository, Suramin, Surendranagar district, Surgery, Surgical technologist, Susan Bayh, Sustainability and environmental management, Suzuki reaction, Svenskt Tenn, Swisslog Holding, Symyx Technologies, SynBio, Synchrotron, Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, Synthetic, Syrie Maugham, Table of medication secernated in kidney, Table of volume of distribution for drugs, Tablet hardness testing, Tablet press, Tableting, Tachykinin receptor 1, Takeru Higuchi, Talampanel, Talview, Tanespimycin, TAP Pharmaceuticals, Targeted covalent inhibitors, Targeted drug delivery, Taro Pharmaceuticals, Task Force East, Taspoglutide, Tata Consultancy Services, Tazobactam, TDR Targets, Teachings of Falun Gong, Tec Laboratories, Tecan, Technetium (99mTc) medronic acid, Technical standard, Technological and industrial history of China, Technological Top Institute, Technology, Tecnu, Tejgaon Thana, Telangana, Telepharmacy, Television advertisement, Telmisartan/hydrochlorothiazide, Temmler, Teniposide, Teprenone, Teresa Forcades, Terlipressin, Tertatolol, Test of Variables of Attention, Testimonial, Testosterone, Testosterone (medication), Tetra (company), Tetracyclic, Teva Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients, Teva Pharmaceutical Industries, Texas Medication Algorithm Project, Textbook, Thanasis Giannakopoulos, The ACME Laboratories Ltd, The Big Shakedown, The Business of Being Born, The Cancer Prevention and Education Society, The Cape (2011 TV series), The Day Today, The Distillers Company, The Dose Makes the Poison, The Hound of Death, The Life Scientific, The Litigators, The Marine Mammal Center, The Maritimes, The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics, The St. Regis Mohawk Tribe and Restasis patent, The Sufferer & the Witness, The Ticket That Exploded, The Walt, The Year 3,000, Theodor Friedrich Ludwig Nees von Esenbeck, Therapeutic drug monitoring, Therapeutic effect, Therapeutic gene modulation, Therapeutic Innovation & Regulatory Science, Therapeutic Products Directorate, Therapy, Therapy cat, Thermal death time, Thermolabile, Thiamine, Thiazide, Thin-film drug delivery, Thioamide, Thiophenol, Thomandersia laurifolia, Thomas Beecham (chemist), ThoughtSpeed Corporation, Three roll mill, Thrissur district, Thrombosis prevention, Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, Thyrotropin-releasing hormone, Tiagabine, Tianjin Development, Tianjin TEDA Company, Tilt table test, Tim Burns (businessman), Tim Walz, Time delay toxin activation, Time temperature indicator, Time Traveller: The Girl Who Leapt Through Time, Timeline of Animal Liberation Front actions, 2000–04, Timeline of global health, Timeline of healthcare in India, Timeline of healthcare in Italy, Tirofiban, Titan Pharmaceuticals, Titanium, Tixylix, TNF inhibitor, Tobacco politics, Tofacitinib, Tolazamide, Tom Hussey (photographer), Tomislav Nikolić, Tomtegubben som hade snuva, Tong Ren Tang, Topical medication, Topical progesterone, Toray Industries, Torcetrapib, Torture, Totarol, Toxic cough syrup, Toxic tort, Toxicodynamics, Toxicofera, Toxicology testing, Toxophore, Trade policy of Japan, Trandolapril/verapamil, Transcom Group, Transdermal patch, Transgene, Transgenesis, Translational glycobiology, Transmission Raman spectroscopy, Travie McCoy, Treatment of cancer, Trichotillomania, Trifluoroacetyl chloride, Trifluoromethylation, Trimethoprim/polymyxin, Trimethyl phosphate, Triptan, Trofa, Troglitazone, Trough level, Trucking industry in the United States, Trygg Mammamedisin, Tryptophan 7-halogenase, Tseng Labs, Tsuji–Trost reaction, TT Pro League, Tube cleaning, Tubulin, Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development, Turing Pharmaceuticals, Turner Construction, Turritopsis dohrnii, Twinlab, Tyrosine, Tyrosine-kinase inhibitor, Ube Industries, UCB (company), Udhana-Palsana Industrial Corridor, Ulm, Ultrasonic nozzle, Unclean spirit, Undecylenic acid, Understanding Animal Research, Unethical human experimentation, Unichem Laboratories, Uniform State Narcotic Drug Act, Uniformity of content, Unintended consequences, Unique Device Identification, United States Adopted Name, Unity Biotechnology, Universidad La Salle, University College Cork, University of Coimbra, University of Delaware, University of Mississippi Medical Center, University of Santo Tomas Faculty of Pharmacy, Up in the Air (novel), Upadacitinib, Upsher-Smith Laboratories, Uracil, Uramustine, Uricosuric, Urine-diverting dry toilet, Urogynecology, Urologic disease, Ursinus College, Vaccine Act of 1813, Vadodara, Valerate, Validation (drug manufacture), Valrubicin, Valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide, Value Drug Mart, Vanillin, Vapi, Varnado Simpson, Vasoactivity, Vasopressin (medication), Vawter Park Village, Véronique Gouverneur, Vectura Group, Veloxis Pharmaceuticals, Verification and validation, Verteporfin, Vertex Pharmaceuticals, Very Mary-Kate, Veterinary biologic, Vial, Vicks, Vicriviroc, Victor M. Markowitz, Victoria Espinel, Victoria, British Columbia, Victorian Students' Aid Program, ViiV Healthcare, Vion Pharmaceuticals, Inc., ViS Research, Vismodegib, VISTA (protein), Vitamin B12, Vitek Tracz, Vivek Murthy, Vivimed Labs, Vizianagaram, Vocal fold nodule, Volixibat, Volume of distribution, Vomiting, VU University Amsterdam, Vulvodynia, VWR International, Wabash College, Walgreens Boots Alliance, Warburg's tincture, Washdown, Washington gubernatorial election, 2004, Wassim Michael Haddad, Wastewater, Water, Water in Michigan, Water pollution, Water quality, Water retention (medicine), Water reuse in California, WDBZ, Weev, Wei Zheng (pharmacist), Weight loss, Wen Ken Group, West Haven, Connecticut, West London Business, West Memphis Three, West Michigan, West Region (Cameroon), West Suffolk (UK Parliament constituency), Western Region Megapolis, Wet nanotechnology, WHO Drug Dictionary, WHO Model List of Essential Medicines for Children, Wickham Laboratories Ltd, WIL Research Laboratories, William Cooper (chemical manufacturer), William McLaren Bristol, William Thomas Rawleigh, Williams Medical Supplies, Wiltshire, Wim De Craene, Windsor, Ontario, Wine of the Month Club, Withdrawal syndrome, WMC Technologies AS, Wockhardt, Wolfe Laboratories, Work aversion, Workers United, Workers' Party of Belgium, Workplace safety in healthcare settings, WuXi AppTec, Wyeth, Wyeth v. Levine, Xanthine oxidase inhibitor, Xeroderma, XR, Yale Cancer Center, Yang Yongxin, Yatai Group, Young carer, Yuehchukene, Yuhan, Yunnan Baiyao Group, Yusuf Hamied, Yuyuan Tourist Mart, Zagreb, Zambon, Zandu Realty, Zanmi Lasante, Zentiva, Zhang Tingdong, Zhdanovka River, Zhuzhou, Zimbabwe Industrial Index, Zinda Tilismath, ZIP9, Zodiac (schooner), Zofenopril, Zucapsaicin, Zymeworks, ZymoGenetics, 1,3,5-Triazine, 1,4-Dimethoxybenzene, 1-Tetralone, 100,000,000 Guinea Pigs, 1000 Ways to Die (season 3, 2011), 1070, 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, 17α-Dihydroequilin, 1916 in science, 1968 in Northern Ireland, 2-Chloroethanol, 2-Formylpyridine, 2-Methylindole, 2003 in South Africa, 2008 New Year Honours (New Zealand), 2009 Samoa earthquake and tsunami, 2011 in science, 2013 in science, 3,9-Diethylidene-2,4,8,10-tetraoxaspiro(5.5)undecane, 3-Alkylpyridinium, 3-Chloropropionitrile, 4-Formylphenylboronic acid, 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase inhibitor, 4-Nitroquinoline 1-oxide, 4-Piperidinone, 5-HT1A receptor, 5-HT3 antagonist, 5α-Reductase inhibitor, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase deficiency, 7-Methylindole. Expand index (3039 more) » « Shrink index
'Ali ibn al-'Abbas al-Majusi (died 982–994), also known as Masoudi, or Latinized as Haly Abbas, was a Persian physician and psychologist from the Islamic Golden Age, most famous for the Kitab al-Maliki or Complete Book of the Medical Art, his textbook on medicine and psychology.
A Fistful of Stances is a 2010 TVB television drama from Hong Kong produced and created by Lee Tim-shing.
A Frank Statement to Cigarette Smokers was a historic first advertisement in a campaign run by major American tobacco companies on January 4, 1954, to create doubt by disputing recent scientific studies linking smoking cigarettes to lung cancer and other dangerous health effects.
Abhay Charanaravinda Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada (Bengali: অভয় চরোনারবীন্দ্র ভক্তিবেদান্তো স্বামী প্রভুপাদ; 1 September 1896 – 14 November 1977) was a Vedic spiritual teacher (guru) and the founder preceptor (Acharya) of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON), commonly known as the "Hare Krishna Movement".
Alan George "A.
AAK (publ.), operating as AAK, is a Swedish-Danish company and producer of high-value added vegetable oils and fats.
Aarti Industries Limited (AIL) is an Indian company headquartered in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.
Abacavir (ABC) is a medication used to prevent and treat HIV/AIDS.
ABB (ASEA Brown Boveri) is a Swedish-Swiss multinational corporation headquartered in Zurich, Switzerland, operating mainly in robotics, power, heavy electrical equipments, and automation technology areas.
An Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA) is an application for a U.S. generic drug approval for an existing licensed medication or approved drug.
AbbVie is a publicly traded biopharmaceutical company founded in 2013.
Abby Lippman (December 11, 1939 – December 26, 2017) was a Canadian feminist and epidemiologist who served as a professor in the Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health at McGill University.
Abdominal obesity, also known as central obesity, occurs when excessive abdominal fat around the stomach and abdomen has built up to the extent that it is likely to have a negative impact on health.
Abia is a state in the south eastern part of Nigeria.
Absolute molar mass is a process used to determine the characteristics of molecules.
Skin absorption is a route by which substances can enter the body through the skin.
Abu Dhabi Medical Congress, popularly known as Abu Dhabi Med, is a medical healthcare exhibition and conference held annually at Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.
Abunidazole (INN) is a nitroimidazole antifungal drug.
The Access to Medicine Index is a ranking system published biennially since 2008 by the Access to Medicine Foundation in Haarlem, The Netherlands, an international not-for-profit organisation, funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the UK Department for International Development (DFID) and the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Access to medicines refers to the reasonable ability for people to get needed medicines required to achieve health.
An angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitor) is a pharmaceutical drug used primarily for the treatment of hypertension (elevated blood pressure) and congestive heart failure.
Acefylline (INN), also known as acetyloxytheophylline, is a stimulant drug of the xanthine chemical class.
Acetanilide is an odourless solid chemical of leaf or flake-like appearance.
Acetohexamide (trade name Dymelor) is a first-generation sulfonylurea medication used to treat diabetes mellitus type 2, particularly in people whose diabetes cannot be controlled by diet alone.
Acetone (systematically named propanone) is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO.
Acetonitrile is the chemical compound with the formula.
Acetylcysteine, also known as N-acetylcysteine (NAC), is a medication that is used to treat paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdose, and to loosen thick mucus in individuals with cystic fibrosis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
The combination drug acetylsalicylic acid/dipyridamole (trade names Aggrenox, Asasantin) is a drug combination of.
Acme United Corporation is a supplier of cutting, measuring and safety products for the school, home, office, hardware and industrial markets.
An acquired characteristic is a non-heritable change in a function or structure of a living biotic material caused after birth by disease, injury, accident, deliberate modification, variation, repeated use, disuse, or misuse, or other environmental influences.
Acquired hemolytic anemia can be divided into immune and non-immune mediated forms of hemolytic anemia.
Acronyms are very commonly used in healthcare settings.
ACS Chemical Neuroscience is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Chemical Society.
ACS Macro Letters is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Chemical Society.
Actavis Generics (formerly known as Watson Pharmaceuticals and Actavis PLC, prior to the acquisition of Allergan Inc) is a global pharmaceutical company focused on developing, manufacturing and commercializing branded pharmaceuticals, generic and over-the-counter medicines, and biologic products.
An active ingredient (AI) is the ingredient in a pharmaceutical drug that is biologically active.
The terms active packaging, intelligent packaging, and smart packaging refer to packaging systems used with foods, pharmaceuticals, and several other types of products.
Acute inhalation injury may result from frequent and widespread use of household cleaning agents and industrial gases (including chlorine and ammonia).
Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is a genetic metabolic disorder affecting the production of heme, the oxygen-binding prosthetic group of hemoglobin.
Adcock Ingram is a South African pharmaceutical company listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange.
Adcon-L is a pharmaceutical gel designed to reduce the incidence and severity of scarring in back operations.
Adenoiditis is the inflammation of the adenoid tissue, usually caused by an infection.
Adenosine is both a chemical found in many living systems and a medication.
An adenosine receptor agonist is a drug which acts as an agonist of one or more of the adenosine receptors.
ADME is an abbreviation in pharmacokinetics and pharmacology for "absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion", and describes the disposition of a pharmaceutical compound within an organism.
Administration may refer to.
An admission note is part of a medical record that documents the patient's status (including history and physical examination findings), reasons why the patient is being admitted for inpatient care to a hospital or other facility, and the initial instructions for that patient's care.
The move to electronic medical records (EMRs) is becoming increasingly prevalent in health care delivery systems in the United States.
Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.
An adrenergic agonist is a drug that stimulates a response from the adrenergic receptors.
Adrenocorticotropic hormone is used as a medication and as diagnostic agent in the ACTH stimulation test.
Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (also referred to as adult ADHD, adult with ADHD, or simply ADHD in adults, formerly AADD) is the neurobiological condition of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults.
An advance market commitment (AMC) is a binding contract, typically offered by a government or other financial entity, used to guarantee a viable market for a product once it is successfully developed.
Advanced Accelerator Applications (AAA) is a pharmaceutical group specialized in the field of nuclear medicine.
Advanced airway management is the subset of airway management that involves advanced training, skill and invasiveness.
Advanced Life Support (ALS) is a set of life-saving protocols and skills that extend Basic Life Support to further support the circulation and provide an open airway and adequate ventilation (breathing).
Advanced manufacturing is the use of innovative technology to improve products or processes.
An adverse drug reaction (ADR) is an injury caused by taking a medication.
In medicine, an adverse effect is an undesired harmful effect resulting from a medication or other intervention such as surgery.
Adwya is a company that specializes in the production of pharmaceutical products for medical and veterinary use.
Aflibercept is a biopharmaceutical drug invented by Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, approved in the United States and Europe for the treatment of wet macular degeneration under the trade name Eylea, and for metastatic colorectal cancer as Zaltrap.
Agence Nationale de Sécurité du Médicament et des Produits de Santé (ANSM) superseded the tasks and duties of Agence Française de Sécurité Sanitaire des Produits de Santé (AFSSAPS) on 1 May 2012.
The Agency for Science, Technology and Research (Abbreviation: A*STAR; Chinese: 新加坡科技研究局) is a statutory board under the Ministry of Trade and Industry of Singapore.
Aggregate Spend is the process used in the United States to aggregate and monitor the total amount spent by healthcare manufacturers on individual healthcare professionals and organizations (HCP/O) through payments, gifts, honoraria, travel and other means.
The aging workforce, controversially referred to as The Silver Tsunami, refers to the rise in the median age of the United States workforce to levels unseen since the passage of the Social Security Act of 1935.
Agitated Nutsche filter (ANF) is a filtration technique used in applications such as dye, paint, and pharmaceutical production and waste water treatment.
Agomelatine (brand names Valdoxan, Melitor, Thymanax) is an atypical antidepressant developed by the pharmaceutical company Servier.
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
Agouti-related protein (AgRP), also called agouti-related peptide, is a neuropeptide produced in the brain by the AgRP/NPY neuron.
Australia is a major agricultural producer and exporter, with over 325,300 employed in Agriculture, forestry and fishing as of February 2015.
Roughly one-third of Iran's total surface area is suited for farmland, but because of poor soil and lack of adequate water distribution in many areas, most of it is not under cultivation.
The Aho Group Report on Creating an Innovative Europe was published in 2006.
AIDS amendments of 1988, better known as the Health Omnibus Programs Extension (HOPE) Act of 1988, is a United States statute amending the Public Health Service Act.
String Quartet: An AIDS Activist's Memoir in Music, commonly abbreviated to AIDS Memoir Quartet, is a musical composition by composer Lyle Chan which premiered in 2014.
Air conditioning (often referred to as AC, A/C, or air con) is the process of removing heat and moisture from the interior of an occupied space, to improve the comfort of occupants.
Air medical services is a comprehensive term covering the use of air transportation, airplane or helicopter, to move patients to and from healthcare facilities and accident scenes.
Ajanta Pharma Limited (APL) (|) is an Indian multinational, engaged in development, manufacturing and marketing of pharmaceutical formulations.
Ajay Piramal (born August 3, 1955) is an Indian businessman.
is a Japanese food and chemical corporation which produces seasonings, cooking oils, TV dinners, sweeteners, amino acids, and pharmaceuticals.
Akzo Nobel N.V., trading as AkzoNobel, is a Dutch multinational company which creates paints and performance coatings and produces specialty chemicals for both industry and consumers worldwide.
Al-Annazah (العنازة; also spelled al-Annazeh) is a village, it is about 20 km to the north east of Tartus and /5/ km from the Mediterranean sea.
Abu al-Abbas al-Maʾmūn ibn Hārūn al-Rashīd (أبو العباس المأمون; September 786 – 9 August 833) was the seventh Abbasid caliph, who reigned from 813 until his death in 833.
Alagappa College of Technology is an educational institution located in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India that offers higher education in Engineering, Technology and allied Sciences.
Albert Hofmann (11 January 1906 – 29 April 2008) was a Swiss scientist known best for being the first person to synthesize, ingest, and learn of the psychedelic effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD).
Albiglutide (trade names Eperzan in Europe and Tanzeum in the US) is a glucagon-like peptide-1 agonist (GLP-1 agonist) drug marketed by GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) for treatment of type 2 diabetes.
An alcoholic drink (or alcoholic beverage) is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar.
Alcon is an American global medical company specializing in eye care products and headquartered in Hünenberg, Switzerland.
An aldol condensation is a condensation reaction in organic chemistry in which an enol or an enolate ion reacts with a carbonyl compound to form a β-hydroxyaldehyde or β-hydroxyketone (an aldol reaction), followed by dehydration to give a conjugated enone.
Aldose reductase inhibitors are a class of drugs being studied as a way to prevent eye and nerve damage in people with diabetes.
Alembic Group is an Indian conglomerate holding company headquartered in Vadodara, Gujarat, India.
Alembic Pharmaceuticals Ltd. is an Indian multinational pharmaceutical company headquartered in Vadodara city of Gujarat – India.
Alemtuzumab is a drug used in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) and T-cell lymphoma under the trade names Campath, MabCampath and Campath-1H, and in the treatment of multiple sclerosis as Lemtrada.
Alendronic acid (INN) or alendronate sodium, sold under the trade name Fosamax among others, is a bisphosphonate drug used for osteoporosis, osteogenesis imperfecta, and several other bone diseases.
Alex Michael Azar II (born June 17, 1967) is an American lawyer and former drug company executive who is the current United States Secretary of Health and Human Services, after being nominated by President Donald Trump on November 13, 2017 and confirmed by the United States Senate on January 24, 2018.
Alexander John "Sandy" Trees, Baron Trees (born 12 June 1946) is a Professor of veterinary parasitology and a Crossbench member of the House of Lords.
The drug combination alfatradiol/dexamethasone (trade name Ell-Cranell dexa in Germany) is used topically for the treatment of mild to moderate androgenic alopecia (hair loss) in younger women.
Alfentanil (R-39209, trade name Alfenta, Rapifen in Australia) is a potent but short-acting synthetic opioid analgesic drug, used for anaesthesia in surgery.
Alfred Wolfsohn (23 September 1896 – 5 February 1962) was a German singing teacher who suffered persistent auditory hallucination of screaming soldiers, whom he had witnessed dying of wounds while serving as a stretcher bearer in the trenches of World War I. After being subsequently diagnosed with Shell Shock, Wolfsohn failed to recover in response to hospitalization or psychiatric treatment, but cured himself by vocalizing extreme sounds, bringing about what he described as a combination of catharsis and exorcism.
The Alfred Wolfsohn Voice Research Centre was a project established to investigate the therapeutic and artistic potential of vocal expression.
Alfuzosin (INN, provided as the hydrochloride salt) is a pharmaceutical drug of the α1 blocker class.
Algaculture is a form of aquaculture involving the farming of species of algae.
Alginic acid, also called algin or alginate, is a polysaccharide distributed widely in the cell walls of brown algae, where through binding with water it forms a viscous gum.
Alice Jeane Faye (née Leppert; May 5, 1915 – May 9, 1998) was an American actress and singer.
Alimera Sciences, Inc. is a biopharmaceutical company based in Alpharetta, Georgia that specializes in the research, development and commercialization of prescription ophthalmic pharmaceuticals.
The drug combination aliskiren/amlodipine (INNs, trade name Tekamlo) is an antihypertensive.
The drug combination aliskiren/amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide (INNs, trade name Amturnide) is an antihypertensive approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on December 21, 2010.
ALK-Abelló, also commonly known as ALK, is a Denmark-based pharmaceutical company which specializes in the development and manufacture of allergy immunotherapy (AIT) products for the prevention and treatment of allergy.
Alkaline diet (also known as the alkaline ash diet, alkaline acid diet, acid ash diet, and acid alkaline diet) describes a group of loosely related diets based on the misconception that different types of food can have an effect on the pH balance of the body.
Alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring chemical compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms.
Alkaloid AD Skopje (Алкалоид АД Скопје) is a company which eight decades, has been operating in the field of manufacturing drugs, cosmetic and chemical products and processing botanical raw materials.
Alkem Laboratories is a multinational pharmaceutical company headquartered in Mumbai, Maharashtra that manufactures and sells pharmaceutical generics, formulations and.
Alkyl nitrites are a group of chemical compounds based upon the molecular structure R-ONO.
Allegiance bias (or allegiance effect) in behavioral sciences, denote to the finding or conclusions being crafted in a manner that reconciles best with the investigator's or researcher's perspectives and preferences, instead of retaining its empirical, innate or native state.
Allen and Hanburys Ltd was a British pharmaceutical manufacturer, absorbed by Glaxo Laboratories in 1958.
Allen Jones, gained widespread attention as a 'whistleblower' after discovering that state employees were receiving kickbacks from the pharmaceutical industry in Texas while working as an investigator in the Pennsylvania Office of the Inspector General (OIG).
Allen Ludden (born Allen Packard Ellsworth, October 5, 1917 – June 9, 1981) was an American television personality, emcee and game show host, perhaps best known for having hosted various incarnations of the game show Password between 1961 and 1980.
Sir Allen McClay CBE (21 March 1932 – 12 January 2010) was a Northern Irish multi-millionaire businessman and philanthropist who founded Galen (later Warner Chilcott), a pharmaceutical company which was Northern Ireland's first one billion pound business.
Allergan plc is a multinational company in the pharmaceutical industry that produces branded drugs and performs pharmaceutical research and development.
Allergan, Inc. was an American global pharmaceutical company focused on eye care, neurosciences, medical dermatology, medical aesthetics, breast enhancement, obesity intervention and urologics.
Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to typically harmless substances in the environment.
Alliance Healthcare, formerly Alliance UniChem, wholesales, distributes, and retails pharmaceutical, surgical, medical, and healthcare products throughout Europe.
Allopregnanolone, also known as 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one or 3α,5α-tetrahydroprogesterone (3α,5α-THP), as well as brexanolone, is an endogenous inhibitory pregnane neurosteroid.
Allyl chloride is the organic compound with the formula CH2.
Almorexant (INN, codenamed ACT-078573) is an orexin antagonist, functioning as a competitive receptor antagonist of the OX1 and OX2 orexin receptors, which was being developed by the pharmaceutical companies Actelion and GSK for the treatment of insomnia.
Almotriptan (trade name Axert and others) is a triptan drug discovered and developed by Almirall for the treatment of heavy migraine headache.
Alnwick is a market town in north Northumberland, England, of which it is the traditional county town.
Aloysius Xingu Leng Pendergast is a fictional character appearing in novels by Douglas Preston and Lincoln Child.
Alpha Zeta Omega (ΑΖΩ or AZO) is a co-ed, pharmaceutical professional fraternity founded on December 19, 1919.
Alpha-1-antitrypsin or α1-antitrypsin (A1AT, A1A, or AAT) is a protein belonging to the serpin superfamily.
alpha-Amanitin or α-amanitin is a cyclic peptide of eight amino acids.
AlphaBay Market was an online darknet market which operated on a onion service of the Tor network.
Alphabodies, also known as Cell-Penetrating Alphabodies or CPAB for short, are small 10 kDa proteins engineered to bind to a variety of antigens.
Altogen Labs CRO is a contract research organization (CRO) based in Austin, Texas that is involved in pharmacological discovery and drug development.
Alvinella pompejana, the Pompeii worm, is a species of deep-sea polychaete worm (commonly referred to as "bristle worms").
ALZA Corporation was a pharmaceutical and medical systems company.
Alzheon is a U.S. clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company based in Framingham, Massachusetts.
Amantadine (trade name Symmetrel, by Endo Pharmaceuticals) is a medication that has U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval for use both as an antiviral and an antiparkinsonian medication.
Ambergris (or, ambra grisea, ambre gris), ambergrease, or grey amber, is a solid, waxy, flammable substance of a dull grey or blackish colour produced in the digestive system of sperm whales.
The American Competitiveness Initiative (ACI) is a federal assistance program intended to help America maintain its competitiveness through investment in research and development (R&D) and education.
American Cyanamid Company was a leading American conglomerate which became one of the nation's top 100 manufacturing companies during the 1970s and 1980s, according to the Fortune 500 listings at the time.
American Elements is a global manufacturer and distributor of the elements on the periodic table with a 10,000-page online compendium of information on the properties and uses of the elements.
The American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, known simply as the American Enterprise Institute (AEI), is a conservative think tank based in Washington, D.C. which researches government, politics, economics and social welfare.
The American Society for Quality (ASQ), formerly the American Society for Quality Control (ASQC), is a knowledge-based global community of quality professionals, with nearly 80,000 members dedicated to promoting and advancing quality tools, principles, and practices in their workplaces and communities.
is a professional organization that represents pharmacists who serve as patient care providers in acute and ambulatory care settings.
American Well is a privately held telehealth company based in Boston, Massachusetts that connects patients instantly with doctors over secure video.
AmerisourceBergen Corporation is an American drug wholesale company that was formed by the merger of Bergen Brunswig and AmeriSource in 2001.
Amineptine, sold under the brand name Survector among others, is an atypical antidepressant of the tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) family.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Amiodarone is an antiarrhythmic medication used to treat and prevent a number of types of irregular heartbeats.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
Ammonium iodide is the chemical compound NH4I.
The Arzneimittelmarkt-Neuordnungsgesetz (AMNOG, English translation: "Pharmaceuticals Market Reorganisation Act") is a German law relating to the marketing of pharmaceutical products in Germany.
An ampoule (also ampul, ampule, or ampulla) is a small sealed vial which is used to contain and preserve a sample, usually a solid or liquid.
Ampyrone is a metabolite of aminopyrine with analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties.
AMRI (Albany Molecular Research Inc.) is a contract research and manufacturing organization that provides drug discovery, development, cGMP manufacturing and aseptic fill and finish to the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries.
Amrutanjan Healthcare Limited is an Indian pharmaceutical company established by Kasinadhuni Nageswara Rao in Mumbai in 1893.
Anagestone, also known as 3-deketo-6α-methyl-17α-hydroxyprogesterone or as 6α-methyl-17α-hydroxypregn-4-en-20-one, is a progestin which was never marketed.
An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.
An analgesic adjuvant is a medication that is typically used for indications other than pain control but provides control of pain in some painful diseases.
An anaphrodisiac (also antaphrodisiac or antiaphrodisiac) is a substance that quells or blunts the libido.
Anaphylaxis is a serious allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and may cause death.
Anatabine (uh-nat-uh-been,-bin) is one of the minor alkaloids found in plants in the Solanaceae family, which includes the tobacco plant and tomato.
The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) Classification System is used for the classification of active ingredients of drugs according to the organ or system on which they act and their therapeutic, pharmacological and chemical properties.
Anderson Water Systems, Inc. (now SUEZ Water Technologies & Solutions) is a Canadian manufacturer and service provider of industrial water systems located in Ancaster, Ontario.
An androgen (from Greek andr-, the stem of the word meaning "man") is any natural or synthetic steroid hormone which regulates the development and maintenance of male characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors.
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), also called androgen suppression therapy, is an antihormone therapy whose main use is in treating prostate cancer.
Andrology (from ἀνήρ, anēr, genitive ἀνδρός, andros, "man"; and -λογία, -logia) is the medical specialty that deals with male health, particularly relating to the problems of the male reproductive system and urological problems that are unique to men.
Androstanolone, or stanolone, also known as dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and sold under the brand name Andractim among others, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication and hormone which is used mainly in the treatment of low testosterone levels in men.
Anejaculation is the pathological inability to ejaculate in males, with (orgasmic) or without (anorgasmic) orgasm.
Anesthesia awareness, also referred to as accidental awareness during general anaesthesia (AAGA) or unintended intra-operative awareness, is a potential complication occurring during general anesthesia where the intended state of complete unconsciousness is not maintained throughout the whole procedure.
Anfatis SpA is the holding company of a group of 6 Italian distributors (Concessionari) which sell, distribute and deliver pharmaceuticals products to +8,000 pharmacies.
Angina, also known as angina pectoris, is chest pain or pressure, usually due to not enough blood flow to the heart muscle.
In medicine (gastroenterology), angiodysplasia is a small vascular malformation of the gut.
Angioedema is an area of swelling of the lower layer of skin and tissue just under the skin or mucous membranes.
Angiogenesis is the physiological process through which new blood vessels form from pre-existing vessels.
Angiotech is a pharmaceutical company in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
An animal drug (also veterinary drug) refers to a drug intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease in animals.
Animal euthanasia (euthanasia from εὐθανασία; "good death") is the act of putting an animal to death or allowing it to die by withholding extreme medical measures.
Animal testing, also known as animal experimentation, animal research and in vivo testing, is the use of non-human animals in experiments that seek to control the variables that affect the behavior or biological system under study.
Anisole, or methoxybenzene, is an organic compound with the formula CH3OC6H5.
Ann O'Donnell (c.1858 - 5 May 1934), born Ann McNamara was a New Zealand homemaker and hotel proprietor.
An anorectic or anorexic is a drug which reduces appetite, resulting in lower food consumption, leading to weight loss.
Antenatal steroids (or antenatal corticosteroids) are medications given to pregnant women expecting preterm delivery.
The Anthea Group is a private group of companies engaged in the manufacture and export of a range of speciality chemicals based in Mumbai, India.
Anthera Pharmaceuticals, Inc. is a biopharmaceutical company focused on developing and commercializing products to treat serious conditions associated with cystic fibrosis, inflammation and autoimmune diseases.
Anthon Berg was a Danish chocolatier and the name of a corporate division within Toms International.
Anti-obesity medication or weight loss drugs are pharmacological agents that reduce or control weight.
An antianginal is any drug used in the treatment of angina pectoris, a symptom of ischaemic heart disease.
Antiarrhythmic agents, also known as cardiac dysrhythmia medications, are a group of pharmaceuticals that are used to suppress abnormal rhythms of the heart (cardiac arrhythmias), such as atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, ventricular tachycardia, and ventricular fibrillation.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
Antibiotice Iaşi is a public pharmaceutical company which is the third largest drug producing company in Romania and a large nystatin producer.
Anticoagulants, commonly referred to as blood thinners, are chemical substances that prevent or reduce coagulation of blood, prolonging the clotting time.
Anticonvulsants (also commonly known as antiepileptic drugs or as antiseizure drugs) are a diverse group of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of epileptic seizures.
Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.
An anti-diarrhoeal drug (or anti-diarrheal drug in American English) is any medication which provides symptomatic relief for diarrhoea.
An antidiuretic is a substance that helps to control fluid balance in an animal's body by reducing urination, opposing diuresis.
An antiemetic is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea.
Antifibrinolytics are a class of medication that are inhibitors of fibrinolysis.
An antifungal medication, also known as an antimycotic medication, is a pharmaceutical fungicide or fungistatic used to treat and prevent mycosis such as athlete's foot, ringworm, candidiasis (thrush), serious systemic infections such as cryptococcal meningitis, and others.
Antigua and Barbuda–India relations refers to the international relations that exist between Antigua and Barbuda and India.
An antihemorrhagic (antihæmorrhagic) agent is a substance that promotes hemostasis (stops bleeding).
Antihistamines are drugs which treat allergic rhinitis and other allergies.
Antihormone therapy is a type of hormone therapy that suppresses selected hormones or their effects, in contrast with hormone replacement therapy, which encourages hormone activity.
Antihypertensives are a class of drugs that are used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure).
Antiparasitics are a class of medications which are indicated for the treatment of parasitic diseases, such as those caused by helminths, amoeba, ectoparasites, parasitic fungi, and protozoa, among others.
Antiprotozoal agents (ATC code: ATC P01) is a class of pharmaceuticals used in treatment of protozoan infection.
Antipruritics, also known as anti-itch drugs, are medications that inhibit the itching (Latin: pruritus) often associated with sunburns, allergic reactions, eczema, psoriasis, chickenpox, fungal infections, insect bites and stings like those from mosquitoes, fleas, and mites, and contact dermatitis and urticaria caused by plants such as poison ivy (urushiol-induced contact dermatitis) or stinging nettle.
Antipsychotics, also known as neuroleptics or major tranquilizers, are a class of medication primarily used to manage psychosis (including delusions, hallucinations, paranoia or disordered thought), principally in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
An antispasmodic (synonym: spasmolytic) is a pharmaceutical drug or other agent that suppresses muscle spasms.
Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections rather than bacterial ones.
Anton Ludwig Ernst Horn (August 24, 1774 – September 27, 1848) was a German physician who was a native of Braunschweig.
Anurag Anand (born 2 November 1978) is an Indian author with several bestselling titles in the self-help, general fiction and historical fiction genres.
Anusol (also AnuSol) is a brand of medications that can be used to treat hemorrhoids (also known as piles).
An anxiolytic (also antipanic or antianxiety agent) is a medication or other intervention that inhibits anxiety.
Apigenin (4′,5,7-trihydroxyflavone), found in many plants, is a natural product belonging to the flavone class that is the aglycone of several naturally occurring glycosides.
APMCCPER (Agricultural Produce Market Committee College of Pharmaceutical Education and Research), established in 2000, is a graduate and post-graduate Pharmaceutical Educational Institute in Himatnagar.
Apnea or apnoea is suspension of breathing.
Apollinaire Bouchardat (July 23, 1809 – April 7, 1886) was a French pharmacist and hygienist born in L'Isle-sur-Serein.
Apophlegmatisms, in pre-modern medicine, were medications chewed in order to draw away phlegm and humours from the head and brain.
Apotekernes Fællesindkjøp was a Norwegian wholesaler company owned by the pharmacies that provided them with healthcare products.
Apoteket AB is a state-owned pharmaceuticals retailer in Sweden which formerly held a monopoly on the retail sale of medicines in the country.
Apotex Inc. is a Canadian pharmaceutical corporation.
Application site reactions are reactions to medical treatments which occur at the site of application.
An approved drug is a preparation that has been validated for a therapeutic use by a ruling authority of a government.
Apricus Biosciences, Inc. is a San Diego based biopharmaceutical company advancing innovative medicines in urology and rheumatology.
The drug aprotinin (Trasylol, previously Bayer and now Nordic Group pharmaceuticals), is a small protein bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI), or basic trypsin inhibitor of bovine pancreas, which is an antifibrinolytic molecule that inhibits trypsin and related proteolytic enzymes.
GC Apteka-95 is a Ukrainian multinational pharmaceutical corporation.
The Arab Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Company (APM) is a pharmaceuticals and healthcare company based in Jordan.
Aranjuez, also called the Royal Estate of Aranjuez, is a city and municipality, capital of the Las Vegas district, in the southern part of the Community of Madrid, Spain.
Argentina–Azerbaijan refers to the current and historical relations between Argentina and Azerbaijan.
Arginase (arginine amidinase, canavanase, L-arginase, arginine transamidinase) is a manganese-containing enzyme.
Ariel Fernandez (born Ariel Fernández Stigliano, April 8, 1957) is an Argentinian–American physical chemist and pharmaceutical researcher.
Armand Hammer (May 21, 1898Armand Hammer, The Untold Story by Steve Weinberg, p. 16 – December 10, 1990) was an American business manager and owner, most closely associated with Occidental Petroleum, a company he ran from 1957 until his death, though he was known as well for his art collection, his philanthropy, and for his close ties to the Soviet Union.
The Medal of Valor (Filipino: Medalya ng Kagitingan) is the Armed Forces of the Philippines' highest military honor awarded for a conspicuous deed of personal bravery or self-sacrifice above and beyond the call of duty that distinguishes the recipient from his comrades.
Armour & Company was an American company that used to be one of the five leading firms in the meat packing industry.
Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are a class of drugs used in the treatment of breast cancer in postmenopausal women and gynecomastia in men.
Aromatization is a chemical reaction in which an aromatic system is formed.
Arotinolol (INN, marketed under the tradename Almarl) is a medication in the class of mixed alpha/beta blockers.
Arrowsmith was a system built by Don R. Swanson using the concept of Undiscovered Public Knowledge.
Arsphenamine, also known as Salvarsan or compound 606, is a drug that was introduced at the beginning of the 1910s as the first effective treatment for syphilis, and was also used to treat trypanosomiasis.
Artemisinin and its semi-synthetic derivatives are a group of drugs used against Plasmodium falciparum malaria.
Arthralgia (from Greek arthro-, joint + -algos, pain) literally means joint pain; it is a symptom of injury, infection, illnesses (in particular arthritis) or an allergic reaction to medication.
Artsana Group is an Italian company that was founded in 1946 by Pietro Catelli as a commercial business specialised in venipuncture and medication, and is still active today in the distribution of healthcare and infant care products.
Arylcyclohexylamines, also known as arylcyclohexamines or arylcyclohexanamines, are a chemical class of pharmaceutical, designer, and experimental drugs.
is a global Japanese chemical company.
Ascidiacea (commonly known as the ascidians or sea squirts) is a paraphyletic class in the subphylum Tunicata of sac-like marine invertebrate filter feeders.
Aseptic processing is a processing technique wherein commercially thermally sterilized liquid products (typically food or pharmaceutical) are packaged into previously sterilized containers under sterile conditions to produce shelf-stable products that do not need refrigeration.
Asperger syndrome (AS), also known as Asperger's, is a developmental disorder characterized by significant difficulties in social interaction and nonverbal communication, along with restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior and interests.
Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation.
Asset-centricity is an approach to investing in the life sciences field with a focus on key assets, such as a pharmaceutical molecule that could form the basis for a novel new drug which has already been identified, rather than on discovering such assets through basic research & development.
The Association of British Healthcare Industries is a trade association for the medical technology sector in the UK.
Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.
AstraZeneca plc is an Anglo–Swedish multinational pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical company.
The asymmetric addition of alkynylzinc compounds to aldehydes is an example of a Nef synthesis, a chemical reaction whereby a chiral propargyl alcohol is prepared from a terminal alkyne and an aldehyde.
Asymmetric hydrogenation is a chemical reaction that adds two atoms of hydrogen preferentially to one of two faces of an unsaturated substrate molecule, such as an alkene or ketone.
Atom economy (atom efficiency) is the conversion efficiency of a chemical process in terms of all atoms involved and the desired products produced.
Atosiban (trade names Tractocile, Antocin, Atosiban SUN) is an inhibitor of the hormones oxytocin and vasopressin.
The drug combination atovaquone/proguanil (INNs, trade names Malarone, Malanil) is an antimalarial medication used in both the treatment and prevention of malaria.
Atropa belladonna, commonly known as belladonna or deadly nightshade, is a perennial herbaceous plant in the nightshade family Solanaceae, which includes tomatoes, potatoes, and aubergine.
Atrophic vaginitis is the chronic and progressive inflammation of the vagina (and the lower urinary tract) due to the thinning and shrinking of the vaginal tissues and is often accompanied by vulvar and urinary pathologies.
ATS Automation Tooling Systems is a Cambridge, Ontario based Canadian company which designs and builds factory automation solutions.
Abū Ḥamīd bin Abū Bakr Ibrāhīm (c. 1145 – c. 1221; ابو حامد بن ابوبکر ابراهیم), better known by his pen-names Farīd ud-Dīn (فرید الدین) and ʿAṭṭār (عطار, Attar means apothecary), was a 12th-century PersianFarīd al-Dīn ʿAṭṭār, in Encyclopædia Britannica, online edition - accessed December 2012.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) controversies include concerns about its causes, perceived overdiagnosis, and methods of treatment, especially with the use of stimulant medications in children.
An atypical antidepressant is a type of antidepressant medication which acts in an atypical manner relative to most other antidepressants.
aTyr Pharma is a public biotherapeutics company that researches and develops Physiocrine-based therapeutics for treatment of rare diseases with an immune component.
Christen August Hesselbo (1 March 1874 – 1952) was a Danish pharmaceutical botanist and bryologist.
Aurobindo Pharma Limited is a pharmaceutical manufacturing company headquartered in HITEC City, Hyderabad, India.
Aurora Biosciences was a biotechnology company founded in 1995 in San Diego to commercialize fluorescence assays based on Roger Y. Tsien's discoveries concerning green fluorescent protein and its uses in basic research - work for which Tsien eventually won the 2008 Nobel Prize in chemistry along with two other chemists.
Australia–Malaysia relations refers to bilateral foreign relations between Australia and Malaysia.
The Australia – United States Free Trade Agreement (AUSFTA) is a preferential trade agreement between Australia and the United States modelled on the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).
The Australian Drug Evaluation Committee or ADEC, was a committee that provided independent scientific advice to the Australian Government regarding therapeutic drugs.
Austria–Denmark relations are the foreign relations between Austria and Denmark.
Austria–Indonesia relations refers to the bilateral relations of Austria and Indonesia.
Autoimmune disease in women is a description of the autoimmune diseases that affect women.
An autoinjector (or auto-injector) is a medical device designed to deliver a dose of a particular drug.
AV nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT), or atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia, is a type of abnormal fast heart rhythm.
Aveeno is a brand of skin care and hair care products in the United States owned by American consumer goods and pharmaceutical company Johnson & Johnson.
AVEVA Group plc is a British multinational information technology company headquartered in Cambridge, United Kingdom.
Avimers (short for avidity multimers) are artificial proteins that are able to specifically bind to certain antigens via multiple binding sites.
Axovant Sciences Ltd. is a clinical-stage pharmaceutical company that develops small molecule drugs to treat neurological disorders.
Azanes are acyclic, saturated hydronitrogens, which means that they consist only of hydrogen and nitrogen atoms and all bonds are single bonds.
Azomethine ylides are nitrogen-based 1,3-dipoles, consisting of an iminium ion next to a carbanion.
Özgür Özel (born 21 September 1974) is a Turkish politician from the Republican People's Party (CHP) who currently serves as a parliamentary group leader of the CHP since 24 June 2015, along with Engin Altay and Levent Gök.
Back injuries result from damage, wear, or trauma to the bones, muscles, or other tissues of the back.
Baclofen, sold under the brand name Lioresal among others, is a medication used to treat spasticity.
Bagsværd is a middleclass suburb approximately 12 km northwest of central Copenhagen, in the Gladsaxe Municipality.
Baidyanath Group is an Indian pharmaceutical firm specialising in Ayurvedic medicines.
Bala S. Manian is an Indian-born Silicon Valley entrepreneur who has started a string of medical technology companies such as ReaMetrix, Digital Optics and Quantum Dot Corporation.
Baloxavir marboxil (trade name Xofluza) is a medication being developed by Shionogi Co., a Japanese pharmaceutical company, for treatment of influenza A and influenza B. The drug was in late-stage trials in Japan and the United States as of early 2018, with collaboration from Roche AG.
Band-Aid is a brand name of American pharmaceutical and medical devices giant Johnson & Johnson's line of adhesive bandages.
Bangkok Adventist Hospital, also known locally as Mission Hospital, is a non-profit general hospital with a registered capacity of 200 beds and 24 bassinets, located on Phitsanulok Road in Bangkok, Thailand.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
Bangladesh–Cambodia relations refer to the bilateral relations between the countries of Bangladesh and Cambodia.
Bangladesh–Canada relations are the foreign relations between Bangladesh and Canada established 1972.
The (formerly the Barber Center) is a nonprofit, multi-faceted organization that provides services to more than 5,370 children, adults, and families who are faced with autism, intellectual disabilities, and behavioral health challenges.
A barbiturate is a drug that acts as a central nervous system depressant, and can therefore produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to death.
Barcelona is a city in Spain.
Barceloneta (Little Barcelona) is a municipality in Puerto Rico and is located in the north region, bordering the Atlantic Ocean, north of Florida, east of Arecibo and west of Manati.
Barcode technology in healthcare is the use of optical machine-readable representation of data in a hospital or healthcare setting.
Bargn Farmaceutici Phils Co. is a company within the BargnGroup (Bar-jen).
Bariatric surgery (weight loss surgery) includes a variety of procedures performed on people who have obesity.
BASF SE is a German chemical company and the largest chemical producer in the world.
Basilea Pharmaceutica is a multinational specialty biopharmaceutical company headquartered in Basel, Switzerland.
Batch printing machines, marking machines, date printing machines are used in the following applications.
The batch reactor is the generic term for a type of vessel widely used in the process industries.
A bathroom cabinet (or medicine cabinet) is a cabinet in a bathroom.
Baxalta (Bax from the name of its former parent company; alta a Latin adjective meaning 'high' or 'profound') was a biopharmaceutical company founded on 1 July 2015 after its parent company, Baxter International, spun off biopharmaceutical division.
Bazedoxifene, or bazedoxifene acetate, is a medication for bone problems and possibly (pending more study) for cancer.
Bülent Eczacıbaşı (born 1949) is a Turkish businessman.
The Bi-Digital O-Ring Test (BDORT), characterized as a form of applied kinesiology, is a patented alternative medicine diagnostic procedure in which a patient forms an 'O' with his or her fingers, and the diagnostician subjectively evaluates the patient's health according to the patient's finger strength as the diagnostician tries to pry them apart.
Beacon Pharmaceuticals Limited is a Bangladeshi pharmaceutical company that develops generic version of drug and commercializes therapeutics.
Beclamide (marketed as Chloracon, Hibicon, Posedrine, Nydrane, Seclar, and other names) is a drug that possesses anticonvulsant activity.
The Beecham Group plc was a British pharmaceutical company.
Beerse is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Antwerp.
Beijing Economic and Technological Development Area (BDA) is a state-level economic and technological development zone in Beijing, China.
Beijing United Family Hospital and Clinics (BJU, Chinese: 和睦家医院) was the first international standard hospital established in China.
Belo Horizonte ("Beautiful Horizon") is the sixth-largest city in Brazil, the thirteenth-largest in South America and the eighteenth-largest in the Americas.
Bernard Lucas "Ben" Feringa (born 18 May 1951) is a Dutch synthetic organic chemist, specializing in molecular nanotechnology and homogenous catalysis.
Benadryl is a brand name for a number of different antihistamine medications used to treat allergies.
Benfotiamine (rINN, or S-benzoylthiamine O-monophosphate) is a synthetic S-acyl derivative of thiamine (vitamin B1).
The Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) is the most numerous tiger subspecies in Asia, and was estimated at fewer than 2,500 individuals by 2011.
Benign fasciculation syndrome (BFS) is a neurological disorder characterized by fasciculation (twitching) of various voluntary muscles in the body.
Benzenesulfonic acid (conjugate base benzenesulfonate) is an organosulfur compound with the formula C6H5SO3H.
Benzoyl chloride, also known as benzenecarbonyl chloride, is an organochlorine compound with the formula C6H5COCl.
The drug combination benzoyl peroxide/clindamycin is a topical gel used for the treatment of acne.
Benzyl cyanide (abbreviated BnCN) is an organic compound with the chemical formula C6H5CH2CN.
Benzylamine is an organic chemical compound with the condensed structural formula C6H5CH2NH2 (sometimes abbreviated as PhCH2NH2 or BnNH2).
Bernard Robert Louis Fraisse (born August 1956) is a French billionaire businessman, the chairman, founder and 100% owner of Fareva, a French pharmaceutical company, with annual revenues of $1.4 billion in 2015.
Bernard L. Oser (1899–1995) was an American biochemist and food scientist who was involved in vitamin analysis.
Besifovir (INN) is an investigational medication to treat hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection.
Beta1-adrenergic agonists, also known as Beta1-adrenergic receptor agonists, are a class of drugs that bind selectively to the beta-1 adrenergic receptor.
β2 (beta2) adrenergic receptor agonists, also known as adrenergic β2 receptor agonists, are a class of drugs that act on the β2 adrenergic receptor.
Betamethasone is a steroid medication.
Betty Ting Pei (born 19 February 1947) is a Taiwanese actress who was active in 1970s.
The Bangladesh Export Import Company Limited, commonly known by its trade name BEXIMCO (DSE: BEXIMCO CSE: BEXIMCO), is a multinational conglomerate holding company headquartered in Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Beximco Pharmaceuticals Ltd (DSE: LSE), also known as Beximco Pharma, is a pharmaceutical company in Bangladesh.
Bharathidasan Institute of Technology (or BIT) (formerly the School of Engineering and Technology) was established by Bharathidasan University in 1999.
Bial (Portela e C.ª, S.A.) is a pharmaceutical company headquartered in Sao Mamede do Coronado, in Trofa, Porto district, Portugal.
The Biginelli reaction is a multiple-component chemical reaction that creates 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-ones 4 from ethyl acetoacetate 1, an aryl aldehyde (such as benzaldehyde 2), and urea 3.
Bilina may refer to.
Bilirubin is a yellow compound that occurs in the normal catabolic pathway that breaks down heme in vertebrates.
William Maher (born January 20, 1956) is an American comedian, political commentator, and television host.
Bio 360 Life Sciences Park is a Biotechnology and Life Sciences park situated in the city of Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.
PT Bio Farma (Persero) is an Indonesian state-owned enterprise based in Bandung, Indonesia which produces vaccines and sera to support immunization in Indonesia and other countries.
Bioanalysis is a sub-discipline of analytical chemistry covering the quantitative measurement of xenobiotics (drugs and their metabolites, and biological molecules in unnatural locations or concentrations) and biotics (macromolecules, proteins, DNA, large molecule drugs, metabolites) in biological systems.
In pharmacology, bioavailability (BA or F) is a subcategory of absorption and is the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs.
Bioburden is normally defined as the number of bacteria living on a surface that has not been sterilized.
Biocatalysis is catalysis in living (biological) systems.
Biochemists are scientists that are trained in biochemistry.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
Bioconjugation is a chemical strategy to form a stable covalent link between two molecules, at least one of which is a biomolecule.
The Biodefense and Pandemic Vaccine and Drug Development Act of 2005, nicknamed "Bioshield Two" and sponsored by Senator Richard Burr (R-North Carolina), aims shorten the pharmaceutical development process for new vaccines and drugs in case of a pandemic, and to protect vaccine makers and the pharmaceutical industry from legal liability for vaccine injuries.
Bioderma Laboratories is a privately owned French pharmaceutical company that specialises in medication for dermatological and hair/scalp conditions, as well as for Pediatry and cell regeneration.
Biofiltration is a pollution control technique using a bioreactor containing living material to capture and biologically degrade pollutants.
Biolex Therapeutics was a biotechnology firm in the Research Triangle of North Carolina that was founded in 1997 and raised $190 million from investors.
Biological databases are libraries of life sciences information, collected from scientific experiments, published literature, high-throughput experiment technology, and computational analysis.
Biological response modifiers (BRMs) are substances that modify immune responses.
A biological target is anything within a living organism to which some other entity (like an endogenous ligand or a drug) is directed and/or binds, resulting in a change in its behavior or function.
A biologist, is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of biology, the scientific study of life.
Biomanufacturing is a type of manufacturing or biotechnology that utilizes biological systems to produce commercially important biomaterials and biomolecules for use in medicines, food and beverage processing, and industrial applications.
Biomedical engineering (BME) is the application of engineering principles and design concepts to medicine and biology for healthcare purposes (e.g. diagnostic or therapeutic).
Biomolecular engineering is the application of engineering principles and practices to the purposeful manipulation of molecules of biological origin.
The Biomolecular Object Network Databank is a bioinformatics databank containing information on small molecule and, structures and interactions.
A biomolecule or biological molecule is a loosely used term for molecules and ions that are present in organisms, essential to some typically biological process such as cell division, morphogenesis, or development.
BIONIC Hill is the first Ukrainian innovation park being constructed similarly to the Silicon Valley.
A biopharmaceutical, also known as a biologic(al) medical product, biological, or biologic, is any pharmaceutical drug product manufactured in, extracted from, or semisynthesized from biological sources.
Bioprocess engineering, also biochemical engineering, is a specialization of chemical engineering or Biological engineering, It deals with the design and development of equipment and processes for the manufacturing of products such as agriculture, food, feed, pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, chemicals, and polymers and paper from biological materials & treatment of waste water.
Biotech Week is a weekly biotechnology and pharmaceutical trade magazine.
Biotechnology is the broad area of science involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).
The Biotechnology Innovation Organization (BIO) is the largest trade organization in the world that represents the biotechnology industry.
Biovail Corporation was a Canadian pharmaceutical company, operating internationally in all aspects of pharmaceutical products.
Biphenyl (or diphenyl or phenylbenzene or 1,1′-biphenyl or lemonene) is an organic compound that forms colorless crystals.
Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood.
Bipolar I disorder (BD-I; pronounced "type one bipolar disorder") is a bipolar spectrum disorder characterized by the occurrence of at least one manic episode, with or without mixed or psychotic features.
A birch is a thin-leaved deciduous hardwood tree of the genus Betula, in the family Betulaceae, which also includes alders, hazels, and hornbeams.
Biricodar (INN, codename VX-710) was a pharmaceutical drug under development by Vertex Pharmaceuticals to help treat ovarian cancer patients, that never reached the market.
Blackburn Rovers F.C. Academy and Under-23s are the youth teams of Blackburn Rovers.
Bliss GVS Pharma Ltd.
Blistex is an American company that develops, produces, and markets personal care products.
Block Drug Company was a pharmaceutical company based in Jersey City, New Jersey, United States, that specialized in dental care products.
Blockbuster may refer to.
Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.
Arterial blood pressure is most commonly measured via a sphygmomanometer, which historically used the height of a column of mercury to reflect the circulating pressure.
A blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a hypodermic needle, or via fingerprick.
BMI Research is a research firm that provides macroeconomic, industry and financial market analysis, covering 24 industries and 200 global markets.
Robert Francis McDonnell (born June 15, 1954) is an American politician and lawyer who served as the 71st Governor of Virginia, from 2010 to 2014.
Body fluid, bodily fluids, or biofluids are liquids within the bodies of living people.
Body odor (American English) or body odour (British English; see spelling differences) is present in animals and humans, and its intensity can be influenced by many factors (behavioral patterns, survival strategies).
C.H. Boehringer Sohn AG & Ko.
Boldenone (developmental code name RU-18761), also known as Δ1-testosterone, is a naturally occurring anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) and the 1(2)-dehydrogenated analogue of testosterone.
In medicine, a bolus (from Latin bolus, ball) is the administration of a discrete amount of medication, drug, or other compound within a specific time, generally within 1 - 30 minutes, in order to raise its concentration in blood to an effective level.
A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton.
Boots UK (formerly Boots the Chemists Ltd), trading as Boots, is a pharmacy chain in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Norway, Thailand and other territories.
Bornaprine (Brand Name: Sormodrem) is a synthetic anticholinergic medication that is primarily used to treat Parkinson's disease.
Boron tribromide, BBr3, is a colorless, fuming liquid compound containing boron and bromine.
The Borough of Broxbourne is a local government district and borough in Hertfordshire, England.
Boshan is the southernmost district of the city of Zibo, in central Shandong province, China.
The Botanischer Garten der Universität Tübingen, also known as the Botanischer Garten Tübingen or the Neuer Botanischer Garten Tübingen, is a botanical garden and arboretum maintained by the University of Tübingen.
Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology.
Vibratory bowl feeders are common devices used to feed individual component parts for assembly on industrial production lines.
Box (plural: boxes) describes a variety of containers and receptacles for permanent use as storage, or for temporary use, often for transporting contents.
In the United States, a boxed warning (sometimes "black box warning", colloquially) is a type of warning that appears on the package insert for certain prescription drugs, so called because the U.S. Food and Drug Administration specifies that it is formatted with a 'box' or border around the text.
The Bracco Group is an Italian multinational active in the healthcare sector with more than 3,300 employees worldwide, which operates in a variety of business areas.
Bradley County is a county located in the southeastern portion of the U.S. state of Tennessee.
Brain damage or brain injury (BI) is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells.
Brand Institute is a branding agency that specializes in the development of brand names and identities.
Brasília is the federal capital of Brazil and seat of government of the Federal District.
A breast cyst is a fluid-filled sac within the breast.
Breastfeeding and medications is the description of the medications that can be used by a breastfeeding mother with no or few consequences and those medications which are recommended to be avoided.
Brendan John Canty (born March 9, 1966 in Teaneck, New Jersey) is an American musician, composer, producer and film maker, best known as the drummer for the band Fugazi.
Brian S. Hooker, PhD, PE, is a former bioengineer and the team leader for the High Throughput Biology Team and Operations Manager of the DOE Genomics: Genomes to Life (GTL) Center for Molecular and Cellular Systems at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL).
Bribery is the act of giving or receiving something of value in exchange for some kind of influence or action in return, that the recipient would otherwise not alter.
Bright Packaging Industry Berhad is a global FMCG (fast-moving consumer goods) packaging company and manufacturer of aluminium foil laminate serving the tobacco, liquor and confectionery markets.
Brimonidine is a drug used as eye drops under the brand names Alphagan and Alphagan-P to treat open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension, and as a gel, Mirvaso, for facial skin redness in rosacea.
Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS) is an American pharmaceutical company, headquartered in New York City.
A British Approved Name (BAN) is the official non-proprietary or generic name given to a pharmaceutical substance, as defined in the British Pharmacopoeia (BP).
The British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the British Pharmacological Society.
The British National Formulary for Children (BNFC) is the standard UK paediatric reference for prescribing and pharmacology, among others indications, side effects and costs of the prescription of all medication drugs available on the National Health Service.
Broken Saints is an award-winning, partially Flash-animated film series by Brooke Burgess, Ian Kirby, and Andrew West.
Bromine is a chemical element with symbol Br and atomic number 35.
A bronchodilator is a substance that dilates the bronchi and bronchioles, decreasing resistance in the respiratory airway and increasing airflow to the lungs.
Bronopol (INN) is an organic compound that is used as an antimicrobial.
Buccal administration refers to a topical route of administration by which drugs held or applied in the buccal area (in the cheek) diffuse through the oral mucosa (tissues which line the mouth) and enter directly into the bloodstream.
Bukovinian State Medical University (abbreviated as BSMU or БДМУ) is one of the largest higher educational establishment in Chernivtsi.
Bulk density is a property of powders, granules, and other "divided" solids, especially used in reference to mineral components (soil, gravel), chemical substances, (pharmaceutical) ingredients, foodstuff, or any other masses of corpuscular or particulate matter.
Bunnythorpe is a village in the Manawatu-Wanganui region of New Zealand's North Island, north of the region's major city, Palmerston North.
Bupropion, sold under the brand names Wellbutrin and Zyban among others, is a medication primarily used as an antidepressant and smoking cessation aid.
Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), also known as dibutylhydroxytoluene, is a lipophilic organic compound, chemically a derivative of phenol, that is useful for its antioxidant properties.
Butyrfentanyl or butyrylfentanyl is a potent short-acting synthetic opioid analgesic drug.
Butyryl chloride (also known as n-Butyryl chloride, butanoyl chloride, or C-4 Acyl halide) is an organic compound with the chemical formula C4H7ClO.
BWT AG is an Austrian company with its headquarters in Mondsee.
Cadila Healthcare is an Indian pharmaceutical company headquartered at Ahmedabad in Gujarat state of western India.
Cadila Pharmaceuticals Limited is an Indian multinational pharmaceutical company headquartered in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, founded in 1951.
Cadmium is a chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number 48.
Caffeine/ergotamine (trade name Cafergot) is the proprietary name of a medication consisting of ergotamine tartrate and caffeine.
Calcilytics are pharmaceutical drugs that act as antagonists at the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR).
A calcimimetic is a pharmaceutical drug that mimics the action of calcium on tissues, by allosteric activation of the calcium-sensing receptor that is expressed in various human organ tissues.
Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3.
Calcium nitrite is an inorganic compound with chemical formula Ca(NO2)2.
The Cali Cartel was based in southern Colombia, around the city of Cali and the Valle del Cauca Department.
The California Master Plan for Higher Education of 1960 was developed by a survey team appointed by the UC Regents and the State Board of Education during the administration of Governor Pat Brown.
Caliper, A PerkinElmer Company is based in Hopkinton, Massachusetts with direct sales, service and application-support operations in countries around the globe.
Cambrex Corporation is a life sciences company that provides products and services for small molecule active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs).
Camelids are members of the biological family Camelidae, the only currently living family in the suborder Tylopoda.
Camphoric acid, C10H16O4 or in Latin form Acidum camphoricum, is a white crystallisable substance obtained from the oxidation of camphor.
Campinas (Plains or Meadows) is a Brazilian municipality in São Paulo State, part of the country's Southeast Region.
The Canadian Centre on Substance Use and Addiction (CCSA) is a national non-governmental charity formed in 1988, with a legislated mandate to reduce alcohol- and other drug-related harm.
CancerVax was an American pharmaceutical company founded in 1998 by Donald Morton.
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a naturally occurring cannabinoid constituent of cannabis.
The Cape Medical Museum is situated in the Old City Hospital Complex in Green Point, Cape Town, South Africa.
Captain Stingaree is a fictional supervillain in the DC Comics universe, and a minor foe of the Batman.
A captive bolt pistol or gun (also variously known as a cattle gun, stunbolt gun, bolt gun, or stunner) is a device used for stunning animals prior to slaughter.
Carbamazepine (CBZ), sold under the tradename Tegretol, among others, is a medication used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy and neuropathic pain.
Carbidopa (Lodosyn) is a drug given to people with Parkinson's disease in order to inhibit peripheral metabolism of levodopa.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
A carbon–carbon bond is a covalent bond between two carbon atoms.
Cardiac nursing is a nursing specialty that works with patients who suffer from various conditions of the cardiovascular system.
Cardinal Health, Inc. is a Fortune 500 health care services company based in Dublin, Ohio.
Cardiology (from Greek καρδίᾱ kardiā, "heart" and -λογία -logia, "study") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the heart as well as parts of the circulatory system.
Cardioversion is a medical procedure by which an abnormally fast heart rate (tachycardia) or other cardiac arrhythmia is converted to a normal rhythm using electricity or drugs.
Carl Warburg (c. 1805–1892), also known as Charles Warburg, was a physician and scientist.
Carmustine (bis-chloroethylnitrosourea, BCNU, BiCNU) is a medication used mainly for chemotherapy It is a nitrogen mustard β-chloro-nitrosourea compound used as an alkylating agent.
Caroline Peyton is an American singer, songwriter and actor.
Carte Blanche is a James Bond novel written by Jeffery Deaver.
Carter-Wallace was a personal care company headquartered in New York City.
A cartoning machine or cartoner, is a packaging machine that forms cartons: erect, close, folded, side seamed and sealed cartons.
Casiano Communications Inc. (CCI) was founded in 1973, by Manuel A. Casiano, who died on May 19, 2017 at the age of 86.
Cassella AG, formerly Leopold Cassella & Co. and Cassella Farbwerke Mainkur AG, commonly known as Cassella, was a German chemical and pharmaceutical company with headquarters in Frankfurt am Main.
Castor oil is a vegetable oil obtained by pressing the seeds of the castor oil plant (Ricinus communis).
Castration (also known as gonadectomy) is any action, surgical, chemical, or otherwise, by which an individual loses use of the testicles.
Castres Olympique is a French rugby union club located in the Occitanian city of Castres and is currently competing in the top level of the French league system.
Casualty@Holby City (styled as CASUAL+Y @ HOLBY CI+Y) is a series of special crossover episodes of BBC medical dramas Casualty and Holby City.
Cat food is food for consumption by cats.
Catabasis Pharmaceuticals, founded in 2008 and based in Cambridge, Massachusetts, is a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company.
Catania is the second largest city of Sicily after Palermo located on the east coast facing the Ionian Sea.
Catharanthus roseus, commonly known as the Madagascar periwinkle, rose periwinkle, or rosy periwinkle, is a species of flowering plant in the dogbane family Apocynaceae.
In medicine, a catheter is a thin tube made from medical grade materials serving a broad range of functions.
A caustic pencil (or silver nitrate stick) is a device for applying topical medication containing silver nitrate and potassium nitrate, used to chemically cauterize skin, providing hemostasis or permanently destroying unwanted tissue such as a wart, skin tag, aphthous ulcers, or over-production of granulation tissue.
Cavernous hemangioma, also called cavernous angioma, cavernoma, or cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) (when referring to presence in the brain) is a type of blood vessel malformation or hemangioma, where a collection of dilated blood vessels form a benign tumor.
Călărași is a district (raion) in the central part of Moldova, with the administrative center at Călărași.
CBA UAVs are Chinese UAVs developed by, a subsidiary of.
CD36 (cluster of differentiation 36), also known as platelet glycoprotein 4, fatty acid translocase (FAT), scavenger receptor class B member 3 (SCARB3), and glycoproteins 88 (GP88), IIIb (GPIIIB), or IV (GPIV) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD36 gene.
Cdc25 is a dual-specificity phosphatase first isolated from the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe as a cell cycle defective mutant.
Celesio AG is a German healthcare and pharmaceutical company, based in Stuttgart. The company operates in 14 countries around the world and generated revenue of more than 22,000 million euros in 2014. The corporation is part of the American McKesson Corporation who has a 76% stake in the company.
Celiprolol (brand names Cardem, Selectol, Celipres, Celipro, Celol, Cordiax, Dilanorm) is a medication in the class of beta blockers, used in the treatment of high blood pressure.
Cell therapy (also called cellular therapy or cytotherapy) is therapy in which cellular material is injected into a patient; this generally means intact, living cells.
Cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP), also known as cellacefate and cellulosi acetas phthalas, is a commonly used polymer phthalate in the formulation of pharmaceuticals, such as the enteric coating of tablets or capsules and for controlled release formulations.
The Celobar incident was a pharmaceutical fraud that occurred in Brazil in 2003, and resulted in the death of nine X-ray patients by barium poisoning.
The Central Operative Unit (UCO) (Spanish: Unidad Central Operativa) is a specialized division of the Civil Guard of Spain responsible for the investigation and prosecution of the most serious forms of crime and organized crime, whether national or international, as well as support to the Territorial Units of Judicial Police, that, due to lack of personnel or resources, or because the criminal field is more than one autonomous communities, require the support of this Unit.
A central venous catheter (CVC), also known as a central line, central venous line, or central venous access catheter, is a catheter placed into a large vein.
The Centre for Dermatology and Genetic Medicine (DGEM), based at the University of Dundee, is a multidisciplinary research initiative translating basic science discoveries in genetic skin disease into clinical application.
The Centre for Research on Multinational Corporations (SOMO–Stichting Onderzoek Multinationale Ondernemingen), is an independent, non-profit research and network organisation working on social, ecological and economic issues related to sustainable development.
Cephalic disorders (from the Greek word κεφάλι, meaning "head") are congenital conditions that stem from damage to, or abnormal development of, the budding nervous system.
The cerebellum (Latin for "little brain") is a major feature of the hindbrain of all vertebrates.
Cerebral vasculitis or central nervous system vasculitis (sometimes the word angiitis is used instead of "vasculitis") is vasculitis (inflammation of the blood vessel wall) involving the brain and occasionally the spinal cord.
Cerebrovascular disease includes a variety of medical conditions that affect the blood vessels of the brain and the cerebral circulation.
Cerilliant Corporation, located in Round Rock, Texas, is a manufacturer of certified reference standards and certified reference materials providing products and services to forensic / toxicology, diagnostic/clinical, environmental, natural products, and pharmaceutical industries.
Certoparin (Sandoparin, Embolex) is an antithrombotic medication.
Cetraxate (INN) is an oral gastrointestinal medication which has a cytoprotective effect.
CFR Pharmaceuticals, now owned by Abbott Laboratories, is a Chilean pharmaceutical company engaged in the development, production, and sale of pharmaceutical drugs in 15 Latin American countries such as Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Venezuela and others and in Vietnam in Asia.
Chaetochromin, also known as 4548-G05, is an orally active, small-molecule, selective agonist of the insulin receptor.
The Chaldean Mafia is a criminal organization composed of Chaldeans that have operated narcotics distribution networks from Phoenix and San Diego to Detroit.
The Chan–Lam coupling reaction – also known as the Chan–Evans–Lam coupling, as Chan, Evans, and Lam published their work back-to-back in Tetrahedron Letters – is a cross-coupling reaction between an aryl boronic acid and an alcohol or an amine to form the corresponding secondary aryl amines or aryl ethers, respectively.
Changchun is the capital and largest city of Jilin Province, and is also the core city of Northeast Asia.
Charles of the Ritz is a former cosmetics brand known for its line of perfumes.
Charles River Laboratories, Inc., is an American corporation specializing in a variety of pre-clinical and clinical laboratory services for the pharmaceutical, medical device and biotechnology industries.
Charlie Monroe (July 4, 1903 – September 27, 1975) was an American country and bluegrass music guitarist.
Chasing Dogma is a comic mini-series that chronicles the events of the two fictional stoners Jay and Silent Bob between two of their films: Chasing Amy and Dogma.
is a special ward that forms part of the heart of Tokyo, Japan.
Chelation is a type of bonding of ions and molecules to metal ions.
ChemAxon is a software company specializing in application programming interfaces and end user applications for cheminformatics and life science research with headquarters in Budapest, Hungary and Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Chemical changes occur when a substance combines with another to form a new substance, called chemical synthesis or, alternatively, chemical decomposition into two or more different substances.
Chemical Computing Group is a software company specializing in research software for computational chemistry, bioinformatics, cheminformatics, docking, pharmacophore searching and molecular simulation.
In the field of engineering, a chemical engineer is a professional, who is equipped with the knowledge of chemical engineering, works principally in the chemical industry to convert basic raw materials into a variety of products, and deals with the design and operation of plants and equipment.
The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals.
In a scientific sense, a chemical process is a method or means of somehow changing one or more chemicals or chemical compounds.
A chemical restraint is a form of medical restraint in which a drug is used to restrict the freedom or movement of a patient or in some cases to sedate a patient.
A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that consists of molecules of the same composition and structure.
Chemical technologists and technicians (abbr. chem techs) are workers who provide technical support or services in chemical-related fields.
Chemical waste is a waste that is made from harmful chemicals (mostly produced by large factories).
The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) is an arms control treaty that outlaws the production, stockpiling, and use of chemical weapons and their precursors.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
Chemists Without Borders is a non-governmental organization involved in international development work designed to solve humanitarian problems through chemistry and related activities.
ChemNutra is an American importer of ingredients for food, animal feed and pharmaceuticals based in Summerlin, Nevada Self-described as "The China-Source Experts" they import their products from China and provide them to North American manufacturers.
Chemoprevention (also Chemoprophylaxis) refers to the administration of a medication for the purpose of preventing disease or infection.
Chendooram is a red color powder.
ChestEze (or Do-Do ChestEze) is a British over-the-counter pharmaceutical product manufactured by Novartis for "relief of bronchial cough, wheezing, breathlessness and other symptoms of asthmatic bronchitis and to clear the chest of mucus following upper respiratory tract infection." It contains 30 mg caffeine, 18.31 mg ephedrine hydrochloride and 100 mg anhydrous theophylline.
Child-resistant packaging or CR packaging is special packaging used to reduce the risk of children ingesting hazardous materials.
Juvenile arthritis (JA), also known as childhood arthritis, is any form of chronic arthritis or chronic arthritis-related conditions which affects individuals under the age of 16.
In health care, a clinical trial is a comparison test of a medication or other medical treatment (such as a medical device), versus a placebo (inactive look-alike), other medications or devices, or the standard medical treatment for a patient's condition.
Children Without Worms (CWW) is a global collaborative health programme among two pharmaceutical giants, Johnson & Johnson and GlaxoSmithKline, and a nonprofit organisation, the Task Force for Global Health.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The China Center of Adoption Affairs (CCAA) was established on June 24, 1996 by China's Ministry of Civil Affairs.
China Nepstar Chain Drugstore Ltd., which conducts business as China Nepstar, is China's largest retail drugstore chain, based on the number of directly operated stores.
China Wu Culture Expo Park is located in Wuxi City, Jiangsu Province, China.
A Circular Economy is an alternative way countries manage their resources, where instead of using products in the traditional linear make, use, dispose method, resources are used for their maximum utility throughout its life cycle and regenerated in a cyclical pattern minimizing waste.
Chinese herbology is the theory of traditional Chinese herbal therapy, which accounts for the majority of treatments in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).
Chitosan is a linear polysaccharide composed of randomly distributed β-(1→4)-linked D-glucosamine (deacetylated unit) and ''N''-acetyl-D-glucosamine (acetylated unit).
Chittagong, officially known as Chattogram, is a major coastal city and financial centre in southeastern Bangladesh.
Chlamydomonas nivalis is a unicellular red-coloured photosynthetic green alga that is found in the snowfields of the alps and polar regions all over the world.
Chloral hydrate is a geminal diol with the formula C2H3Cl3O2.
Chlormadinone is a progestin which was never marketed.
In organic chemistry, the chloroacetic acids (systematic name chloroethanoic acids) are three related chlorocarbon carboxylic acids.
Chloroxine (trade name Capitrol; Kloroxin, Dichlorchinolinol, chlorquinol, halquinol(s)); Latin cloroxinum, dichlorchinolinolum) is an antibacterial drug. Oral formulations (under trade name such as Endiaron) are used in infectious diarrhea, disorders of the intestinal microflora (e.g. after antibiotic treatment), giardiasis, inflammatory bowel disease. It is also useful for dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis., as used in shampoos (Capitrol) and dermal creams like (Valpeda, Triaderm).
Cholecalciferol, also known as vitamin D3 and colecalciferol, is a type of vitamin D which is made by the skin, found in some foods, and taken as a dietary supplement.
Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.
Christian Jourquin is a Belgian businessman and Chief Executive Officer of Solvay between May 2006 and May 2012, a Belgian chemical and pharmaceutical company.
Christian monasticism is the devotional practice of individuals who live ascetic and typically cloistered lives that are dedicated to Christian worship.
Christianity in the 12th century was marked by a continuation of the Crusades, namely with the Second Crusade in the Holy Land.
Christopher Glaser (1615 – between 1670 and 1678), a pharmaceutical chemist of the 17th century.
Christopher v. SmithKline Beecham Corp., (2012) is a US labor law case of the United States Supreme Court.
Chromane (benzodihydropyran) is a heterocyclic chemical compound with the chemical formula C9H10O.
Chromatophores are pigment-containing and light-reflecting cells, or groups of cells, found in a wide range of animals including amphibians, fish, reptiles, crustaceans and cephalopods.
Sinus disease, allergies, and asthma have been shown to be intimately related through recent research.
Chronic care refers to medical care which addresses pre-existing or long term illness, as opposed to acute care which is concerned with short term or severe illness of brief duration.
A chronic wound is a wound that does not heal in an orderly set of stages and in a predictable amount of time the way most wounds do; wounds that do not heal within three months are often considered chronic.
Cicletanine is a furopyridine low-ceiling diuretic drug, usually used in the treatment of hypertension.
CIECH S.A., established in Łódź, Poland in 1945, is one of the leaders on the European chemical industry.
Cilostazol is a quinolinone-derivative medication used in the alleviation of the symptoms of intermittent claudication in individuals with peripheral vascular disease.
Cinacalcet (INN) is a drug that acts as a calcimimetic (i.e. it mimics the action of calcium on tissues) by allosteric activation of the calcium-sensing receptor that is expressed in various human organ tissues (Van Wagenen et al. (2001), U.S. Pat. 6,211,244).
Cinnamic acid is an organic compound with the formula C6H5CHCHCO2H.
The CIOMS/RUCAM scale is a tool to predict whether liver damage can be attributed to a particular medication.
Cipla Limited is an Indian multinational pharmaceutical and biotechnology company, headquartered in Mumbai, India.
Cipla Quality Chemical Industries Limited (CQCI) is a pharmaceutical manufacturing company in Uganda.
Circassia Pharmaceuticals is a specialty biopharmaceutical company developing a range of immunotherapies.
Circulation evaporators are a type of evaporating unit designed to separate mixtures unable to be evaporated by a conventional evaporating unit.
Cirrhosis is a condition in which the liver does not function properly due to long-term damage.
Cisapride is a gastroprokinetic agent, a drug that increases motility in the upper gastrointestinal tract.
Citalopram (brand names: Celexa, Cipramil and others) is an antidepressant drug of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.
Citric acid is a weak organic acid that has the chemical formula.
The City Hospital No 40 of Saint Petersburg, Russia, belongs to the largest health care facilities (more than 1000 beds) for delivering in-patient definitive and specialized medical care in North West Russia.
City of Hope is a private, not-for-profit clinical research center, hospital and graduate medical school located in Duarte, California, United States.
Clairol is a personal-care-product division of company Procter & Gamble, specializing in hair-coloring and hair care that begun in 1931 by Americans Lawrence and Joan Gelb, along with business partner and lifelong friend, James Romeo, after discovering hair-coloring preparations while traveling in France.
Claude Castonguay, (born May 8, 1929) is a Canadian politician, educator and businessman.
Claude Roy (born April 25, 1952 in Montmagny, Quebec) is a politician from Quebec, Canada.
Claviceps purpurea is an ergot fungus that grows on the ears of rye and related cereal and forage plants.
Clean Harbors, Inc. is a provider of environmental, energy and industrial services, including hazardous waste disposal for companies, including Fortune 500 companies, small waste generators and federal, state, provincial and local governments.
Clermont-Ferrand (Auvergnat Clharmou, Augustonemetum) is a city and commune of France, in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region, with a population of 141,569 (2012).
Cleveland is a city in Bradley County, Tennessee, United States.
The drug combination clindamycin/tretinoin (trade name Ziana and Veltin) is a topical acne treatment.
A clinical data management system or CDMS is a tool used in clinical research to manage the data of a clinical trial.
In a clinical research trial, a clinical endpoint generally refers to occurrence of a disease, symptom, sign or laboratory abnormality that constitutes one of the target outcomes of the trial, but may also refer to any such disease or sign that strongly motivates the withdrawal of that individual or entity from the trial, then often termed humane (clinical) endpoint.
A clinical pharmaceutical scientist (or pharmacist-scientist) is a licensed, practicing pharmacist who also functions as an independent researcher in the pharmaceutical sciences.
Clinical pharmacology is the science of drugs and their clinical use.
Clinical pharmacy is the branch of pharmacy in which doctor of pharmacy provide patient care that optimizes the use of medication and promotes health, wellness, and disease prevention.
Clinical research is a branch of healthcare science that determines the safety and effectiveness (efficacy) of medications, devices, diagnostic products and treatment regimens intended for human use.
Clinical trials are experiments or observations done in clinical research.
A Clinical Trial Management System (CTMS) is a software system used by biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries to manage clinical trials in clinical research.
Clofexamide (or amichlophene) is an antidepressant that was a component of the drug combination clofezone, the other being the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) phenylbutazone.
A clonogenic assay is a cell biology technique for studying the effectiveness of specific agents on the survival and proliferation of cells.
Cluj County (Kolozs megye) is a county (județ) of Romania, in Transylvania, with the capital city at Cluj-Napoca.
Coal mining in the United Kingdom dates back to Roman times and occurred in many different parts of the country.
Coca eradication is a strategy promoted by the United States government starting in 1961 as part of its "War on Drugs" to eliminate the cultivation of coca, a plant whose leaves are not only traditionally used by indigenous cultures but also, in modern society, in the manufacture of cocaine.
Coca-Cola, or Coke (also Pemberton's Cola at certain Georgian vendors), is a carbonated soft drink produced by The Coca-Cola Company.
Cocoa butter, also called theobroma oil, is a pale-yellow, edible vegetable fat extracted from the cocoa bean.
The Codex Alimentarius is a collection of internationally recognized standards, codes of practice, guidelines, and other recommendations relating to foods, food production, and food safety.
Codexis, Inc. is a leading protein engineering company that applies its revolutionary CodeEvolver platform technology to deliver high-performing enzymes for improving the cost and quality of pharmaceuticals and food ingredients, to enable sequencing of minute quantities of DNA for medical diagnostics, and to create novel biotherapeutics.
Cognitive bias modification (CBM) refers to the process of modifying cognitive biases in healthy people and also refers to a growing area of psychological (non-pharmaceutical) therapies for anxiety, depression and addiction called cognitive bias modification therapy (CBMT).
Coimbra (Corumbriga)) is a city and a municipality in Portugal. The population at the 2011 census was 143,397, in an area of. The fourth-largest urban centre in Portugal (after Lisbon, Porto, Braga), it is the largest city of the district of Coimbra, the Centro region and the Baixo Mondego subregion. About 460,000 people live in the Região de Coimbra, comprising 19 municipalities and extending into an area. Among the many archaeological structures dating back to the Roman era, when Coimbra was the settlement of Aeminium, are its well-preserved aqueduct and cryptoporticus. Similarly, buildings from the period when Coimbra was the capital of Portugal (from 1131 to 1255) still remain. During the Late Middle Ages, with its decline as the political centre of the Kingdom of Portugal, Coimbra began to evolve into a major cultural centre. This was in large part helped by the establishment the University of Coimbra in 1290, the oldest academic institution in the Portuguese-speaking world. Apart from attracting many European and international students, the university is visited by many tourists for its monuments and history. Its historical buildings were classified as a World Heritage site by UNESCO in 2013: "Coimbra offers an outstanding example of an integrated university city with a specific urban typology as well as its own ceremonial and cultural traditions that have been kept alive through the ages.".
A cold chain or cool chain is a temperature-controlled supply chain.
"Cold turkey" refers to the abrupt cessation of a substance dependence and the resulting unpleasant experience, as opposed to gradually easing the process through reduction over time or by using replacement medication.
Colestilan (INN, trade name BindRen) is a medication that acts as a phosphate binder and bile acid sequestrant.
The College of Health Sciences General Ahmad Yani Yogyakarta (Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Kesehatan Jenderal Ahmad Yani Yogyakarta) or Stikes Jenderal Ahmad Yani is a private university located in the Sleman Regency province Special Region of Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
The colors of biotechnology is a classification system used to organize the different subspecialities that comprise biotechnology.
Combination therapy or polytherapy is therapy that uses more than one medication or modality (versus monotherapy, which is any therapy taken alone).
Combinatorial chemistry comprises chemical synthetic methods that make it possible to prepare a large number (tens to thousands or even millions) of compounds in a single process.
The combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP), often referred to as the birth control pill or colloquially as "the pill", is a type of birth control that is designed to be taken orally by women.
Combretum micranthum, known as kinkeliba in Benin, Senegal, Mali and Gambia across multiple regional dialects, is a shrub species often found in tiger bush and on hills in West Africa.
Commercially useful enzymes (CUEs) are enzymes which have commercial uses.
The Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP), formerly known as Committee for Proprietary Medicinal Products (CPMP), is the European Medicines Agency's committee responsible for elaborating the agency's opinions on all issues regarding medicinal products for human use.
The Committee on Safety of Medicines (CSM) was an independent advisory committee that advised the UK Licensing Authority on the quality, efficacy and safety of medicines.
Commodity chemicals (or bulk commodities or bulk chemicals) are a group of chemicals that are made on a very large scale to satisfy global markets.
Community-based clinical trials are clinical trials conducted directly through doctors and clinics rather than academic research facilities.
Both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are characterized as psychiatric disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fifth edition (DSM-5).
The Following is a comparative list of the balance of trade in goods for imports vs exports of the United States in 2015 ($Billions of Dollars).
The Compendium of Pharmaceuticals and Specialties: The Canadian Drug Reference for Health Professionals, more commonly known by its abbreviation CPS,Repchinsky C. The CPS: Love, hate and expectations.
Compliance is the ability of a hollow organ (vessel) to distend and increase volume with increasing transmural pressure or the tendency of a hollow organ to resist recoil toward its original dimensions on application of a distending or compressing force.
Complication, in medicine, is an unfavorable evolution or consequence of a disease, a health condition or a therapy.
A composting toilet is a type of toilet that treats human excreta by a biological process called composting.
Pharmaceutical compounding (done in compounding pharmacies) is the creation of a particular pharmaceutical product to fit the unique need of a patient.
Concordia Healthcare Corp is a publicly traded pharmaceutical company based in Canada. The company focuses on Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, cancer and asthma. The company was founded in December 2012 and has since pursued a corporate strategy of growth-through acquisition, much like fellow Canadian company Valeant Pharmaceuticals. Concordia uses Cardinal Health as its main distribution chain partner. The company also focuses on acquiring legacy pharmaceutical compounds which are usually off patent. Concordia Healthcare Corp currently comprises three companies: Concordia Pharmaceuticals Inc., Pinnacle Biologics Inc., and Complete Medical Homecare Inc.
Concurrent tandem catalysis (CTC) is a technique in chemistry which uses multiple catalysts on a single molecule in a one-pot reaction to produce a product otherwise not accessible by a single catalyst.
Condeixa-a-Nova, also known as Condeixa, is a town and a municipality in the district of Coimbra, Portugal.
Cone snails, cone shells, or cones are common names for a large group of small to large-sized extremely venomous predatory sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs.
The Confederation of Women Entrepreneurs (COWE)is a NGO/social organization engaged in the social and economic "upliftment of women through entrepreneurship".
A congenital heart defect (CHD), also known as a congenital heart anomaly or congenital heart disease, is a problem in the structure of the heart that is present at birth.
Constructive ambiguity is a term generally credited to Henry Kissinger, said to be the foremost exponent of the negotiating tactic it designates.
A consultant pharmacist is a pharmacist who works as a consultant providing expert advice on the use of medications or on the provision of pharmacy services to medical institutions, medical practices and individual patients.
The Consumer Protection Act 1987 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that made important changes to the consumer law of the United Kingdom.
Consumer services refers to the formulation, deformulation, technical consulting and testing of most consumer products, such as food, herbs, beverages, vitamins, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, hair products, household cleaners, paints, plastics, metals, waxes, coatings, minerals, ceramics, construction materials plus water, indoor air quality testing, non-medical forensic testing and failure analysis.
Contact Singapore (Chinese: 联系新加坡) is an agency of the Singapore government whose primary function is to draw people from around the world to work, invest and live in Singapore, with the ultimate aim of boosting economic development.
Contamination is the presence of an unwanted constituent, contaminant or impurity in a material, physical body, natural environment, workplace, etc.
Contamination control is the generic term for all activities aiming to control the existence, growth and proliferation of contamination in certain areas.
A contract manufacturer ("CM") is a manufacturer that contracts with a firm for components or products.
A contract packager, or copacker, is a company that packages products for their clients.
As long as psychiatry has existed it has been subject to controversy.
A cool warehouse or cold storage warehouse is a warehouse were perishable goods are stored and refrigerated.
Copeinca ASA is a Norway-based company primarily engaged in fishing industry.
Copenhagen (København; Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark.
Corixa was a biotechnology/pharmaceutical company based in Seattle, Washington involved in the development of immunotherapeutics to combat autoimmune diseases, infectious diseases, and cancer.
Cork Harbour is a natural harbour and river estuary at the mouth of the River Lee in County Cork, Ireland.
Corn oil (maize oil) is oil extracted from the germ of corn (maize).
Cornerstone Research is a litigation consulting firm based in the United States and the United Kingdom.
A coronary care unit (CCU) or cardiac intensive care unit (CICU) is a hospital ward specialized in the care of patients with heart attacks, unstable angina, cardiac dysrhythmia and (in practice) various other cardiac conditions that require continuous monitoring and treatment.
Corporate venture capital (CVC) is the investment of corporate funds directly in external startup companies.
Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones.
The Cosco Busan oil spill occurred at 08:30 UTC-8 on 7 November 2007 between San Francisco and Oakland, California, in which of IFO-380 heavy fuel oil, sometimes referred to as "bunker fuel", spilled into San Francisco Bay after the container ship ''Cosco Busan'', operated by Fleet Management Ltd., struck Delta Tower of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge in thick fog.
The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2002, as amended is a United Kingdom Statutory Instrument that states general requirements on employers to protect employees and other persons from the hazards of substances used at work by risk assessment, control of exposure, health surveillance and incident planning.
Cosmeceuticals are cosmetic products with bioactive ingredients purported to have medical benefits.
Cosmetic may refer to.
There have been many artifacts and ancient Egyptian renderings of Egyptian cosmetic use long before Rome was a proper civilization.
In chemistry, cosolvents are substances added to a primary solvent in small amounts to increase the solubility of a poorly-soluble compound.
The cost of drug development is the full cost of bringing a new drug (i.e., new chemical entity) to market from drug discovery through clinical trials to approval.
Costa Mesa is a city in Orange County, California.
Count Vertigo is a fictional character created by Gerry Conway, Trevor Von Eeden and Vince Colletta as an enemy of Black Canary and later Green Arrow in the DC Comics Universe.
The counterfeit means to imitate something.
A counterfeit medication or a counterfeit drug is a medication or pharmaceutical product which is produced and sold with the intent to deceptively represent its origin, authenticity or effectiveness.
In medicine the term course generally takes one of two meanings, both reflecting the sense of "path that something or someone moves along...process or sequence or steps".
Covance Inc. is a contract research organization (CRO) headquartered in Princeton, New Jersey, providing drug development and animal testing services.
CP-226,269 is a drug which acts as a dopamine agonist selective for the D4 subtype, which is used for researching the role of D4 receptors in the brain.
John Craig Venter (born October 14, 1946) is an American biotechnologist, biochemist, geneticist, and businessman.
Richard T. Crane Medical Prep High School (formerly known as Crane Tech Prep or Crane Tech High School) is a public 4–year medical prep high school located in the Near West Side neighborhood of Chicago, Illinois, United States.
A cream is a preparation usually for application to the skin.
Creature from the Black Lagoon is a 1954 American black-and-white 3D monster horror film from Universal-International, produced by William Alland, directed by Jack Arnold, that stars Richard Carlson, Julia Adams, Richard Denning, Antonio Moreno and Whit Bissell.
The Critical Psychiatry Network (CPN) is a psychiatric organization based in the United Kingdom.
Criticism of technology is an analysis of adverse impacts of industrial and digital technologies.
Numerous governmental and non-governmental organizations have criticized the U. S. Food and Drug Administration for alleged excessive and/or insufficient regulation.
The following products could be described as hallmarks of Croatian trade.
Crohn's disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus.
In biochemistry, a cross-linked enzyme aggregate is an immobilized enzyme prepared via cross-linking of the physical enzyme aggregates with a difunctional cross-linker.
Crown Bioscience International, also known as CrownBio, is a contract research organization focused on patient derived xenografts used in drug screening.
Crude drugs are vegetable or animal drugs that contain natural substances that have undergone only the processes of collection and drying.
Cryobiology is the branch of biology that studies the effects of low temperatures on living things within Earth's cryosphere or in science.
Crystal structure prediction (CSP) is the calculation of the crystal structures of solids from first principles.
Crystallization is the (natural or artificial) process by which a solid forms, where the atoms or molecules are highly organized into a structure known as a crystal.
CSL Limited is a global specialty biotechnology company that researches, develops, manufactures, and markets products to treat and prevent serious human medical conditions.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
Cubist Pharmaceuticals was a U.S. biopharmaceutical company with activities spanning from research and development to commercialization of pharmaceutical products.
The word "menstruation" is etymologically related to "moon".
Microalgae or microscopic algae grow in either marine or freshwater systems.
Curative care or curative medicine is the health care given for medical conditions where a cure is considered achievable, or even possibly so, and directed to this end.
A cure is a substance or procedure that ends a medical condition, such as a medication, a surgical operation, a change in lifestyle or even a philosophical mindset that helps end a person's sufferings; or the state of being healed, or cured.
Curtis Gates Lloyd (July 17, 1859 – November 11, 1926) was an American mycologist known for both his research on the gasteroid and polypore fungi, as well as his controversial views on naming conventions in taxonomy.
Cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) is an amorphous polymer made by several polymer manufacturers.
Cycloheptane is a cycloalkane with the molecular formula C7H14.
Cyclone Carmen was an extratropical cyclone and European windstorm which crossed the Atlantic Ocean and affected the United Kingdom, Ireland, France, Belgium, and the Netherlands in November 2010.
Cyclooxygenase (COX), officially known as prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase (PTGS), is an enzyme (specifically, a family of isozymes) that is responsible for formation of prostanoids, including thromboxane and prostaglandins such as prostacyclin, from arachidonic acid.
Cyclopentamine (trade names Clopane, Cyclonarol, Cyclosal, Cyklosan, Nazett, Sinos, among others) is a sympathomimetic alkylamine, classified as a vasoconstrictor.
Cyclopropane is a cycloalkane molecule with the molecular formula C3H6, consisting of three carbon atoms linked to each other to form a ring, with each carbon atom bearing two hydrogen atoms resulting in D3h molecular symmetry.
Cyclothymia, also known as cyclothymic disorder, is a mental disorder that involves periods of symptoms of depression and periods of symptoms of hypomania.
Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a membrane protein and chloride channel in vertebrates that is encoded by the CFTR gene.
Cystoisospora is a genus of parasitic alveolates belonging to the phylum Apicomplexa.
Cytel is a multinational statistical software developer and contract research organization, headquartered in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.
Cytisine, also known as baptitoxine and sophorine, is an alkaloid that occurs naturally in several plant genera, such as Laburnum and Cytisus of the family Fabaceae.
This article covers protein engineering of cytochrome (CYP) P450 enzymes.
Daewoong Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd (Korean: 대웅제약) is a Seoul, South Korea-based bioengineering company operating as a subsidiary of Daewoong Co., Ltd., a global health care group.
is a global pharmaceutical company and the second largest pharmaceutical company in Japan.
Daily Mail and General Trust plc is a British media company, the owner of The Daily Mail and several other titles.
Daniel Gregory Amen (born 1954) is an American celebrity doctor who practices as a psychiatrist and brain disorder specialist as director of the Amen Clinics.
Daniel Pearl (October 10, 1963 – February 1, 2002) was a journalist for The Wall Street Journal with American and Israeli citizenship.
Daniela Garnero Santanchè (born 7 April 1961) is an Italian entrepreneur and a politician.
The Sardar Mohammad Daoud Khan National Military Hospital, often referred to as the Daoud Khan Military Hospital or the National Military Hospital, is a military hospital located in Kabul, Afghanistan.
Darapladib is an inhibitor lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) that is in development as a drug for treatment of atherosclerosis.
Darifenacin (trade name Enablex in US and Canada, Emselex in Europe) is a medication used to treat urinary incontinence.
A darknet market or cryptomarket is a commercial website on the web that operates via darknets such as Tor or I2P.
Daryl L. Thompson is an American inventor and entrepreneur whose work focuses on health, wellness, and disease prevention.
Dauricine is a plant metabolite, chemically classified as a phenol, an aromatic ether, and an isoquinoline alkaloid.
David Graham Blanchflower (informally sometimes called Danny Blanchflower after the footballer) CBE (born 2 March 1952) is a labour economist, currently a tenured economics professor at Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire.
David Kalergis (born December 9, 1948) is an American life sciences entrepreneur and the Co-founder and Chief Executive Officer of Diffusion Pharmaceuticals Inc, a Charlottesville, Virginia, U.S.-based biotechnology and pharmaceutical company.
David Mervyn Blow (27 June 1931 – 8 June 2004) was an influential British biophysicist.
David Anthony Newsome M.D. FARVO (16 April 1942 – 24 February 2011) was a scientist, ophthalmologist, inventor, and author.
David A. Zarling is a co-founder, president and CEO of Colby Pharmaceutical Company and an oncology drug development scientist and entrepreneur.
Dawa Limited is a Kenyan pharmaceutical company based in Nairobi, Kenya.
De-linkage is a proposed model for development of new pharmaceutical drugs where "de-link" refers to isolating the profitability of a drug from its volume of sales.
Dechra Pharmaceuticals PLC is an English-based manufacturer of veterinary products.
Decitabine (trade name Dacogen), or 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, acts as an Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitor.
A decongestant, or nasal decongestant, is a type of pharmaceutical drug that is used to relieve nasal congestion in the upper respiratory tract.
In the United States, the non-medical use of cannabis is decriminalized in 13 states (plus the U.S. Virgin Islands), and legalized in another 9 states (plus the District of Columbia), as of January 2018.
The defined daily dose (DDD) is a statistical measure of drug consumption, defined by the World Health Organization (WHO).
Dehns (formerly "Frank B. Dehn & Co.") is a United Kingdom firm of patent and trade mark attorneys, with offices in London, Brighton, Oxford, Manchester and Munich.
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), also known as androstenolone, is an endogenous steroid hormone.
Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, abbreviated as DHEA sulfate or DHEA-S, also known as androstenolone sulfate, is an endogenous androstane steroid that is produced by the adrenal cortex.
Delayed ejaculation, also called retarded ejaculation or inhibited ejaculation, is a man's inability for or persistent difficulty in achieving orgasm, despite typical sexual desire and sexual stimulation.
Deleted Scenes were an American art rock band formed in 2005 in Washington, D.C. by three members of the short-lived Olney, MD, band Fell off the Face of the Earth: Dan Scheuerman (lead vocals and guitar), Matt Dowling (bass, keyboards, guitar and backing vocals), and Dominic Campanaro (guitar and keyboards).
DELTON AG is a strategic management holding company (located in Bad Homburg, Germany).
Delusional disorder is a generally rare mental illness in which the patient presents delusions, but with no accompanying prominent hallucinations, thought disorder, mood disorder, or significant flattening of affect.
Den norske Eterfabrikk (DnE) is a pharmaceutical/chemical company developing, manufacturing and marketing prescription drugs, OTC, cosmetics and chemicals.
Denka Company Limited; formerly is a Japanese chemical company, established in 1915 and headquartered in Tokyo.
Denmark–Kazakhstan relations refers to the current and historical relations between Denmark and Kazakhstan.
Dennis Considen (died 1815) was an Irish-born surgeon, best known for his pioneering role in the use of Australian native plants for pharmaceutical use, especially eucalyptus oil, which he used to treat the convicts.
Dennis M. Jones (September 12, 1938 – September 20, 2016) was an American businessman and pharmaceutical magnate, best known as the founder of Jones Pharma and Dennis M. Jones Family Foundation.
Denufosol (INN) is an inhaled drug for the treatment of cystic fibrosis, being developed by Inspire Pharmaceuticals and sponsored by the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation.
The Department of Health and Social Care (DHSC) is a department of Her Majesty's Government, responsible for government policy on health and adult social care matters in England, along with a few elements of the same matters which are not otherwise devolved to the Scottish Government, Welsh Government or Northern Ireland Executive.
Depomed, Inc. is an American specialty pharmaceutical company which mainly markets products for treatment in neurology, pain and diseases of the central nervous system.
Deprescribing is the process of intentionally stopping a medication or reducing its dose to improve the person's health or reduce the risk of adverse side effects.
A dermal patch or skin patch is a medicated adhesive patch that is placed on the skin to deliver a medication into the skin.
Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) is a chronic blistering skin condition, characterised by blisters filled with a watery fluid.
Derwent Drug file, formerly known as Ringdoc, is an information monitoring, abstracting and documentation service, specifically designed to meet the information needs of people requiring information on pharmaceuticals.
Desiccated thyroid or thyroid extract refers to porcine or bovine thyroid glands, dried and powdered for therapeutic use.
Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) is an ambient ionization technique that can be coupled to mass spectrometry for chemical analysis of samples at atmospheric conditions.
A detonation flame arrester (also spelled arrestor) is a device fitted to the opening of an enclosure or to the connecting pipe work of a system of enclosures and whose intended function is to allow flow but prevent the transmission of flame propagating at supersonic velocity.
Deurali-Janta Pharmaceuticals Private Limited (DJPL) based in Kathmandu, Nepal is one of that country's leading pharmaceutical companies.
There are three development zones in Shenyang, China.
A Dewatering screw press is a screw press that separates liquids from solids.
Dextrins are a group of low-molecular-weight carbohydrates produced by the hydrolysis of starch or glycogen.
dextro-Transposition of the great arteries (d-Transposition of the great arteries, dextro-TGA, or d-TGA), sometimes also referred to as complete transposition of the great arteries, is a birth defect in the large arteries of the heart.
DHL Supply Chain is a division of Deutsche Post DHL and is affiliated with DHL Express.
Diaphragm valves (or membrane valves) consists of a valve body with two or more ports, a diaphragm, and a "weir or saddle" or seat upon which the diaphragm closes the valve.
A diastase (from Greek διάστασις, "separation") is any one of a group of enzymes that catalyses the breakdown of starch into maltose.
Dibudinic acid, or dibudinate, is an organic compound.
Dibutyl sebacate (DBS) is an organic chemical, a dibutyl ester of sebacic acid.
Dienogest, sold under the brand names Natazia and Qlaira among others, is a progestin medication which is used in birth control pills and in the treatment of endometriosis.
A dietary supplement is a manufactured product intended to supplement the diet when taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid.
Differential scanning calorimetry, or DSC, is a thermoanalytical technique in which the difference in the amount of heat required to increase the temperature of a sample and reference is measured as a function of temperature.
Dihydrotestosterone (DHT), or 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT), also known as androstanolone or stanolone, is an endogenous androgen sex steroid and hormone.
Diketene is an organic compound with the molecular formula C4H4O2, and which is sometimes written as (CH2CO)2.
Dilek Ecza Deposu is the fifth largest-pharmaceutical warehouse in Turkey with US$200 million net sales figure as of December 31, 2009.
Dimercaprol, also called British anti-Lewisite (BAL), is a medication used to treat acute poisoning by arsenic, mercury, gold, and lead.
Dimethylacetamide (DMAc or DMA) is the organic compound with the formula CH3C(O)N(CH3)2.
Dimethylamine is an organic compound with the formula (CH3)2NH.
Dimethylaminoethanol and dimethylethanolamine (DMAE and DMEA respectively), with deanol, are common names for 2-(dimethylamino)ethanol.
Diminazene (INN; also known as diminazen) is an anti-infective medication for animals that is sold under a variety of brand names.
Dino Campana (20 August 1885 – 1 March 1932) was an Italian visionary poet.
Diomede (Диомид, native name Iŋaliq, meaning "the other one" or "the one over there") is a village in the Nome Census Area of the Unorganized Borough of the U.S. state of Alaska, located on the west coast of Little Diomede Island.
Diphenylmethanol, (C6H5)2CHOH (also known as benzhydrol), is a secondary alcohol with a relative molecular mass of 184.23 g/mol.
Dipyridamole (trademarked as Persantine and others) is a medication that inhibits blood clot formation when given chronically and causes blood vessel dilation when given at high doses over a short time.
A direct electron ionization liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry interface (Direct-EI LC-MS interface) is a technique for coupling liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based on the direct introduction of the liquid effluent into an electron ionization (EI) source.
Direct thrombin inhibitors (DTIs) are a class of medication that act as anticoagulants (delaying blood clotting) by directly inhibiting the enzyme thrombin (factor IIa).
Direct factor Xa inhibitors ('xabans') are a class of anticoagulant drugs which act directly upon Factor X in the coagulation cascade, without using antithrombin as a mediator.
Relief from chronic pain remains a recognized unmet medical need.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
The Diseases Database is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications.
Dishman (Dishman Carbogen Amcis Limited) is a multinational company specialized in the manufacture of active ingredients for the pharmaceutical industry.
Disopyramide (INN, trade names Norpace and Rythmodan) is an antiarrhythmic medication used in the treatment of ventricular tachycardia.
A dispensary is an office in a school, hospital, industrial plant, or other organization that dispenses medications, medical supplies, and in some cases even medical and dental treatment.
Distillation Design is a book which provides complete coverage of the design of industrial distillation columns for the petroleum refining, chemical and petrochemical plants, natural gas processing, pharmaceutical, food and alcohol distilling industries.
Distributive shock is a medical condition in which abnormal distribution of blood flow in the smallest blood vessels results in inadequate supply of blood to the body's tissues and organs.
Disulfiram (sold under the trade names Antabuse and Antabus) is a drug used to support the treatment of chronic alcoholism by producing an acute sensitivity to ethanol (drinking alcohol).
Diversion Investigator (DI) is the title of a specialist position within the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) of the United States Department of Justice.
Dmitry Anatolyevich Medvedev (p; born 14 September 1965) is a Russian politician who has served as the Prime Minister of Russia since 2012.
Do No Harm is an American drama that aired from January 31 through September 7, 2013, on NBC.
Docking@Home was a distributed computing project hosted by the University of Delaware and running on the Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC) software platform.
Dodecanol, or lauryl alcohol, is an organic compound produced industrially from palm kernel oil or coconut oil.
Dodworth is a village in the metropolitan borough of Barnsley in South Yorkshire, England.
The Dog Aging Project, or Dog Ageing Project, is a long-term biological study of aging in dogs, centered at the University of Washington.
Dollar General Corporation is an American chain of variety stores headquartered in Goodlettsville, Tennessee.
Domestic medicine or domestic health care is the behavioral, nutritional and health care practices, hygiene included, performed in the household and transmitted from one generation to the other.
Donald Panoz or (born February 13, 1935, in Alliance, Ohio) is an American entrepreneur who made his name in pharmaceuticals and has since become well known as a successful owner of various motorsport ventures.
Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is a retired American political figure and businessman.
was a landmark court decision in Scots delict law and English tort law by the House of Lords.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
A dopamine antagonist (antidopaminergic) is a type of drug which blocks dopamine receptors by receptor antagonism.
The Dorian Gray syndrome (DGS) denotes a cultural and societal phenomenon characterized by a man's extreme pride in his personal appearance and the fitness of his physique, which is accompanied by difficulties in coping with the requirements of psychological maturation and with the aging of his body.
Dosage forms (also called unit doses) are pharmaceutical drug products in the form in which they are marketed for use, with a specific mixture of active ingredients and inactive components (excipients), in a particular configuration (such as a capsule shell, for example), and apportioned into a particular dose.
Dose dumping is a phenomenon of drug metabolism in which environmental factors can cause the premature and exaggerated release of a drug.
Double depression refers to the co-existence of major depressive disorder (MDD) and persistent depressive disorder (PDD), previously only referred to as dysthymia.
Douglas Pharmaceuticals Ltd is a New Zealand-based manufacturer of pharmaceutical products.
A doula, also known as a birth companion, birth coach or post-birth supporter, is a non-medical person who stays with and assists a woman before, during, or after childbirth, to provide emotional support and physical help if needed.
The Dow Chemical Company, commonly referred to as Dow, is an American multinational chemical corporation headquartered in Midland, Michigan, United States, and the predecessor of the merged company DowDuPont.
The Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA), or simply the Dow, is a stock market index that shows how 30 large, publicly owned companies based in the United States have traded during a standard trading session in the stock market.
Friction Spinning or Dref Spinning is a textile technology that suitable for spinning coarse counts of yarns and technical core-wrapped yarns.
Dron & Dickson is a United Kingdom company specialising in the design, supply and maintenance of hazardous area electrical equipment.
Dronedarone (development codename SR33589 and marketed as Multaq) is a drug by Sanofi-Aventis, mainly for the indication of cardiac arrhythmias.
Drooling, or slobbering, is the flow of saliva outside the mouth.
Droperidol (Inapsine, Droleptan, Dridol, Xomolix, Innovar) is an antidopaminergic drug used as an antiemetic (that is, to prevent or treat nausea) and as an antipsychotic.
Drospirenone, sold under the brand names Yasmin and Angeliq among others, is a progestin medication which is used in birth control pills and in menopausal hormone therapy. The medication is available only in combination with an estrogen. It is taken by mouth. Drospirenone is a progestin, or a synthetic progestogen, and hence is an agonist of the progesterone receptor, the biological target of progestogens like progesterone. It has additional antimineralocorticoid and antiandrogenic activity and no other important hormonal activity. Drospirenone was introduced for medical use in 2000. It is available widely throughout the world. The medication is sometimes referred to as a "fourth-generation" progestin. It is available as a generic medication.https://www.drugs.com/availability/generic-yasmin.html.
A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.
A drug is any chemical substance other than a food or device that affects the function of living things.
A drug allergy is an allergy to a drug, most commonly a medication, and is a form of adverse drug reaction.
A drug class is a set of medications that have similar chemical structures, the same mechanism of action (i.e., bind to the same biological target), a related mode of action, and/or are used to treat the same disease.
A drug coupon is a coupon intended to help consumers save money on pharmaceutical drugs.
Drug delivery refers to approaches, formulations, technologies, and systems for transporting a pharmaceutical compound in the body as needed to safely achieve its desired therapeutic effect.
Drug design, often referred to as rational drug design or simply rational design, is the inventive process of finding new medications based on the knowledge of a biological target.
Drug development is the process of bringing a new pharmaceutical drug to the market once a lead compound has been identified through the process of drug discovery.
In the fields of medicine, biotechnology and pharmacology, drug discovery is the process by which new candidate medications are discovered.
Drug distribution is the process by means of which people get access to medication.
The Drug Effectiveness Review Project (DERP) is an Oregon-based collaboration of public and private organizations, including fifteen states, that have joined together to provide systematic evidence-based reviews of the comparative effectiveness and safety of drugs in many widely used drug classes and to apply the findings to inform public policy and related activities.
The Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) is an agency within the Liberian government charged with fighting drug-related crimes.
DHA was originally established in 1936, SA Memory, State Library of South Australia as an amalgamation of seven Australian pharmaceutical companies, notably A. M. Bickford & Sons.
A drug interaction is a situation in which a substance (usually another drug) affects the activity of a drug when both are administered together.
Drug Master File or DMF is a document prepared by a pharmaceutical manufacturer and submitted solely at its discretion to the appropriate regulatory authority in the intended drug market.
Drug metabolism is the metabolic breakdown of drugs by living organisms, usually through specialized enzymatic systems.
Drug nomenclature is the systematic naming of drugs, especially pharmaceutical drugs.
A drug of last resort (DoLR) is a pharmaceutical drug that is tried after all other drug options have failed to produce an adequate response in the patient.
Pharmaceutical packaging (or drug packaging) is the packages and the packaging processes for pharmaceutical preparations.
A drug pipeline is the set of drug candidates that a pharmaceutical company has under discovery or development at any given point in time.
Drug pollution or pharmaceutical pollution is pollution of the environment with pharmaceutical drugs and their metabolites, which reach the aquatic environment (groundwater, rivers, lakes, and oceans) through wastewater.
Drug reaction testing uses a genetic test to predict how a particular person will respond to various prescription and non-prescription medications.
A drug reference standard is a standardized substance which is used as a measurement base for similar substances.
Drug repositioning (also known as drug repurposing, re-profiling, re-tasking or therapeutic switching) is the application of known drugs and compounds to treat a different disease.
Drug Target Insights is a peer-reviewed open access academic journal focusing on drug treatment targets and clinical therapeutics.
Drug therapy problems (DTPs) (or drug related problems, DRPs) represent the categorization and definition of clinical problems related to the use of medications or "drugs" in the field of pharmaceutical care.
Drug titration is the process of adjusting the dose of a medication for the maximum benefit without adverse effects.
Drug treatment may refer to.
Drug use may refer to any drug use; or.
Drug withdrawal is the group of symptoms that occur upon the abrupt discontinuation or decrease in intake of medications or recreational drugs.
Drug-induced fever is a symptom of an adverse drug reaction wherein the administration of drugs intended to help a patient causes a hypermetabolic state resulting in fever.
Drug-induced lupus erythematosus (DIL or DILE) is an autoimmune disorder (similar to systemic lupus erythematosus) caused by chronic use of certain drugs.
There are several classes of drugs for acid-related disorders, such as dyspepsia, peptic ulcer disease (PUD), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GORD/GERD), or laryngopharyngeal reflux.
Drugs I Need is a satirical animated short made by The Animation Farm and the Austin Lounge Lizards and produced by the Consumers Union.
Drugs in pregnancy can be either pharmaceutical or recreational and can have temporary or permanent effects on the fetus.
Drying is a mass transfer process consisting of the removal of water or another solvent by evaporation from a solid, semi-solid or liquid.
Dublin Institute of Technology (commonly referred to as DIT) (Institiúid Teicneolaíochta Bhaile Atha Cliath) is one of the largest higher education institutions in Ireland.
Karim Dulé Hill (born May 3, 1975) is an American actor and tap dancer.
DUSA Pharmaceuticals, Inc., owned by Sun Pharma, is a pharmaceutical company with dermatology products, including Levulan and Nicomide.
Dynamic covalent chemistry (DCvC) is a synthetic strategy employed by chemists to make complex supramolecular assemblies from discrete molecular building blocks.
Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) is abnormal genital tract bleeding based in the uterus and found in the absence of demonstrable structural or organic disease.
Dystonia is a neurological movement disorder syndrome in which sustained or repetitive muscle contractions result in twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal fixed postures.
Early Islamic philosophy or classical Islamic philosophy is a period of intense philosophical development beginning in the 2nd century AH of the Islamic calendar (early 9th century CE) and lasting until the 6th century AH (late 12th century CE).
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
E.O.S.: Earth Orbit Stations is a space station management simulation game developed by Karl Buiter, with Joe Ybarra as producer, for Electronic Arts.
East Port Said Industrial Zone is an industrial park with a total area of 1600 ha in Port Fuad, Egypt.
The Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) began in 1955 as one of the first publicly funded cooperative groups to perform multi-center clinical trials for cancer research.
Ecallantide (trade name Kalbitor) is a drug used for the treatment of hereditary angioedema (HAE) and in the prevention of blood loss in cardiothoracic surgery.
Ecarin clotting time (ECT) is a laboratory test used to monitor anticoagulation during treatment with hirudin, an anticoagulant medication which was originally isolated from leech saliva.
An eco-industrial park (EIP) is an industrial park in which businesses cooperate with each other and with the local community in an attempt to reduce waste and pollution, efficiently share resources (such as information, materials, water, energy, infrastructure, and natural resources), and help achieve sustainable development, with the intention of increasing economic gains and improving environmental quality.
Patents are legal instruments intended to encourage innovation by providing a limited monopoly to the inventor (or their assignee) in return for the disclosure of the invention.
In 2014, the Algerian economy expanded by 4%, up from 2.8% in 2013.
The economy of Andhra Pradesh is one of the fastest growing economies in India, with growth outstripping that of the wider Indian economy in the past few years.
The Economy of Angola is one of the fastest-growing in the world,Birgitte Refslund Sørensen and Marc Vincent.
The economy of Argentina is an upper-middle income economy for fiscal year 2016 according to World Bank Latin America's third largest, and the second largest in South America behind Brazil.
There's evidence to believe that Aurangabad was developed as a trading hub four centuries ago.
The economy of Australia is one of the largest mixed-market economies in the world, with a GDP of A$1.69 trillion as of 2017.
The market-based economy of Bangladesh is the 43rd largest in the world in nominal terms, and 30nd largest by purchasing power parity; it is classified among the Next Eleven emerging market middle income economies and a Frontier market.
Beijing's economy ranks among the most developed and prosperous in China.
Belo Horizonte, Brazil's sixth largest city, and the capital of Minas Gerais state, has a vibrant, diversified economy.
The Bratislava Region is the wealthiest and economically most important region in Slovakia, despite being the smallest by area and having the second smallest population of the eight Slovak regions.
The socialist market economy of the People's Republic of China is the world's second largest economy by nominal GDP and the world's largest economy by purchasing power parity according to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), although China's National Bureau of Statistics denies the latter assessment.
The economy of Costa Rica has been very stable for some years now, with continuing growth in the GDP (Gross Domestic Product) and moderate inflation, though with a high unemployment rate: 8.2% in 2016. The economy emerged from recession in 1997 and has shown strong aggregate growth since then. The estimated GDP for 2017 is US$61.5 billion, up significantly from the US$52.6 billion in 2015 while the estimated 2017 per capita (purchasing power parity) is US$12,382. Inflation remained around 4% to 5% per annum for several years up to 2015 but then dropped to 0.7% in 2016; it was expected to rise to a still moderate 2.8% by the end of 2017 In 2017, Costa Rica has one of the highest standards of living in Central America in spite of the high poverty level, which dropped by 1.2% in 2017 to 20.5% thanks to reducing inflation and benefits offered by the government. The estimated unemployment level in 2017 is 8.1%, roughly the same as in 2016. The country has evolved from an economy that once depended solely on agriculture, to one that is more diverse, based on tourism, electronics and medical components exports, medical manufacturing and IT services. Corporate services for foreign companies employ some 3% of the workforce. Of the GDP, 5.5% is generated by agriculture, 18.6% by industry and 75.9% by services (2016). Agriculture employs 12.9% of the labor force, industry 18.57%, services 69.02% (2016) Many foreign companies operate in the various Free-trade zones. In 2015, exports totalled US$12.6 billion while imports totalled US$15 billion for a trade deficit of US$2.39 billion. The growing debt and budget deficit are the country's primary concerns. By August 2017, Costa Rica was having difficulty paying its obligations and the President promised dramatic changes to handle the "liquidity crisis".http://qcostarica.com/costa-rica-government-faces-liquidity-problems/ Other challenges facing Costa in its attempts to increase the economy by foreign investment include a poor infrastructure and a need to improve public sector efficiency.
With 5,778,570 inhabitants (1 October 2017), Denmark has the 39th largest national economy in the world measured by nominal gross domestic product (GDP) and 60th largest in the world measured by purchasing power parity (PPP).
The economy of Egypt was a highly centralized planned economy focused on import substitution under President Gamal Abdel Nasser.
The economy of Georgia is an emerging free market.
The economy of Gujarat has significant agricultural as well as industrial production within India.
Hungary is an OECD high-income mixed economy with a very high human development index and a skilled labour force, with the 13th lowest income inequality in the world; furthermore it is the 14th most complex economy according to the Economic Complexity Index.
The economy of India is a developing mixed economy.
Economy in Iraqi Kurdistan consists of the autonomous economy in Kurdistan region in northern Iraq.
Jamaica has natural resources, primarily bauxite, and an ideal climate conducive to agriculture and also tourism.
Jordan's GDP per capita rose by 351% in the 1970s, declined 30% in the 1980s, and rose 36% in the 1990s.
Maharashtra is one of the largest, wealthiest and most developed states in India by current economic indicators.
The economy of Malaysia is the 4th largest in Southeast Asia, and is the 38th largest economy in the world.
Malta is a highly industrialised, service-based economy.
Industrial and commercial activities dominate Mangalore's economy.
The Economy of Montreal is the second largest of all cities in Canada and the first in Quebec.
Myanmar (also known as Burma) is an emerging economy with a nominal GDP of $74.000 billion in 2018 and an estimated purchasing power adjusted GDP of $362.97 billion in 2018.
The economy of New South Wales represents a significant proportion of the Australian economy.
Nigeria is a middle-income, mixed economy and emerging market, with expanding manufacturing, financial, service, communications, technology and entertainment sectors.
The economy of Northern Cyprus is dominated by the services sector (69% of GDP in 2007), which includes the public sector, trade, tourism and education.
The economy of Pakistan is the 25th largest in the world in terms of purchasing power parity (PPP), and 42nd largest in terms of nominal gross domestic product.
Peru is classified as upper middle income by the World Bank and is the 39th largest in the world by total GDP.
Portugal ranked 42nd in the WEF's Global Competitiveness Report for 2017–2018.
The economy of Puerto Rico is classified as a high income economy by the World Bank and as the most competitive economy in Latin America by the World Economic Forum.
St. Petersburg is a major trade gateway, financial and industrial center of Russia specialising in oil and gas trade, shipbuilding yards, aerospace industry, radio and electronics, software and computers; machine building, heavy machinery and transport, including tanks and other military equipment, mining, instrument manufacture, ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy (production of aluminium alloys), chemicals, pharmaceuticals, medical equipment, publishing and printing, food and catering, wholesale and retail, textile and apparel industries, and many other businesses.
Sarajevo is economically one of the strongest regions of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
São Paulo is the 10th richest city in the world, and is expected to be the 6th richest in 2025.
The economy of Serbia is a service-based upper middle income economy with the tertiary sector accounting for two-thirds of total gross domestic product (GDP) and functions on the principles of the free market.
The economy of Singapore is a highly developed free-market economy.
The economy of Sweden is a developed export-oriented economy aided by timber, hydropower, and iron ore.
The economy of Switzerland is one of the world's most advanced economies.
The Taiwanese Economy,which is also known as the economy of Taiwan of the Republic of China, is the 7th largest economy in Asia, and is included in the advanced economies group by the International Monetary Fund and gauged in the high-income economies group by the World Bank, and ranked 15th in the world by the Global Competitiveness Report of World Economic Forum, has a developed capitalist economy that ranks as the 22nd-largest in the world by purchasing power parity (PPP), ranks as 18th in the world by gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity per capita (person), and 24th in nominal GDP of investment and foreign trade by the Republic of China (ROC) government, commonly referred to as Taiwan.
The economy of Telangana is mainly supported by agriculture.
The Bahamas is the richest country is the entire Caribbean and the third wealthiest country in the America’s.
The Central African Republic (CAR) is classified as one of the world's least developed countries, with an estimated annual per capita income of $547 PPP (2014).
The Economy of the Czech Republic is a developed export-oriented social market economy based on services, manufacturing and innovation, that maintains a high-income welfare state and the "continental" type of the European social model.
The Dominican Republic has the ninth largest economy in Latin America, and is the largest in the Caribbean and Central region.
The European Union is the second largest economy in the world in nominal terms and according to purchasing power parity (PPP).
The economy of Ireland is a knowledge economy, focused on services into high-tech, life sciences and financial services industries.
The Western Cape province of South Africa had a total GDP for 2016 of R424.38 billion (equivalent to US$29.3 billion) growing from R268.26bn in 2008.
Visakhapatnam is the largest city of Andhra Pradesh and with a GDP of $43.5 billion.
Ecosystem services are the many and varied benefits that humans freely gain from the natural environment and from properly-functioning ecosystems.
ECRI Institute (formerly the "Emergency Care Research Institute") is an independent nonprofit organization that researches approaches to improving patient care.
Ectopic beat (or cardiac ectopy) is a disturbance of the cardiac rhythm frequently related to the electrical conduction system of the heart, in which beats arise from fibers or group of fibers outside the region in the heart muscle ordinarily responsible for impulse formation (i.e., the sinoatrial node).
Edgar Truman Brackett (July 30, 1853 – February 27, 1924), was a lawyer, businessman, and a member of the New York State Senate.
From 1948 to 1975, the U.S. Army Chemical Corps conducted classified human subject research at the Edgewood Arsenal facility in Maryland.
Edmund T. Pratt Jr. (1927 - September 5, 2002) was the Chairman and CEO of Pfizer Inc..
Edward Stanley Gibbons (21 June 1840 – 17 February 1913) was an English stamp dealer and founder of Stanley Gibbons Ltd, publishers of the famous Stanley Gibbons stamp catalogue and other stamp-related books and magazines.
Efalizumab (trade name Raptiva, Genentech, Merck Serono) is a formerly available medication designed to treat autoimmune diseases, originally marketed to treat psoriasis.
An effective dose (ED) in pharmacology is the dose or amount of drug that produces a therapeutic response or desired effect in some fraction of the subjects taking it.
The effects of global warming include its effects on human health.
Efficacy is the ability to get a job done satisfactorily.
Elizabeth "Effy" Stonem is a fictional character in the television series Skins, played by Kaya Scodelario.
Eflornithine, sold under the brand name Vaniqa among others, is a medication used to treat African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) and excessive hair growth on the face in women.
Efungumab (trade name Mycograb) is a drug developed by NeuTec Pharma (a subsidiary of Novartis), intended to treat invasive ''Candida'' infection in combination with amphotericin B. The European Medicines Agency has twice refused to grant marketing authorization for Mycograb, citing product safety and quality issues.
Ego Pharmaceuticals is a privately held Australian pharmaceutical multinational skin care company with subsidiaries in Malaysia, Singapore, Hong Kong and the United Kingdom, as well as staff in Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Egypt and Saudi Arabia.
Elder Pharmaceuticals Ltd is a pharmaceutical company headquartered in Mumbai, Maharashtra.
Electroextraction (EE) is a sample enrichment technique that focuses charged analytes from a large volume of one phase into a small volume of aqueous phase through the application of an electric current.
Electronic health record medical healthcare systems are developing widely.
Eletriptan (trade name Relpax, used in the form of eletriptan hydrobromide) is a second generation triptan drug intended for treatment of migraine headaches.
Elevated alkaline phosphatase describes the situation where the levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) exceed the reference range.
Eli Lilly (July 8, 1838 – June 6, 1898) was an American soldier, pharmacist, chemist, and businessman who founded the Eli Lilly and Company pharmaceutical corporation.
Eli Lilly and Company.--> Eli Lilly (April 1, 1885 – January 24, 1977) was a pharmaceutical industrialist and philanthropist from Indianapolis, Indiana, United States.
Eli Lilly and Company is a global pharmaceutical company headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana, with offices in 18 countries.
Elmer Holmes Bobst (1884–1978) was an American businessman and philanthropist who worked in the pharmaceutical industry.
Els Vanheusden is a Belgian physician, businesswoman and from 2004 until 31 May 2008, General Manager of FlandersBio, the cluster of the Flemish biotech industry.
Eltrombopag (rINN, codenamed SB-497115-GR) is a medication that has been developed for certain conditions that lead to thrombocytopenia (abnormally low platelet counts). It is a small molecule agonist of the c-mpl (TpoR) receptor, which is the physiological target of the hormone thrombopoietin. Eltrombopag was discovered as a result of research collaboration between GlaxoSmithKline and Ligand Pharmaceuticals. Designated an orphan drug in the United States and European Union, it is being manufactured and marketed by GlaxoSmithKline under the trade name Promacta in the USA and is marketed as Revolade in the EU.
EMBiology is a bibliographic database established in June 2005, and produced by Elsevier.
Embryomics is the identification, characterization and study of the diverse cell types which arise during embryogenesis, especially as this relates to the location and developmental history of cells in the embryo.
Emcure Pharmaceuticals, headquartered at Pune in West India, is an Indian pharmaceutical company.
EMDEX (Essential Medicines InDEX) is the most commonly used reference source of drug and therapeutic information by healthcare professionals in Nigeria.
Emergency medical services, also known as ambulance services or paramedic services (abbreviated to the initialism EMS, EMAS, EMARS or SAMU in some countries), are a type of emergency service dedicated to providing out-of-hospital acute medical care, transport to definitive care, and other medical transport to patients with illnesses and injuries which prevent the patient from transporting themselves.
Emetophobia is a phobia that causes overwhelming, intense anxiety pertaining to vomiting.
Emily Murphy (born Emily Gowan Ferguson; 14 March 186827 October 1933) was a Canadian women's rights activist, jurist, and author.
Emmenin was an orally active formulation of estrogen that was developed by James Collip at Ayerst and introduced in Canada in 1930 and the United States in 1934.
The Employee Polygraph Protection Act of 1988 (EPPA) is a United States federal law that generally prevents employers from using polygraph (lie detector) tests, either for pre-employment screening or during the course of employment, with certain exemptions.
EMS is the biggest domestic pharmaceutical company in Brazil,.
In chemistry, an enantiomer, also known as an optical isomer (and archaically termed antipode or optical antipode), is one of two stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other that are non-superposable (not identical), much as one's left and right hands are the same except for being reversed along one axis (the hands cannot be made to appear identical simply by reorientation).
An enantiopure drug is a pharmaceutical that is available in one specific enantiomeric form.
Enantioselective synthesis, also called asymmetric synthesis, is a form of chemical synthesis.
Endo International plc is a generics and specialty branded pharmaceutical company.
An endothelin receptor antagonist (ERA) is a drug that blocks endothelin receptors.
Energy Star (trademarked ENERGY STAR) is a voluntary program launched by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and now managed by the EPA and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that helps businesses and individuals save money and protect the environment through superior energy efficiency.
Engineering controls for nanomaterials are a set of hazard control methods and equipment for workers who interact with nanomaterials.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
English Indian Clays Ltd., a company incorporated in India, was part of the erstwhile Thapar Group.
EnPro Industries, Inc. is an American industrial conglomerate, through its various divisions and subsidiaries it provides engineered industrial products for critical applications in a wide range of industries.
An enteric coating is a polymer barrier applied on oral medication that prevents its dissolution or disintegration in the gastric environment.
Envigo is a privately held contract research corporation that provides research services, models and products for pharmaceutical, crop protection, and chemical companies as well as universities, governments, and other research organizations.
The environmental effect of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) is largely speculative.
The term Environmental persistent pharmaceutical pollutants (EPPP) was first suggested in the nomination in 2010 of pharmaceuticals and environment as an emerging issue in a Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management (SAICM) by the International Society of Doctors for the Environment (ISDE).
Environmental xenobiotic are xenobiotic compounds with a biological activity that are found as pollutants in the natural environment.
4QI9) An enzyme inhibitor is a molecule that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity.
Eosinophils sometimes called eosinophiles or, less commonly, acidophils, are a variety of white blood cells and one of the immune system components responsible for combating multicellular parasites and certain infections in vertebrates. Along with mast cells and basophils, they also control mechanisms associated with allergy and asthma. They are granulocytes that develop during hematopoiesis in the bone marrow before migrating into blood, after which they are terminally differentiated and do not multiply. These cells are eosinophilic or "acid-loving" due to their large acidophilic cytoplasmic granules, which show their affinity for acids by their affinity to coal tar dyes: Normally transparent, it is this affinity that causes them to appear brick-red after staining with eosin, a red dye, using the Romanowsky method. The staining is concentrated in small granules within the cellular cytoplasm, which contain many chemical mediators, such as eosinophil peroxidase, ribonuclease (RNase), deoxyribonucleases (DNase), lipase, plasminogen, and major basic protein. These mediators are released by a process called degranulation following activation of the eosinophil, and are toxic to both parasite and host tissues. In normal individuals, eosinophils make up about 1–3% of white blood cells, and are about 12–17 micrometres in size with bilobed nuclei. While they are released into the bloodstream as neutrophils are, eosinophils reside in tissue They are found in the medulla and the junction between the cortex and medulla of the thymus, and, in the lower gastrointestinal tract, ovary, uterus, spleen, and lymph nodes, but not in the lung, skin, esophagus, or some other internal organs under normal conditions. The presence of eosinophils in these latter organs is associated with disease. For instance, patients with eosinophilic asthma have high levels of eosinophils that lead to inflammation and tissue damage, making it more difficult for patients to breathe. Eosinophils persist in the circulation for 8–12 hours, and can survive in tissue for an additional 8–12 days in the absence of stimulation. Pioneering work in the 1980s elucidated that eosinophils were unique granulocytes, having the capacity to survive for extended periods of time after their maturation as demonstrated by ex-vivo culture experiments.
Eosinophilic pneumonia (EP) is a disease in which an eosinophil, a type of white blood cell, accumulates in the lung.
Ephedra is a genus of gymnosperm shrubs, the only genus in its family, Ephedraceae, and order, Ephedrales.
Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.
Epinephrine, also known as adrenalin or adrenaline, is a medication and hormone.
Epirubicin is an anthracycline drug used for chemotherapy.
Ergot (pron.) or ergot fungi refers to a group of fungi of the genus Claviceps.
Ergotism (pron.) is the effect of long-term ergot poisoning, traditionally due to the ingestion of the alkaloids produced by the Claviceps purpurea fungus that infects rye and other cereals, and more recently by the action of a number of ergoline-based drugs.
Erica Johnson (born in Vancouver, British Columbia) is an award winning Canadian broadcast journalist who currently hosts the TV series Go Public and formerly hosted Marketplace on the CBC. A graduate of Ryerson University in Toronto, Johnson began her journalism career in radio in 1987, working at several private radio stations, including Vancouver's CKO and Toronto's CFRB.
Erlotinib hydrochloride (trade name Tarceva) is a drug used to treat non-small cell lung cancer, pancreatic cancer and several other types of cancer.
Ernesto Bertarelli (born 22 September 1965) is an Italian-born Swiss billionaire businessman and philanthropist.
Ernst Hallier (15 November 1831, Hamburg – 19 December 1904, Dachau) was a German botanist and mycologist.
Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) are medications which stimulates the bone marrow to make red blood cells.
The Esalen Institute, commonly called Esalen, is a non-profit American retreat center and intentional community in Big Sur, California, which focuses on humanistic alternative education.
The esophagus (American English) or oesophagus (British English), commonly known as the food pipe or gullet (gut), is an organ in vertebrates through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach.
Essential medicines, as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO), are the medicines that "satisfy the priority health care needs of the population".
A National Pharmaceuticals Policy is one that aims at ensuring that people get good quality drugs at the lowest possible price, and that doctors prescribe the minimum of required drugs in order to treat the patient's illness.
Estetrol (E4), or oestetrol, is a weak estrogen steroid hormone which is found in detectable levels only during pregnancy.
Esteve is a Spanish international pharmaceutical company headquartered in Barcelona.
Estradiol (E2), also spelled oestradiol, is an estrogen steroid hormone and the major female sex hormone.
Estradiol, also spelled oestradiol, is a medication and naturally occurring steroid hormone.
Estradiol benzoate, sold under the brand name Progynon-B among others, is a medication which is used in hormone therapy such as for menopausal symptoms and in veterinary medicine.
Estradiol stearate (brand name Depofollan), or estradiol octadecanoate, is a naturally occurring steroidal estrogen and an estrogen ester – specifically, the C17β stearate ester of estradiol.
Estradiol sulfate (E2S), or 17β-estradiol 3-sulfate, is a natural, endogenous steroid and an estrogen ester.
Estriol (E3), also spelled oestriol, is a steroid, a weak estrogen, and a minor female sex hormone.
Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.
An estrogen is a type of medication which is used most commonly in hormonal birth control and menopausal hormone therapy.
An estrogen conjugate is a conjugate of an endogenous estrogen.
Estrone (E1), also spelled oestrone, is a steroid, a weak estrogen, and a minor female sex hormone.
Estrone sulfate (E1S), or estrone 3-sulfate, is a natural, endogenous steroid and an estrogen ester and conjugate.
The ETH Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics (LIP) traces isotopes for archaeological applications such as radiocarbon dating, geology, and pharmaceutical applications The major focus is accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), and ion beam applications in materials sciences.
Ethers are a class of organic compounds that contain an ether group—an oxygen atom connected to two alkyl or aryl groups.
Ethinamate (Valamin, Valmid) is a short-acting carbamate-derivative sedative-hypnotic medication used to treat insomnia.
Ethnomedicine is a study or comparison of the traditional medicine practiced by various ethnic groups, and especially by indigenous peoples.
Ethoxzolamide (alternatively known as ethoxyzolamide) is a sulfonamide medication that functions as a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor.
Ethyl methylphenylglycidate, commonly known as "strawberry aldehyde", is an organic compound used in the flavor industry in artificial fruit flavors, in particular strawberry.
Ethyl nitrate is the ethyl ester of nitric acid and has the chemical formula.
Ethylene oxide, called oxirane by IUPAC, is an organic compound with the formula. It is a cyclic ether and the simplest epoxide: a three-membered ring consisting of one oxygen atom and two carbon atoms. Ethylene oxide is a colorless and flammable gas with a faintly sweet odor. Because it is a strained ring, ethylene oxide easily participates in a number of addition reactions that result in ring-opening. Ethylene oxide is isomeric with acetaldehyde and with vinyl alcohol. Ethylene oxide is industrially produced by oxidation of ethylene in the presence of silver catalyst. The reactivity that is responsible for many of ethylene oxide's hazards also make it useful. Although too dangerous for direct household use and generally unfamiliar to consumers, ethylene oxide is used for making many consumer products as well as non-consumer chemicals and intermediates. These products include detergents, thickeners, solvents, plastics, and various organic chemicals such as ethylene glycol, ethanolamines, simple and complex glycols, polyglycol ethers, and other compounds. Although it is a vital raw material with diverse applications, including the manufacture of products like polysorbate 20 and polyethylene glycol (PEG) that are often more effective and less toxic than alternative materials, ethylene oxide itself is a very hazardous substance. At room temperature it is a flammable, carcinogenic, mutagenic, irritating, and anaesthetic gas. As a toxic gas that leaves no residue on items it contacts, ethylene oxide is a surface disinfectant that is widely used in hospitals and the medical equipment industry to replace steam in the sterilization of heat-sensitive tools and equipment, such as disposable plastic syringes. It is so flammable and extremely explosive that it is used as a main component of thermobaric weapons; therefore, it is commonly handled and shipped as a refrigerated liquid to control its hazardous nature.Rebsdat, Siegfried and Mayer, Dieter (2005) "Ethylene Oxide" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim..
Etidorhpa, or, the end of the earth: the strange history of a mysterious being and the account of a remarkable journey is the title of a scientific allegory or science fiction novel by John Uri Lloyd, a pharmacognocist and pharmaceutical manufacturer of Cincinnati, Ohio.
Etretinate (trade name Tegison) is a medication developed by Hoffmann–La Roche that was approved by the FDA in 1986 to treat severe psoriasis.
Eucalyptus globulus, the Tasmanian bluegum, southern blue-gum or blue gum, is an evergreen tree, one of the most widely cultivated trees native to Australia.
Eucalyptus oil is the generic name for distilled oil from the leaf of Eucalyptus, a genus of the plant family Myrtaceae native to Australia and cultivated worldwide.
EudraLex is the collection of rules and regulations governing medicinal products in the European Union.
EudraVigilance (European Union Drug Regulating Authorities Pharmacovigilance) is the European data processing network and management system for reporting and evaluation of suspected adverse reactions during the development of new drugs and for following the marketing authorisation of medicinal products in the European Economic Area (EEA).
Eurofins is an international group of laboratories headquartered in Brussels, providing testing and support services to the pharmaceutical, food, environmental, agriscience and consumer products industries, L'Usine nouvelle n° 2965, 26.05.2005 and to governments.
The European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) is a scientific, non-profit, non-commercial and non-governmental association.
The European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM) is a Directorate of the Council of Europe that traces its origins and statutes to the Convention on the Elaboration of a European Pharmacopoeia (an international treaty adopted by the Council of Europe in 1964: CETS 50, Protocol).
The European Medicines Agency (EMA) is a European Union agency for the evaluation of medicinal products.
The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) is an international non-profit organization with a scientific goal created in 1962 by European cancer specialists.
The European Pharmacopoeia (Pharmacopoeia Europaea, Ph. Eur.) is a major regional pharmacopoeia which provides common quality standards throughout the pharmaceutical industry in Europe to control the quality of medicines, and the substances used to manufacture them.
The European Spallation Source (ESS) is a multi-disciplinary research facility based on what will be the world's most powerful pulsed neutron source.
Eurotrials, Scientific Consultants is an international, privately owned full-service contract research organization (CRO) providing clinical research, scientific consultancy and development services for the pharmaceutical, biotechnology and medical device industries.
Eva Eriksson was Värmland’s county governor in Sweden from 2004-2012.
Evacetrapib was a drug under development by Eli Lilly & Company (investigational name LY2484595) that inhibits cholesterylester transfer protein (CETP inhibitor).
Evalar (Эвалар) is one of the largest pharmaceutical companies in Russia, the country's absolute leader in the volume of released natural preparations for health preservation and promotion.
An evaporator is a device in a process used to turn the liquid form of a chemical substance such as water into its gaseous-form/vapor.
Evergreening is any of various legal, business and technological strategies by which producers extend their patents over products that are about to expire, in order to retain royalties from them, by either taking out new patents (for example over associated delivery systems, or new pharmaceutical mixtures), or by buying out, or frustrating competitors, for longer periods of time than would normally be permissible under the law.
Many developing nations have developed national drug policies, a concept that has been actively promoted by the WHO.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Evolvability is defined as the capacity of a system for adaptive evolution.
Ewing Marion Kauffman (September 21, 1916 August 1, 1993) was an American pharmaceutical entrepreneur, philanthropist, and Major League Baseball owner.
Exceedra Software, formally known as Cube Software, is an integrated business planning and analytics software company aimed specifically at the Consumer Product Goods manufacturers, retailers and suppliers to help manage, access, analyse and report on data.
An excipient is a substance formulated alongside the active ingredient of a medication, included for the purpose of long-term stabilization, bulking up solid formulations that contain potent active ingredients in small amounts (thus often referred to as "bulking agents", "fillers", or "diluents"), or to confer a therapeutic enhancement on the active ingredient in the final dosage form, such as facilitating drug absorption, reducing viscosity, or enhancing solubility.
Experimental cancer treatments are medical therapies intended or claimed to treat cancer by improving on, supplementing or replacing conventional methods (surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, and immunotherapy).
An experimental drug is a medicinal product (a drug or vaccine) that has not yet received approval from governmental regulatory authorities for routine use in human or veterinary medicine.
Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering pharmaceutical patent information across all therapy areas.
Express Scripts Holding Company is an American Fortune 100 company.
An expression vector, otherwise known as an expression construct, is usually a plasmid or virus designed for gene expression in cells.
Eyenovia Inc. is a pharmaceuticals company focused on micro-therapeutics for the eye that was founded in 2014.
Factitious disorder imposed on self, also known as Munchausen syndrome, is a factitious disorder wherein those affected feign disease, illness, or psychological trauma to draw attention, sympathy, or reassurance to themselves.
Fagron NV is a publicly traded multinational group of companies governed by Belgian law.
Fall prevention is a variety of actions to help reduce the number of accidental falls suffered by older people.
Fallout is a series of post-apocalyptic role-playing video games.
The False Claims Act, also called the "Lincoln Law") is an American federal law that imposes liability on persons and companies (typically federal contractors) who defraud governmental programs. It is the federal Government's primary litigation tool in combating fraud against the Government. The law includes a qui tam provision that allows people who are not affiliated with the government, called "relators" under the law, to file actions on behalf of the government (informally called "whistleblowing" especially when the relator is employed by the organization accused in the suit). Persons filing under the Act stand to receive a portion (usually about 15–25 percent) of any recovered damages. As of 2012, over 70 percent of all federal Government FCA actions were initiated by whistleblowers. Claims under the law have typically involved health care, military, or other government spending programs, and dominate the list of largest pharmaceutical settlements. The government recovered $38.9 billion under the False Claims Act between 1987 and 2013 and of this amount, $27.2 billion or 70% was from qui tam cases brought by relators.
Fareva is a French pharmaceutical company, with annual revenues of $1.4 billion in 2015, founded and 100% owned by Bernard Fraisse, a French billionaire businessman.
The Farmacotherapeutisch Kompas (FK) contains a wide spectrum of information on prescribing and pharmacology, among others indications, side effects and costs of the prescription of all medication drugs available in the Netherlands.
The farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) are a class of experimental cancer drugs that target protein farnesyltransferase with the downstream effect of preventing the proper functioning of the Ras (protein), which is commonly abnormally active in cancer.
Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness that has a gradual onset.
Fault tree analysis (FTA) is a top-down, deductive failure analysis in which an undesired state of a system is analyzed using Boolean logic to combine a series of lower-level events.
Fazl-e-Omar Hospital, Rabwah is a private health care institute in an area of Punjab, Pakistan.
A fecal impaction is a solid, immobile bulk of feces that can develop in the rectum as a result of chronic constipation.
The Federal Commission for the Protection against Sanitary Risk (in Spanish, Comisión Federal para la Protección contra Riesgos Sanitarios, COFEPRIS) is a regulatory body of the Mexican government.
Felisha Terrell (born March 16, 1979) is an American film and television actress.
Femi Olubanwo is a Nigerian lawyer.
The drug combination fenfluramine/phentermine, usually called fen-phen, was an anti-obesity treatment that utilized two anorectics.
Fenjal is a brand of cosmetic hygiene products marketed around the world by the pharmaceutical and cosmetics company Doetsch Grether AG of Basel, Switzerland.
Fenofibrate, marketed as Tricor and under several other brand names, is a drug of the fibrate class.
Fevipiprant (INN; code name QAW039) is a drug being developed by Novartis which acts as a selective, orally available antagonist of the prostaglandin D2 receptor 2 (DP2 or CRTh2).
Fexofenadine, sold under the trade name Allegra among others is an antihistamine pharmaceutical drug used in the treatment of allergy symptoms, such as hay fever and urticaria.
A field experiment applies the scientific method to experimentally examine an intervention in the real world (or as many experimentalists like to say, naturally occurring environments) rather than in the laboratory.
Filgotinib (code name GLPG0634) is a drug which is currently under investigation for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and Crohn's disease.
Induction of final maturation of oocytes is a procedure that is usually performed as part of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation to render the oocytes fully developed and thereby resulting in optimal pregnancy chances.
Fine chemicals are complex, single, pure chemical substances, produced in limited quantities in multipurpose plants by multistep batch chemical or biotechnological processes.
The Firestone Institute for Respiratory Health (FIRH) is a center for the investigation and treatment of respiratory diseases.
The first pass effect (also known as first-pass metabolism or presystemic metabolism) is a phenomenon of drug metabolism whereby the concentration of a drug is greatly reduced before it reaches the systemic circulation.
Fisher Scientific International, Inc. (NYSE: FSH) (colloquially known as Fisher) was a laboratory supply and biotechnology company that provided products and services to the global scientific research and United States clinical laboratory markets.
Fisons plc was a British multinational pharmaceutical, scientific instruments and horticultural chemicals company headquartered in Ipswich, United Kingdom.
Flavonoids (or bioflavonoids) (from the Latin word flavus meaning yellow, their color in nature) are a class of plant and fungus secondary metabolites.
The Fleming–Tamao oxidation, or Tamao–Kumada–Fleming oxidation, converts a carbon–silicon bond to a carbon–oxygen bond with a peroxy acid or hydrogen peroxide.
Flexion Therapeutics is an American pharmaceutical company based in Burlington, Massachusetts that is developing reformulated sustained release versions of existing drugs that are intended to be injected into the joint to treat osteoarthritis.
FlexLink, also FlexLink AB, is a manufacturer of flexible, modular conveyors and industrial automation equipment.
The Flippin–Lodge angle is one of two angles used by organic and biological chemists studying the relationship between a molecule's chemical structure and ways that it reacts, for reactions involving "attack" of an electron-rich reacting species, the nucleophile, on an electron-poor reacting species, the electrophile.
Florence is a city in Florence County, South Carolina, United States.
The cream containing the drug combination fluocinolone acetonide/hydroquinone/tretinoin (trade name Tri-Luma) is used for the treatment of melasma (dark skin patches).
Fluvastatin (INN, trade names Lescol, Canef, Vastin) is a member of the statin drug class, used to treat hypercholesterolemia and to prevent cardiovascular disease.
Folding boxboard, also referred to as FBB or by the DIN Standard 19303 codes of GC or UC, is a paperboard grade made up of multiple layers of chemical and mechanical pulp.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
Food coloring, or color additive, is any dye, pigment or substance that imparts color when it is added to food or drink.
Food engineering is a multidisciplinary field which combines microbiology, applied physical sciences, chemistry and engineering for food and related industries.
Food rheology is the study of the rheological properties of food, that is, the consistency and flow of food under tightly specified conditions.
Food technology is a branch of food science that deals with the production processes that make foods.
Foreign direct investment in Iran (FDI) has been hindered by unfavorable or complex operating requirements and by international sanctions, although in the early 2000s the Iranian government liberalized investment regulations.
As one of the oldest Euro-Atlantic member states in the region of Southeast Europe, Greece enjoys a prominent geopolitical role as a middle power, due to its political and geographical proximity to Europe, Asia, the Middle East, and Africa.
The Ministry of External Affairs of India (MEA), also known as the Foreign Ministry, is the government agency responsible for the conduct of foreign relations of India.
Malaysia is an active member of various international organisations, including the Commonwealth of Nations, the United Nations, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, and the Non-Aligned Movement.
Foreign trade played an important role in the Czechoslovak national economy (as opposed to the Soviet Union).
Formamide, also known as methanamide, is an amide derived from formic acid.
At its most basic level, a formulary is a list of medicines.
Fort Dodge is a city in and the county seat of Webster County, Iowa, United States, along the Des Moines River.
Fort Washington is a census-designated place and suburb of Philadelphia in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, United States.
Forum spam consists of posts on Internet forums that contains related or unrelated advertisements, links to malicious websites, trolling and abusive or otherwise unwanted information.
Fouad Abdulhameed Ahmad AlKhateeb (1925 - October 28, 1995), was a Saudi Arabian ambassador, humanitarian, author, and businessman.
The Fox River is a river in the north central United States, in eastern Wisconsin.
Grenland Framnæs (formerly Hitec Framnæs) is a design and engineering company operating in the oil & gas, marine and process industries.
French–Turkish relations cover a long period from the 16th century to the present, starting with the alliance established between Francis I and Suleiman the Magnificent.
Frances Kathleen Oldham Kelsey, CM (July 24, 1914 – August 7, 2015) was a Canadian-American pharmacologist and physician.
Frankincense (also known as olibanum, לבונה, Arabic) is an aromatic resin used in incense and perfumes, obtained from trees of the genus Boswellia in the family Burseraceae, particularly Boswellia sacra (syn: B. bhaw-dajiana), B. carterii33, B. frereana, B. serrata (B. thurifera, Indian frankincense), and B. papyrifera.
Franz Wilhelm Schweigger-Seidel (16 October 1795 – 5 June 1838); born as Franz Wilhelm Seidel was a German physician and chemist born in Weißenfels.
Freddy Schauwecker (born 1943) is a German jazz musician (trombone, bandleader), advertising specialist and author.
Frederick Richard Penn Curzon, 7th Earl Howe, (born 29 January 1951) is a Conservative front bench member of the House of Lords.
The Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR) is a United States Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC) supported by the National Cancer Institute and managed by the private contractor Leidos Biomedical Research.
Freeze drying, also known as lyophilisation or cryodessication, is a low temperature dehydration process which involves freezing the product, lowering pressure, then removing the ice by sublimation.
Fresenius SE & Co.
Front-End Engineering (FEE), or Front-End Engineering Design (FEED), is an engineering design approach used to control project expenses and thoroughly plan a project before a fix bid quote is submitted.
Front-end loading (FEL), also referred to as pre-project planning (PPP), front-end engineering design (FEED), feasibility analysis, conceptual planning, programming/schematic design and early project planning, is the process for conceptual development of projects in processing industries such as upstream, petrochemical, refining and pharmaceutical.
Frovatriptan (trade name Frova) is a triptan drug developed by Vernalis for the treatment of migraine headaches and for short term prevention of menstrual migraine.
Fulvestrant, sold under the brand name Faslodex among others, is a medication used to treat hormone receptor (HR)-positive metastatic breast cancer in postmenopausal women with disease progression as well as HR-positive, HER2-negative advanced breast cancer in combination with palbociclib in women with disease progression after endocrine therapy.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
Funke Abimbola, MBE is the general counsel and head of financial compliance for Roche UK.
The G.F. Harvey Company was a pharmaceutical manufacturer headquartered in Saratoga Springs, New York between 1890 and 1958.
Gabriel Susan "Gabe" Lewis (born in 1982) is a fictional character on the U.S. comedy television series The Office portrayed by Zach Woods.
Gabriele Falloppio (1523 – October 9, 1562), often known by his Latin name Fallopius, was one of the most important anatomists and physicians of the sixteenth century.
Galactorrhea hyperprolactinemia is increased blood prolactin levels associated with galactorrhea (abnormal milk secretion).
Galderma S.A. is a pharmaceutical subsidiary specializing in the research, development and marketing of dermatological treatments.
Galectin-3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LGALS3 gene.
Gallium is a chemical element with symbol Ga and atomic number 31.
gamma-Decalactone is a lactone and aroma compound with the chemical formula C10H18O2.
Gary Morsch is an American physician, philanthropist, and author.
The Gaza Strip smuggling tunnels are passages that have been dug under the Philadelphi Corridor, a narrow strip of land, 14 km (8.699 miles) in length, situated along the border between Gaza Strip and Egypt.
GE Healthcare is an American multinational conglomerate incorporated in New York and headquartered in Chicago, Illinois.
Richter Gedeon Nyrt. is a Hungarian multinational pharmaceutical and biotechnology company headquartered in Budapest, Hungary.
Gefitinib (ZD1839) (INN,, trade name Iressa) is a drug used for certain breast, lung and other cancers.
Gelatin or gelatine (from gelatus meaning "stiff", "frozen") is a translucent, colorless, brittle (when dry), flavorless food derived from collagen obtained from various animal body parts.
Gen-Probe was a company based in San Diego, California specializing in Clinical Diagnostics, Blood Screening, Transplant Products and Research Products.
Genedata is a bioinformatics solution provider headquartered in Basel, Switzerland.
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by excessive, uncontrollable and often irrational worry, that is, apprehensive expectation about events or activities.
A generic drug is a pharmaceutical drug that is equivalent to a brand-name product in dosage, strength, route of administration, quality, performance, and intended use, but does not carry the brand name.
A genetically modified organism (GMO) is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques (i.e., a genetically engineered organism).
The field of psychology has been greatly influenced by the study of genetics.
Genome Valley is an Indian high-technology business district spread across 600 km² in Hyderabad, India.
In genetics, a genome-wide association study (GWA study, or GWAS), also known as whole genome association study (WGA study, or WGAS), is an observational study of a genome-wide set of genetic variants in different individuals to see if any variant is associated with a trait.
Genome@home was a distributed computing project run by Stefan Larson of Stanford University, and a sister project to Folding@home.
Genomics research data is the type of data generated from human genomics research.
Genstat (General Statistics) is a statistical software package with data analysis capabilities, particularly in the field of agriculture.
Gentisic acid is a dihydroxybenzoic acid.
George Claridge Druce, MA, LLD, JP, FRS, FLS (23 May 1850 – 29 February 1932) was an English botanist and a Mayor of Oxford.
George Seale Armstrong (May 16, 1867 – June 9, 1947) was a Canadian businessman and politician.
Adrianus Gerardus (Gerard) Schouw (born 30 December 1965 in Monster, South Holland) is a Dutch corporate director and former politician.
Geriatric anesthesia (or geriatric anaesthesia) is the branch of medicine that studies anesthesia approach in elderly.
Geriatric psychology is a subfield of psychology that specializes in the mental and physical health of those in the later stage of life.
Geriatric trauma refers to a traumatic injury that occurs to an elderly person.
Geriatrics, or geriatric medicine, is a specialty that focuses on health care of elderly people.
The German Oil Museum (Deutsches Erdölmuseum Wietze) is located in Wietze, a small village west of Celle in Lower Saxony.
Deutschland was a blockade-breaking German merchant submarine used during World War I. It was developed with private funds and operated by the North German Lloyd Line.
The German University in Cairo (abbreviated to GUC; الجامعة الألمانية بالقاهرة, Deutsche Universität in Kairo"." German University in Cairo. Retrieved on June 4, 2014.) is a university in New Cairo City, Cairo, Egypt.
Germany–Malaysia relations refers to foreign relations between Germany and Malaysia.
Gertrude Belle Elion (January 23, 1918 – February 21, 1999) was an American biochemist and pharmacologist, who shared the 1988 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with George H. Hitchings and Sir James Black.
GFS Chemicals Inc, formerly known as G. Frederick Smith Chemical Company, is a privately owned specialty chemical company with headquarters in Powell, Ohio and manufacturing facilities in Columbus, Ohio.
Ghanaian Indians (Akan: Nkɔmbɔtwetwe India Gaana; घाना के भारतीय; கானா இந்தியர்கள்.; ഘാനയിലെ ഇന്ത്യക്കാര്; Telugu: ఘానా భారతీయులు) are Ghanaians citizens of Indian origin or descent.
Gideon Koren M.D., FACMT, FRCP(C) (גדעון קורן; born 1947 in Tel Aviv, Mandatory Palestine (now in Israel) is an Israeli-Canadian pediatrician, clinical pharmacologist, toxicologist, and a composer of Israeli popular music. He is perhaps best known for being at the centre of the Motherisk scandal which has thrown into doubt the findings of 16,000 child protection cases and six criminal cases. An independent review found that neither the lab's director, clinical toxicologist Gideon Koren, nor his staff, had the qualifications or expertise to do that kind of forensic work. Prior to this Dr. Koren was officially reprimanded by the Ontario College of Physicians and Surgeons for writing harassing anonymous letters to Dr. Nancy Olivieri and three other colleagues, about which he then lied repeatedly to conceal his responsibility. The Ontario College of Physicians and Surgeons also cited him for additional misconduct in research.
Gideon Algernon Mantell MRCS FRS (3 February 1790 – 10 November 1852) was an English obstetrician, geologist and palaeontologist.
Gigantism, also known as giantism (from Greek γίγας gigas, "giant", plural γίγαντες gigantes), is a condition characterized by excessive growth and height significantly above average.
Gilbane Building Company, based in Providence, Rhode Island, is a national construction and facility management company.
Gilead Sciences, Inc., commonly known as Gilead Sciences or Gilead (also styled GILEAD), is an American biopharmaceutical company that researches, develops and commercializes drugs.
Gill-man — commonly called The Creature — is the lead antagonist of the 1954 black-and-white science fiction film Creature from the Black Lagoon and its two sequels Revenge of the Creature (1955) and The Creature Walks Among Us (1956).
Giuseppe Caron (24 February 1904 – 3 March 1998) was an Italian Christian Democratic Party (CDP) politician who was a Minister in successive governments in the 1950s to the 1970s, and a European Commissioner.
Glass microspheres are microscopic spheres of glass manufactured for a wide variety of uses in research, medicine, consumer goods and various industries.
GlaxoSmithKline plc (GSK) is a British pharmaceutical company headquartered in Brentford, London.
GlaxoSmithKline Pakistan is one of the leading pharmaceutical companies in Pakistan and is the world's second largest company high-ranking stands for Employee Cares.
GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals Ltd is an Indian subsidiary of GlaxoSmithKline plc, one of the world's leading research based pharmaceutical and healthcare companies.
Glenmark Pharmaceuticals is a pharmaceutical company headquartered in Mumbai, India that was founded in 1977 by Gracias Saldanha as a generic drug and active pharmaceutical ingredient manufacturer; he named the company after his two sons.
Global Investors Summit, officially the Invest Madhya Pradesh Global Investors Summit or GIS is a biennial business summit organized by Government of Madhya Pradesh in Indore, the commercial capital of central India to attract domestic and foreign investment for development of the state.
This page describes terms and jargon related to climbing and mountaineering.
A glossary of terms used in clinical research.
This glossary of medical terms is a list of definitions about medicine, its sub-disciplines, and related fields.
Glucosamine (C6H13NO5) is an amino sugar and a prominent precursor in the biochemical synthesis of glycosylated proteins and lipids.
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PDD) is an inborn error of metabolism that predisposes to red blood cell breakdown.
A gluten-free diet (GFD) is a diet that strictly excludes gluten, a mixture of proteins found in wheat and related grains, including barley, rye, oat, and all their species and hybrids (such as spelt, kamut, and triticale).
Glycerol (also called glycerine or glycerin; see spelling differences) is a simple polyol compound.
Glycerol Kinase Deficiency (GKD) is an X-linked recessive enzyme defect that is heterozygous in nature.
Glycopeptide antibiotics are a class of drugs of microbial origin that are composed of glycosylated cyclic or polycyclic nonribosomal peptides.
Glycopyrronium bromide is a medication of the muscarinic anticholinergic group.
Glycorandomization, is a drug discovery and drug development technology platform to enable the rapid diversification of bioactive small molecules, drug leads and/or approved drugs through the attachment of sugars.
In chemistry, a glycoside is a molecule in which a sugar is bound to another functional group via a glycosidic bond.
Goiana is a city in Brazil in the northeast of the state of Pernambuco, about 65 km north of the city of Recife.
The first Golden Age of Science Fiction—often recognized in the United States as the period from 1938 to 1946—was an era during which the science fiction genre gained wide public attention and many classic science fiction stories were published.
Gonadorelin, also known as gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and sold under the brand names Factrel, HRF, Kryptocur, Lutrelef, Lutrepulse, and Relefact among others, is a GnRH agonist which is used in fertility medicine and to treat amenorrhea and hypogonadism.
Gonadotropins are glycoprotein polypeptide hormones secreted by gonadotrope cells of the anterior pituitary of vertebrates.
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) also known as gonadoliberin, and by various other names in its endogenous form and as gonadorelin in its pharmaceutical form, is a releasing hormone responsible for the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary.
A gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (GnRH analogue or analog), also known as a luteinizing hormone releasing hormone agonist (LHRH agonist) or LHRH analogue is a synthetic peptide drug modeled after the human hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH).
Gonorrhea, also spelled gonorrhoea, is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
Good manufacturing practices (GMP) are the practices required in order to conform to the guidelines recommended by agencies that control the authorization and licensing of the manufacture and sale of food and beverages, cosmetics, pharmaceutical products, dietary supplements, and medical devices.
Professor John Gordon McVie (born 13 January 1945) is an international authority on the treatment and research of cancer.
Aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the GOT2 gene.
Goubuli, also sometimes transcribed as Go Believe, is a brand of stuffed baozi from Tianjin, China.
Government interest is a concept in law that allows the government to regulate a given matter.
G protein-coupled receptor 35 also known as GPR35 is a G protein-coupled receptor which in humans is encoded by the GPR35 gene.
Grand Challenges are difficult but important problems set by various institutions or professions to encourage solutions or advocate for the application of government or philanthropic funds especially in the most highly developed economies Gould, M. "GIScience grand challenges: How can research and technology in this field address big-picture problems? ArcUser, 13 (4), 64–65." (2010).
A granular material is a conglomeration of discrete solid, macroscopic particles characterized by a loss of energy whenever the particles interact (the most common example would be friction when grains collide).
Granules India Limited is an Indian pharmaceutical manufacturing company based in Hyderabad, India.
Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF or GCSF), also known as colony-stimulating factor 3 (CSF 3), is a glycoprotein that stimulates the bone marrow to produce granulocytes and stem cells and release them into the bloodstream.
Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), also known as colony-stimulating factor 2 (CSF2), is a monomeric glycoprotein secreted by macrophages, T cells, mast cells, natural killer cells, endothelial cells and fibroblasts that functions as a cytokine.
The gray-bellied night monkey (Aotus lemurinus), also called the grey-legged douroucouli or lemurine owl monkey, is a small New World monkey of the family Aotidae.
The Great Book of Interpretation of Dreams (Tafsir al-Ahlam al-kabir) attributed to the 7th century scholar Ibn Sirin which was originally compiled in the 15th century by al-Dārī under the title Selection of Statements on the Exegesis of Dreams.
Greece–Malaysia relations are foreign relations between Greece and Malaysia.
Greece–Norway relations are foreign relations between Greece and Norway.
After Greenpeace activists attempted to scale the Prirazlomnaya drilling platform on 18 September 2013, as part of a protest against Arctic oil production, Russian authorities seized the Greenpeace ship the Arctic Sunrise in international waters in the Russian Exclusive Economic Zone on 19 September 2013, arrested the crew at gunpoint, towed the ship to Murmansk, and detained the crew of 28 activists and two freelance journalists.
AS Grindeks (branded as Grindex), is a Latvian company listed on the Nasdaq Riga with production of pharmaceutical drugs, medicine and phytochemical medicine. The company was founded 17 October 1991 and is a joint stock company since 25 August 1997. One of the key drugs for Grindeks is meldonium, marketed under the trade name Mildronate. Meldonium is used for the treatment of angina and myocardial infarction by inhibiting the carnitine biosynthesis pathway via the inhibition of gamma-butyrobetaine dioxygenase. In 2017, Grindeks had a turnover revenue of €132.4 million with a profit of €10.3 million. Grindeks had 1355 employees and the main shareholders were Kirovs Lipmans (33.29%) and Anna Lipmane (16.65%).
Groton is a town in New London County, Connecticut located on the Thames River.
Groundwater pollution (also called groundwater contamination) occurs when pollutants are released to the ground and make their way down into groundwater.
Group O, Headquartered in Milan, Illinois, is one of the largest Hispanic-owned companies in the U.S. and a provider of managed products and services, specializing in Marketing Services, Print Management, Business Analytics, Decision Sciences, Business Process Outsourcing, Managed Services, Packaging, Supply Chain and Third-Party Logistics (3PL).
Growth factor receptor inhibitors (growth factor inhibitors, growth factor receptor blockers, growth factor blockers, growth factor receptor antagonists, growth factor antagonists) are drugs that target the growth factor receptors of cells.
Growth hormone–releasing hormone (GHRH), also known as somatocrinin or by several other names in its endogenous forms and as somatorelin (INN) in its pharmaceutical form, is a releasing hormone of growth hormone (GH).
Grupo Insud is a business group fully owned by Argentine shareholders, with a diversified business portfolio and a presence in more than 40 countries.
The principal stock index of the Ghana Stock Exchange or GSE is the GSE Composite Index.
Guaifenesin, also known as guaiphenesin or glyceryl guaiacolate, is an expectorant medication sold over the counter and usually taken by mouth to assist the bringing up (expectoration) of phlegm from the airways in acute respiratory tract infections.
Gualberto Ruaño is a pioneer in the field of personalized medicine and the inventor of molecular diagnostic systems used worldwide for the management of viral diseases.
Guar gum, also called guaran, is a galactomannan polysaccharide extracted from guar beans that has thickening and stabilizing properties useful in the food and hydraulic fracturing industries.
The Guiding Light (GL) (known since 1975 as Guiding Light) was a long-running American television soap opera.
Guilin, formerly romanized as Kweilin, is a prefecture-level city in the northeast of China's Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region.
Gum arabic, also known as acacia gum, arabic gum, gum acacia, acacia, Senegal gum and Indian gum, and by other names, is a natural gum consisting of the hardened sap of various species of the acacia tree.
Guru Nanak Institute of Technology (or GNIT) is an engineering college located in West Bengal, India.
Gusmer Enterprises, Inc. was founded in 1918 to provide products to the brewing market.
Gustavus Franklin Swift, Sr. (June 24, 1839 – March 29, 1903) was an American business executive.
Guttural pouches are large, auditory-tube diverticula that contain between 300 and 600 ml of air.
The gymnasium (Greek: gymnasion) in Ancient Greece functioned as a training facility for competitors in public games.
Herman O. West, known as H. O. West (May 19, 1900 – August 20, 1981), was the co-founder and later owner of a chain of thirty-three department stores in mostly north Louisiana and southern Arkansas.
H1 antagonists, also called H1 blockers, are a class of medications that block the action of histamine at the H1 receptor, helping to relieve allergic reactions.
H2 antagonists, sometimes referred to as H2RA and also called H2 blockers, are a class of medications that block the action of histamine at the histamine H2 receptors of the parietal cells in the stomach.
An H3 receptor antagonist is a classification of drugs used to block the action of histamine at the H3 receptor.
Elizabeth Hadley Richardson (November 9, 1891 – January 22, 1979) was the first wife of American author Ernest Hemingway.
Hafslund Nycomed is a defunct company that existed between 1986 and 1996 after the power and industry company Hafslund had bought the pharmaceutical company Nycomed.
Hagop Baronian (pronounced in Eastern Armenian as Hakop Paronyan, TAO: Յակոբ Պարոնեան, RAO: Հակոբ Պարոնյան, Hagop Baronyan; 1843–1891) was an influential Ottoman Armenian writer, playwright, journalist, and educator in the 19th century.
Haier Group Corporation is a Chinese collective multinational consumer electronics and home appliances company headquartered in Qingdao, Shandong province, China.
Hair removal, also known as epilation or depilation, is the deliberate removal of body hair.
HAL Allergy Group is a pharmaceutical company that develops, produces and sells products for allergy diagnostic and allergen immunotherapy (AIT).
For over two millennia, texts in Chinese herbology and traditional Chinese medicine have recorded medicinal plants that are also hallucinogens and psychedelics.
The haloalkanes (also known as halogenoalkanes or alkyl halides) are a group of chemical compounds derived from alkanes containing one or more halogens.
Halozyme Therapeutics is a U.S. biotechnology company that develops novel oncology therapies designed to target the tumor microenvironment and licenses a novel drug delivery technology through corporate partnerships.
Hamdard Laboratories (India), is a Unani and Ayurvedic pharmaceutical company in India (following the independence of India from Britain, "Hamdard" Unani branches were established in Bangladesh & Pakistan).
Handroanthus impetiginosus, pink ipê, pink lapacho, or pink trumpet tree is a native tree of family Bignoniaceae of the Americas, distributed from northern Mexico south to northern Argentina.
Harlan Sprague Dawley Inc. is a supplier of animals and other services to laboratories for the purpose of animal testing.
Harry Steenbock (August 16, 1886, Charlestown, Wisconsin – December 25, 1967, Madison, Wisconsin) was a Professor of Biochemistry at the University of Wisconsin–Madison.
Harry Thomas Stratford OBE (born 1948) is the founder of Shire plc, one of the United Kingdom's largest pharmaceutical businesses.
Hasma (Harsmar, Hashima) is a Chinese and widely Central Asian dessert ingredient made from the dried fatty tissue found near the fallopian tubes of true frogs, typically the Asiatic Grass Frog (Rana chensinensis).
Hassan Khosrowshahi (حسن خسروشاهی), is an Iranian-Canadian business magnate, investor, and philanthropist.
HD Medicine, or Huadong Medicine Co., Ltd., is a Hangzhou-based pharmaceutical company registered on the Shenzhen Stock Exchange since January 27, 2000.
The Heads of Medicines Agencies (HMA) is a network of both the human and veterinary medicines agencies of the European Economic Area.
Healing (literally meaning to make whole) is the process of the restoration of health from an unbalanced, diseased or damaged organism.
Apical periodontitis is typically the body’s defense response to the threat of microbial invasion from the root canal.
Michael Jackson (August 29, 1958 – June 25, 2009) was an American singer who spent over four decades in the public eye, first as a child star with The Jackson 5, and later as a solo artist, during which time he went through various image changes.
The Australian Health Care Card is a card issued by the Australian Government which evidences the entitlement of the cardholder to concessions, such as the cost of some prescription medicines, medical services, and other government concessions.
Health care finance in the United States discusses how Americans obtain and pay for their healthcare, and why U.S. healthcare costs are the highest in the world based on various measures, without better results.
Health care in the United States is provided by many distinct organizations.
Health care reform is a general rubric used for discussing major health policy creation or changes—for the most part, governmental policy that affects health care delivery in a given place.
Health in Cuba refers to the overall health of the population of Cuba.
Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific healthcare goals within a society".
The Health Protection Agency (HPA) was a non-departmental public body in the United Kingdom.
The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) is an agency of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services located in Rockville, Maryland.
The Health Sciences Authority (Abbreviation: HSA; Chinese: 卫生科学局); Malay: Penguasa Sains Kesihatan) is a statutory board under the Ministry of Health of the Singapore Government.
Health Systems Engineering or Health Engineering (often known as "Health Care Systems Engineering (HCSE)") is an academic and a pragmatic discipline that approaches the health care industry, and other industries connected with health care delivery, as complex adaptive systems, and identifies and applies engineering design and analysis principles in such areas.
The Health Utilities Index (HUI) is a rating scale used to measure general health status and health-related quality of life (HRQoL).
Healthcare in Azerbaijan is provided by public and private healthcare institutions and regulated through the Ministry of Healthcare.
Healthcare in Brazil is a constitutional right.
Healthcare in Canada is delivered through thirteen provincial and territorial systems of publicly funded health care, informally called Medicare.
The Cuban government operates a national health system and assumes fiscal and administrative responsibility for the health care of all its citizens.
Germany has a universal multi-payer health care system paid for by a combination of statutory health insurance (Gesetzliche Krankenversicherung) officially called "sickness funds" (Krankenkassen) and private health insurance (Private Krankenversicherung), colloquially also called "(private) sickness funds".
For health issues in Iran see Health in Iran. Healthcare in Iran is based on three pillars: the public-governmental system, the private sector, and NGOs.
In the past, Kosovo’s capabilities to develop a modern health care system were limited.
Healthcare in Senegal is a center topic of discourse in understanding the wellbeing and vitality of the Senegalese people.
The healthcare industry (also called the medical industry or health economy) is the range of companies and non-profit organizations that provide medical services, manufacture medical equipment, and develop pharmaceuticals.
Healthcare Transport is the systematic process by which patient- and business-critical materials, such as patient specimens, pharmaceuticals, supplies and medical records are transported to and from multiple touch points within healthcare organizations.
Heart nanotechnology is the "Engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale" ("Nanotechnology Research").
The Heart Protection Study was a large randomized controlled trial run by the Clinical Trial Service Unit, and funded by the Medical Research Council (MRC) and the British Heart Foundation (BHF) in the United Kingdom.
Heart to Heart International is a global humanitarian organization based in Lenexa which works to improve health and to respond to the needs of disaster victims worldwide.
Heat stroke, also known as sun stroke, is a type of severe heat illness that results in a body temperature greater than and confusion.
Heated hoses are used in bonding technology, filling and dosing systems, medical technology, chemical, pharmaceutical and food industry, extruder applications, and research & development.
A heavy-chain antibody is an antibody which consists only of two heavy chains and lacks the two light chains usually found in antibodies.
Hebridean Brewing Company (Companaidh Grùdaidh nan Innse Gall) is an independent small brewery founded in 2001 (although production didn't begin until late January 2002) by Andy Ribbens in Stornoway on the Isle of Lewis, Scotland.
Hedonic hunger or hedonic hyperphagia is "the drive to eat to obtain pleasure in the absence of an energy deficit." Particular foods may have a high "hedonic rating" or individuals may have increased susceptibility to environmental food cues.
Heinrich Wilhelm Ferdinand Wackenroder (8 March 1798 Burgdorf, Hanover – 4 September 1854 Jena) was a German chemist.
Help Conquer Cancer is a distributed computing project that runs on the BOINC platform.
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the transplantation of multipotent hematopoietic stem cells, usually derived from bone marrow, peripheral blood, or umbilical cord blood.
Hemofarm a.d. (full legal name: Hemofarm a.d. Farmaceutsko-hemijska industrija Vršac), a member of STADA Group, is a Serbian pharmaceutical company based in Vršac, Serbia.
Hemolytic anemia or haemolytic anaemia is a form of anemia due to hemolysis, the abnormal breakdown of red blood cells (RBCs), either in the blood vessels (intravascular hemolysis) or elsewhere in the human body (extravascular, but usually in the spleen).
Hendricks Holding, Inc.
Henricus Petrus Johannes "Henk" van Gerven (born March 11, 1955 in Riethoven) is a Dutch politician and general practitioner.
Henry Andrews Cotton (18 May 1876 – 8 May 1933) was an American psychiatrist and the medical director of New Jersey State Hospital at Trenton (previously the New Jersey State Lunatic Asylum, and now the Trenton Psychiatric Hospital) in Trenton, New Jersey from 1907 to 1930.
Henry Hoke (20th century) was a fictious Australian scientist, engineer, and inventor.
High efficiency particulate air (HEPA), originally called high-efficiency particulate absorber but also sometimes called high-efficiency particulate arresting or high-efficiency particulate arrestance, is a type of air filter.
Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver tissue.
A hepatocyte is a cell of the main parenchymal tissue of the liver.
A herbal is a book containing the names and descriptions of plants, usually with information on their medicinal, tonic, culinary, toxic, hallucinatory, aromatic, or magical powers, and the legends associated with them.
Herbalism (also herbal medicine or phytotherapy) is the study of botany and use of plants intended for medicinal purposes or for supplementing a diet.
Herbert Allen Sr. (February 13, 1908 – January 18, 1997) was an American stockbroker.
In medicine, heroic treatment or course of therapy is one which possesses a high risk of causing further damage to a patient's health, but is undertaken as a last resort with the understanding that any lesser treatment will surely result in failure.
Hesse or Hessia (Hessen, Hessian dialect: Hesse), officially the State of Hesse (German: Land Hessen) is a federal state (''Land'') of the Federal Republic of Germany, with just over six million inhabitants.
Hetero Drugs Limited is an Indian Pharmaceutical Company established in 1993.
Hexylamine or n-hexylamine is a chemical compound with the formula CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2NH2.
High-content screening (HCS), also known as high-content analysis (HCA) or cellomics, is a method that is used in biological research and drug discovery to identify substances such as small molecules, peptides, or RNAi that alter the phenotype of a cell in a desired manner.
High frequency vibrating screens are the most important screening machines primarily utilised in the mineral processing industry.
A high-shear mixer disperses, or transports, one phase or ingredient (liquid, solid, gas) into a main continuous phase (liquid), with which it would normally be immiscible.
Hikma Pharmaceuticals is an international pharmaceutical company based in London, that manufactures branded and non-branded generic and in-licensed pharmaceutical products.
Hillerød is a Danish town with a population of 32,689 (2018) located in the centre of North Zealand some 30 km to the north of Copenhagen, Denmark.
Hinduism spread to Nigeria mainly by immigration of Hindus from India and by way of Hare Krishna missionaries.
The Hinduja Group is an Indian conglomerate company headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
Hindustan Antibiotics Limited (HAL), based in Pimpri, India, is the first public sector drug manufacturing companies set up by the Government of India.
Hippulin, also known as Δ8-14-isoestrone, as well as 14-isoestra-1,3,5(10),8-tetraen-3-ol-17-one, is a naturally occurring steroidal estrogen found in horses and an isomer of equilin.
, headquartered in Saga and Tokyo, Japan is a pharmaceutical company that develops and markets prescription and over-the-counter drug (OTC) products, especially external pain relieving products such as the transdermal patch.
Histamine dihydrochloride (INN, trade name Ceplene) is a salt of histamine which is used as a drug for the prevention of relapse in patients diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
Histidine decarboxylase (HDC) is an enzyme responsible for catalyzing the decarboxylation of histidine to form histamine.
Amphetamine and methamphetamine are both pharmaceutical drugs used to treat a variety of conditions, along with recreational drugs, which are colloquially known as "speed." Amphetamine was first synthesized in 1887 in Germany by Romanian chemist Lazăr Edeleanu who named it phenylisopropylamine.
Benzedrine pills, colloquially referred to as bennies, is the brand name of the first pharmaceutical drug that contained amphetamine.
The history of botany examines the human effort to understand life on Earth by tracing the historical development of the discipline of botany—that part of natural science dealing with organisms traditionally treated as plants.
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, also known by the acronym CPR is an emergency procedure performed in an effort to manually preserve intact brain function until further measures are taken to restore spontaneous blood circulation and breathing in a person who is in cardiac arrest.
Chemical engineering as a discipline that was developed out of those practising "industrial chemistry" in the late 19th century.
The history of chemistry represents a time span from ancient history to the present.
The history of Chinese Americans or the history of ethnic Chinese in the United States relates to the three major waves of Chinese immigration to the United States with the first beginning in the 19th century.
The history of herbalism is closely tied with the history of medicine from prehistoric times up until the development of the germ theory of disease in the 19th century.
The history of human activity in Indiana, a U.S. state in the Midwest, began with migratory tribes of Native Americans who inhabited Indiana as early as 8000 BC.
Between the 9th and 14th centuries, the Muslim world developed many concepts and techniques in economics such as Hawala, an early informal value transfer system, Islamic trusts known as waqf, and mufawada.
The psychedelic drug (or entheogen) lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) was first synthesized on November 16, 1938 by the Swiss chemist Albert Hofmann in the Sandoz (now Novartis) laboratories in Basel, Switzerland.
Early writing on mineralogy, especially on gemstones, comes from ancient Babylonia, the ancient Greco-Roman world, ancient and medieval China, and Sanskrit texts from ancient India.
Ancient Chinese scientists and engineers made significant scientific innovations, findings and technological advances across various scientific disciplines including the natural sciences, engineering, medicine, military technology, mathematics, geology and astronomy.
The history of the ambulance begins in ancient times, with the use of carts to transport patients.
This is a history of drug prohibition in the United States.
According to National AIDS Control Organization of India, the prevalence of AIDS in India in 2013 was 0.27, which is down from 0.41 in 2002.
Hlohovec District (okres Hlohovec) is a district in the Trnava Region of western Slovakia.
Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is a cephalic disorder in which the prosencephalon (the forebrain of the embryo) fails to develop into two hemispheres.
Homatropine (Equipin, Isopto Homatropine) is an anticholinergic medication that is an antagonist at muscarinic acetylcholine receptors and thus the parasympathetic nervous system.
The form of home automation focuses on making it possible for older adults and people with disabilities to remain at home, safe and comfortable.
Homoeriodictyol is a bitter-masking flavanone extracted from Yerba Santa (Eriodictyon californicum) a plant growing in America.
Hormonal breast enhancement or augmentation is a highly experimental potential medical treatment for the breasts in which hormones or hormonal agents such as estrogen, progesterone, growth hormone (GH), and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are utilized or manipulated to produce breast enlargement in women.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
For the use of hormone antagonists in cancer, see hormonal therapy (oncology) A hormone antagonist is a specific type of receptor antagonist which acts upon hormone receptors.
There are many aspects to horse care.
Hospira was an American global pharmaceutical and medical device company with headquarters in Lake Forest, Illinois.
Host tropism is the infection specificity of certain pathogens to particular hosts and host tissues.
HT-0712, also known as IPL-455903, is an experimental cognitive enhancing drug (nootropic) which is currently undergoing clinical trials.
Huang Minlon or Huang Minglong (3 July 1898 – 1 July 1979) was a renowned Chinese organic chemist and pharmaceutical scientist.
Huangdao District is a district of Qingdao, Shandong, China, located southwest and west of the main urban area of the city on the western shore of Jiaozhou Bay.
Huhtamäki Oyj (styled Huhtamaki) is a global food packaging specialist, headquartered in Espoo, Finland.
Hum is an alternative rock band from Champaign, Illinois.
Human cannibalism is the act or practice of humans eating the flesh or internal organs of other human beings.
The human digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion (the tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder).
The term human equivalent is used in a number of different contexts.
Human fat (German Menschenfett, Latin Axungia hominis) was mentioned in European pharmacopoeias since the 16th century as an important fatty component of quality deemed ointments and other pharmaceuticals in Europe.
A human milk bank is "a service which collects, screens, processes, and dispenses by prescription human milk donated by nursing mothers who are not biologically related to the recipient infant".
Human serum albumin is the serum albumin found in human blood.
The human skeleton is the internal framework of the body.
Human subject research is systematic, scientific investigation that can be either interventional (a "trial") or observational (no "test article") and involves human beings as research subjects.
Humanistic medicine is an interdisciplinary field in the medical practice of clinical care popular in the modern health systems of developed countries.
Huntingdon Life Sciences (HLS) is a contract research organisation (CRO) founded in 1951 in Cambridgeshire, England.
Huw M. L. Davies FRSC is a British chemist who has been Asa Griggs Candler Professor of Organic Chemistry at Emory University since 2008.
Hwabyeong or Hwabyung is a Korean somatization disorder, a mental illness which arises when people are unable to confront their anger as a result of conditions which they perceive to be unfair.
Hyaluronidases are a family of enzymes that catalyse the degradation of hyaluronic acid (HA).
Hyderabad is the capital of the Indian state of Telangana and de jure capital of Andhra Pradesh.
Hyderabad Pharma City is a pharmaceuticals industrial park being established near Hyderabad, India.
Hydrazine is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula (also written), called diamidogen, archaically.
Hydrazobenzene (1,2-diphenylhydrazine) is an aromatic organic compound consisting of two aniline groups joined via their nitrogen atoms.
Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.
Hydrogenation – to treat with hydrogen – is a chemical reaction between molecular hydrogen (H2) and another compound or element, usually in the presence of a catalyst such as nickel, palladium or platinum.
A hydroxybenzoquinone (formula) is any of several organic compounds that can be viewed as derivatives of a benzoquinone through replacement of one hydrogen atom (H) by an hydroxyl group (-OH).
Hydroxylation is a chemical process that introduces a hydroxyl group (-OH) into an organic compound.
A hydroxynaphthoquinone (formula) is any of several organic compounds that can be viewed as derivatives of a naphthoquinone through replacement of one hydrogen atom (H) by an hydroxyl group (-OH).
Hydroxyquinone often refers to a hydroxybenzoquinone, any organic compound with formula which can be viewed as a derivative of a benzoquinone through replacement of one hydrogen atom (H) by an hydroxyl group (-OH).
Hypera Pharma previously known as Hypermarcas is the Brazilian largest pharmaceutical company by market capitalization.
Hypercalcaemia, also spelled hypercalcemia, is a high calcium (Ca2+) level in the blood serum.
Hypercholesterolemia, also called high cholesterol, is the presence of high levels of cholesterol in the blood.
Hyperkalemia, also spelled hyperkalaemia, is an elevated level of potassium (K+) in the blood serum.
Hypersomnia, or hypersomnolence, is a neurological disorder of excessive time spent sleeping or excessive sleepiness.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
Hyperuricemia is an abnormally high level of uric acid in the blood.
Hypoestrogenism, or estrogen deficiency, refers to a lower than normal level of estrogen, the primary sex hormone in women.
Hypoprothrombinemia is a rare blood disorder in which a deficiency in immunoreactive prothrombin (Factor II), produced in the liver, results in an impaired blood clotting reaction, leading to an increased physiological risk for spontaneous bleeding.
Hypoventilation (also known as respiratory depression) occurs when ventilation is inadequate (hypo meaning "below") to perform needed gas exchange.
Iatrogenesis (from the Greek for "brought forth by the healer") refers to any effect on a person resulting from any activity of one or more persons acting as healthcare professionals or promoting products or services as beneficial to health that does not support a goal of the person affected.
Ibandronic acid (INN) or ibandronate sodium (USAN) is a potent bisphosphonate drug developed by Hoffman La Roche and used in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis and metastasis-associated skeletal fractures in people with cancer.
Ibercivis is a distributed computing platform which allows internet users to participate in scientific research by donating unused computer cycles to run scientific simulations and other tasks.
The analgesic and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) ibuprofen is sold under a wide variety of brand names across the world; the most common being its first registered trademark name of Brufen, along with Advil, Motrin, and Nurofen.
Ibuprofen/paracetamol sold under the brand name Combiflam is a combination of the two medications, ibuprofen and paracetamol (acetaminophen).
This is an overview about the chapter IV (also called chapter E) of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10).
ICD-10 is an international statistical classification produced by the World Health Organization.
ICD-10 is an international statistical classification used in health care and related industries.
ICD-10 is an international statistical classification used in health care and related industries.
ICD-10 is an international statistical classification used in health care and related industries.
ICD-10 is an international statistical classification used in health care and related industries.
ICD-10 is an international statistical classification used in health care and related industries.
ICD-10 is an international statistical classification used in health care and related industries.
ICD-10 is an international statistical classification used in health care and related industries.
Iceland is heavily integrated into the European Union via the European Economic Area and the Schengen Agreement, but it is not a member state.
HoiHoi-san, full title, is a manga by Kunihiko Tanaka that spawned a PlayStation 2 game and a ten-minute OVA (sold with first printing of manga tankōbon).
ICI Pakistan Limited (Imperial Chemical Industries) is a Pakistani company which is based in Karachi, Pakistan.
Idebenone (pronounced eye-deb-eh-known, trade names Catena, Raxone, Sovrima, among others) is a drug that was initially developed by Takeda Pharmaceutical Company for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and other cognitive defects.
Idrocilamide (trade names Talval, Srilane, Relaxnova, BrolitèneDrugs.com) is a medication with skeletal muscle relaxant and anti-inflammatory actions used as a topical cream to treat lumbago and other kinds of muscular pain; it is available on prescription or over-the-counter in France and various other countries.
The IG Farben Building, also known as the Poelzig Building, formerly informally called The Pentagon of Europe, is a building complex in Frankfurt, Germany, which currently serves as the main building of the West End Campus of the University of Frankfurt.
Igor Volodymyrovych Komarov is a Ukrainian synthetic organic chemist, specializing in medicinal chemistry and nanotechnology, Professor, Doctor of Chemical Sciences.
igus is a worldwide manufacturer and distributor of plastic plain bearings, spherical bearings, linear guides, cable carriers and continuous-flex cables.
IIT Research Institute (IITRI),Greenbaum & Wheeler (1967), cover sheet (technical paper).
The ILAI Fund is a nonsectarian fund that assists under-privileged special needs, sick, or disabled children whose families are financially unable to meet their needs.
ILC Dover, LP (also known as ILC) is an American special engineering development and manufacturing company based in Frederica, Delaware.
Lee Seung-Heun (born December 23, 1950), better known as Ilchi Lee, is a South Korean author and the founder of a variety of mind-body training methods, including Dahnhak (丹学), Body & Brain, Brain Respiration, Power Brain Education, and DahnMuDo.
Ileus is a disruption of the normal propulsive ability of the gastrointestinal tract.
IMA – Industria Macchine Automatiche S.p.A. is a multinational Italian company based in Bologna, Italy. Established in 1961, IMA Group is world leader in the design and manufacture of automatic machines for the processing and packaging of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, food, tobacco, tea and coffee. IMA S.p.A. has been listed on the Borsa Italiana stock exchange since 1995 in the index FTSE Italia Mid Cap and FTSE Italia STAR. Alberto Vacchi is both president and CEO of the company.
IMA Life S.r.l (previously known as IMA Edwards, Libra and BOC Edwards Pharmaceutical Systems) is one of the few companies which are prominent in the manufacturing of freeze dryers especially for the pharmaceutical and biotechnological companies, aseptic processing and filling solutions.
Imagabalin (INN, USAN; PD-332,334) is a drug which acts as a ligand for the α2δ subunit of the voltage-dependent calcium channel, with some selectivity for the α2δ1 subunit over α2δ2.
The imidazopyridines are a class of drugs defined by their chemical structure.
IMM-101 is a drug that is being studied to see if it is useful in chemotherapy.
Immigration is the movement of an individual or group of peoples to a foreign country to live permanently.
Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a type of thrombocytopenic purpura defined as isolated low platelet count (thrombocytopenia) with normal bone marrow and the absence of other causes of thrombocytopenia.
Immunology is a branch of biology that covers the study of immune systems in all organisms.
Immunosuppressive drugs or immunosuppressive agents or antirejection medications are drugs that inhibit or prevent activity of the immune system.
Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) was a British chemical company and was, for much of its history, the largest manufacturer in Britain.
An in silico clinical trial is an individualised computer simulation used in the development or regulatory evaluation of a medicinal product, device, or intervention.
In vitro toxicity testing is the scientific analysis of the effects of toxic chemical substances on cultured bacteria or mammalian cells.
Incepta Pharmaceuticals Limited is a generic pharmaceutical company based in Dhaka, Bangladesh, which manufactures and markets medicinal drugs.
Inclusion is a term used by people with disabilities and other disability rights advocates for the idea that all people should take action to freely accommodate people with a physical, mental, cognitive, and or developmental disability.
Indapamide is a thiazide-like diuretic drug marketed by Servier, generally used in the treatment of hypertension, as well as decompensated heart failure.
Indegene Inc. (frequently referred to simply as Indegene) is a company offering research and development and management solutions to healthcare and pharmaceutical enterprises.
Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms.
Articles related specifically to biomedical engineering include.
Health is the state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and a positive concept emphasizing social and personal resources, as well as physical capacities.
Indo-Polish relations refers to the bilateral relations between Republic of Poland and the Republic of India.
Diplomatic relations between India and Ukraine were established in January 1992.
India–United States relations (or Indo-American relations) refers to the international relations that exist between the Republic of India and the United States of America.
Indiabulls is an Indian group with its Headquarters in Gurgaon and Corporate Office in Mumbai.
Indian Drugs and Pharmaceuticals Limited (IDPL) is a public sector pharmaceutical, bulk drug manufacturing and drug discovery company owned by the Indian government, headquartered in New Delhi, and located in Hyderabad, Gurgaon and Rishikesh.
Indianapolis is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Indiana and the seat of Marion County.
Indium (111In) biciromab (INN, trade name FibriScint, developed by Centocor) was a drug targeting fibrin, a protein involved in the clotting of blood.
Indivior is a specialty pharmaceuticals business.
Indole is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound with formula C8H7N.
Indonesia–Switzerland relations refers to the bilateral relations of Indonesia and Switzerland.
Indorama Ventures Public Company Limited, founded by Indian businessman Aloke Lohia, is one of the world's leading producers in the intermediate petrochemicals industry and a leading global manufacturer of wool yarns.
Induction sealing is the process of bonding thermoplastic materials by induction heating.
Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a type of mass spectrometry which is capable of detecting metals and several non-metals at concentrations as low as one part in 1015 (part per quadrillion, ppq) on non-interfered low-background isotopes.
Khushkhera is an industrial area in Tijara tehsil of Alwar district of the Indian state of Rajasthan.
An industrial crop, also called a non-food crop, is a crop grown to produce goods for manufacturing, for example of fibre for clothing, rather than food for consumption.
Industrial enzymes are enzymes that are commercially used in a variety of industries such as pharmaceuticals, chemical production, biofuels, food & beverage, and consumer products.
Industrial enzymes are enzymes that are commercially used in a variety of industries such as pharmaceuticals, chemical production, biofuels, food & beverage, and consumer products.
Industrial gases are gaseous materials that are manufactured for use in Industry.
According to a report by The Economist, Iran has been ranked 39th for producing $23 billion of industrial products in 2008.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Infiltration analgesia is deposition of an analgesic drug close to the apex of a tooth so that it can diffuse to reach the nerve entering the apical foramina.
Infinity Fluids, founded in 1998, is a Massachusetts corporation which develops process and thermal systems for the fuel cell, pharmaceutical, industrial, and biotechnology industries.
Treatments for influenza include a range of medications and therapies that are used in response to disease influenza.
Influenza-like illness (ILI), also known as acute respiratory infection (ARI) and flu-like syndrome/symptoms, is a medical diagnosis of possible influenza or other illness causing a set of common symptoms.
The Information Services Division (ISD) is the part of NHS Scotland that provides health information, health intelligence, statistical information and analysis.
An infusion pump infuses fluids, medication or nutrients into a patient's circulatory system.
Ingestion is the consumption of a substance by an organism.
Ingredion Incorporated (formerly Corn Products International, Inc) is an ingredient provider based in Westchester, Illinois.
Inibsa Laboratorios is a pharmaceutical company in Spain.
Injury, also known as physical trauma, is damage to the body caused by external force.
Inland saline aquaculture is the farming or culture of aquatic animals and plants using inland (i.e. non-coastal) sources of saline groundwater rather than the more common coastal aquaculture methods.
Inman Harvey was a Senior Lecturer in Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence at the University of Sussex, he is now a Visiting Senior Research Fellow at the same University.
Inorganic chemistry deals with the synthesis and behavior of inorganic and organometallic compounds.
An inotrope is an agent that alters the force or energy of muscular contractions.
Insomnia, also known as sleeplessness, is a sleep disorder where people have trouble sleeping.
The Institute of Pharmacology and Structural Biology (Institut de Pharmacologie et de Biologie Structurale, IPBS) is a joint CNRS-Paul Sabatier University research center.
Insulated shipping containers are a type of packaging used to ship temperature sensitive products such as foods, pharmaceuticals, organs, blood, biologic materials, and chemicals.
Insulin is a protein hormone that is used as a medication to treat high blood glucose.
Insulin resistance (IR) is a pathological condition in which cells fail to respond normally to the hormone insulin.
Intangible Asset Finance is the branch of finance that deals with intangible assets such as patents (legal intangible) and reputation (competitive intangible).
Integrated Security Unit (ISU) (Groupe intégré de la sécurité - GIS) is a joint-services infrastructure security unit created to secure major events in Canada.
Intelligen, Inc. is a provider of process simulation and production scheduling tools and services for the process industries.
Interaction is a kind of action that occur as two or more objects have an effect upon one another.
The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation’s (RWJF) Interdisciplinary Nursing Quality Research Initiative (INQRI) is a $19 million program to generate and disseminate research showing a link between what nurses do and the contributions they make to advancing better and safer care for patients.
Interferon alfa (INN) or HuIFN-alpha-Le, trade name Multiferon, is a pharmaceutical drug composed of natural interferon alpha (IFN-α) obtained from the leukocyte fraction of human blood following induction with Sendai virus.
Interferon alpha-n3 (Alferon-N) is a medication consisting of purified natural human interferon alpha proteins used for the treatment of genital warts.
Human type I interferons (IFNs) are a large subgroup of interferon proteins that help regulate the activity of the immune system.
Internal bleeding (also called internal hemorrhage) is a loss of blood that occurs from the vascular system into a body cavity or space.
Internal medicine or general medicine (in Commonwealth nations) is the medical specialty dealing with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of adult diseases.
The Nice Classification, established by the Nice Agreement (1957), is a system of classifying goods and services for the purpose of registering trademarks.
International Diabetes Center at Park Nicollet (IDC) is a center for diabetes care, research and education located in Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States.
The International Nonproprietary Name (INN) is an official generic and non-proprietary name given to a pharmaceutical drug or an active ingredient.
The International Society for Pharmaceutical Engineering (ISPE) is the world's largest not-for-profit association serving its members through leading scientific, technical, and regulatory advancement across the entire pharmaceutical lifecycle.
The International Society of Pharmacovigilance (ISoP), previously the European Society of Pharmacovigilance (ESOP), is an international non-profit scientific organisation, which aims to foster pharmacovigilance both scientifically and educationally, and enhance all aspects of the safe and proper use of medicines, in all countries.
The International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology (IUPHAR) is a voluntary, non-profit association representing the interests of scientists in pharmacology-related fields to facilitate Better Medicines through Global Education and Research around the world.
In pharmacology, the international unit is a unit of measurement for the amount of a substance; the mass or volume that constitutes one international unit varies based on which substance is being measured, and the variance is based on the biological activity or effect, for the purpose of easier comparison across substances.
Interstitial granulomatous drug reaction is an uncommon, yet under-recognized, pattern of adverse reactions to medication.
Interstitial lung disease (ILD), or diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD), is a group of lung diseases affecting the interstitium (the tissue and space around the air sacs of the lungs).
Intervention may refer to.
Intima–media thickness (IMT), also called intimal medial thickness, is a measurement of the thickness of tunica intima and tunica media, the innermost two layers of the wall of an artery.
Intramuscular (also IM or im) injection is the injection of a substance directly into muscle.
Intraocular pressure (IOP) is the fluid pressure inside the eye.
Intrapulmonary percussive ventilators (IPV) are machines which deliver short bursts of air through a mouthpiece to help individuals with lung disease clear sputum.
Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).
The metric system was developed during the French Revolution to replace the various measures previously used in France.
Ion Ioanid (28 March 1926 – 12 October 2003) was a Romanian dissident and writer.
Ipca Laboratories is an international pharmaceutical company based in Mumbai, India.
Ipsen is a French pharmaceutical company headquartered in Paris, France.
IQnovate is an Australian life sciences organization that provides intellectual property asset management services and scientific advice to the biopharmaceutical industry.
Irofulven or 6-hydroxymethylacylfulvene (also known as HMAF of MGI-114) is an experimental antitumor agent.
Irradiated mail is mail that has been deliberately exposed to radiation, typically in an effort to disinfect it.
Ischemic hepatitis, also known as ischemic hepatopathy or shock liver, is a condition defined as an acute liver injury caused by insufficient blood flow (and consequently insufficient oxygen delivery) to the liver.
In the religion of Islam, two words are sometimes translated as philosophy—falsafa (literally "philosophy"), which refers to philosophy as well as logic, mathematics, and physics; and Kalam (literally "speech"), which refers to a rationalist form of Islamic philosophy and theology based on the interpretations of Aristotelianism and Neoplatonism as developed by medieval Muslim philosophers.
Isomethadone (INN, BAN; Liden), also known as isoamidone, is a synthetic opioid analgesic and antitussive related to methadone that was used formerly as a pharmaceutical drug but is now no longer marketed.
Isoprenaline, or isoproterenol, is a medication used for the treatment of bradycardia (slow heart rate), heart block, and rarely for asthma.
Isotropic formulations are thermodynamically stable microemulsions possessing lyotropic liquid crystal properties.
Isovaleraldehyde organic compound, also known as 3-methylbutanal, with the formula (CH3)2CHCH2CHO.
The Israel Export Institute (IEI; maḥon ha-yitsu ha-yisra'eli) is an Israeli governmental agency which operates under the Ministry of Trade and Labor to facilitate trade opportunities, joint ventures, and strategic alliances between international businesses and Israeli companies.
ITH Pharma is a British pharmaceutical company.
Ivabradine, marketed under the trade name Corlanor among others, is a medication used for the symptomatic management of stable heart-related chest pain and heart failure not fully managed by beta blockers.
Ivacaftor (trade name Kalydeco) is a drug used to treat cystic fibrosis in people with certain mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene (primarily the G551D mutation), who account for 4–5% cases of cystic fibrosis.
Ivan Ivanovich Ostromislensky (Иван Иванович Остромысленский, also Iwan Ostromislensky) (9 September 1880 – 16 January 1939) was a Russian organic chemist.
Jaber Ebne Hayyan Pharmaceutical Company engages in manufacture and sale of injection and oral antibiotics, ointments, inhalers, nasal sprays & pearls(soft gel capsules).
Jaider Villa Giraldo (born 30 January 1977), better known as Jaider Villa, is a Colombian actor, host and model.
James Benjamin Martel is a physician, surgeon and scientist.
Sir James Murray (1788–1871) was an Irish physician, whose research into digestion led to his discovery of the stomach aid Milk of Magnesia in 1809.
James Patrick Hogan (27 June 1941 – 12 July 2010) was a British science fiction author.
Jan Fletcher OBE is one of the UK’s leading entrepreneurs.
Janssen Biotech, Inc., formerly Centocor Biotech, Inc., is a biotechnology company that was founded in Philadelphia in 1979 with an initial goal of developing new diagnostic assays using monoclonal antibody technology.
A Japanese Accepted Name (JAN) is the official non-proprietary or generic name given to a pharmaceutical substance by the government of Japan.
Japanese patent law is based on the first-to-file principle and is mainly given force by the Patent Act (特許法 Tokkyohō) of Japan.
Jason John Cook (born September 13, 1980) is an American actor, screenwriter, film director and film producer best known for the soap opera television roles of Shawn-Douglas Brady on Days of Our Lives from 1999 to 2006, Matt Hunter on General Hospital from 2008 to 2012, and most recently writer and director of State of Bacon, the world's first feature film on bacon.
Jason Erkes (born November 10, 1969) is a former journalist, media strategist and entrepreneur.
The Jatene procedure, arterial switch operation or arterial switch, is an open heart surgical procedure used to correct dextro-transposition of the great arteries (d-TGA); its development was pioneered by Canadian cardiac surgeon William Mustard and it was named for Brazilian cardiac surgeon Adib Jatene, who was the first to use it successfully.
Jaundice, also known as icterus, is a yellowish or greenish pigmentation of the skin and whites of the eyes due to high bilirubin levels.
The Jean Coutu Group (PJC) Inc. is a Canadian drugstore chain headquartered in Varennes, Quebec.
Jeedimetla is a Suburb of Hyderabad in the Indian state of Telangana.
Jeff Aronin (born December 8, 1967) is an American investor, entrepreneur, and biopharmaceutical executive.
Jeffrey Robert Bagwell (born May 27, 1968) is an American former professional first baseman and coach who spent his entire 15-year Major League Baseball (MLB) playing career with the Houston Astros.
Jeff Bleckner (born August 12, 1943) is an American theatre and television director.
Jenapharm is a pharmaceutical company from Jena, Germany.
Jesse Eisinger is an American journalist and author.
Jewish views on suicide are mixed.
Jilin Aodong Medicine Industry Group Company Limited is a state-owned enterprise in Dunhua, Jilin, China.
JNJ-26990990 is a broad-spectrum anticonvulsant drug currently under development by Janssen Pharmaceutica as a second-generation followup to the marketed drug topiramate.
Josephine Julia Fletcher (born 31 December 1980) is an English footballer who plays as a goalkeeper for Watford.
Joachim Jose (born 12 January 1961 in Quierschied) is professor for pharmaceutical and medical chemistry at the University of Münster, and focuses primarily on the research of bacterial development of drugs and biocatalysts by surface display.
Johann Friedrich Klotzsch (9 June 1805, Wittenberg – 5 November 1860) was a German pharmacist and botanist.
Johann Nepomuk Rust (April 5, 1775 – October 9, 1840) was a surgeon and military physician born at Jánský Vrh, Javorník, Austrian Silesia (today in the Czech Republic).
Johann Rudolf Glauber (10 March 1604 – 16 March 1670) was a German-Dutch alchemist and chemist.
Johannes Hartmann (Amberg, 14 January 1568 – Kassel, 7 December 1631) was a German chemist.
John William Earnshaw (1900–82) was a self-taught Australian engineer, and inventor.
John Forbes Nash Jr. (June 13, 1928 – May 23, 2015) was an American mathematician who made fundamental contributions to game theory, differential geometry, and the study of partial differential equations.
John L. Gainer (born July 19, 1938) is an American chemical engineer and co-founder and chief scientific officer of Diffusion Pharmaceuticals, a biotechnology and pharmaceutical company based in Charlottesville, Virginia, U.S.Gainer pioneered investigation into the mechanism of action underlying oxygen diffusion-enhancing compounds (ODECs) and invented the subclass of ODECs known as bipolar trans carotenoid salts.
John C. Warner (born October 25, 1962) is an American chemist, educator, and entrepreneur, best known as one of the founders of the field of Green Chemistry.
Johnson Matthey is a British multinational speciality chemicals and sustainable technologies company headquartered in the United Kingdom.
Jordan Investment Commission (JIC), previously Jordan Investment Board, is the national investment promotion agency of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.
Jordan Phosphate Mines is a mining company based in Jordan.
Josef Mengele (16 March 19117 February 1979) was a German Schutzstaffel (SS) officer and physician in Auschwitz concentration camp during World War II.
Joseph C. Papa (born 1955/56) is an American businessman, the chairman and chief executive officer (CEO) of Valeant Pharmaceuticals from May 2, 2016 succeeding J. Michael Pearson.
Joseph Fuisz is an American attorney, inventor, and entrepreneur of Slovenian descent.
Josiah Kirby "Joe" Lilly Jr. (September 25, 1893 – May 5, 1966) was a businessman and industrialist who served as president (1948 –53) and chairman of the board (1953–66) of Eli Lilly and Company, the pharmaceutical firm his grandfather, Colonel Eli Lilly, founded in Indianapolis in 1876.
The Journal of Experimental Nanoscience is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering original (primary) research and review articles on all aspects of nanoscience.
Jucu (Zsuk; Schucken) is a commune in Cluj County, Romania.
Julphar (Gulf Pharmaceutical Industries) is a public shareholding pharmaceutical company based in Diqdaqah, Ras Al Khaimah, United Arab Emirates.
is a Japanese politician of the Liberal Democratic Party, a member of the House of Representatives in the Diet (national legislature).
Kafi Benz (born 1941) is an American author and artist who began participation in social entrepreneurship through environmental preservation and regional planning in 1959 as a member of the Jersey Jetport Site Association, which opposed plans by the New York Port Authority to found a new airport in the Great Swamp, the central feature of a massive 55 square mile watershed in New Jersey bounded to the south and east by the Watchung Mountains, 25 miles west of Manhattan.
Kallam Anji Reddy (1 February 1939 – 15 March 2013) was an Indian entrepreneur in the pharmaceutical industry, the founder-chairman of Dr. Reddy's Laboratories, which he established in 1984, and chairman of Dr Reddy's Foundation (DRF), the corporate social responsibility arm of the group, established 1996.
Kalundborg Eco-Industrial Park is an industrial symbiosis network located in Kalundborg, Denmark, in which companies in the region collaborate to use each other's by-products and otherwise share resources.
Kanamycin A, often referred to simply as kanamycin, is an antibiotic used to treat severe bacterial infections and tuberculosis.
Kank-A is a liquid pharmaceutical product marketed by Blistex used primarily to treat canker sores.
Kantar is the Data Investment Management division of WPP, and one of the world's largest insight, information and consultancy groups.
Kaopectate is an orally taken medication from Chattem, Inc. for the treatment of mild diarrhea.
Kappa Psi Pharmaceutical Fraternity, Incorporated, (ΚΨ) is the largest professional pharmaceutical fraternity in the world.
Karl Heinrich Slotta (May 12, 1895 in Breslau, Germany – July 17, 1987 in Coral Gables, Florida), was a biochemist.
Karma (karma,; italic) means action, work or deed; it also refers to the spiritual principle of cause and effect where intent and actions of an individual (cause) influence the future of that individual (effect).
The Karuk people are an indigenous people of California, and the Karuk Tribe is one of the largest tribes in California.
Katwe is an area in the city of Kampala, Uganda's capital.
Kava or kava kava or Piper methysticum (Latin "pepper" and Latinized Greek "intoxicating") is a crop of the Pacific Islands.
Kcomber Inc. (chin. 广州市西美信息科技有限公司) is a Chinese Information Technology company founded in Guangzhou in 2001.
Kedarnath Wild Life Sanctuary, also called the Kedarnath Musk Deer Sanctuary, is a wildlife sanctuary declared under Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 and located in Uttarakhand, India.
Keith Maurice Ellison (born August 4, 1963) is an American politician and lawyer who has been the U.S. Representative for since 2007 and Deputy Chair of the Democratic National Committee since 2017.
Kempegowda International Airport is an international airport serving Bangalore, the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka.
Kenneth John (Ken) Harvey AM is an Australian public health doctor, currently adjunct Associate Professor at the School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine at Monash University.
Kendra's Law, effective since November 1999, is a New York State law concerning involuntary outpatient commitment.
Kennedy's Brain is a novel by Swedish writer Henning Mankell, that was originally published in the Swedish language in 2005.
Kenneth Ellen Parcell is a fictional character on the NBC comedy television series, 30 Rock, portrayed by Jack McBrayer.
Ketamine, sold under the brand name Ketalar among others, is a medication mainly used for starting and maintaining anesthesia.
is a direct sales organization that develops and manufactures automation sensors, vision systems, barcode readers, laser markers, measuring instruments, and digital microscopes.
Kharkhana Zinda Tilismath is medicinal products manufacturer of the well known Zinda Tilismath, Farooky Tooth Powder and Zinda Balm.
Khed is a town with a municipal council in the Ratnagiri district of the state of Maharashtra, India.
Khwaja Muhammad Yusuf (died 1902) was one of the top lawyers and landowners of Aligarh, a small but historically significant town in the ‘doab’ region of the state of Uttar Pradesh in northern India.
Kian Gwan was the largest multinational trading company in Southeast Asia in the early decades of the twentieth century, and was founded in 1863 in the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia).
The Kidney Foundation of Iran is a charitable, nonprofit organization that addresses needs related to renal disease (including dialysis and kidney transplants).
is a Japanese food manufacturer.
Kimberly Bryant is an African American electrical engineer who worked in the biotechnology field at Genentech, Novartis Vaccines, Diagnostics, and Merck.
Kind Consumer Limited is a UK-based healthcare company which focuses on developing novel inhalation technologies to address tobacco harm reduction.
King Pharmaceuticals, is a wholly owned subsidiary of Pfizer based in Bristol, Tennessee.
is an integrated beverages company.
Kirkland is an on-island suburb on the Island of Montreal in southwestern Quebec, Canada.
Kisangani (formerly Stanleyville or Stanleystad) is the capital of Tshopo province in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
(1894 – November 23, 1966), was a Japanese philanthropist who lived in Mexico most of his life and made many contributions to the economies of both Japan and Mexico during the 20th century.
Kiss is a 2009 thriller novel by Christian author Ted Dekker and Erin Healy.
Knight Therapeutics Inc. is a Canadian public specialty pharmaceuticals company and based in Westmount, Quebec.
Knowledge process outsourcing (KPO) describes the outsourcing of core information-related business activities which are competitively important or form an integral part of a company's value chain.
Korean Oriental Pharmacists (Han-Yak-Sa, Hangul: 한약사, Hanja: 韓藥師) are a licensed healthcare professionals who take charge of various pharmaceutical affairs like the manufacturing, preparation, identification, storage, importation, sales of drugs and other pharmaceutical technologies in the Republic of Korea.
Kosan Biosciences, Inc. (stock symbol: KOSN), is a pharmaceutical company which deals with cancer therapeutics medications.
Krka, d. d., Novo mesto is an international generic pharmaceutical company with headquarters in Novo Mesto, Slovenia.
Kulmbach is the capital of the district of Kulmbach in Bavaria in Germany.
Kunitz domains are the active domains of proteins that inhibit the function of protein degrading enzymes or, more specifically, domains of Kunitz-type are protease inhibitors.
KV Pharmaceutical Company (KV) was an American drug company that brought generic and non-branded pharmaceutical products to the market.
is a Japanese pharmaceutical and biotechnology company under the Kirin Holdings, and is among the 40 largest in the world by revenue.
La Follette-Bulwinkle Act or Venereal Diseases Control and Prevention Act of 1938 sanctioned federal assistance to U.S. states establishing preventive healthcare for venereal diseases.
Labeling theory is the theory of how the self-identity and behavior of individuals may be determined or influenced by the terms used to describe or classify them.
Laboratórios BASI, usually known as BASI for short, is a Portuguese pharmaceutical company located in Mortágua.
Servier Laboratories (French: Laboratoires Servier, often abbreviated to Servier) is a privately owned French pharmaceutical company that specialises in medication for cardiological and rheumatological conditions, as well as for diabetes and clinical depression.
A laboratory (informally, lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments, and measurement may be performed.
Laboratory robotics is the act of using robots in biology or chemistry labs.
Labyrinthitis, also known as vestibular neuritis, is the inflammation of inner ear.
Lactose intolerance is a condition in which people have symptoms due to the decreased ability to digest lactose, a sugar found in dairy products.
Lactylates are organic compounds that are FDA approved for use as food additives and cosmetic ingredients (i.e. lactylates are food grade emulsifiers).
A lamella (plural lamellae) is a small plate or flake, from the Latin, and may also be used to refer to collections of fine sheets of material held adjacent to one another, in a gill-shaped structure, often with fluid in between though sometimes simply a set of 'welded' plates.
The Lanterman Developmental Disabilities Act (AB 846), also known as the Lanterman Act, is a California law, initially proposed by Assembly member Frank D. Lanterman in 1973 and passed in 1977, that gives people with developmental disabilities the right to services and supports that enable them to live a more independent and normal life.
Lanthanide triflates are triflate salts of the lanthanide family with many uses in organic chemistry as Lewis acid catalysts.
The Las Piñas Chamber of Commerce & Industry (LPCCI), is a non-stock, non-profit organization, chartered on October 29, 1993.
LAUGFS Holdings Limited is a diversified coglomerate from Sri Lanka and has since expanded overseas.
Laupheim is a city in southern Germany in the state of Baden-Württemberg.
The law of the United States comprises many levels of codified and uncodified forms of law, of which the most important is the United States Constitution, the foundation of the federal government of the United States.
Lawrence Batley OBE (15 February 1911 – 27 August 2002) was an entrepreneur and philanthropist who was born in the town of Huddersfield, in the English county of Yorkshire.
Lawrence Liang is a professor of law at Ambedkar University Delhi.
Lawrence A. Ricci (June 17, 1945 – October 2005) was a reputed Genovese crime family caporegime.
Leerom Segal (born April 19, 1979 in Tel Aviv, Israel) is a Canadian entrepreneur, humanitarian, and philanthropist.
Legal drug trade, as with other goods object of commerce, in opposition to smuggling or ''illegal'' drug trade, most psychotropic substances' commerce is under control and taxation by world governments, regardless of the relative perceived danger of the goods that are the object of legislation.
The legal history of cannabis in the United States pertains to the regulation of cannabis (legal term marijuana or marihuana) for medical, recreational, and industrial purposes in the United States.
The Leimgruber–Batcho indole synthesis is a series of organic reactions that produce indoles from o-nitrotoluenes 1.