A Checklist of Painters from c1200-1994 is the second edition of a book first published in 1978 by the Courtauld Institute of Art.
In Computer Science, an ABox is an "assertion component"—a fact associated with a terminological vocabulary within a knowledge base.
aceMedia is a multimedia content management software package that was funded by the European Union, and developed from 2004 to 2007.
ACiD Productions (ACiD) is a digital art group.
American Civil Liberties Union v. James Clapper, No.
Acorn is a raster graphic editor for macOS developed by August Mueller of Flying Meat Inc, based out of Mukilteo, Washington, United States.
The Active Archive Alliance is a trade association that promotes a method of tiered storage which gives the user access to data across a virtual file system that migrates data between multiple storage systems and media types including solid-state drive/flash, hard disk drives, magnetic tape, optical disk, and cloud.
Adaptive hypermedia (AH) uses hypermedia which is adaptive according to a user model.
Mozilla add-ons are installable enhancements to the Mozilla Foundation's projects, including Firefox, Thunderbird, SeaMonkey, and Sunbird.
Archival Data Description Mark-up Language (ADDML) is a standard describing a collection of data files.
Adobe Bridge is a digital asset management app developed by Adobe Systems and first released with Adobe Creative Suite 2.
Adobe Flash is a deprecated multimedia software platform used for production of animations, rich Internet applications, desktop applications, mobile applications, mobile games and embedded web browser video players.
Adobe FrameMaker is a document processor designed for writing and editing large or complex documents, including structured documents.
Adobe Premiere Pro is a timeline-based video editing app developed by Adobe Systems and published as part of the Adobe Creative Cloud licensing program.
Advanced Scientific Data Format is a proposed replacement to the FITS standard for astronomical images and other astronomical data.
Advanced Systems Format (formerly Advanced Streaming Format, Active Streaming Format) is Microsoft's proprietary digital audio/digital video container format, especially meant for streaming media.
AES52 is a standard first published by the Audio Engineering Society in March 2006 that specifies the insertion of unique identifiers into the AES3 digital audio transport structure.
, abbreviated to AIMS is a space for accessing and discussing agricultural information management standards, tools and methodologies connecting information workers worldwide to build a global community of practice.
AGRIS (International System for Agricultural Science and Technology) is a global public domain database with more than 8 million structured bibliographical records on agricultural science and technology.
AirPlay is a proprietary protocol stack/suite developed by Apple Inc. that allows wireless streaming between devices of audio, video, device screens, and photos, together with related metadata.
Akonadi is a storage service for personal information management (PIM) data and metadata named after the oracle goddess of justice in Ghana.
Al-Budeiri Library (Arabic: مكتبة العائلة البديرية Maktabat al-'A'ilat al-Budairiyya) is a small private library and archive located in the Old City of Jerusalem.
Alexander Street Press (ASP) is an electronic academic database publisher.
All Media Network (formerly All Media Guide (AMG) and AllRovi) is an American company that owns and maintains AllMusic, AllMovie, AllGame (until its closure in 2014), SideReel and Celebified.
AllMusic (previously known as All Music Guide or AMG) is an online music guide.
ALTO (Analyzed Layout and Text Object) is an open XML Schema developed by the EU-funded project called METAe.
Amazon S3 (Simple Storage Service) is a cloud computing web service offered by Amazon Web Services (AWS).
Amazon.com has attracted criticism from multiple sources, where the ethics of certain business practices and policies have been drawn into question.
On the Amiga, the Old File System was the filesystem for AmigaOS before the Amiga Fast File System.
AmigaDOS is the disk operating system of the AmigaOS, which includes file systems, file and directory manipulation, the command-line interface, and file redirection.
AmigaOS 4 (abbreviated as OS4 or AOS4) is a line of Amiga operating systems which runs on PowerPC microprocessors.
Anchor modeling is an agile database modeling technique suited for information that changes over time both in structure and content.
Ancillary data (commonly abbreviated as ANC data), in the context of television systems, refers to a means which by non-video information (such as audio, other forms of essence, and metadata) may be embedded within the serial digital interface.
Andalé Sans (usually appearing as Andale Sans) is a proportional sans-serif typeface designed by Steve Matteson to complement its monospaced counterpart, Andalé Mono.
Andrew Mattei Gleason (19212008) was an American mathematician who as a young World War II naval officer broke German and Japanese military codes, then over the succeeding sixty years made fundamental contributions to widely varied areas of mathematics, including the solution of Hilbert's fifth problem, and was a leader in reform and innovation in teaching at all levels.
The Animal Science Image Gallery a new service for teachers announced by The Animal and Dairy News.
Anjali Nayar is a Canadian filmmaker, multimedia storyteller and technologist.
Annodex is a digital media format developed by CSIRO to provide annotation and indexing of continuous media, such as audio and video.
An annotation is a metadatum (e.g. a post, explanation, markup) attached to location or other data.
In metadata, Annotea is an RDF standard sponsored by the W3C to enhance document-based collaboration via shared document metadata based on tags, bookmarks, and other annotations.
ANPA-1312 is a 7-bit news agency text markup specification published by the Newspaper Association of America, designed to standardize the content and structure of text news articles.
Anthony Judge, (Port Said, 21 January 1940) is mainly known for his career at the Union of International Associations (UIA), where he has been Director of Communications and Research, as well as Assistant Secretary-General.
Anti-computer forensics (sometimes counter forensics) is a general term for a set of techniques used as countermeasures to forensic analysis.
Apache Calcite is an open source framework for building databases and data management systems.
Apache ObJectRelationalBridge (OJB) is an Object/Relational mapping tool that allows transparent persistence for Java Objects against relational databases.
Apache Subversion (often abbreviated SVN, after its command name svn) is a software versioning and revision control system distributed as open source under the Apache License.
An APE tag is a tag used to add metadata, such as the title, artist, or track number, to digital audio files.
Aperture is a discontinued photo editing and management computer program developed by Apple Inc. for the macOS operating system, first released in 2005, which was available from the Mac App Store.
An aperture card is a type of punched card with a cut-out window into which a chip of microfilm is mounted.
Apple File System (APFS) is a proprietary file system for macOS High Sierra and later, iOS 10.3 and later, tvOS 10.2 and later, and watchOS 3.2 and later, developed and deployed by Apple Inc. It aims to fix core problems of HFS+ (also called Mac OS Extended), APFS's predecessor on these operating systems.
The Apple II graphics were composed of idiosyncratic modes and settings that could be exploited.
Apple Lossless, also known as Apple Lossless Audio Codec (ALAC), or Apple Lossless Encoder (ALE), is an audio coding format, and its reference audio codec implementation, developed by Apple Inc. for lossless data compression of digital music.
Photos is a photo management and editing application developed by Apple.
Application discovery and understanding (ADU) is the process of automatically analyzing artifacts of a software application and determining metadata structures associated with the application in the form of lists of data elements and business rules.
In the computer information sciences, an application profile consists of a set of metadata elements, policies, and guidelines defined for a particular application.
In computer programming, an application programming interface (API) is a set of subroutine definitions, protocols, and tools for building software.
AppStream is an agreement between major Linux vendors (i.e. Red Hat, Canonical, SUSE, Debian, Mandriva, etc.) to create an infrastructure for application installers on Linux and sharing of metadata.
ArcGIS is a geographic information system (GIS) for working with maps and geographic information.
The Archaeology Data Service (ADS) is an open access digital archive for archaeological research outputs.
Archival science, or archival studies, is the study and theory of building and curating archives, which are collections of recordings and data storage devices.
An archive file is a file that is composed of one or more computer files along with metadata........
An archivist (AR-kiv-ist) is an information professional who assesses, collects, organizes, preserves, maintains control over, and provides access to records and archives determined to have long-term value.
Arden syntax is a markup language used for representing and sharing medical knowledge.
Argus – the Audit Record Generation and Utilization System is the first implementation of network flow monitoring, and is an ongoing open source network flow monitor project.
An ARRL radiogram is an instance of formal written message traffic routed by a network of amateur radio operators through traffic nets, called the National Traffic System (NTS).
Art UK is a registered charity in the United Kingdom, previously known as the Public Catalogue Foundation.
The American Society of Cinematographers Color Decision List (ASC CDL) is a format for the exchange of basic primary color grading information between equipment and software from different manufacturers.
ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication.
ASP.NET Dynamic Data is a Ruby on Rails-inspired web application scaffolding framework from Microsoft, shipped as an extension to ASP.NET, that can be used to build data-driven web applications.
The Aspen Movie Map was a revolutionary hypermedia system developed at MIT by a team working with Andrew Lippman in 1978 with funding from ARPA.
The Asset Description Metadata Schema (ADMS) is a common metadata vocabulary to describe standards, so-called interoperability assets, on the Web.
An assignment cover sheet is a paper used by students when completing assignments at university for their courses.
The Association of Moving Image Archivists (AMIA) is a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit organization established to advance the field of moving image archiving by fostering cooperation among individuals and organizations concerned with the acquisition, description, preservation, exhibition and use of moving image materials.
The Astrophysics Data System (ADS) is an online database of over eight million astronomy and physics papers from both peer reviewed and non-peer reviewed sources.
The name Atom applies to a pair of related Web standards.
In database systems, atomicity (or atomicness; from Greek atomos, undividable) is one of the ACID (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability) transaction properties.
Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) standards are a set of standards for digital television transmission over terrestrial, cable, and satellite networks.
In computing, an attribute is a specification that defines a property of an object, element, or file.
A name–value pair, key–value pair, field–value pair or attribute–value pair is a fundamental data representation in computing systems and applications.
An audio coding format (or sometimes audio compression format) is a content representation format for storage or transmission of digital audio (such as in digital television, digital radio and in audio and video files).
An audio file format is a file format for storing digital audio data on a computer system.
Audio Interchange File Format (AIFF) is an audio file format standard used for storing sound data for personal computers and other electronic audio devices.
Audio Video Interleave (also Audio Video Interleaved), known by its initials AVI, is a multimedia container format introduced by Microsoft in November 1992 as part of its Video for Windows software.
Australia.gov.au is an Australian public sector website, created by the Government of Australia to provide a single entry point to government in Australia.
ARROW is a national demonstrator project funded by the Australian Commonwealth Department of Education, Science and Training, under the Research Information Infrastructure Framework for Australian Higher Education for the support of digital repositories of Australian content.
The Australian Series System is an archival control or metadata system, used primarily to describe records in the custody of archival institutions.
Automatic content recognition (ACR) is an identification technology to recognize content played on a media device or present in a media file.
Automatic image annotation (also known as automatic image tagging or linguistic indexing) is the process by which a computer system automatically assigns metadata in the form of captioning or keywords to a digital image.
AXMEDIS is a set of European Union digital content standards, initially created as a research project partially supported by the European Commission under the Information Society Technologies (IST DG-INFSO) programme of the Sixth Framework Programme (FP6).
In information technology, a backup, or the process of backing up, refers to the copying into an archive file of computer data so it may be used to restore the original after a data loss event.
BagIt is a set of hierarchical file system conventions designed to support disk-based storage and network transfer of arbitrary digital content.
The Barrow Area Information Database (BAID) is designed to support Arctic science with a special focus on the research hubs of Barrow, Atqasuk and Ivotuk on the North Slope of Alaska.
BASE (Bielefeld Academic Search Engine) is a multi-disciplinary search engine to scholarly internet resources, created by Bielefeld University Library in Bielefeld, Germany.
Base4 is a Free (LGPL) application server for generating, sharing and re-using.Net data layers; this is intended to allow a development team to leverage existing enterprise systems and common functionality instead starting from scratch.
In computing, batch processing refers to a computer working through a queue or batch of separate jobs (programs) without manual intervention (non-interactive).
BBC Redux is a BBC Research & Development system that digitally records television and radio output in the United Kingdom produced by the British Broadcasting Corporation.
bcache (abbreviated from block cache) is a cache in the Linux kernel's block layer, which is used for accessing secondary storage devices.
The Be File System (BFS) is the native file system for the BeOS.
BEA Systems, Inc. was a company specialized in enterprise infrastructure software products which was wholly acquired by Oracle Corporation on April 29, 2008.
Ben Wizner (born 1971) is an American lawyer, writer, and civil liberties advocate with the American Civil Liberties Union.
Bencode (pronounced like B-encode) is the encoding used by the peer-to-peer file sharing system BitTorrent for storing and transmitting loosely structured data.
A bibliographic record is an entry in a bibliographic index (or a library catalog) which represents and describes a specific resource.
Bielefeld University (Universität Bielefeld) is a university in Bielefeld, Germany.
A binary file is a computer file that is not a text file.
A binary repository manager is a software tool designed to optimize the download and storage of binary files used and produced in software development.
BinHex, originally short for "binary-to-hexadecimal", is a binary-to-text encoding system that was used on the classic Mac OS for sending binary files through e-mail.
Bioimage informatics is a subfield of bioinformatics and computational biology.
The Bioinformatic Harvester was a bioinformatic meta search engine created by the European Molecular Biology Laboratory and subsequently hosted and further developed by KIT Karlsruhe Institute of Technology for genes and protein-associated information.
Bioline International is a non-profit cooperative that operates an online platform for sharing works by peer-reviewed open access bioscience journals published in developing countries in Africa, Asia, and South America.
The BioSample Database (BioSD) is a database at European Bioinformatics Institute for the information about the biological samples used in sequencing.
In telecommunications and computing, bit rate (bitrate or as a variable R) is the number of bits that are conveyed or processed per unit of time.
BitBake is a make-like build tool with the special focus of distributions and packages for embedded Linux cross compilation, although it is not limited to that.
In computing, a bitmap is a mapping from some domain (for example, a range of integers) to bits.
Bitmessage is a decentralized, encrypted, peer-to-peer, trustless communications protocol that can be used by one person to send encrypted messages to another person, or to multiple subscribers.
BitTorrent (abbreviated to BT) is a communication protocol for peer-to-peer file sharing (P2P) which is used to distribute data and electronic files over the Internet.
Bitzi was a website, operating from 2001 to 2013, where volunteers shared reports about any kind of digital file, with identifying metadata, commentary, and other ratings.
The Blackmagic Cinema Camera (often simply the Cinema Camera or BMDCC) is a digital movie camera developed and manufactured by Blackmagic Design and released on September 4, 2012.
The Blackmagic URSA is a digital movie camera developed and manufactured by Blackmagic Design, released on August 8, 2014.
Body text is the text forming the main content of a book, magazine, web page or other printed matter.
A book is a series of pages assembled for easy portability and reading, as well as the composition contained in it.
In the context of the World Wide Web, a bookmark is a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) that is stored for later retrieval in any of various storage formats.
Boundless Informant (stylized as BOUNDLESSINFORMANT) is a big data analysis and data visualization tool used by the United States National Security Agency (NSA).
Brønnøysund Register Centre (Norwegian Bokmål: Brønnøysundregistrene, Norwegian Nynorsk: Brønnøysundregistra) is a Norwegian government agency that is responsible for the management of numerous public registers for Norway, and governmental systems for digital exchange of information.
The British National Corpus (BNC) is a 100-million-word text corpus of samples of written and spoken English from a wide range of sources.
Broadcast Wave Format (BWF) is an extension of the popular Microsoft WAV audio format and is the recording format of most file-based non-linear digital recorders used for motion picture, radio and television production.
Broadjam is a US-based music community website, founded in September 1999.
A BSAVE Image (aka "BSAVED Image") as it is referenced in a graphics program is an image file format created usually by saving raw video memory to disk (sometimes but not always in a BASIC program using the BSAVE command).
The Binary Universal Form for the Representation of meteorological data (BUFR) is a binary data format maintained by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO).
In NeXTSTEP, OPENSTEP, GNUstep, and their lineal descendants macOS and iOS, a bundle is a file directory with a defined structure and file extension, allowing related files to be grouped together as a conceptually single item.
The MCP (Master Control Program) is the proprietary operating system of the Burroughs small, medium and large systems, including the Unisys Clearpath/MCP systems.
Business intelligence (BI) comprises the strategies and technologies used by enterprises for the data analysis of business information.
Business Semantics Management (BSM) encompasses the technology, methodology, organization, and culture that brings business stakeholders together to collaboratively realize the reconciliation of their heterogeneous metadata; and consequently the application of the derived business semantics patterns to establish semantic alignment between the underlying data structures.
C++/CX (component extensions) is a language extension for C++ compilers from Microsoft that enables C++ programmers to write programs for the new Windows Runtime platform, or.
The Haskell Cabal is the Common Architecture for Building '''A'''pplications and '''L'''ibraries; it aids in the packaging and distribution of software packages.
CAD data exchange is a modality of data exchange used to translate data between different Computer-aided design (CAD) authoring systems or between CAD and other downstream CAx systems.
Calibre (stylised calibre) is a cross-platform open-source suite of e-book software.
A call detail record (CDR) is a data record produced by a telephone exchange or other telecommunications equipment that documents the details of a telephone call or other telecommunications transaction (e.g., text message) that passes through that facility or device.
In computer science, a calling convention is an implementation-level (low-level) scheme for how subroutines receive parameters from their caller and how they return a result.
In digital photography, the Camera Image File Format (CIFF) file format is a raw image format designed by Canon, and also used as a container format to store metadata in APP0 of JPEG images.
Canadiana.org, formerly the Canadian Institute for Historical Microreproductions, is a non-profit and charitable organization dedicated to preserving Canada's heritage and making it accessible online.
Carl Sassenrath (born 1957 in California) is an architect of operating systems and computer languages.
In library and information science, cataloging (or cataloguing) is the process of creating metadata representing information resources, such as books, sound recordings, moving images, etc.
Cataloging & Classification Quarterly is a peer-reviewed, scholarly journal that publishes articles about library cataloging, classification, metadata, indexing, information retrieval, information management, and other topics related to library cataloging.
CD Player is a computer program that plays audio CDs using the computer's sound card.
A CD ripper, CD grabber, or CD extractor is software that convert tracks on a Compact Disc to standard computer sound files, such as WAV, MP3, or Ogg Vorbis.
CDFinder is an application for Apple's Mac OS X developed by Norbert M. Doerner since 1995.
The UC CEISMIC Canterbury Earthquakes Digital Archive programme was established in 2011 with the aim of preserving the knowledge, memories and earthquake experiences of people of the Canterbury region.
CellML is an XML based markup language for describing mathematical models.
In computing, Ceph (pronounced or) is a free-software storage platform, implements object storage on a single distributed computer cluster, and provides interfaces for object-, block- and file-level storage.
In databases, change data capture (CDC) is a set of software design patterns used to determine (and track) the data that has changed so that action can be taken using the changed data.
An automatic channel memory system (ACMS) is a system in which a digitally controlled radio tuner such as a TV set or VCR could search and memorize TV channels automatically.
Character encoding detection, charset detection, or code page detection is the process of heuristically guessing the character encoding of a series of bytes that represent text.
A chart of accounts (COA) is a created list of the accounts used by an organization to define each class of items for which money or the equivalent is spent or received.
Chasys Draw IES (formerly known as Chasys Draw Artist) is a suite of applications including a layer-based raster graphics editor with animation, vista-style icon support and super-resolution via image stacking (Chasys Draw IES Artist), a multi-threaded image file converter (Chasys Draw IES Converter) and a fast image viewer (Chasys Draw IES Viewer).
ChemXSeer project, funded by the National Science Foundation, is a public integrated digital library, database, and search engine for scientific papers in chemistry.
CinemaDNG is the result of an Adobe-led initiative to define an industry-wide open file format for digital cinema files.
CiteProc is the generic name for programs that produce formatted bibliographies and citations based on the metadata of the cited objects and the formatting instructions provided by Citation Style Language (CSL) styles.
x or CiteSeerX but DISPLAYTITLE only allows changing an initial letter to lower case --> CiteSeerx (originally called CiteSeer) is a public search engine and digital library for scientific and academic papers, primarily in the fields of computer and information science.
Citizen science (CS; also known as community science, crowd science, crowd-sourced science, civic science, volunteer monitoring, or networked science) is scientific research conducted, in whole or in part, by amateur (or nonprofessional) scientists.
Claire V. Eagan (born 1950) is a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Northern District of Oklahoma and also serves as a Judge on the United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court.
ClearForest was an Israeli software company that developed and marketed text analytics and text mining solutions.
ClickHouse is an open-source Column-oriented DBMS (columnar database management system) for online analytical processing (OLAP).
The Climate and Forecast (CF) metadata conventions are conventions for the description of Earth sciences data, intended to promote the processing and sharing of data files.
The Cloud Data Management Interface (CDMI) is a standard that specifies a protocol for self-provisioning, administering and accessing cloud storage.
A clustered file system is a file system which is shared by being simultaneously mounted on multiple servers.
In metadata, the representation term code refers to, and is used in the name of, data elements whose allowable values can be represented as enumerated lists.
ContextObjects in Spans, commonly abbreviated COinS, is a method to embed bibliographic metadata in the HTML code of web pages.
A cold case is a crime or an accident that has not yet been fully solved and is not the subject of a recent criminal investigation, but for which new information could emerge from new witness testimony, re-examined archives, new or retained material evidence, as well as fresh activities of the suspect.
A collaboratory, as defined by William Wulf in 1989, is a “center without walls, in which the nation’s researchers can perform their research without regard to physical location, interacting with colleagues, accessing instrumentation, sharing data and computational resources, accessing information in digital libraries” (Wulf, 1989).
Collections management involves the development, storage, and preservation of collections and cultural heritage.
In digital imaging systems, color management is the controlled conversion between the color representations of various devices, such as image scanners, digital cameras, monitors, TV screens, film printers, computer printers, offset presses, and corresponding media.
A COM file is a type of simple executable file.
In computing, a comma-separated values (CSV) file is a delimited text file that uses a comma to separate values.
In computer programming, a comment is a programmer-readable explanation or annotation in the source code of a computer program.
CommerceNet Singapore is a not-for-profit organisation.
Common Crawl is a nonprofit 501(c)(3) organization that crawls the web and freely provides its archives and datasets to the public.
Common Intermediate Language (CIL), formerly called Microsoft Intermediate Language (MSIL), is the lowest-level human-readable programming language defined by the Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) specification and is used by the.NET Framework,.NET Core, and Mono.
The common warehouse metamodel (CWM) defines a specification for modeling metadata for relational, non-relational, multi-dimensional, and most other objects found in a data warehousing environment.
Communications data (sometimes referred to as traffic data or metadata) concerns information about communication.
A classification scheme is the product of arranging things into kinds of things (classes) or into groups of classes.
Sound can be recorded and stored and played using either digital or analog techniques.
The following comparison of audio players compares general and technical information for a number of software media player programs.
This article compares two programming languages: C# with Java.
The following is a comparison of e-book formats used to create and publish e-books.
This is a comparison of binary executable file formats which, once loaded by a suitable executable loader, can be directly executed by the CPU rather than become interpreted by software.
This is a comparison of image file formats.
This article presents a comparison of image viewers and image organizers which can be used for image viewing.
This article focuses on iPod file managers.
This article presents a comparison of digital image metadata viewers and metadata editors.
These tables compare free software / open-source operating systems.
Many of the world's radio stations broadcast in a variety of analog and digital formats.
This table compares features of container formats (video file formats).
The following comparison of video players compares general and technical information for notable software media player programs.
In computer science, a compiler-compiler or compiler generator is a programming tool that creates a parser, interpreter, or compiler from some form of formal description of a language and machine.
Component Object Model (COM) is a binary-interface standard for software components introduced by Microsoft in 1993.
Computer data storage, often called storage or memory, is a technology consisting of computer components and recording media that are used to retain digital data.
A computer file is a computer resource for recording data discretely in a computer storage device.
Computer forensics (also known as computer forensic science) is a branch of digital forensic science pertaining to evidence found in computers and digital storage media.
Computer-aided software engineering (CASE) is the domain of software tools used to design and implement applications.
A configuration management database (CMDB) is a data repository that acts as a data warehouse or inventory for information technology (IT) installations.
CORE (COnnecting REpositories) is a service provided by the Knowledge Media Institute (KMi), based at The Open University, United Kingdom.
The conservation and restoration of new media art is the study and practice of techniques for sustaining new media art created using from materials such as digital, biological, performative, and other variable media.
The conservation and restoration of performance art is the process of documenting, collecting, and prolonging the life of Performance Art.
The Conservation Geoportal was an online geoportal, intended to provide a comprehensive listing of geographic information systems (GIS) datasets and web map service relevant to biodiversity conservation.
Content creation is the contribution of information to any media and most especially to digital media for an end-user/audience in specific contexts.
A content discovery platform is an implemented software recommendation platform which uses recommender system tools.
A content package is a file containing content in a database metadata.
Content Repository API for Java (JCR) is a specification for a Java platform application programming interface (API) to access content repositories in a uniform manner.
Content sniffing, also known as media type sniffing or MIME sniffing, is the practice of inspecting the content of a byte stream to attempt to deduce the file format of the data within it.
Content storage management (CSM) is a technique for the evolution of traditional media archive technology used by media companies and content owners to store and protect valuable file-based media assets.
Content strategy refers to the planning, development, and management of content—written or in other media.
Content-addressable storage, also referred to as associative storage or abbreviated CAS, is a mechanism for storing information that can be retrieved based on its content, not its storage location.
Content-based image retrieval (CBIR), also known as query by image content (QBIC) and content-based visual information retrieval (CBVIR) is the application of computer vision techniques to the image retrieval problem, that is, the problem of searching for digital images in large databases (see this survey (Original source, 404'd), Michael Lew, et al., ACM Transactions on Multimedia Computing, Communications, and Applications, pp. 1–19, 2006. for a recent scientific overview of the CBIR field).
Contentverse is a document management system designed by Computhink, Inc. for use in businesses within various industries.
A context-sensitive user interface is one which can automatically choose from a multiplicity of options based on the current or previous state(s) of the program operation.
Controlled vocabularies provide a way to organize knowledge for subsequent retrieval.
The Copyright and Related Rights Regulations 2003 transpose Directive 2001/29/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 May 2001 on the harmonisation of certain aspects of copyright and related rights in the information society, often known as the EU copyright directive, into United Kingdom law.
The Copyright Directive (officially the Directive 2001/29/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 May 2001 on the harmonisation of certain aspects of copyright and related rights in the information society, also known as the Information Society Directive or the InfoSoc Directive), is a directive of the European Union enacted to implement the WIPO Copyright Treaty and to harmonise aspects of copyright law across Europe, such as copyright exceptions. The directive was enacted under the internal market provisions of the Treaty of Rome. The directive was subject to unprecedented lobbying and has been cited as a success for copyright industries. The directive gives EU Member States significant freedom in certain aspects of transposition. Member States had until 22 December 2002 to implement the directive into their national laws. However, only Greece and Denmark met the deadline and the European Commission eventually initiated enforcement action against six Member States for non-implementation.
A correlation database is a database management system (DBMS) that is data-model-independent and designed to efficiently handle unplanned, ad hoc queries in an analytical system environment.
In climatology, the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) is a collaborative framework designed to improve our knowledge of climate change, being the analog of Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) for global coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation models (GCMs).
The compressed ROM file system (or cramfs) is a free (GPL'ed) read-only Linux file system designed for simplicity and space-efficiency.
CRISSCROSS/PROTON is a top-secret signals intelligence database system used by the CIA, the National Security Agency, the Drug Enforcement Administration, and the Defense Intelligence Agency.
Criticism of Dropbox centers around various forms of security and privacy controversies surrounding Dropbox, an American company specializing in cloud storage and file synchronization.
A cue sheet, or cue file, is a metadata file which describes how the tracks of a CD or DVD are laid out.
Cumulus is a digital asset management software designed as a client/server system developed by Canto Software.
The CXFS file system (Clustered XFS) is a proprietary shared disk file system designed by Silicon Graphics (SGI) specifically to be used in a storage area network (SAN) environment.
D-Scribe Digital Publishing is an open access electronic publishing program of the University Library System (ULS) of the University of Pittsburgh.
DAEMON Tools is a virtual drive and optical disc authoring program for Microsoft Windows and Mac OS.
"Dance with Me" is a song by American recording artist Kelly Clarkson from her seventh studio album, Piece by Piece (2015).
A dandelion chip is an electronic device, installed on the bayonet mount of a non-electronic camera lens or adapter, which enables electronic interoperation with certain cameras.
Daniel Harple (born July 23, 1959) is an American entrepreneur, investor, inventor and engineer best known for his role in the creation of several Internet standards, among them, Real Time Streaming Protocol used in entertainment and communications systems such as YouTube, RealPlayer, QuickTime, Skype, and others.
Dart Music, or Dart, is a digital music aggregator specialized in distributing classical music to online music vendors and streaming services.
The Darwin Information Typing Architecture or Document Information Typing Architecture (DITA) is an XML data model for authoring and publishing.
Data is a set of values of qualitative or quantitative variables.
Data (treated as singular, plural, or as a mass noun) is any sequence of one or more symbols given meaning by specific act(s) of interpretation.
Data corruption refers to errors in computer data that occur during writing, reading, storage, transmission, or processing, which introduce unintended changes to the original data.
Data curation is a broad term used to indicate processes and activities related to the organization and integration of data collected from various sources, annotation of the data, and publication and presentation of the data such that the value of the data is maintained over time, and the data remains available for reuse and preservation.
Data defined storage (also referred to as a data centric approach) is a marketing term for managing, protecting, and realizing value from data by uniting application, information and storage tiers.
In computing, a data definition specification (DDS) is a guideline to ensure comprehensive and consistent data definition.
A data dictionary, or metadata repository, as defined in the IBM Dictionary of Computing, is a "centralized repository of information about data such as meaning, relationships to other data, origin, usage, and format".
The Data Documentation Initiative (also known as DDI or DDI Metadata) is an international standard for describing surveys, questionnaires, statistical data files, and social sciences study-level information.
In metadata, the term data element is an atomic unit of data that has precise meaning or precise semantics.
In metadata, a data element definition is a human readable phrase or sentence associated with a data element within a data dictionary that describes the meaning or semantics of a data element.
Data extraction is the act or process of retrieving data out of (usually unstructured or poorly structured) data sources for further data processing or data storage (data migration).
A Data file is a computer file which stores data to be used by a computer application or system.
A data grid is an architecture or set of services that gives individuals or groups of users the ability to access, modify and transfer extremely large amounts of geographically distributed data for research purposes.
Data integration involves combining data residing in different sources and providing users with a unified view of them.
Data integrity is the maintenance of, and the assurance of the accuracy and consistency of, data over its entire life-cycle, and is a critical aspect to the design, implementation and usage of any system which stores, processes, or retrieves data.
The data link layer, or layer 2, is the second layer of the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking.
Data management comprises all disciplines related to managing data as a valuable resource.
A data management plan or DMP is a formal document that outlines how data are to be handled both during a research project, and after the project is completed.
In computing and data management, data mapping is the process of creating data element mappings between two distinct data models.
Data migration is the process of transferring data between computer storage types or file formats.
In ArcGIS, a data model a set of database design specifications for objects in a GIS application.
Data preservation is the act of conserving and maintaining both the safety and integrity of data.
Data profiling is the process of examining the data available from an existing information source (e.g. a database or a file) and collecting statistics or informative summaries about that data.
Data proliferation refers to the prodigious amount of data, structured and unstructured, that businesses and governments continue to generate at an unprecedented rate and the usability problems that result from attempting to store and manage that data.
Data publishing (also data publication) is the act of releasing research data in published form for (re)use by others.
In computer main memory, auxiliary storage and computer buses, data redundancy is the existence of data that is additional to the actual data and permits correction of errors in stored or transmitted data.
Data remanence is the residual representation of digital data that remains even after attempts have been made to remove or erase the data.
Data scraping is a technique in which a computer program extracts data from human-readable output coming from another program.
A data steward is a role within an organization responsible for utilizing an organization's data governance processes to ensure fitness of data elements - both the content and metadata.
Data Transformation Services, or DTS, is a set of objects and utilities to allow the automation of extract, transform and load operations to or from a database.
In computing, a data warehouse (DW or DWH), also known as an enterprise data warehouse (EDW), is a system used for reporting and data analysis, and is considered a core component of business intelligence.
A database is an organized collection of data, stored and accessed electronically.
The database catalog of a database instance consists of metadata in which definitions of database objects such as base tables, views (virtual tables), synonyms, value ranges, indexes, users, and user groups are stored.
Database testing usually consists of a layered process, including the user interface (UI) layer, the business layer, the data access layer and the database itself.
Data Observation Network for Earth (DataONE) is a platform for environmental and ecological science, to provide access to Earth observational data.
DataRank was an American company based in Fayetteville, Arkansas which specializes in providing businesses with tools for analyzing conversations about their brands and competitors.
In metadata, the term date is a representation term used to specify a calendar date in the Gregorian calendar.
David S. Schweikert (born March 3, 1962) is a member of the United States House of Representatives from Arizona, serving since 2011.
David Speers is an Australian journalist and the political editor at Sky News Australia, as well as host of PM Agenda, The Last Word and Speers Tonight.
DBeaver is an SQL client and a database administration tool.
De-identification is the process used to prevent a person's identity from being connected with information.
In compiler theory, dead code elimination (also known as DCE, dead code removal, dead code stripping, or dead code strip) is a compiler optimization to remove code which does not affect the program results.
Debian is a Unix-like computer operating system that is composed entirely of free software, and packaged by a group of individuals participating in the Debian Project.
The Debian build toolchain is a collection of software utilities used to create Debian source packages (.dsc) and Debian binary packages (.deb files) from upstream source tarballs.
A decompiler is a computer program that takes an executable file as input, and attempts to create a high level source file which can be recompiled successfully.
DeepPeep was a search engine that aimed to crawl and index every database on the public Web.
A Definitive Media Library is a secure Information Technology repository in which an organisation's definitive, authorised versions of software media are stored and protected.
Compellent Technologies, Inc, founded in 2002, was a provider of enterprise computer data storage systems that automate data movement at the block level.
Dell Fluid File System, or FluidFS, is a shared-disk filesystem made by Dell that provides distributed file systems to clients.
Demographic statistics are measures of the characteristics of, or changes to, a population.
, Coil—A Circle of Children, is a Japanese science fiction anime television series depicting a near future where semi-immersive augmented reality (AR) technology has just begun to enter the mainstream.
Dennis Lynn Rader (born March 9, 1945) is an American serial killer known as the BTK Killer or the BTK Strangler.
The Department of Defense Architecture Framework (DoDAF) is an architecture framework for the United States Department of Defense (DoD) that provides visualization infrastructure for specific stakeholders concerns through viewpoints organized by various views.
The Department of Defense Discovery Metadata Specification (DoD Discovery Metadata Specification or DDMS) is a Net-Centric Enterprise Services (NCES) metadata initiative.
Design Web Format (DWF) is a secure file format developed by Autodesk for the efficient distribution and communication of rich design data to anyone who needs to view, review, or print design files.
Desktop organizer software applications are applications that automatically create useful organizational structures from desktop content from heterogeneous types of content including email, files, contacts, companies, RSS news feeds, photos, music and chat sessions.
Desktop search tools search within a user's own computer files as opposed to searching the Internet.
Dialnorm is the metadata parameter that controls playback gain within the Dolby Laboratories Dolby Digital (AC-3) audio compression system.
Dieselpoint, Inc. is a privately held enterprise search company headquartered in Chicago, IL.
DigiCipher 2, or simply DCII, is a proprietary standard format of digital signal transmission and it doubles as an encryption standard with MPEG-2/MPEG-4 signal video compression used on many communications satellite television and audio signals.
The Digital Access to a Sky Century @ Harvard (DASCH) is a project to preserve and digitize images recorded on astronomical photographic plates created before astronomy became dominated by digital imaging.
Digital anthropology is the anthropological study of the relationship between humans and digital-era technology.
Digital artifactual value is a preservation term that refers to the intrinsic value of a digital object, rather than the informational content of the object.
A digital asset, in essence, is anything that exists in a binary format and comes with the right to use.
The management of digital assets requires the unbroken maintenance of the ownership of a digitized object while permitting access to those who have obtained rights to that access.
A digital camera or digicam is a camera that captures photographs in digital memory.
A digital channel election was the process by which television stations in the United States chose which physical radio-frequency TV channel they would permanently use after the analog shutdown in 2009.
Digital cinematography is the process of capturing (recording) a motion picture using digital image sensors rather than through film stock.
A container or wrapper format is a metafile format whose specification describes how different elements of data and metadata coexist in a computer file.
Digital curation is the selection, preservation, maintenance, collection and archiving of digital assets.
Digital footprint or digital shadow refers to one's unique set of traceable digital activities, actions, contributions and communications that are manifested on the Internet or on digital devices.
Digital Guardian is an American data loss prevention software company which provides software both at the end-user level and in corporate networks, servers, databases, and the cloud.
Digital humanities (DH) is an area of scholarly activity at the intersection of computing or digital technologies and the disciplines of the humanities.
A digital imaging technician (DIT) works in the motion picture film industry.
Digital Item is the basic unit of transaction in the MPEG-21 framework.
A digital library, digital repository, or digital collection, is an online database of digital objects that can include text, still images, audio, video, or other digital media formats.
The Digital Media Initiative (DMI) was a British broadcast engineering project launched by the BBC in 2008.
Digital Negative (DNG) is a patented, open, non-free lossless raw image format written by Adobe used for digital photography.
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
A digital object memory (DOMe) is a digital storage space intended to keep permanently all related information about a concrete physical object instance that is collected during the lifespan of this object and thus forms a basic building block for the Internet of Things (IoT) by connecting digital information with physical objects.
Digital Packet Video Link (DPVL) is a video standard released by VESA in 2004.
In library and archival science, digital preservation is a formal endeavor to ensure that digital information of continuing value remains accessible and usable.
Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM; mondiale being Italian and French for "worldwide") is a set of digital audio broadcasting technologies designed to work over the bands currently used for analogue radio broadcasting including AM broadcasting, particularly shortwave, and FM broadcasting.
Digital rights management (DRM) is a set of access control technologies for restricting the use of proprietary hardware and copyrighted works.
Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB) is a set of internationally open standards for digital television.
A digital watermark is a kind of marker covertly embedded in a noise-tolerant signal such as an audio, video or image data.
Digitization, at WhatIs.com in Collins English Dictionary less commonly digitalization, is the process of converting information into a digital (i.e. computer-readable) format, in which the information is organized into bits.
A dimension is a structure that categorizes facts and measures in order to enable users to answer business questions.
In metadata, dimension is a set of equivalent units of measure, where equivalence between two units of measure is determined by the existence of a quantity preserving one-to-one correspondence between values measured in one unit of measure and values measured in the other unit of measure, independent of context, and where characterizing operations are the same.
Diplomatics (in American English, and in most anglophone countries), or diplomatic (in British English), is a scholarly discipline centred on the critical analysis of documents: especially, historical documents.
Discoverability is the degree to which of something, especially a piece of content or information, can be found in a search of a file, database, or other information system.
Disk encryption is a technology which protects information by converting it into unreadable code that cannot be deciphered easily by unauthorized people.
A disk image, in computing, is a computer file containing the contents and structure of a disk volume or of an entire data storage device, such as a hard disk drive, tape drive, floppy disk, optical disc or USB flash drive.
DisplayID is a VESA standard for metadata describing display device capabilities to the video source.
A distributed file system for cloud is a file system that allows many clients to have access to data and supports operations (create, delete, modify, read, write) on that data.
Distributed GIS refers to GI Systems that do not have all of the system components in the same physical location.
Distributive writing is the collective authorship of texts.
dm-cache is a component (more specifically, a target) of the Linux kernel's device mapper, which is a framework for mapping block devices onto higher-level virtual block devices.
In programming, a docstring is a string literal specified in source code that is used, like a comment, to document a specific segment of code.
Document Capture Software refers to applications that provide the ability and feature set to automate the process of scanning paper documents or importing electronic documents, often for the purposes of feeding advanced document classification and data collection processes.
A document management system (DMS) is a system (based on computer programs in the case of the management of digital documents) used to track, manage and store documents and reduce paper.
A document-oriented database, or document store, is a computer program designed for storing, retrieving and managing document-oriented information, also known as semi-structured data.
Dolby Atmos is the name of a surround sound technology announced by Dolby Laboratories in April 2012 and released in June that year, first utilized in Disney and Pixar's animated film Brave.
Dolby TrueHD is a lossless multi-channel audio codec developed by Dolby Laboratories which is used in home-entertainment equipment such as Blu-ray Disc players and A/V receivers.
Dominic P. Giampaolo is a software developer who helped develop the Be File System for the Be Operating System (BeOS) and currently works at Apple Inc. After graduating from Lewiston High School in Lewiston, Maine in 1987, he started studying political science at American University in Washington, DC, but changed to computer science after one semester.
In computer programming, a dope vector is a data structure used to hold information about a data object,, especially its memory layout.
Dove Medical Press is an academic publisher of open access peer-reviewed scientific and medical journals, with offices in Manchester, London (United Kingdom), Princeton, New Jersey (United States), and Auckland (New Zealand).
Drama annotation is the process of annotating the metadata of a drama.
@dril is a pseudonymous Twitter account best known for its idiosyncratic style of absurdist humor and non sequiturs.
Drupal is a free and open source content-management framework written in PHP and distributed under the GNU General Public License.
The Dublin Core Schema is a small set of vocabulary terms that can be used to describe digital resources (video, images, web pages, etc.), as well as physical resources such as books or CDs, and objects like artworks.
DVR-MS (Microsoft Digital Video Recording) is a proprietary video and audio file container format, developed by Microsoft used for storing TV content recorded by Windows XP Media Center Edition, Windows Vista and Windows 7.
Dynamic Business Modeling ("DBM") describes the ability to automate business models within an open framework.
In computer science, dynamic software updating (DSU) is a field of research pertaining to upgrading programs while they are running.
The e-Government Metadata Standard, e-GMS, is the UK e-Government Metadata Standard.
Eprints in Library and Information Science (E-LIS) is an international open access repository for academic papers in Library and Information Science (LIS).
E-Theses Online Service (EThOS) is a bibliographic database and union catalogue of electronic theses provided by the British Library, the National Library of the United Kingdom.
The Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF) is open-source software for building climate, numerical weather prediction, data assimilation, and other Earth science software applications.
Electronic Business using eXtensible Markup Language, commonly known as e-business XML, or ebXML (pronounced ee-bee-ex-em-el) as it is typically referred to, is a family of XML based standards sponsored by OASIS and UN/CEFACT whose mission is to provide an open, XML-based infrastructure that enables the global use of electronic business information in an interoperable, secure, and consistent manner by all trading partners.
Eclipse is an integrated development environment (IDE) used in computer programming, and is the most widely used Java IDE.
Ecological Metadata Language (EML) is a metadata standard developed by and for the ecology discipline.
eCOTOOL (e-competences tools) was an international project undertaken through the European Union's Lifelong Learning Programme, specifically the Leonardo da Vinci programme.
eCryptfs (Enterprise Cryptographic Filesystem) is a package of disk encryption software for Linux.
Educational technology is "the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using, and managing appropriate technological processes and resources".
The Eduserv Foundation was a United Kingdom nonprofit educational charity that worked to realise the benefits of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) for learners, researchers and the institutions that serve them.
Electronic articles are articles in scholarly journals or magazines that can be accessed via electronic transmission.
Electronic court filing (ECF), or e-filing, is the automated transmission of legal documents from an attorney, party or self-represented litigant to a court, from a court to an attorney, and from an attorney or other user to another attorney or other user of legal documents.
Electronic discovery (also e-discovery or ediscovery) refers to discovery in legal proceedings such as litigation, government investigations, or Freedom of Information Act requests, where the information sought is in electronic format (often referred to as electronically stored information or ESI).
Electronic message journaling is the process of retaining information relating to electronic messages.
Electronic publishing (also referred to as e-publishing or digital publishing or online publishing) includes the digital publication of e-books, digital magazines, and the development of digital libraries and catalogues.
Electrophysiology (from Greek ἥλεκτρον, ēlektron, "amber"; φύσις, physis, "nature, origin"; and -λογία, -logia) is the study of the electrical properties of biological cells and tissues.
Email archiving is the act of preserving and making searchable all email to/from an individual.
Email privacy is the broad topic dealing with issues of unauthorized access and inspection of electronic mail.
Emanuel Goldberg (עמנואל גולדברג; עמנואל גאָלדבערג; Эмануэль Гольдберг) (born: 31 August 1881; died: 13 September 1970) was an Israeli physicist and inventor.
EMC Atmos is a cloud storage services platform developed by EMC Corporation.
Encoded Archival Description (EAD) is an XML standard for encoding archival finding aids, maintained by the Technical Subcommittee for Encoded Archival Description of the Society of American Archivists, in partnership with the Library of Congress.
Enhanced publications or enhanced ebooks are a form of electronic publishing for the dissemination and sharing of research outcomes, whose first formal definition can be tracked back to 2009.
Enigma, a New York-based operational data management and intelligence company.
Enterprise content integration (ECI) is a marketing buzzword for middleware software technology, often used within large organizations, that connects together various types of computer systems that manage documents and digital content.
Enterprise content management (ECM) extends the concept of content management by adding a time line for each content item and possibly enforcing processes for the creation, approval and distribution of them.
Enterprise Data Management (EDM) is the ability of an organization to precisely define, easily integrate and effectively retrieve data for both internal applications and external communication.
Enterprise information integration (EII) is the ability to support a unified view of data and information for an entire organization.
Enterprise information security architecture (EISA) is a part of enterprise architecture focusing on information security throughout the enterprise.
An enterprise messaging system (EMS) or messaging system in brief is a set of published enterprise-wide standards that allows organizations to send semantically precise messages between computer systems.
Enterprise Volume Management System (EVMS) is a flexible, integrated volume management software used to manage storage systems under Linux.
EntireX DCOM is a commercial implementation of Microsoft's Distributed Component Object Model (DCOM) technology by Software AG for the Windows, AIX, HP/UX, Solaris, Linux, AS/400, z/OS, z/VM, and BS2000/OSD platforms.
Entity–attribute–value model (EAV) is a data model to encode, in a space-efficient manner, entities where the number of attributes (properties, parameters) that can be used to describe them is potentially vast, but the number that will actually apply to a given entity is relatively modest.
An entity–relationship model (ER model for short) describes interrelated things of interest in a specific domain of knowledge.
The Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is a key core capability in NASA’s Earth Science Data Systems Program.
EPUB is an e-book file format with the extension.epub EPUB files can be read using complying software on devices like smartphones, tablets, computers, or e-readers.
Error level analysis is the analysis of compression artifacts in digital data with lossy compression such as JPEG.
The ESP game is a human-based computation game developed to address the problem of creating difficult metadata.
The gives access to open data published by EU institutions, agencies and other bodies.
Eur-Lex (stylized EUR-Lex) is an official website of European Union law and other public documents of the European Union (EU), published in 24 official languages of the EU.
The “European Association for Grey Literature Exploitation” (EAGLE) was created in 1985 by European scientific and technical information centres and libraries in order to produce the bibliographic database “System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe” (SIGLE).
The European Case Law Identifier (ECLI) is an identifier for case law in Europe, implemented by the European Union Court of Justice, the European Court of Human Rights, the European Patent Office and several EU Member States.
The European Climate Assessment and Dataset (ECA&D) is a database of daily meteorological station observations across Europe and is gradually being extended to countries in the Middle East and North Africa.
The European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) is a web portal that brings together marine data, data products and metadata from diverse sources within Europe in a uniform way.
The European Nucleotide Archive (ENA) is a repository providing free and unrestricted access to annotated DNA and RNA sequences.
Europeana.eu is the EU digital platform for cultural heritage.
Evolutionary Technologies International (ETI) was a company focused on developing database tools and data warehousing.
eXeem was a peer-to-peer (P2P) file sharing client using the BitTorrent protocol.
eXeLearning is a free / libre software tool under GPL-2 that can be used to create educational interactive web content.
Exchangeable image file format (officially Exif, according to JEIDA/JEITA/CIPA specifications) is a standard that specifies the formats for images, sound, and ancillary tags used by digital cameras (including smartphones), scanners and other systems handling image and sound files recorded by digital cameras.
ExifTool is a free and open-source software program for reading, writing, and manipulating image, audio, video, and PDF metadata.
EXOFS (formerly known as OSDFS) is an object-based file system implemented on top of an external object store.
Extended Data Services (now XDS, previously EDS), is an American standard classified under Electronic Industries Alliance standard CEA-608-E for the delivery of any ancillary data (metadata) to be sent with an analog television program, or any other NTSC video signal.
Extended Display Identification Data (EDID) is a metadata format for display devices to describe their capabilities to a video source (e.g. graphics card or set-top box).
Extended file attributes are file system features that enable users to associate computer files with metadata not interpreted by the filesystem, whereas regular attributes have a purpose strictly defined by the filesystem (such as permissions or records of creation and modification times).
The extended file system, or ext, was implemented in April 1992 as the first file system created specifically for the Linux kernel.
The Extensible Device Metadata (XDM) specification is an open file format for embedding device-related metadata in JPEG and other common image files without breaking compatibility with ordinary image viewers.
The Extensible Metadata Platform (XMP) is an ISO standard, originally created by Adobe Systems Inc., for the creation, processing and interchange of standardized and custom metadata for digital documents and data sets.
In computing, extract, transform, load (ETL) refers to a process in database usage and especially in data warehousing.
F-Spot is an unmaintained image organizer, designed to provide personal photo management for the GNOME desktop environment.
Facebook Graph Search was a semantic search engine that was introduced by Facebook in March 2013.
Fairview is a secret program under which the National Security Agency cooperates with the American telecommunications company AT&T in order to collect phone, internet and e-mail data mainly of foreign countries' citizens at major cable landing stations and switching stations inside the United States.
The body of Faith Hedgepeth (born September 26, 1992), an undergraduate student in her third year at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNCCH), was found in her apartment by a friend on the morning of September 7, 2012.
The FAO Country Profiles is a multilingual web portal which repackages the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) vast archive of information on its global activities in agriculture and food security in a single area and catalogues it exclusively by country and thematic areas.
Compared with previous versions of Microsoft Windows, new features of Windows Vista are numerous, covering most aspects of the operating system.
Windows XP introduced many features not found in previous versions of Windows.
The Federal Intelligence Service (German: Bundesnachrichtendienst;, BND) is the foreign intelligence agency of Germany, directly subordinated to the Chancellor's Office.
A federated database system is a type of meta-database management system (DBMS), which transparently maps multiple autonomous database systems into a single federated database.
Communication between devices in a fibre channel network uses different elements of Fibre Channel standards.
FicML (Fiction Markup Language) is an XML format for fictional stories (short stories, novellas, novels, etc.). Originally conceived of by multiple contributors, it is an initiative and is in the process of forming its first specification.
A file archiver is a computer program that combines a number of files together into one archive file, or a series of archive files, for easier transportation or storage.
File attributes are metadata associated with computer files that define file system behavior.
File carving is the process of reassembling computer files from fragments in the absence of filesystem metadata.
File Explorer, previously known as Windows Explorer, is a file manager application that is included with releases of the Microsoft Windows operating system from Windows 95 onwards.
A file format is a standard way that information is encoded for storage in a computer file.
In computing, as well as in non-computing contexts, a file sequence is a well-ordered, (finite) collection of files, usually related to each other in some way.
In computing, a file system or filesystem controls how data is stored and retrieved.
File transfer is the transmission of a computer file through a communication channel from one computer system to another.
A filename extension is an identifier specified as a suffix to the name of a computer file.
Filesystem-level encryption, often called file/folder encryption, is a form of disk encryption where individual files or directories are encrypted by the file system itself.
The Filing Open Service Interface Definition (FOSID) is an Open Knowledge Initiative specification.
Final Cut Pro X (pronounced "Final Cut Pro Ten") is a professional non-linear video editing application published by Apple Inc. as part of their Pro Apps family of software programs.
Final Cut Server was Apple's server-based backend for managing Final Cut Studio files (in particular Final Cut Pro) and workflow automation, based on Proximity's artbox package.
Fiona Kelleghan (born 21 April 1965 in West Palm Beach, Florida) is an American academic and critic specializing in science fiction and fantasy.
Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) is an open standard defining a digital file format useful for storage, transmission and processing of data: formatted as N-dimensional arrays (for example a 2D image), or tables.
FiveSprockets was a web-based software company based in San Diego, California, United States focused on developing resources, social networking, and web-based collaborative software for scriptwriting, filmmaking and digital-video production.
FLAC (Free Lossless Audio Codec) is an audio coding format for lossless compression of digital audio, and is also the name of the free software project producing the FLAC tools, the reference software package that includes a codec implementation.
Flash memory is an electronic (solid-state) non-volatile computer storage medium that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed.
Flash Video is a container file format used to deliver digital video content (e.g., TV shows, movies, etc.) over the Internet using Adobe Flash Player version 6 and newer.
Flickr (pronounced "flicker") is an image hosting service and video hosting service.
In metal typesetting, a font was a particular size, weight and style of a typeface.
foobar2000 is a freeware audio player for Microsoft Windows, iOS and Android developed by Peter Pawłowski.
In a computer file system, a fork is a set of data associated with a file system object.
Forms processing is a process by which one can capture information entered into data fields and convert it into an electronic format.
Fotki is a digital photo sharing, video sharing and media social network website and web service suite; it is one of the world's largest social networking sites.
The Fourth Amendment (Amendment IV) to the United States Constitution is part of the Bill of Rights that prohibits unreasonable searches and seizures.
Freebase was a large collaborative knowledge base consisting of data composed mainly by its community members.
A full text database or a complete text database is a database that contains the complete text of books, dissertations, journals, magazines, newspapers or other kinds of textual documents.
In text retrieval, full-text search refers to techniques for searching a single computer-stored document or a collection in a full text database.
Gapless playback is the uninterrupted playback of consecutive audio tracks, such that relative time distances in the original audio source are preserved over track boundaries on playback.
GB & Smith is an independent software editor which provides layer independent matrix-based console allowing instant visual review on any supported computing platform.
GEDCOM (an acronym standing for Genealogical Data Communication) is an open de facto specification for exchanging genealogical data between different genealogy software.
Geeqie is a free software image viewer and image organiser program for Unix-like operating systems, which includes Linux-based systems and Apple's OS X. It was first released in March 2010, having been created as a fork of GQview, which appeared to have ceased development.
Gellish is a formal language that is natural language independent, although its concepts have 'names' and definitions in various natural languages.
Eugene Weston Hobbs II, known as Gene Hobbs (born November 28, 1973) is an American technical diver and founding board member of the non-profit Rubicon Foundation.
GeneNetwork is a combined database and open source bioinformatics data analysis software resource for systems genetics.
The Genomes OnLine Database (GOLD) is a web-based resource for comprehensive information regarding genome and metagenome sequencing projects, and their associated metadata, around the world.
Genomics research data is the type of data generated from human genomics research.
GeoBase is a federal, provincial and territorial government initiative that is overseen by the Canadian Council on Geomatics (CCOG).
Geoffrey Nunberg (born June 1, 1945) is an American linguist, researcher and an adjunct professor at the UC Berkeley School of Information.
Geographic information systems (GIS) play a constantly evolving role in geospatial intelligence (GEOINT) and United States national security.
The GeoNetwork opensource (GNOS) project is a free and open source (FOSS) cataloging application for spatially referenced resources.
A geospatial content management system (GeoCMS) is a content management system where objects (users, images, articles, blogs..) can have a latitude, longitude position to be displayed on an online interactive map.
Geospatial metadata (also geographic metadata, or simply metadata when used in a geographic context) is a type of metadata that is applicable to objects that have an explicit or implicit geographic extent, i.e. are associated with some position on the surface of the globe.
GeoSUR is a regional initiative led by spatial data producers in Latin America and the Caribbean to implement a regional geospatial network and to help establish the basis of a spatial data infrastructure in the region.
Geotagging or GeoTagging, is the process of adding geographical identification metadata to various media such as a geotagged photograph or video, websites, SMS messages, QR Codes or RSS feeds and is a form of geospatial metadata.
GeoTIFF is a public domain metadata standard which allows georeferencing information to be embedded within a TIFF file.
The Gerber format is an open ASCII vector format for 2D binary images.
The German Wikipedia (|) is the German-language edition of Wikipedia, a free and publicly editable online encyclopedia.
GESMES/TS (GEneric Statistical MESsage for Time Series) is a data model and message format appropriate for performing standardised exchange of statistical data and related metadata.
Getty Designs is an image website, web services suite, and online community platform.
Giant Global Graph (GGG) is a name coined in 2007 by Tim Berners-Lee to help distinguish between the nature and significance of the content on the existing World Wide Web and that of a promulgated next-generation web, presumptively named Web 3.0.
Glenn Edward Greenwald (born March 6, 1967) is an American lawyer, journalist, and author, best known for his role in a series of reports published by The Guardian newspaper beginning in June 2013, detailing the United States and British global surveillance programs, and based on classified documents disclosed by Edward Snowden.
The ARDA Metadata Grid Application (AMGA) is a general purpose metadata catalogue and part of the European Middleware Initiative middleware distribution.
The Global Change Master Directory is a directory of Earth Science data sets and related tools/services, many of which are targeted for the use, analysis, and display of the data.
Global Information Governance Day, or GIGD, is an international holiday that occurs on the third Thursday in February.
Global Information Network Architecture™ (GINA™) is a computer software model which was designed to facilitate a new type of Global Information Grid (GIG) for US security and warfare Net-Centric Operations.
Global listings format (GLF) refers to metadata for transferring program guide information and multimedia information.
The genomic epidemiological database for global identification of microorganisms or global microbial identifier (GMI) is a platform for storing whole genome sequencing (WGS) data of microorganisms, for the identification of relevant genes and for the comparison of genomes to detect and track-and-trace infectious disease outbreaks and emerging pathogens.
Global surveillance refers to the mass surveillance of entire populations across national borders.
This is a category of disclosures related to global surveillance.
Ongoing news reports in the international media have revealed operational details about the United States National Security Agency (NSA) and its international partners' global surveillance of foreign nationals and U.S. citizens.
Global surveillance whistleblowers are whistleblowers who provided public knowledge of global surveillance.
This is a glossary of jargon related to peer-to-peer file sharing via the BitTorrent protocol.
This is a list of blogging terms.
This glossary of education-related terms is based on how they commonly are used in Wikipedia articles.
This glossary of Unified Modeling Language terms covers all versions of UML.
GNOME Activity Journal is a semantic desktop browser-like application for the GNOME desktop environment.
GNOME Commander is a 'two panel' graphical file manager for GNOME.
Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers, using the GPS, GLONASS, Galileo or BeiDou system, are used in many applications.
GnucDNA is a software library for building peer-to-peer applications.
GNUnet is a software framework for decentralized, peer-to-peer networking and an official GNU package.
Gnutella2, often referred to as G2, is a peer-to-peer protocol developed mainly by Michael Stokes and released in 2002.
The GLib Object System, or GObject, is a free software library providing a portable object system and transparent cross-language interoperability.
Goobi (Abbr. of Göttingen online-objects binaries) is an open-source software suite intended to support mass digitisation projects for cultural heritage institutions.
"Good Goes the Bye" is a song by American singer Kelly Clarkson from her seventh studio album, Piece by Piece (2015).
Goodreads is a "social cataloging" website that allows individuals to freely search its database of books, annotations, and reviews.
Google Books (previously known as Google Book Search and Google Print and by its codename Project Ocean) is a service from Google Inc. that searches the full text of books and magazines that Google has scanned, converted to text using optical character recognition (OCR), and stored in its digital database.
Google File System (GFS or GoogleFS) is a proprietary distributed file system developed by Google to provide efficient, reliable access to data using large clusters of commodity hardware.
Google Images is a search service owned by Google that allows users to search the Web for image content.
Google Maps is a web mapping service developed by Google.
The Google Ngram Viewer or Google Books Ngram Viewer is an online search engine that charts the frequencies of any set of comma-delimited search strings using a yearly count of n-grams found in sources printed between 1500 and 2008 in Google's text corpora in English, Chinese (simplified), French, German, Hebrew, Italian, Russian, or Spanish.
Google Play (previously Android Market) is a digital distribution service operated and developed by Google.
Gopher+ is a forward compatible enhancement to the RFC Gopher protocol.
William Gordon Welchman (15 June 1906 – 8 October 1985) was an English mathematician, university professor, Second World War codebreaker at Bletchley Park and author.
Gorgon Stare is a video capture technology developed by the United States military.
The Governance Interoperability Framework (GIF) is an open, standards-based specification and set of technologies that describes and promotes interoperability among components of a service-oriented architecture (SOA).
The United Kingdom Government Category List (GCL) was a type of controlled vocabulary called a taxonomy, for use in choosing Subject metadata and keywords, primarily for indexing government web pages.
Gracenote, Inc. provides music, video and sports metadata and automatic content recognition (ACR) technologies to entertainment services and companies, worldwide.
GraphicConverter is computer software that displays and edits raster graphics files.
Greasemonkey is a userscript manager made available as a Mozilla Firefox extension.
The Grey Literature International Steering Committee was established in 2006 after the 7th International Conference on Grey Literature (GL7) held in Nancy (France) on 5–6 December 2005.
A grid file system is a computer file system whose goal is improved reliability and availability by taking advantage of many smaller file storage areas.
gtkpod provides a graphical user interface that enables users of Linux and other Unix operating systems to transfer audio files onto their iPod Classic, iPod Nano, iPod Shuffle, iPod Photo, or iPod Mini music players.
"Guccifer 2.0" is a persona claiming to be the hacker(s) that hacked into the Democratic National Committee (DNC) computer network and then leaked its documents to the media, the website WikiLeaks, and a conference event.
Guidance Software, Inc. was a public company (NASDAQ: GUID) founded in 1997.
Gwenview is an image viewer for Unix-like systems (including Linux) and is released as part of the KDE Applications bundle.
The Handle System is the Corporation for National Research Initiatives's proprietary registry assigning persistent identifiers, or handles, to information resources, and for resolving "those handles into the information necessary to locate, access, and otherwise make use of the resources".
A hard disk drive (HDD), hard disk, hard drive or fixed disk is an electromechanical data storage device that uses magnetic storage to store and retrieve digital information using one or more rigid rapidly rotating disks (platters) coated with magnetic material.
Harris Corporation is an American technology company, defense contractor and information technology services provider that produces wireless equipment, tactical radios, electronic systems, night vision equipment and both terrestrial and spaceborne antennas for use in the government, defense and commercial sectors.
HD Radio is a trademarked term for iBiquity's in-band on-channel (IBOC) digital radio technology used by AM and FM radio stations to transmit audio and data by using a digital signal embedded "on-frequency" immediately above and below a station's standard analog signal, providing the means to listen to the same program in either HD (digital radio with less noise) or as a standard broadcast (analog radio with standard sound quality).
The head–body pattern is a common XML design pattern, used for example in the SOAP protocol.
"Heartbeat Song" is a song by American singer Kelly Clarkson from her seventh studio album, Piece by Piece (2015).
Heidi Boghosian, a lawyer, is the executive director of the A.J. Muste Memorial Institute.
In computer graphics, a heightmap or heightfield is a raster image used to store values, such as surface elevation data, for display in 3D computer graphics.
The Hemisphere Project, also called simply Hemisphere, is a mass surveillance program conducted by US telephone company AT&T and paid for by the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy and the Drug Enforcement Administration.
HFS Plus or HFS+ is a file system developed by Apple Inc. It replaced the Hierarchical File System (HFS) as the primary file system of Apple computers with the 1998 release of Mac OS 8.1.
Hibernate ORM (Hibernate in short) is an object-relational mapping tool for the Java programming language.
Hidden text is computer text that is displayed in such a way as to be invisible or unreadable.
High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC), also known as H.265 and MPEG-H Part 2, is a video compression standard, one of several potential successors to the widely used AVC (H.264 or MPEG-4 Part 10).
HPFS ("High Performance File System") is a file system created specifically for the OS/2 operating system to improve upon the limitations of the FAT file system.
The (HIVE) is a distributed computing environment used for biological research, including analysis of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) data, post market data, adverse events, metagenomic data, etc.
Hina-Di is a web feed format created in Japan.
The World Wide Web ("WWW" or simply the "Web") is a global information medium which users can read and write via computers connected to the Internet.
Web syndication technologies were preceded by metadata standards such as the Meta Content Framework (MCF) and the Resource Description Framework (RDF), as well as by 'push' specifications such as Channel Definition Format (CDF).
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the standard markup language for creating web pages and web applications.
An HTML element is an individual component of an HTML document or web page, once this has been parsed into the Document Object Model.
HTML5 Audio is a subject of the HTML5 specification, incorporating audio input, playback, and synthesis, as well as speech to text, in the browser.
HTTP Secure (HTTPS) is an extension of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) for secure communication over a computer network, and is widely used on the Internet.
Human rights applied to encryption is an important concept for freedom of expression as encryption is a technical resource of implementation of basic human rights.
A human-based computation game or game with a purpose (GWAP) is a human-based computation technique of outsourcing steps within a computational process to humans in an entertaining way (gamification).
Human-computer information retrieval (HCIR) is the study and engineering of information retrieval techniques that bring human intelligence into the search process.
HWW is an Australian-based organisation that supplies television and movies metadata to a broad range of clients across new and traditional media including: online publishers, subscription television providers, IPTV providers, HbbTV providers and print publishers.
Hybrid Log-Gamma (HLG) is a high dynamic range (HDR) standard that was jointly developed by the BBC and NHK.
A hybrid word or hybridism is a word that etymologically derives from at least two languages.
A hydrological code or hydrologic unit code is a sequence of numbers or letters that identify a hydrological feature like a river, river reach, lake, or area like a drainage basin (also called watershed (in North America)) or catchment.
hylOs – the hypermedia learning Object system is a Content Management System for elearning material.
The Hyper Text Coffee Pot Control Protocol (HTCPCP) is a facetious communications protocol for controlling, monitoring, and diagnosing coffee pots.
Hypervideo, or hyperlinked video, is a displayed video stream that contains embedded, interactive anchors, allowing navigation between video and other hypermedia elements.
The Invisible Internet Project (I2P) is an anonymous network layer that allows for censorship-resistant, peer to peer communication.
Sir Iain Robert Lobban, KCMG, CB (born 1960) is a former British civil servant.
IBM BLU Acceleration is a collection of technologies from the IBM Research and Development Labs for analytical database workloads.
IBM Cognos Business Intelligence is a web-based integrated business intelligence suite by IBM.
IBM is a globally integrated enterprise operating in 170 countries.
OpenDX stands for Open Data Explorer and is IBM's scientific data visualization software.
IC Manage is a company that provides design data and IP management software to semiconductor companies for managing their IC design databases between design teams.
iConji is a free pictographic communication system based on an open, visual vocabulary of characters with built-in translations for most major languages.
The ICSU World Data System (ICSU-WDS) was created by the International Council for Science's (ICSU) General Assembly in October 2008.
ID3 is a metadata container most often used in conjunction with the MP3 audio file format.
In metadata, an identification scheme is used to identify unique records in a set.
An identifier is a name that identifies (that is, labels the identity of) either a unique object or a unique class of objects, where the "object" or class may be an idea, physical object (or class thereof), or physical substance (or class thereof).
In information systems, identity correlation is a process that reconciles and validates the proper ownership of disparate user account login IDs (user names) that reside on systems and applications throughout an organization and can permanently link ownership of those user account login IDs to particular individuals by assigning a unique identifier (also called primary or common keys) to all validated account login IDs.
An identity management system refers to an information system, or to a set of technologies that can be used for enterprise or cross-network identity management Additional terms are used synonymously with "identity management system" including;.
Created in 1986, IGN FI is the private subsidiary of the French IGN and works essentially abroad.
igniteXML (now known as ignite API Product Management Platform) is a collaborative, multi user enterprise repository created by used by Integration and API management teams in Fortune 500 and large Government organizations.
Igor Muttik (born 1962 in Russia) is a computer security expert, researcher and inventor.
iLife is a software suite for macOS and iOS developed by Apple Inc. It consists of various programs for media creation, organization, editing and publishing.
Image file formats are standardized means of organizing and storing digital images.
Image meta search (or image search engine) is a type of search engine specialised on finding pictures, images, animations etc.
An image organizer or image management application is application software focused on organising digital images.
An image retrieval system is a computer system for browsing, searching and retrieving images from a large database of digital images.
An image viewer or image browser is a computer program that can display stored graphical images; it can often handle various graphics file formats.
Imaginos is the eleventh studio album by the American hard rock band Blue Öyster Cult (commonly shortened as BÖC).
IMDI (ISLE Meta Data Initiative) is a metadata standard to describe multi-media and multi-modal language resources.
IMG, in computing, refers to binary files with the.img filename extension that store raw disk images of floppy disks, hard drives, and optical discs or a vector image –.img.
Immaterial labor is a Marxist, Autonomist framework to describe how value is produced from affective and cognitive activities, which, in various ways, are commodified in capitalist economies.
Immersive Media Company (IMC) is a digital imaging company specializing in spherical immersive video.
An importer is a software application that reads in a data file or metadata information in one format and converts it to another format via special algorithms (such as filters).
An impressum (from Latin impressum, "the impressed, engraved, pressed in, impression", English imprint) is the term given to a legally mandated statement of the ownership and authorship of a document, which must be included in books, newspapers, magazines and websites published in Germany and certain other German-speaking countries, such as Austria and Switzerland.
In Re Electronic Privacy Information Center, 134 S.Ct.
In-product communications (IPC) are messages, content, and related media delivered directly to a user's internet-connected device or software application, with the purpose of informing, gathering feedback from, engaging with, or marketing to that specific user or segment of users at often-higher engagement rates than other digital marketing and online marketing channels.
indecs (an acronym of "interoperability of data in e-commerce systems"; written in lower case) was a project partly funded by the European Community Info 2000 initiative and by several organisations representing the music, rights, text publishing, authors, library and other sectors in 1998-2000, which has since been used in a number of metadata activities.
INDECT is a research project in the area of intelligent security systems performed by several European universities since 2009 and funded by the European Union.
Index maps are a type of finding aid that allow users find a set of maps covering their regions of interest along with the name or number of the relevant map sheet.
This is an alphabetical list of articles pertaining specifically to software engineering.
In metadata an indicator is a Boolean value that may contain only the values true or false.
An infobox is a template used to collect and present a subset of information about its subject, such as a document.
Information is any entity or form that provides the answer to a question of some kind or resolves uncertainty.
Information extraction (IE) is the task of automatically extracting structured information from unstructured and/or semi-structured machine-readable documents.
Information governance, or IG, is the management of information at an organization.
An information repository is an easy way to deploy a secondary tier of data storage that can comprise multiple, networked data storage technologies running on diverse operating systems, where data that no longer needs to be in primary storage is protected, classified according to captured metadata, processed, de-duplicated, and then purged, automatically, based on data service level objectives and requirements.
Information retrieval (IR) is the activity of obtaining information system resources relevant to an information need from a collection of information resources.
Information science is a field primarily concerned with the analysis, collection, classification, manipulation, storage, retrieval, movement, dissemination, and protection of information.
An information server is an integrated software platform consisting of a set of core functional modules that enables organizations to integrate data from disparate sources and deliver trusted and complete information, at the time it is required and in the format it is needed.
An information system (IS) is an organized system for the collection, organization, storage and communication of information.
INSPIRE is "an EU initiative to establish an infrastructure for spatial information in Europe that is geared to help to make spatial or geographical information more accessible and interoperable for a wide range of purposes supporting sustainable development".
Innovative Routines International (IRI), Inc. is an American software company first known for bringing mainframe sort merge functionality into open systems.
The inode is a data structure in a Unix-style file system that describes a filesystem object such as a file or a directory.
Integrative bioinformatics is a discipline of bioinformatics that focuses on problems of data integration for the life sciences.
The French Intelligence Act of 24 July 2015 (French: loi relative au renseignement) is a statute passed by the French Parliament.
* The Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA) is an organization within the Office of the Director of National Intelligence responsible for leading research to overcome difficult challenges relevant to the United States Intelligence Community.
In computer science the INtelligent Data Understanding System is a project of the University of Iowa Computer Science Department.
The Interactive Advertising Bureau (IAB) is an advertising business organization that develops industry standards, conducts research, and provides legal support for the online advertising industry.
Founded in 1981, Interleaf was a company that created computer software products for the technical publishing creation and distribution process.
The International Geo Sample Number or IGSN is a sample identification code of typically nine characters.
The International Press Telecommunications Council (IPTC), based in London, United Kingdom, is a consortium of the world's major news agencies, other news providers and news industry vendors and acts as the global standards body of the news media.
The International Principles on the Application of Human Rights to Communications Surveillance(also called the "Necessary and Proportionate Principles" or just "the Principles") is a document which attempts to "clarify how international human rights law applies in the current digital environment".
The International Society for Biocuration (ISB) was founded in 2008.
International Standard Audiovisual Number (ISAN) is a unique identifier for audiovisual works and related versions, similar to ISBN for books.
The International Standard Link Identifier (ISLI), is an identifier standard.
An International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication.
Internet censorship in the Russian Federation is enforced on the basis of several laws and through several mechanisms.
Microsoft Internet Explorer 3 (IE3) is a graphical web browser released on August 13, 1996 by Microsoft for Microsoft Windows and on January 8, 1997 for Apple Mac OS (see IE for Mac).
Internet Explorer (formerly Microsoft Internet Explorer and Windows Internet Explorer, commonly abbreviated IE or MSIE) is a series of graphical web browsers developed by Microsoft and included as part of the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems, starting in 1995.
The Internet Imaging Protocol, or IIP, is an Internet protocol designed by the International Imaging Industry Association.
Internet privacy involves the right or mandate of personal privacy concerning the storing, repurposing, provision to third parties, and displaying of information pertaining to oneself via of the Internet.
Internet Universality is the concept that "the Internet is much more than infrastructure and applications, it is a network of economic and social interactions and relationships, which has the potential to enable human rights, empower individuals and communities, and facilitate sustainable development.
The interplanetary Internet (based on IPN, also called InterPlaNet) is a conceived computer network in space, consisting of a set of network nodes that can communicate with each other.
Intute was a free Web service aimed at students, teachers, and researchers in UK further education and higher education.
IO Group, Inc.
IP-XACT is an XML format that defines and describes individual, re-usable electronic circuit designs (individual pieces of intellectual property, or IPs) to facilitate their use in creating integrated circuits (i.e. microchips).
Ipsotek was established in 2001 and is currently headquartered in the United Kingdom with offices in the Middle East.
IPTC 7901 is a news service text markup specification published by the International Press Telecommunications Council that was designed to standardize the content and structure of text news articles.
The Information Interchange Model (IIM) is a file structure and set of metadata attributes that can be applied to text, images and other media types.
IRCX (Internet Relay Chat eXtensions) is an extension to the IRC protocol, developed by Microsoft.
ISIDORE is an online platform that allows research and access to human and social sciences digital data.
ISO 639-3:2007, Codes for the representation of names of languages – Part 3: Alpha-3 code for comprehensive coverage of languages, is an international standard for language codes in the ISO 639 series.
ISO/IEC 11179 (formally known as the ISO/IEC 11179 Metadata Registry (MDR) standard) is an international standard for representing metadata for an organization in a metadata registry.
ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 32 Data management and interchange is a standardization subcommittee of the Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1 of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), which develops and facilitates standards within the field of data management and interchange.
ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 36 Information Technology for Learning, Education and Training is a standardization subcommittee (SC), which is part of the Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1 of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), that develops and facilitates standards within the field of information technology (IT) for learning, education and training (LET).
iTunes is a media player, media library, Internet radio broadcaster, and mobile device management application developed by Apple Inc. It was announced on January 9, 2001.
iVolume is an application for Mac OS X and Windows that implements ReplayGain for iTunes by updating the metadata that iTunes uses for Sound Check volume normalization.
James Robert Clapper Jr. (born March 14, 1941) is a retired lieutenant general in the United States Air Force and is the former Director of National Intelligence.
A JAR (Java ARchive) is a package file format typically used to aggregate many Java class files and associated metadata and resources (text, images, etc.) into one file for distribution.
JAR is a tool for creating compressed file archives that use.j as their file extension.
In the Java computer programming language, an annotation is a form of syntactic metadata that can be added to Java source code.
The Java Community Process (JCP), established in 1998, is a formalized mechanism that allows interested parties to develop standard technical specifications for Java technology.
Given that metadata is a set of descriptive, structural and administrative data about a group of computer data (for example such as a database schema), Java Metadata Interface (or JMI) is a platform-neutral specification that defines the creation, storage, access, lookup and exchange of metadata in the Java programming language.
Java Object Oriented Querying, commonly known as jOOQ, is a light database-mapping software library in Java that implements the active record pattern.
Java Platform, Standard Edition (Java SE) is a computing platform for development and deployment of portable code for desktop and server environments.
The syntax of the Java programming language is the set of rules defining how a Java program is written and interpreted.
The Java language has undergone several changes since JDK 1.0 as well as numerous additions of classes and packages to the standard library.
JavaServer Faces (JSF) is a Java specification for building component-based user interfaces for web applications and was formalized as a standard through the Java Community Process being part of the Java Platform, Enterprise Edition.
JBOB, an acronym for Just a Bunch Of Bytes, is a term is used to describe unstructured data that does not have a fixed format.
Jinni is a search engine and recommendation engine for movies, TV shows and short films.
The JISC Digitisation Programme is a series of projects to digitise the cultural heritage and scholarly materials in universities, libraries, museums, archives and others cultural memory organisations in the United Kingdom.
John Napier Tye (born c. 1976) is a former official of the U.S. State Department who came forward in 2014 as a whistleblower seeking to publicize certain electronic surveillance practices of the U.S. government under Executive Order 12333.
The Jointly Administered Knowledge Environment, or jake, was the first open source OpenURL link server.
The Journal Article Tag Suite (JATS) is an XML format used to describe scientific literature published online.
A journaling file system is a file system that keeps track of changes not yet committed to the file system's main part by recording the intentions of such changes in a data structure known as a "journal", which is usually a circular log.
Journalists rely on source protection to gather and reveal information in the public interest from confidential sources.
JourneyEd, along with its subsidiaries, sells academic software to members of the educational community in North America, Canada, and Europe.
JPEG is a commonly used method of lossy compression for digital images, particularly for those images produced by digital photography.
JPEG 2000 (JP2) is an image compression standard and coding system.
JT (Jupiter Tesselation) is an ISO-standardized 3D data format and is in industry used for product visualization, collaboration, CAD data exchange, and in some also for long-term data retention.
KD Player is a free skinnable Java ME-based media player created by Russian developer Knyzhov Dmitry.
KDevelop is a free and open-source integrated development environment (IDE) for Unix-like computer operating systems and Microsoft Windows.
KE Software is a formerly Australian-owned computer software company based in Manchester, United Kingdom, which specialises in collection management programs for museums, galleries and archives.
Keith Brian Alexander (born December 2, 1951) is a retired four-star general of the United States Army who served as director of the National Security Agency (DIRNSA), chief of the Central Security Service (CHCSS) and commander of the United States Cyber Command.
Kendraio (previously known as Kendra Initiative), founded by Daniel Harris in late 1999, is an open source initiative to create ways of using the Internet to discover, use, share and pay for digital media such as music, web content, books and films.
KERIS (Korea Education & Research Information Service, Korean: 한국교육학술정보원, Hanja: 韓國教育學術情報院) is a governmental organization under the South Korean Ministry of Education, Science and Technology that develops, proposes, and advises on current and future government policies and initiatives regarding education in South Korea.
Keykode (also written as either KeyKode or KeyCode) is an Eastman Kodak Company advancement on edge numbers, which are letters, numbers and symbols placed at regular intervals along the edge of 35 mm and 16 mm film to allow for frame-by-frame specific identification.
Kitodo (Abbr. of key to digital objects) is an open-source software suite intended to support mass digitization projects for cultural heritage institutions.
Klayman v. Obama was an American federal court case concerning the legality of the bulk collection of both phone and Internet metadata by the United States.
Knowledge Discovery Metamodel (KDM) is a publicly available specification from the Object Management Group (OMG).
Knowledge Engine (KE) is a search engine project initiated in 2015 by the Wikimedia Foundation (WMF) to locate and display verifiable and trustworthy information on the Internet.
Knowledge extraction is the creation of knowledge from structured (relational databases, XML) and unstructured (text, documents, images) sources.
Kodi (formerly XBMC) is a free and open-source media player software application developed by the XBMC Foundation, a non-profit technology consortium.
KSAS-TV, virtual channel 24 (UHF digital channel 26), is a Fox-affiliated television station licensed to Wichita, Kansas, United States.
Labels in Macintosh operating systems are a type of seven distinct, colored parameters of metadata that can be attributed to files, folders and disks in the operating system.
Larry Richman (born 1955) is a social media expert, Internet strategist, publishing executive, project management trainer, and author of over a dozen books, numerous book translations, and articles in professional journals and magazines.
Last.fm is a music website, founded in the United Kingdom in 2002.
Lavabit is an open-source encrypted webmail service, founded in 2004.
Learning Object Metadata is a data model, usually encoded in XML, used to describe a learning object and similar digital resources used to support learning.
The Learning Resource Server Medicine (LRSMed) is a free-to-access catalog of electronic learning and teaching software modules for education in medicine and dentistry available in English and German.
Learning standards (also called academic standards, content standards and curricula) are elements of declarative, procedural, schematic, and strategic knowledge that, as a body, define the specific content of an educational program.
Leon Shklar is a professor in the computer science department at Rutgers University, where he teaches a senior level course in advanced web application development.
http://www.lexml.gov.br/ www.'''LexML.gov.br''' (search engine)http://projeto.lexml.gov.br/documentacao/resumo-em-ingles projeto.lexml.gov.br (project description) LexML Brasil (or LexML-BR or LexML Brazil) is a project of Brazil's Electronic Government initiative.
Library and information science (LIS) (sometimes given as the plural library and information sciences) or as "library and information studies" is a merging of library science and information science.
Library science (often termed library studies, library and information science, bibliothecography, library economy) is an interdisciplinary or multidisciplinary field that applies the practices, perspectives, and tools of management, information technology, education, and other areas to libraries; the collection, organization, preservation, and dissemination of information resources; and the political economy of information.
Library technical services are the processing and maintenance activities of a library's collection.
LibraryThing is a social cataloging web application for storing and sharing book catalogs and various types of book metadata.
Lightweight Portable Security (LPS) is a Linux LiveCD, (or LiveUSB), developed and publicly distributed by the United States Department of Defense’s Software Protection Initiative that is designed to serve as a secure end node.
A lightweight protocol in computer networking is any of a number of communication protocols that are characterized by a relatively small overhead (caused e.g. by bulky metadata) in transmitted on top of the functional data.
LightZone is a free, open source digital photo editor software application.
Linear Tape-Open (LTO) is a magnetic tape data storage technology originally developed in the late 1990s as an open standards alternative to the proprietary magnetic tape formats that were available at the time.
Liner notes (also sleeve notes or album notes) are the writings found on the sleeves of LP record albums and in booklets which come inserted into the compact disc jewel case or the equivalent packaging for vinyl records and cassettes.
Below are the published ATSC standards for ATSC digital television service, issued by the Advanced Television Systems Committee.
This article provides a list of software products and cloud-based services used for email archiving.
While Windows Vista contains many new features, a number of capabilities and certain programs that were a part of previous Windows versions up to Windows XP were removed or changed – some of which were later re-introduced in Windows 7.
This is a list of file formats used by computers, organized by type.
The following lists identify, characterize, and link to more thorough information on computer file systems.
This alphabetical list of filename extensions contains standard extensions associated with computer files.
This is a list of government surveillance projects and related databases throughout the world.
This is a list of significant Japanese poetry anthologies.
The following is a partial list of IBM precursors, acquisitions and spinoffs.
The following is a list of Microsoft Windows components.
Some online news media have created Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) to enable computer applications to request stories and information about their stories (metadata) from them.
filetypes use metadata to distinguish file formats.
This is a list of XML markup languages.
This is a list of the lists of ships on Wikipedia - a meta-list.
Litéra was an American software corporation headquartered in McLeansville, North Carolina.
The Local Government Category List (LGCL), is a metadata standard controlled vocabulary of subject metadata terms related to local government, published in the UK.
The Logical Disk Manager (LDM) is an implementation of a logical volume manager for Microsoft Windows NT, developed by Microsoft and Veritas Software.
Long filename (LFN) support is Microsoft's backward compatible extension of the 8.3 filename (short filename) naming scheme used in DOS.
LucidEra was an on-demand (aka SaaS) business intelligence (BI) solution provider.
Luminex Software, Inc. is a developer and provider of disk-based mainframe virtual tape products and technologies for backup, archive and disaster recovery.
Lustre is a type of parallel distributed file system, generally used for large-scale cluster computing.
Lustre is the codename of a secret treaty signed by France and the Five Eyes (FVEY) for cooperation in signals intelligence and for mutual data exchange between their respective intelligence agencies.
Mac OS X Snow Leopard (version 10.6) is the seventh major release of Mac OS X (now named macOS), Apple's desktop and server operating system for Macintosh computers.
Mac OS X Tiger (version 10.4) is the fifth major release of Mac OS X (now named macOS), Apple's desktop and server operating system for Mac computers.
MAC times are pieces of file system metadata which record when certain events pertaining to a computer file occurred most recently.
MacBinary is a file format that combines the two forks of a classic Mac OS file into a single file, along with HFS's extended metadata.
Machine-generated data is information automatically generated by a computer process, application, or other mechanism without the active intervention of a human.
Machine-readable data is data (or metadata) in a format that can be easily processed by a computer.
Machine-readable documents are documents whose content can be readily processed by computers.
Macintosh File System (MFS) is a volume format (or disk file system) created by Apple Computer for storing files on 400K floppy disks.
In computer programming, the term magic number has multiple meanings.
Magnetic tape data storage is a system for storing digital information on magnetic tape using digital recording.
Mail Isolation Control and Tracking (MICT) is an imaging system employed by the United States Postal Service (USPS) that takes photographs of the exterior of every piece of mail that is processed in the United States.
MailTime is a mobile messenger application for iOS and Android devices, developed by MailTime Technology Inc.
MAINWAY is a database maintained by the United States' National Security Agency (NSA) containing metadata for hundreds of billions of telephone calls made through the four largest telephone carriers in the United States: AT&T, SBC, BellSouth (all three now called AT&T), and Verizon.
Malte Spitz (born April 14, 1984) is a German Green Party politician and Executive Committee member.
Maltego is proprietary software used for open-source intelligence and forensics, developed by Paterva.
In the.Net Framework, an assembly manifest is a text file containing metadata about CLI assemblies.
Manitoba Centre for Health Policy (MCHP) is a public, not-for-profit research unit in the Department of Community Health Sciences within the Rady Faculty of Health Sciences at the University of Manitoba (Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada).
The Map Overlay and Statistical System (MOSS), is a GIS software technology.
MARC ('''MA'''chine-'''R'''eadable '''C'''ataloging) standards are a set of digital formats for the description of items catalogued by libraries, such as books.
MarcEdit is a metadata editing software suite used primarily to create and manipulate MARC records.
MARINA is an NSA database and analysis toolset for intercepted Internet metadata (DNI in NSA terminology).
Mark A. Carlson (born 1955) is a software engineer known in the systems management industry for his work in management standards and technology.
The marker interface pattern is a design pattern in computer science, used with languages that provide run-time type information about objects.
Mass surveillance is the intricate surveillance of an entire or a substantial fraction of a population in order to monitor that group of citizens.
The Edward Snowden revelation that the Communications Security Establishment (CSE), without a warrant, used free airport Wi-Fi service to gather the communications of all travellers using the service and to track them after they had left the airport sparked an ongoing concern about mass surveillance in Canada.
Mass surveillance is the pervasive surveillance of an entire or a substantial fraction of a population.
Mass surveillance is the pervasive surveillance of an entire or a substantial fraction of a population.
The use of electronic surveillance by the United Kingdom grew from the development of signal intelligence and pioneering code breaking during World War II.
Master data represents the business objects which are agreed on and shared across the enterprise.
In metadata, a match report is a report that compares two distinct data dictionaries and creates a list of the data elements that have been identified as semantically equivalent.
Material eXchange Format (MXF) is a container format for professional digital video and audio media defined by a set of SMPTE standards.
The Math Images Project is a wiki collaboration between Swarthmore College, the Math Forum at Drexel University, and the National Science Digital Library.
Métamorphose or Métamorphose file -n- folder renamer is an open source batch renamer.
Media Auxiliary Memory or Medium Auxiliary Memory (MAM) refers to a chip embedded into a digital media device (usually a tape cartridge) that stores a small amount of data or metadata that a computer can read without having to read the actual tape.
Media Cloud is an open-source content analysis tool that aims to map news media coverage of current events.
Media Descriptor File (MDF) is a proprietary disc image file format developed for Alcohol 120%, an optical disc authoring program.
Media freedom in Russia concerns both the ability of directors of mass media outlets to carry out independent policies and the ability of journalists to access sources of information and to work without outside pressure.
Developed by Sony Network Entertainment, Media Go is a free multimedia management application that runs on Microsoft Windows.
The Media Transfer Protocol (MTP) is an extension to the Picture Transfer Protocol (PTP) communications protocol that allows media files to be transferred atomically to and from portable devices.
GNU MediaGoblin (also shortened to MediaGoblin or GMG) is a free, decentralized Web platform (server software) for hosting and sharing many forms of digital media.
MediaWiki is a free and open-source wiki software.
MeeMix Ltd is a company specializing in personalizing media-related content recommendations, discovery and advertising for the telecommunication industry, founded in 2006.
The memex (originally coined "at random", though sometimes said to be a portmanteau of "memory" and "index") is the name of the hypothetical proto-hypertext system that Vannevar Bush described in his 1945 The Atlantic Monthly article "As We May Think".
Memory management is a form of resource management applied to computer memory.
Meta (from the Greek preposition and prefix meta- (μετά-) meaning "after", or "beyond") is a prefix used in English to indicate a concept which is an abstraction behind another concept, used to complete or add to the latter.
Meta Content Framework (MCF) is a specification of a content format for structuring metadata about web sites and other data.
Meta Data Services is an object-oriented repository technology that can be integrated with enterprise information systems or with applications that process metadata.
Meta elements are tags used in HTML and XHTML documents to provide structured metadata about a Web page.
Meta learning is a subfield of machine learning where automatic learning algorithms are applied on metadata about machine learning experiments.
Meta noise refers to inaccurate or irrelevant metadata.
Meta noise has several meanings.
Meta-information may refer to.
Meta-joke refers to several somewhat different, but related categories: joke templates, self-referential jokes, and jokes about jokes (also known as meta-humor).
The Meta-Object Facility (MOF) is an Object Management Group (OMG) standard for model-driven engineering.
Meta-process modeling is a type of metamodeling used in software engineering and systems engineering for the analysis and construction of models applicable and useful to some predefined problems.
MetaboLights is a data repository founded in 2012 for cross-species and cross-platform metabolomic studies that provides primary research data and meta data for metabolomic studies as well as a knowledge base for properties of individual metabolites.
Metacrap is a derogatory term for metadata, likening it to "crap".
Metadata, in the Common Language Infrastructure (CLI), refers to certain data structures embedded within the Common Intermediate Language (CIL) code that describes the high-level structure of the code.
In metadata, metadata discovery (also metadata harvesting) is the process of using automated tools to discover the semantics of a data element in data sets.
The Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard (METS) is a metadata standard for encoding descriptive, administrative, and structural metadata regarding objects within a digital library, expressed using the XML schema language of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).
A metadata engine collects, stores and analyzes information about data and metadata (data about data) in use within a domain.
Metadata management involves managing metadata about other data, whereby this "other data" is generally referred to as content data.
Metadata modeling is a type of metamodeling used in software engineering and systems engineering for the analysis and construction of models applicable to and useful for some predefined class of problems.
Metadata publishing is the process of making metadata data elements available to external users, both people and machines using a formal review process and a commitment to change control processes.
A metadata registry is a central location in an organization where metadata definitions are stored and maintained in a controlled method.
Metadata removal tool or Metadata scrubber is a type of privacy software built to protect the privacy of its users by removing potentially privacy-compromising metadata from files before they are shared with others, e.g., by sending them as e-mail attachments or by posting them on the Web.
A metadata repository is a database created to store metadata.
A metadata standard is a requirement which is intended to establish a common understanding of the meaning or semantics of the data, to ensure correct and proper use and interpretation of the data by its owners and users.
MWG connections to other working groups The Metadata Working Group was formed in 2006 by Adobe Systems, Apple, Canon, Microsoft and Nokia.
Metadatabase is a database model for (1) metadata management, (2) global query of independent databases, and (3) distributed data processing.
Metagenomics is the study of genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples.
Metaknowledge or meta-knowledge is knowledge about a preselected knowledge.
Metalink is an extensible metadata file format that describes one or more computer files available for download.
Metalist may refer to.
MetaLith is a metadata editor.
A metamodel or surrogate model is a model of a model, and metamodeling is the process of generating such metamodels.
A metatable is the section of a database or other data holding structure that is designated to hold data that will act as source code or metadata.
METeOR (Metadata Online Registry), Australia’s repository for national metadata standards for health, housing and community services statistics and information.
MG-RAST is an open source web application server that suggests automatic phylogenetic and functional analysis of metagenomes.
Michael Malone is an Australian technology entrepreneur and business executive.
The Michigan Terminal System (MTS) is one of the first time-sharing computer operating systems.
Microblogging is an online broadcast medium that exists as a specific form of blogging.
There are at least two interpretations of the term microcontent.
Microdata is a WHATWG HTML specification used to nest metadata within existing content on web pages.
In the study of survey and census data, microdata is information at the level of individual respondents.
A microformat (sometimes abbreviated μF) is a World Wide Web-based approach to semantic markup which uses HTML/XHTML tags supported for other purposes to convey additional metadata and other attributes in web pages and other contexts that support (X)HTML, such as RSS.
Microsoft Interactive Media Manager (IMM) was a collaborative media management system that leveraged Microsoft Office SharePoint Server 2007 for a web-based workflow, including both in-browser management and playback UI.
Microsoft Office shared tools are software components that are (or were) included in all Microsoft Office products.
Microsoft Photo Editor is an raster graphics editor component of Microsoft Office first included with Microsoft Office 97.
Microsoft PowerToys is a set of freeware system utilities for power users, developed by Microsoft for its flagship operating system, Windows.
A Microsoft Reserved Partition (MSR) is a partition of a data storage device, which is created simply to reserve a portion of disk space for possible subsequent use by a Windows operating system installed on a separate partition.
Microsoft SQL Server Master Data Services is a Master Data Management (MDM) product from Microsoft that ships as a part of the Microsoft SQL Server relational database management system.
Microsoft Sync Framework is a data synchronization platform from Microsoft that can be used to synchronize data across multiple data stores.
MIDI (short for Musical Instrument Digital Interface) is a technical standard that describes a communications protocol, digital interface, and electrical connectors that connect a wide variety of electronic musical instruments, computers, and related music and audio devices.
The Mill architecture is a novel belt machine-based computer architecture for general purpose computing.
Miller columns (also known as Cascading Lists) are a browsing/visualization technique that can be applied to tree structures.
The minimum bounding rectangle (MBR), also known as bounding box or envelope, is an expression of the maximum extents of a 2-dimensional object (e.g. point, line, polygon) or set of objects within its (or their) 2-D (x, y) coordinate system, in other words min(x), max(x), min(y), max(y).
Minimum Information Required About a Glycomics Experiment (MIRAGE) is part of the Minimum Information Standards and specifically applies to guidelines for reporting (describing metadata) on a glycomics experiment.
The minimum information standard is a set of guidelines for reporting data derived by relevant methods in biosciences.
Mixcloud is a British online music streaming service that allows for the listening and distribution of radio shows, DJ mixes and podcasts, which are crowdsourced by its registered users.
Mobile device forensics is a branch of digital forensics relating to recovery of digital evidence or data from a mobile device under forensically sound conditions.
Mobipocket SA is a French company incorporated in March 2000 that created the.mobi e-book file format and produces the Mobipocket Reader software for mobile phones, personal digital assistants (PDA) and desktop operating systems.
A modeling language is any artificial language that can be used to express information or knowledge or systems in a structure that is defined by a consistent set of rules.
MODX (originally MODx) is a free, open source content management system and web application framework for publishing content on the world wide web and intranets.
Mojibake (文字化け) is the garbled text that is the result of text being decoded using an unintended character encoding.
MonsterMind is a U.S. National Security Agency (NSA) program which creates an automated response to a foreign cyber-attack.
Moodagent is a company specialized in music data, with proprietary methods for recognizing emotional and musical characteristics of individual music tracks.
MoReq2 is short for “Model Requirements for the Management of Electronic Records”, second version.
Mounting is a process by which the operating system makes files and directories on a storage device (such as hard drive, CD-ROM, or network share) available for user to access via the computer's file system.
The Movie Genome is an approach to indexing movies based on attributes in order to create movie catalogs with extensive, detailed data about each title.
MovieLens is a web-based recommender system and virtual community that recommends movies for its users to watch, based on their film preferences using collaborative filtering of members' movie ratings and movie reviews.
MP3 (formally MPEG-1 Audio Layer III or MPEG-2 Audio Layer III) is an audio coding format for digital audio.
Mp3tag is a freeware metadata editor for many audio file formats for Microsoft Windows.
MPEG transport stream (transport stream, MPEG-TS, MTS or TS) is a standard digital container format for transmission and storage of audio, video, and Program and System Information Protocol (PSIP) data.
MPEG-4 Part 14 or MP4 is a digital multimedia container format most commonly used to store video and audio, but it can also be used to store other data such as subtitles and still images.
MPEG-7 is a multimedia content description standard.
"MS Fnd in a Lbry" (probably intended to be understood as "Manuscript Found in a Library") is a satirical science fiction short story about the exponential growth of information, written by Hal Draper in 1961.
MSSTYLES is a Microsoft file format, that contains the bitmaps and metadata for the Windows XP skinning engine, first introduced in Windows Whistler Build 2250.
Multi Theft Auto (MTA) is a multiplayer modification for the Microsoft Windows version of Rockstar North games Grand Theft Auto III, Grand Theft Auto: Vice City and Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas that adds online multiplayer functionality.
A Multimedia database (MMDB) is a collection of related multimedia data.
Multimedia search enables information search using queries in multiple data types including text and other multimedia formats.
In telecommunications and computer networks, multiplexing (sometimes contracted to muxing) is a method by which multiple analog or digital signals are combined into one signal over a shared medium.
The term "software multitenancy" refers to a software architecture in which a single instance of software runs on a server and serves multiple tenants.
Mus2 (pronounced) is a music application for the notation of microtonal works and, specifically, Turkish maqam music.
Musepack or MPC is an open source lossy audio codec, specifically optimized for transparent compression of stereo audio at bitrates of 160–180 (manual set allows bitrates up to 320) kbit/s.
Music Australia is a free national online service hosted by the National Library of Australia in conjunction with over 50 cultural organisations across Australia.
Music information retrieval (MIR) is the interdisciplinary science of retrieving information from music.
Music On Console (MOC) is an ncurses-based console audio player for Linux/UNIX.
Music ownership databases are lists of the owners of compositions and the people who represents them.
Music Story is a music service website and international music data provider.
MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database that is similar to the freedb project.
MusicBrainz Picard is a free and open-source software application for identifying, tagging, and organising digital audio recordings.
MusicDNA is a music file format developed by some of the key figures involved in the development of the MP3 format.
MX1 is a global media services provider founded in July 2016 from a merger between digital media services companies, RR Media and SES Platform Services.
myco is a framework for developing software applications in the Perl programming language.
Named graphs are a key concept of Semantic Web architecture in which a set of Resource Description Framework statements (a graph) are identified using a URI, allowing descriptions to be made of that set of statements such as context, provenance information or other such metadata.
In metadata, Naming and Design Rules are the formal rules associated with how data elements are structured within a process of creating exchange documents between organizations.
In computer programming, a naming convention is a set of rules for choosing the character sequence to be used for identifiers which denote variables, types, functions, and other entities in source code and documentation.
In the United States, the National Archives facilities are facilities and buildings housing the research and agency services of the country's National Archives and Records Administration.
National Cyber Coordination Centre is a operational cyber security and e-surveillance agency in India.
Keeping the foresight of rapidly changing technologies and rampant digital obsolescence, in 2008, the R & D in IT Group, Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology, Government of India envisaged to evolve Indian digital preservation initiative.
The National Film and Sound Archive of Australia (NFSA) is Australia’s audiovisual archive, responsible for developing, preserving, maintaining, promoting and providing access to a national collection of copies of film, television, sound, and radio audiovisual materials and related items.
The National Geospatial Digital Archive (NGDA) is an archive of cartographic information funded by the Library of Congress through the National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program (NDIIPP) in collaboration with the University of California Santa Barbara, and Stanford University.
The National Geothermal Data System (NGDS) is an American distributed data network that collects and provides public access to digital geothermal exploration and development information.
The National Information Exchange Model (NIEM) is an XML-based information exchange framework from the United States.
The National Recording Preservation Plan is a strategic guide for the preservation of sound recordings in the United States.
The National Security Agency (NSA) is a national-level intelligence agency of the United States Department of Defense, under the authority of the Director of National Intelligence.
The National Snow and Ice Data Center, or NSIDC, is a United States information and referral center in support of polar and cryospheric research.
The National Software Reference Library (NSRL), is a project of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) which maintains a repository of known software, file profiles and file signatures for use by law enforcement and other organizations involved with computer forensic investigations.
NEPOMUK (Networked Environment for Personal, Ontology-based Management of Unified Knowledge) is an open-source software specification that is concerned with the development of a social semantic desktop that enriches and interconnects data from different desktop applications using semantic metadata stored as RDF.
NetCDF (Network Common Data Form) is a set of software libraries and self-describing, machine-independent data formats that support the creation, access, and sharing of array-oriented scientific data.
The Netherlands Institute for Art History or RKD (Dutch: RKD-Nederlands Instituut voor Kunstgeschiedenis) is located in The Hague and is home to the largest art history center in the world.
In computing, a NetWare File System (NWFS) is a file system based on a heavily modified version of FAT.
Network Intelligence (NI) is a technology that builds on the concepts and capabilities of Deep Packet Inspection (DPI), Packet Capture and Business Intelligence (BI).
Network-attached storage (NAS) is a file-level computer data storage server connected to a computer network providing data access to a heterogeneous group of clients.
NeuroML is an XML (Extensible Markup Language) based model description language that aims to provide a common data format for defining and exchanging models in computational neuroscience.
The New Jersey Digital Highway (NJDH) is a collaborative initiative led by cultural heritage institutions—including libraries, museums, archives, state agencies and other organizations—in New Jersey to provide online access to cultural and historical information about the state.
The New York Times Index is a printed reference work published since 1913 by The New York Times newspaper.
News Industry Text Format (NITF) is an XML specification designed to standardize the content and structure of individual text news articles.
NewsML-G2 is an XML multimedia news exchange format standard of the IPTC, the International Press Telecommunications Council.
Nirvana is a concept in Indian religious traditions.
Nirvana is virtual object storage software developed and maintained by General Atomics.
The nm command ships with a number of later versions of Unix and similar operating systems.
No Comment were an American powerviolence band from North Hollywood, California, active from 1987 to 1993.
Node Magazine is a literary project in the guise of a fictional magazine created to annotate the novel Spook Country by William Gibson.
Nomenclature is a system of names or terms, or the rules for forming these terms in a particular field of arts or sciences.
Non-destructive editing is a form of audio, video or image editing where the original content is not modified in the course of editing, instead the edits are specified and modified by specialized software.
"Nostalgic" is a song by American recording artist Kelly Clarkson from her seventh studio album, Piece by Piece (2015).
The NOVA (non-volatile memory accelerated) file system is an open-source, log-structured file system for byte-addressable persistent memory (for example non-volatile dual in-line memory module (NVDIMM) and 3D XPoint DIMMs) for Linux.
Novell Storage Services (NSS) is a file system used by the Novell NetWare operating system.
NTFS (New Technology File System) is a proprietary file system developed by Microsoft.
Season three of Numbers, an American television series, premiered on September 22, 2006 with the episode "Spree" and had its season finale "The Janus List" on May 18, 2007.
OAKSTAR is a secret internet surveillance program of the National Security Agency (NSA) of the United States.
The Object Constraint Language (OCL) is a declarative language describing rules applying to Unified Modeling Language (UML) models developed at IBM and is now part of the UML standard.
An object file is a file containing object code, meaning relocatable format machine code that is usually not directly executable.
Object storage (also known as object-based storage) is a computer data storage architecture that manages data as objects, as opposed to other storage architectures like file systems which manage data as a file hierarchy, and block storage which manages data as blocks within sectors and tracks.
OER Commons is a freely accessible online library that allows teachers and others to search and discover open educational resources (OER) and other freely available instructional materials.
The Office Open XML file formats are a set of file formats that can be used to represent electronic office documents.
Ogg is a free, open container format maintained by the Xiph.Org Foundation.
In Microsoft Windows applications programming, OLE Automation (later renamed to simply Automation) is an inter-process communication mechanism created by Microsoft.
Oliver Roup is an entrepreneur and computer scientist originally from Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
OMB Circular A-16, revised August 19, 2002, is a Government circular that was created by the United States Office of Management and Budget (OMB) to provide guidance for federal agencies that create, maintain or use spatial data directly or indirectly through the establishment of the National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI) and the Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC).
Omeka is a free, open source content management system for online digital collections.
The OneFS file system is a parallel distributed networked file system designed by Isilon Systems for use in its Isilon IQ storage appliances.
ONIX (ONline Information eXchange) currently refers to any of three XML standard metadata formats developed by EDItEUR for use primarily within the book trade.
ONIX for Books is an XML format for sharing bibliographic data pertaining to both traditional books and eBooks.
An online public access catalog (often abbreviated as OPAC or simply library catalog) is an online database of materials held by a library or group of libraries.
ONTAP or Data ONTAP or Clustered Data ONTAP (cDOT) or Data ONTAP 7-Mode is NetApp's proprietary operating system used in storage disk arrays such as NetApp FAS and AFF (also known as NetApp Filer), ONTAP Select and Cloud Volumes ONTAP.
OPC Unified Architecture (OPC UA) is a machine to machine communication protocol for industrial automation developed by the OPC Foundation.
The Open Archives Initiative (OAI) is an organization to develop and apply technical interoperability standards for archives to share catalog information (metadata).
The Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH) is a protocol developed for harvesting (or collecting) metadata descriptions of records in an archive so that services can be built using metadata from many archives.
Open by Default, as widely used in the contexts of Open Government and Open Data, is the principle in which government makes its data accessible to the public by default, unless there is a sufficient justification to explain that greater public interest may be at stake, as a result of disclosure.
In computing, Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) is a standard application programming interface (API) for accessing database management systems (DBMS).
Open Educational Practices in Australia refers to the development, implementation and use of Open educational resources (OER), open access (research and data), open learning design, open policies, and Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) to open up education in Australia.
Open energy system database projects employ open data methods to collect, clean, and republish energy-related datasets for open use.
Open J-Gate was a free database of open access journals, launched in February 2006, hosted by Informatics (India) Ltd, founded by N V Sathyanarayana By May 2012 it had been closed for several months and was displaying a message that the site will be back "soon".
Open Scripture Information Standard (OSIS) is an XML application (or schema), that defines tags for marking up Bibles, theological commentaries, and other related literature.
Open Virtualization Format (OVF) is an open standard for packaging and distributing virtual appliances or, more generally, software to be run in virtual machines.
This article describes the technical specifications of the OpenDocument office document standard, as developed by the OASIS industry consortium.
OpenEd is an online catalog of educational assessments, homework assignments, videos, games and lesson plans aligned to every Common Core standard and several other standards, and includes the only open source formative item bank.
OpenImageIO is an open source library for reading and writing images.
OpenIO has been founded in 2015 by Laurent Denel (CEO) and six co-founders, to offer an integrated object storage and serverless computing solution for building hyper scalable IT infrastructures for a wide range of applications. OpenIO leverages open source software, developed since 2006, which is based on a grid technology that enables dynamic behaviors and supports heterogenous hardware. In October, 2017, OpenIO completed a $5 million funding round to expand the company's reach in new territories.
OpenOLAT is a web-based learning management system for teaching, education, assessment and communication.
OpenRaster is a file format proposed for the common exchange of layered images between raster graphics editors.
The OpenSIGLE repository provides open access to the bibliographic records of the former SIGLE database.
OpenStreetMap (OSM) is a collaborative project to create a free editable map of the world.
An OpenURL knowledge base is an extensive database containing information about electronic resources such as electronic journals or ebooks and their availability and accessibility.
Operational intelligence (OI) is a category of real-time dynamic, business analytics that delivers visibility and insight into data, streaming events and business operations.
OPML (Outline Processor Markup Language) is an XML format for outlines (defined as "a tree, where each node contains a set of named attributes with string values").
OptimFROG is a proprietary lossless audio data compression codec developed by Florin Ghido.
OPUS is an open source software package under the GNU General Public License used for creating Open Access repositories that are compliant with the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting.
In computing, Oracle Application Development Framework, usually called Oracle ADF, provides a Java framework for building enterprise applications.
The Oracle Application Server 10g (the "g" stands for grid) (short Oracle AS), consists of an integrated, standards-based software platform.
Oracle Database provides information about all of the tables, views, columns, and procedures in a database.
Oracle Multimedia (formerly Oracle interMedia from versions 8 to 10gR2) is a feature available for Oracle databases, which provides multimedia utilities in a database environment, generating as a result a multimedia database (MMDB).
Oracle Spatial and Graph, formerly Oracle Spatial, forms a separately-licensed option component of the Oracle Database.
The Organization for Transformative Works (OTW) is a non-profit, fan activist organization.
Within church architecture, orientation is an arrangement by which the point of main interest in the interior is towards the east (oriens).
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to databases: Database – organized collection of data, today typically in digital form.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to library science: Library science – study of issues related to libraries and the information fields.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to machine learning: Machine learning – subfield of computer sciencehttp://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1116194/machine-learning (more particularly soft computing) that evolved from the study of pattern recognition and computational learning theory in artificial intelligence.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to natural language processing: Natural language processing – computer activity in which computers are entailed to analyze, understand, alter, or generate natural language.
An overlay journal or overlay ejournal is an open access academic journal, almost always an online electronic journal (ejournal), that does not produce its own content, but selects from texts that are already freely available online.
The Oxford English Corpus is a text corpus of 21st century English, used by the makers of the Oxford English Dictionary and by Oxford University Press's language research programme.
P4 is a programming language designed to allow programming of packet forwarding planes.
A package manager or package management system is a collection of software tools that automate the process of installing, upgrading, configuring, and removing computer programs for a computer's operating system in a consistent manner.
Page layout is the part of graphic design that deals in the arrangement of visual elements on a page.
Panasas, Inc. is a privately held data storage company that specializes in high-performance network-attached storage for technical computing environments.
The Panasonic Lumix DMC-GH3 is a digital mirrorless interchangeable lens camera (MILC) manufactured by Panasonic.
Panoramio is a discontinued geo-located tagging, photo sharing mashup which was bought by Google in 2006.
The paradata of a survey are data about the process by which the survey data were collected.
As a general definition, paradata are usage data about learning resources that include not just quantitative metrics (e.g., how many times a piece of content was accessed), but also pedagogic context, as inferred through the actions of educators and learners.
PassAlong Networks, also known as Tennessee Pacific Group, LLC, was a developer of digital media innovations and services located in Franklin, Tennessee.
Patrick Carl Fischer (December 3, 1935 – August 26, 2011) was an American computer scientist, a noted researcher in computational complexity theory and database theory, and a target of the Unabomber.
In computing and telecommunications, the payload is the part of transmitted data that is the actual intended message.
pdfrecycle is an open source cross-platform tool to create a PDF file by composing pages from other PDF files.
PDFtk (short for PDF Toolkit) is a cross-platform tool for manipulating Portable Document Format (PDF) documents.
PeopleSoft, Inc. was a company that provided human resource management systems (HRMS), Financial Management Solutions (FMS), supply chain management (SCM), customer relationship management (CRM), and enterprise performance management (EPM) software, as well as software for manufacturing, and student administration to large corporations, governments, and organizations.
A permalink or permanent link is a URL that is intended to remain unchanged for many years into the future, yielding a hyperlink that is less susceptible to link rot.
A persistence framework is a middleware that assists and automates the storage of program data into databases, especially relational databases.
In computing, a Personal Storage Table (.pst) is an open proprietary file format used to store copies of messages, calendar events, and other items within Microsoft software such as Microsoft Exchange Client, Windows Messaging, and Microsoft Outlook.
The Petrological Database of the Ocean Floor (PetDB) is a relational database and repository for global geochemical data on igneous and metamorphic rocks generated at mid-ocean ridges including back-arc basins, young seamounts, and old oceanic crust, as well as ophiolites and terrestrial xenoliths from the mantle and lower crust and diamond geochemistry.
The phenotype microarray approach is a technology for high-throughput phenotyping of cells.
The Phillips Code is a brevity code (shorthand) created in 1879 by Walter P. Phillips (then of the Associated Press) for the rapid transmission of press reports by telegraph.
Philosophy, Politics and Economics (PPE) is an interdisciplinary undergraduate/post-graduate degree which combines study from three disciplines.
A phone log is metadata collected from telephone or mobile phones for the purpose of surveillance or espionage.
Photo CD is a system designed by Kodak for digitizing and saving photos onto a CD.
Picture Transfer Protocol (PTP) is a protocol developed by the International Imaging Industry Association to allow the transfer of images from digital cameras to computers and other peripheral devices without the need of additional device drivers.
"Piece by Piece" is a song by American singer Kelly Clarkson taken from her seventh studio album of the same name.
The PKP Open Archives Harvester is software used to accumulate and index freely available metadata, providing a searchable, web-based interface.
In computing, plain text is the data (e.g. file contents) that represent only characters of readable material but not its graphical representation nor other objects (images, etc.). It may also include a limited number of characters that control simple arrangement of text, such as line breaks or tabulation characters.
Planned Obsolescence: Publishing, Technology, and the Future of the Academy is a book by Kathleen Fitzpatrick, Director of Scholarly Communication at the Modern Language Association and Visiting Research Professor of English at New York University, published by NYU Press on November 1, 2011.
The Platform for Internet Content Selection (PICS) was a specification created by W3C that used metadata to label webpages to help parents and teachers control what children and students could access on the Internet.
Playster is a global subscription-based entertainment service, providing on-demand movies, television shows, music, video games, ebooks and audiobooks.
Plex is a client-server media player system and software suite comprising two main components.
Plinian Core is a set of vocabulary terms that can be used to describe different aspects of biological species information.
Polythematic structured-subject heading system (abbreviated as PSH from the Czech Polytematický Strukturovaný Heslář) is a bilingual Czech–English controlled vocabulary of subject headings developed and maintained by the National Technical Library (the former State Technical Library) in Prague.
Portable Network Graphics (PNG, pronounced or) is a raster graphics file format that supports lossless data compression.
Portage is a package management system originally created for and used by Gentoo Linux and also by Chrome OS, Sabayon, and Funtoo Linux among others.
Poser is a 3D computer graphics program distributed by Smith Micro Software.
When a message is replied to in e-mail, Internet forums, or Usenet, the original can often be included, or “quoted,” in a variety of different posting styles.
Practical Scriptwriter is screenwriting software supporting various US and UK script formats (Stage, Screen, Television and Radio) as required by the BBC and US Screenwriting industry standards.
A prefix is an affix which is placed before the stem of a word.
Prenda Law, also known as Steele | Hansmeier PLLP and Anti-Piracy Law Group, was a Chicago-based law firm that ostensibly operated by undertaking litigation against copyright infringement, but was later characterized by the United States District Court for Central California in a May 2013 ruling as a "porno-trolling collective" whose business model "relies on deception", and which resembled most closely a conspiracy and racketeering enterprise, referring in the judgment to RICO, the United States Federal anti-racketeering law.
The presentation timestamp (PTS) is a timestamp metadata field in an MPEG transport stream or MPEG program stream that is used to achieve synchronization of programs' separate elementary streams (for example Video, Audio, Subtitles) when presented to the viewer.
Preservation refers to the set of activities that aims to prolong the life of a record with as little changes to the original record as possible.
Preservation metadata is an essential component of most digital preservation strategies.
PREservation Metadata: Implementation Strategies (PREMIS) is an international working group concerned with developing metadata for use in digital preservation.
A printing press is a device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a print medium (such as paper or cloth), thereby transferring the ink.
PRISM is a code name for a program under which the United States National Security Agency (NSA) collects internet communications from various U.S. internet companies.
Privacy in Australian law is not an absolute right and there is no clearly recognised tort of invasion of privacy or similar remedy available to people who feel their right to privacy has been violated.
The privacy laws of the United States deal with several different legal concepts.
A problem domain is the area of expertise or application that needs to be examined to solve a problem.
Product data management (PDM) or Product information management (PIM) is the business function often within product lifecycle management (PLM) that is responsible for the management and publication of product data.
The Program and System Information Protocol (PSIP) is the MPEG (a video and audio industry group) and privately defined program-specific information originally defined by General Instrument for the DigiCipher 2 system and later extended for the ATSC digital television system for carrying metadata about each channel in the broadcast MPEG transport stream of a television station and for publishing information about television programs so that viewers can select what to watch by title and description.
Program-specific information (PSI) is metadata about a program (channel) and part of an MPEG transport stream.
Progressive Web Apps (PWAs) are web applications that are regular web pages or websites, but can appear to the user like traditional applications or native mobile applications.
Project 6, or simply P6, is a global surveillance project jointly operated by U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in close cooperation with the German intelligence agencies Bundesnachrichtendienst (BND) and Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz (BfV).
In metadata, property equivalence is the statement that two properties have the same property extension or values.
Proposed reforms of mass surveillance by the United States are a collection of diverse proposals offered in response to the Global surveillance disclosures of 2013.
DVRs, or digital video recorders, are devices which record video to a hard drive.
The Protocol for Web Description Resources (POWDER) is the W3C recommended method for describing Web resources.
Public.Resource.Org is a 501(c)(3) non-profit corporation dedicated to publishing and sharing public domain materials in the United States and internationally.
The Publishing Requirements for Industry Standard Metadata (PRISM) specification defines a set of XML metadata vocabularies for syndicating, aggregating, post-processing and multi-purposing content.
Puddletag is an audio tag (metadata) editor for audio file formats.
QR code (abbreviated from Quick Response Code) is the trademark for a type of matrix barcode (or two-dimensional barcode) first designed in 1994 for the automotive industry in Japan.
The Quake Markup Language (QuakeML) is a flexible, extensible and modular XML representation of seismological data (e.g. epicenter, hypocenter, magnitude) which is intended to cover a broad range of fields of application in modern seismology.
Quantone, formerly known as Decibel Music Systems, is a London-based music intelligence software company that provides rich, semantic music metadata to developers and media companies.
Quartz Composer is a node-based visual programming language provided as part of the Xcode development environment in macOS for processing and rendering graphical data.
The Quilt Index is a searchable database for scholars, quilters and educators featuring over 50,000 quilts from documentation projects, museums, libraries, and private collections.
A radiogram is a formal written message transmitted by radio.
Raelynn Hillhouse is an American national security and Intelligence community analyst, former smuggler during the Cold War, spy novelist and health care executive.
RAIDS Online is a free public crime map developed by BAIR Analytics.
Rarian is a document cataloging system (formerly known as Spoon).
Rate Your Music (or RYM) is an online collaborative metadata database of musical and non-musical releases and films which can be catalogued, rated and reviewed by users.
A camera raw image file contains minimally processed data from the image sensor of either a digital camera, image scanner, or motion picture film scanner.
RDFa (or Resource Description Framework in Attributes) is a W3C Recommendation that adds a set of attribute-level extensions to HTML, XHTML and various XML-based document types for embedding rich metadata within Web documents.
Readgeek is an online book recommendations engine and social cataloging service launched in December 2010.
Realness is the eighth studio album from singer and drag queen, RuPaul.
recensio.net – review platform for European history – is a Europe-wide, multi-language platform for scholarly reviews of historical literature.
This article provides a detailed historic account of the reception and criticism of security and privacy features in the WhatsApp messaging service.
Recipe Markup Language, formerly known as DESSERT (Document Encoding and Structuring Specification for Electronic Recipe Transfer), is an XML-based format for marking up recipes.
A recommender system or a recommendation system (sometimes replacing "system" with a synonym such as platform or engine) is a subclass of information filtering system that seeks to predict the "rating" or "preference" a user would give to an item.
In computer science, a record-oriented filesystem is a file system where data is stored as collections of records.
A recording format is a format for encoding data for storage on a storage medium.
The Records Continuum Model (RCM) was created in the 1990s by Monash University academic Frank Upward with input from colleagues Sue McKemmish and Livia Iacovino as a response to evolving discussions about the challenges of managing digital records and archives in the discipline of Archival Science.
Records management taxonomy is the representation of data, upon which the classification of unstructured content is based, within an organization.
Red Bee Media, formerly Ericsson Broadcast and Media Services (EBMS), is an International broadcasting and media services company headquartered in White City, West London, United Kingdom, with offices in Glasgow, Cardiff and Newcastle upon Tyne, and international offices in Australia, France, Spain, Germany, Finland, The Netherlands, Sweden, France, Canada, United States and Abu Dhabi.
Red Hen Systems, Inc. is a technology company that develops integrated hardware and software solutions for multimedia asset mapping.
REDCap (Research Electronic Data Capture) is a browser-based, metadata-driven EDC software solution and workflow methodology for designing clinical and translational research databases.
A refback is one of four types of linkbacks, methods for Web authors to request notification when somebody links to one of their documents.
A referatory is the name given to a web application system (also known as a database-driven website).
Regator.com is a curated blog directory and search engine.
Regulated Product Submission (RPS) is a Health Level Seven (HL7) standard designed to facilitate the processing and review of regulated product information.
ReiserFS is a general-purpose, journaled computer file system formerly designed and implemented by a team at Namesys led by Hans Reiser.
A remote sensing application is a software application that processes remote sensing data.
ReplayGain is a proposed standard published by David Robinson in 2001 to measure the perceived loudness of audio in computer audio formats such as MP3 and Ogg Vorbis.
In revision control systems, a repository is an on-disk data structure which stores metadata for a set of files or directory structure.
The Repository Open Service Interface Definition (OSID) is an Open Knowledge Initiative specification which defines the storing and retrieving of digital content, referred to as assets.
A representation term is a word, or a combination of words, that semantically represent the data type (value domain) of a data element.
Representational State Transfer (REST) is an architectural style that defines a set of constraints and properties based on HTTP.
In computing, a Research Object is a method for the identification, aggregation and exchange of scholarly information on the Web.
The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is a family of World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) specifications originally designed as a metadata data model.
The resource fork is a fork or section of a file on Apple's classic Mac OS operating system, which was also carried over to the modern macOS for compatibility, used to store structured data along with the unstructured data stored within the data fork.
A resource map (ReM) is a concept of the ORE Model for associating an identity with compound digital objects (aggregations of digital resources) and making assertions about their structure and semantics.
A SQL result set is a set of rows from a database, as well as metadata about the query such as the column names, and the types and sizes of each column.
Reverse image search is a content-based image retrieval (CBIR) query technique that involves providing the CBIR system with a sample image that it will then base its search upon; in terms of information retrieval, the sample image is what formulates a search query.
REX2 is a proprietary type of audio sample loop file format developed by Propellerhead, a Swedish music software company.
) As an example, the following RTF code: is a document which would be rendered like this when read by a program that supports RTF: This is some bold text.
Ricochet or Ricochet IM is a free software, multi-platform, instant messaging software project originally developed by John Brooks and later adopted as the official instant messaging client project of the Invisible.im group.
The Registry Interchange Format - Collections and Services (RIF-CS) is an XML vocabulary for representing metadata about data collections and related entities based on ISO 2146.
RIFE is a content management framework designed for rapid web application development in Java, without using J2EE.
A Rights Expression Language or REL is a machine-processable language used to express intellectual property rights (such as copyright) and other terms and conditions for use over content.
RISC OS is a computer operating system originally designed by Acorn Computers Ltd in Cambridge, England.
Rocket U2 is a suite of database management (DBMS) and supporting software now owned by Rocket Software.
Clyde Roger Vinson (born February 19, 1940) is a Senior United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Northern District of Florida.
Routing in delay-tolerant networking concerns itself with the ability to transport, or route, data from a source to a destination, which is a fundamental ability all communication networks must have.
RPM Package Manager (RPM) (originally Red Hat Package Manager; now a recursive acronym) is a package management system.
RR Media was a NASDAQ listed provider of global digital media services to the broadcast industry and content owners.
RSpec is a 'Domain Specific Language' (DSL) testing tool written in Ruby to test Ruby code.
RSS (Rich Site Summary; originally RDF Site Summary; often called Really Simple Syndication) is a type of web feed which allows users to access updates to online content in a standardized, computer-readable format.
In education terminology, rubric means "a scoring guide used to evaluate the quality of students' constructed responses".
Sabine Leutheusser-Schnarrenberger (born 26 July 1951) is a German politician of the liberal Free Democratic Party and a prominent advocate of human rights in Germany and Europe.
Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) is an XML-based vector image format for two-dimensional graphics with support for interactivity and animation.
A schema crosswalk is a table that shows equivalent elements (or "fields") in more than one database schema.
Schema.org is a collaborative, community activity with a mission to create, maintain, and promote schemas for structured data on the Internet, on web pages, in email messages, and beyond.
The Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC) is an international alliance of academic and research libraries developed by the Association of Research Libraries in 1998 which promotes open access to scholarship.
The Scottish Corpus of Texts & Speech (SCOTS) is an ongoing project to build a corpus of modern-day (post-1940) written and spoken texts in Scottish English and varieties of Scots.
SCP-ECG, which stands for Standard communications protocol for computer assisted electrocardiography, is a standard for ECG traces, annotations, and metadata, that specifies the interchange format and a messaging procedure for ECG cart-to-host communication and for retrieval of SCP-ECG records from the host to the ECG cart.
Scrivener is a word-processing program and outliner designed for authors.
ScrollKeeper is a document cataloging system.
SDMX, which stands for Statistical Data and Metadata eXchange is an international initiative that aims at standardising and modernising (“industrialising”) the mechanisms and processes for the exchange of statistical data and metadata among international organisations and their member countries.
SDXF (Structured Data eXchange Format) is a data serialization format defined by RFC 3072.
A search appliance (SA) is a type of computer appliance which is attached to a corporate network for the purpose of indexing the content shared across that network in a way that is similar to a web search engine.
A search engine is an information retrieval system designed to help find information stored on a computer system.
Search engine indexing collects, parses, and stores data to facilitate fast and accurate information retrieval.
Search Engine Results Pages (SERP) are the pages displayed by search engines in response to a query by a searcher.
"Second Hand Heart" is a song by English singer Ben Haenow, from his self-titled debut studio album, Ben Haenow (2015).
Secure instant messaging is a form of instant messaging.
SedDB is an online data management and information system for sediment geochemistry.
The Sedona Canada Principles are a set of authoritative guidelines published by The Sedona Conference to aid members of the Canadian legal community involved in the identification, collection, preservation, review and production of electronically stored information (ESI).
In computer programming, a self-relocating program is a program that relocates its own address-dependent instructions and data when run, and is therefore capable of being loaded into memory at any address.
In computer science, the Semantic Desktop is a collective term for ideas related to changing a computer's user interface and data handling capabilities so that data is more easily shared between different applications or tasks and so that data that once could not be automatically processed by a computer could be.
In computer metadata, semantic equivalence is a declaration that two data elements from different vocabularies contain data that has similar meaning.
A semantic grid is an approach to grid computing in which information, computing resources and services are described using the semantic data model.
Semantic HTML is the use of HTML markup to reinforce the semantics, or meaning, of the information in webpages and web applications rather than merely to define its presentation or look.
Semantic interoperability is the ability of computer systems to exchange data with unambiguous, shared meaning.
Semantic publishing on the Web, or semantic web publishing, refers to publishing information on the web as documents accompanied by semantic markup.
The Semantic Sensor Web (SSW) is a marriage of sensor and Semantic Web technologies.
The semantic spectrum (sometimes referred to as the ontology spectrum or the smart data continuum or semantic precision) is a series of increasingly precise or rather semantically expressive definitions for data elements in knowledge representations, especially for machine use.
In software, semantic technology encodes meanings separately from data and content files, and separately from application code.
The Semantic Web is an extension of the World Wide Web through standards by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).
Semantically-Interlinked Online Communities Project (SIOC - pronounced "shock") is a Semantic Web technology.
Semantics (from σημαντικός sēmantikós, "significant") is the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning, in language, programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics.
In programming language theory, semantics is the field concerned with the rigorous mathematical study of the meaning of programming languages.
Opinion mining (sometimes known as sentiment analysis or emotion AI) refers to the use of natural language processing, text analysis, computational linguistics, and biometrics to systematically identify, extract, quantify, and study affective states and subjective information.
A sequence profiling tool in bioinformatics is a type of software that presents information related to a genetic sequence, gene name, or keyword input.
Serial digital interface (SDI) is a family of digital video interfaces first standardized by SMPTE (The Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers) in 1989.
Service Data Objects is a technology that allows heterogeneous data to be accessed in a uniform way.
Service Description Table (SDT) is a metadata table used in Digital Video Broadcasting systems to describe the television, radio or other services contained in MPEG transport streams provided by the system.
A service-oriented architecture (SOA) is a style of software design where services are provided to the other components by application components, through a communication protocol over a network.
Service-oriented programming (SOP) is a programming paradigm that uses "services" as the unit of computer work, to design and implement integrated business applications and mission critical software programs.
Shareaza is a peer-to-peer file sharing client running under Microsoft Windows which supports the gnutella, Gnutella2 (G2), eDonkey, BitTorrent, FTP, HTTP and HTTPS network protocols and handles magnet links, ed2k links, and the now deprecated gnutella and Piolet links.
SharePoint is a web-based collaborative platform that integrates with Microsoft Office.
Shawn Mendes (alternatively Shawn Mendes: The Album) is the self-titled third studio album by Canadian singer and songwriter Shawn Mendes.
The SHIWA (SHaring Interoperable Workflows for large-scale scientific simulations on Available DCIs) is a project led by the LPDS (Laboratory of Parallel and Distributed Systems) of MTA Computer and Automation Research Institute.
Shodan is a search engine that lets the user find specific types of computers (webcams, routers, servers, etc.) connected to the internet using a variety of filters.
In filmmaking and video production, shot logging is the process by which shoot metadata is captured during a film or video shoot.
SHOUTcast DNAS is cross-platform proprietary software for streaming media over the Internet.
Sidecar files, also known as buddy files or connected files, are computer files that store data (often metadata) which is not supported by the format of a source file.
Sigil is free, open-source editing software for e-books in the EPUB format.
A signal generator is an electronic device that generates repeating or non-repeating electronic signals in either the analog or the digital domain.
Signal programming is used in the same sense as dataflow programming, and is similar to event-driven programming.
In telecommunication, signaling has the following meanings.
SilverStripe is a free and open source Content Management System (CMS) and Framework for creating and maintaining websites and web applications.
Simcenter Amesim is a commercial simulation software for the modeling and analysis of multi-domain systems.
SIMILE (Semantic Interoperability of Metadata and Information in unLike Environments) was a joint research project run by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), Massachusetts Institute of Technology Libraries and MIT CSAIL and funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation.
Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) is a W3C recommendation designed for representation of thesauri, classification schemes, taxonomies, subject-heading systems, or any other type of structured controlled vocabulary.
SimpleDL is digital collection management software that allows for the upload, description, management and access of digital collections and is UTF-8 compatible.
Singingfish was an audio/video search engine that powered audio video search for Windows Media Player, WindowsMedia.com, RealOne/RealPlayer, Real Guide,For queries on Real Guide, Singingfish search results appeared in the section "Audio & Video on the Web".
Single-source publishing, also known as single-sourcing publishing, is a content management method which allows the same source content to be used across different forms of media and more than one time.
The Sitemaps protocol allows a webmaster to inform search engines about URLs on a website that are available for crawling.
Slackware is a Linux distribution created by Patrick Volkerding in 1993.
The Smart Game Format (SGF) is a computer file format used for storing records of board games.
SMDR may refer to.
The SMMCore standard (Singapore Multimedia Metadata Set) is the national metadata standard used for B2B content exchanging in Singapore.
SMP/E (System Modification Program/Extended) "is a tool designed to manage the installation of software products on z/OS system and to track the modifications" to those products.
SMPTE 292 is a digital video transmission standard published by the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE) which expands upon SMPTE 259 and SMPTE 344 allowing for bit-rates of 1.485 Gbit/s, and 1.485/1.001 Gbit/s.
SMPTE timecode is a set of cooperating standards to label individual frames of video or film with a timecode.
SMS (short message service) is a text messaging service component of most telephone, internet, and mobile-device systems.
Service-oriented architecture library (SOALIB) is used to distribute reusable service-oriented architecture (SOA) software in a manner similar to other computing libraries.
Social bookmarking is a centralized online service which allows users to add, annotate, edit, and share bookmarks of web documents.
Social information processing is "an activity through which collective human actions organize knowledge." It is the creation and processing of information by a group of people.
Social network analysis (SNA) is the process of investigating social structures through the use of networks and graph theory.
President Donald Trump describes himself as pro-life and generally opposes abortion with some exceptions: rape, incest, and circumstances endangering the health of the mother.
Sodipodi is an open-source vector graphics editor, discontinued in 2004, and is the predecessor to Inkscape.
Soft updates is an approach to maintaining file system meta-data integrity in the event of a crash or power outage.
In computer science, a software agent is a computer program that acts for a user or other program in a relationship of agency, which derives from the Latin agere (to do): an agreement to act on one's behalf.
A software engine refers to a central part of a computer program.
Software mining is an application of knowledge discovery in the area of software modernization which involves understanding existing software artifacts.
Software Package Data Exchange (SPDX) is a file format used to document information on the software licenses under which a given piece of computer software is distributed.
"Someone" is a song by American singer Kelly Clarkson from her seventh studio album, Piece by Piece (2015).
Songbird is a discontinued music player originally released in early 2006 with the stated mission "to incubate Songbird, the first Web player, to catalyze and champion a diverse, open Media Web".
SORM (lit) is the technical specification for lawful interception interfaces of telecommunications and telephone networks operating in Russia.
SOSI is a much used geospatial vector data format for predominantly used for exchange of geographical information in Norway.
SoundExchange is a non-profit collective rights management organization.
The South African Spatial Data Infrastructure (SASDI) is an initiative of the South African government that makes policies and technical standards on the use of geographical data such as maps, aerial and satellite photographs, and surveys.
In computer science, a sparse file is a type of computer file that attempts to use file system space more efficiently when the file itself is partially empty.
A spatial data infrastructure (SDI) is a data infrastructure implementing a framework of geographic data, metadata, users and tools that are interactively connected in order to use spatial data in an efficient and flexible way.
SpeechBot was a web search engine for streaming media content developed at Compaq's (later HP) research laboratories in Cambridge, MA and Australia.
Spook Country is a 2007 novel by speculative fiction author William Gibson.
SportsML is an XML news exchange standard of the IPTC, the International Press Telecommunications Council.
SportsML-G2 is an XML news exchange standard of the IPTC, the International Press Telecommunications Council.
Spotlight is a system-wide desktop search feature of Apple's macOS and iOS operating systems.
Spotnet is a protocol on top of Usenet, providing a decentralized alternative to usenet indexing websites, and the NZB format in general.
The Spring Framework is an application framework and inversion of control container for the Java platform.
Spring Roo is an open-source software tool that uses convention-over-configuration principles to provide rapid application development of Java-based enterprise software.
SPSS Statistics is a software package used for interactive, or batched, statistical analysis.
SQL/PSM (SQL/Persistent Stored Modules) is an ISO standard mainly defining an extension of SQL with a procedural language for use in stored procedures.
Standard Architecture for Universal Comment Extensions or SAUCE, as it is most commonly known, is an open metadata protocol for tagging and describing ASCII text files and other files, most of which generally center on or date back to the era of BBSing.
The Starlink Project, referred to by users as Starlink and by developers as simply The Project, was a UK astronomical computing project which supplied general-purpose data reduction software.
StationRipper is a commercial Microsoft Windows software program developed by Ratajik Software.
A steganography software tool allows a user to embed hidden data inside a carrier file, such as an image or video, and later extract that data.
Stochastic forensics is a method to forensically reconstruct digital activity lacking artifacts, by analyzing emergent properties resulting from the stochastic nature of modern computers.
Storage Resource Broker (SRB) was data grid management computer software used in computational science research projects.
In computer science, storage virtualization is "the process of presenting a logical view of the physical storage resources to" a host computer system, "Treating all storage media (hard disk, optical disk, tape, etc.) in the enterprise as a single pool of storage." A "storage system" is also known as a storage array, disk array, or filer.
STORMBREW is a secret internet surveillance program of the National Security Agency (NSA) of the United States.
In software engineering, structured analysis (SA) and structured design (SD) are methods for analyzing business requirements and developing specifications for converting practices into computer programs, hardware configurations, and related manual procedures.
Structured content is information or content that is organized in a predictable way and is usually classified with metadata.
A structured document is an electronic document where some method of embedded coding, such as mark-up, is used to give the whole, and parts, of the document various structural meanings according to a schema.
Studio One is a digital audio workstation (DAW) application, used to create, record, mix and master music and other audio.
A subcarrier is a sideband of a radio frequency carrier wave, which is modulated to send additional information.
Subject access refers to the methods and systems by which books, journals, and other documents are accessed in a given bibliographic database (e.g. a library classification system).
Subject indexing is the act of describing or classifying a document by index terms or other symbols in order to indicate what the document is about, to summarize its content or to increase its findability.
Professor Sue McKemmish is an Australian archivist and scholar in the field of archival science.
SuperCROSS is a programming free desktop tabulation software tool used by statisticians for aggregating and cross-tabulating data from surveys.
SuperTux is a free and open-source two-dimensional platform game published under the GNU General Public License.
Supportworks is an issue tracking system designed for use in help desk and information technology (IT) environments.
A surrogate is a substitute or deputy for another person in a specific role and may refer to.
Surround SCM is a software configuration management application developed by Seapine Software.
Surveillance is the monitoring of behavior, activities, or other changing information for the purpose of influencing, managing, directing, or protecting people.
SOCH (Swedish Open Cultural Heritage) is a web service used for searching and retrieving data from museum an historical environment sectors in Sweden.
Synchsafe integers appear in ID3 tags that are attached to an MP3 file.
Syncsort Incorporated is a global software company specializing in Big Data, high speed sorting products, and data integration software and services, for Hadoop, Microsoft Windows, UNIX, Linux, and mainframe systems.
In metadata a synonym ring or synset, is a group of data elements that are considered semantically equivalent for the purposes of information retrieval.
The Syracuse University athletics scandal involved violations of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) rules by the Syracuse University men's basketball and football programs.
T_Visionarium is an art installation by Neil Brown, Dennis Del Favero, Jeffrey Shaw and Peter Weibel developed through the iCinema Centre for Interactive Cinema Research at The University of New South Wales in co-operation with ZKM Center for Art and Media, Karlsruhe.
A table is a collection of related data held in a structured format within a database.
A table is an arrangement of data in rows and columns, or possibly in a more complex structure.
TACTIC is a web-based, open source smart process application and digital asset management system supported by Southpaw Technology in Toronto, ON.
In information systems, a tag is a keyword or term assigned to a piece of information (such as an Internet bookmark, digital image, database record, or computer file).
A tag cloud (word cloud, or weighted list in visual design) is a novelty visual representation of text data, typically used to depict keyword metadata (tags) on websites, or to visualize free form text.
A tag editor (or tagger) is a piece of software that supports editing metadata of multimedia file formats, rather than the actual file content.
In computer science, a tagged union, also called a variant, variant record, choice type, discriminated union, disjoint union, or sum type, is a data structure used to hold a value that could take on several different, but fixed, types.
TagLib is a free library for reading and editing metadata embedded into audio files.
Tails or The Amnesic Incognito Live System is a security-focused Debian-based Linux distribution aimed at preserving privacy and anonymity.
"Take You High" is a song by American recording artist Kelly Clarkson from her seventh studio album, Piece by Piece (2015).
Tape labels are identifiers given to volumes of magnetic tape.
In computing, tar is a computer software utility for collecting many files into one archive file, often referred to as a tarball, for distribution or backup purposes.
In Computer Science, a TBox is a "terminological component"—a conceptualization associated with a set of facts, known as an ABox.
TeamDrive is a German software and cloud service provider offering file synchronization, storage, sharing and secure collaboration for enterprise working groups as well as for individuals via the Internet or any LAN environment.
A Technical Data Management System (TDMS) is essentially a Document management system (DMS) pertaining to the management of technical and engineering drawings and documents.
Technical Report Archive & Image Library (TRAIL) is a national collaborative project initiated by the University of Arizona and the Greater Western Library Alliance (GWLA) and that is now part of the Global Resources Network of the Center for Research Libraries (CRL), in cooperation with more than 50 partner institutions and personal members.
The Telecommunications (Interception and Access) Amendment (Data Retention) Act 2015 is an Australian law that amends the Telecommunications (Interception and Access) Act 1979 (TIA Act) and the Telecommunications Act 1997 to introduce a statutory obligation for Australian telecommunication service providers to retain, for a period of two years, particular types of telecommunications data (metadata) and introduces certain reforms to the regimes applying to the access of stored communications and telecommunications data under the TIA Act.
Tempora is the codeword for a formerly secret computer system that is used by the British Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ).
Ten Years is the debut extended play (EP) by American pop music duo Aly & AJ.
Terminfo is a library and database that enables programs to use display terminals in a device-independent manner.
The Terrorist Surveillance Program was an electronic surveillance program implemented by the National Security Agency (NSA) of the United States in the wake of the September 11, 2001, attacks.
In software testing, test automation is the use of special software (separate from the software being tested) to control the execution of tests and the comparison of actual outcomes with predicted outcomes.
A text file (sometimes spelled "textfile"; an old alternative name is "flatfile") is a kind of computer file that is structured as a sequence of lines of electronic text.
The Text Services Framework (TSF) is a COM framework and API in Windows XP and later Windows operating systems that supports advanced text input and text processing.
TextSecure was a free and open-source encrypted messaging application for Android that was first released in May 2010.
The Art Genome Project is the search technology behind Artsy.
The Library Corporation (TLC) creates and distributes automation and cataloging software to public, school, academic, and special library systems worldwide.
Metadata is the name of a US corporation and a registered trademark in the United States.
The Pirate Bay (sometimes abbreviated to TPB) is an online index of digital content of entertainment media and software.
The Sleuth Kit (TSK) is a library and collection of Unix- and Windows-based utilities to facilitate the forensic analysis of computer systems.
"The world wonders" was a phrase used as security padding in an encrypted message sent from Admiral Chester Nimitz to Admiral William Halsey, Jr. on October 25, 1944, during the Battle of Leyte Gulf.
In the context of information retrieval, a thesaurus (plural: "thesauri") is a form of controlled vocabulary that seeks to dictate semantic manifestations of metadata in the indexing of content objects.
Tag Image File Format/Electronic Photography (TIFF/EP) is a digital image file format standard – ISO 12234-2, titled "Electronic still-picture imaging – Removable memory – Part 2: TIFF/EP image data format".
Under some metadata standards, time is a representation term used to specify a time of day in the ISO 8601 time format.
This timeline of global surveillance disclosures from 2013 to the present day is a chronological list of the global surveillance disclosures that began in 2013.
Following is a timeline of the ''Deepwater Horizon'' oil spill for July 2010.
TiVo Corporation (formerly Rovi Corporation and Macrovision Solutions Corporation) is an American technology company.
TMS is an international provider of data for TV and movies.
Todd Lawrence Carter is an American technology entrepreneur. He is best known as the CEO of the New York City-based technology startup company Tagasauris that he co-founded in December 2010.
TopFIND is the Termini oriented protein Function Inferred Database (TopFIND) is an integrated knowledgebase focused on protein termini, their formation by proteases and functional implications.
In the BitTorrent file distribution system, a torrent file is a computer file that contains metadata about files and folders to be distributed, and usually also a list of the network locations of trackers, which are computers that help participants in the system find each other and form efficient distribution groups called swarms.
Torrent poisoning is intentionally sharing corrupt data or data with misleading file names using the BitTorrent protocol.
Tox is a peer-to-peer instant-messaging and video-calling protocol that offers end-to-end encryption.
Trafficthief (stylized TRAFFICTHIEF) is a database maintained by the United States' National Security Agency (NSA) and operated under the Turbulence program, containing "Meta-data from a subset of tasked strong-selectors," according to an XKeyscore presentation.
Transcoding is the direct digital-to-digital conversion of one encoding to another, such as for movie data files (e.g., PAL, SECAM, NTSC), audio files (e.g., MP3, WAV), or character encoding (e.g., UTF-8, ISO/IEC 8859).
TransducerML (Transducer Markup Language) or TML is a retired Open Geospatial Consortium standard developed to describe any transducer (sensor or transmitter) in terms of a common model, including characterizing not only the data but XML formed metadata describing the system producing that data.
A transformation language is a computer language designed to transform some input text in a certain formal language into a modified output text that meets some specific goal.
TreeBASE is a repository of phylogenetic data published in scientific journals.
In order to comply with government regulatory requirements pertinent to clinical trials, every organization involved in clinical trials must maintain and store certain documents, images and content related to the clinical trial.
Truevision TGA, often referred to as TARGA, is a raster graphics file format created by Truevision Inc. (now part of Avid Technology).
Truveo is a search engine for Web video, based in San Francisco and operated by AOL.
Turbulence is a United States National Security Agency (NSA) information-technology project started c. 2005.
TV listings (television listings, also sometimes called a TV guide or program/programme guide) are a printed or electronic timetable of television programs.
TVN Entertainment Corporation is now VUBIQUITY is a US-based provider of video on demand (VOD) services to various cable, telecommunication and direct broadcast satellite (DBS) companies.
Twango was an online media sharing site that supported multiple file types such as photos, video, audio, and documents.
Twine was an online, social web service for information storage, authoring and discovery, located at twine.com, that existed from 2007 to 2010.
A type code is the only mechanism used in the classic Mac OS to denote a file's format, in a manner similar to file extensions in other operating systems.
A typographical error (often shortened to typo), also called misprint, is a mistake made in the typing process (such as a spelling mistake) of printed material.
UFO is a 1970 British science fiction television series about an alien invasion of Earth.
The United Kingdom Collaboration for a Digital Repository (UKCDR) was a software design project.
UKSG is an international association that exists to 'connect the information community' and 'encourage the exchange of ideas on scholarly communication'.
Unified Emulator Format (UEF) is a container format for the compressed storage of audio tapes, ROMs, floppy discs and machine state snapshots for the 8-bit range of computers manufactured by Acorn Computers.
In computer science, a Uniform Resource Characteristic (URC) is a string of characters representing the metadata of a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI), a string identifying a Web resource.
RFC xxxx" because otherwise they get auto-converted by MediaWiki into hyperlinks to the IETF website, making the article a mess.
A Uniform Type Identifier (UTI) is a text string used on software provided by Apple Inc. to uniquely identify a given class or type of item.
The United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISC, also called the FISA Court) is a U.S. federal court established and authorized under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (FISA) to oversee requests for surveillance warrants against foreign spies inside the United States by federal law enforcement and intelligence agencies.
The Universal Data Element Framework (UDEF) was a controlled vocabulary developed by The Open Group.
The University of North Texas Libraries is an American academic research library system that serves the constituent colleges and schools of University of North Texas in Denton.
The Unix file system (UFS; also called the Berkeley Fast File System, the BSD Fast File System or FFS) is a file system supported by many Unix and Unix-like operating systems.
In Unix and operating systems inspired by it, the file system is considered a central component of the operating system.
Unstructured data (or unstructured information) is information that either does not have a pre-defined data model or is not organized in a pre-defined manner.
The USA Freedom Act is a U.S. law enacted on June 2, 2015 that restored in modified form several provisions of the Patriot Act, which had expired the day before.
Usenet is a worldwide distributed discussion system available on computers.
User experience design (UX, UXD, UED or XD) is the process of enhancing user satisfaction with a product by improving the usability, accessibility, and pleasure provided in the interaction with the product.
User-generated content (UGC), alternatively known as user-created content (UCC), is any form of content created by users of a system or service and made available publicly on that system.
UserLand Software is a US-based software company, founded in 1988, that sells web content management, as well as blogging software packages and services.
A userscript manager is a type of browser extension and augmented browsing technology that provides a user interface to manage userscripts.
The Utah Data Center, also known as the Intelligence Community Comprehensive National Cybersecurity Initiative Data Center, is a data storage facility for the United States Intelligence Community that is designed to store data estimated to be on the order of exabytes or larger.
VALA - Libraries, Technology and the Future Inc. (VALA) is an Australian not-for-profit professional organisation that promotes the use and understanding of information and communication technologies across the galleries, libraries, archives and museum sectors.
Vanish is a project at the University of Washington which endeavors to "give users control over the lifetime of personal data stored on the web." The project proposes to allow a user to enter information that he or she will send out across the internet, thereby relinquishing control of it.
The Variant Call Format (VCF) specifies the format of a text file used in bioinformatics for storing gene sequence variations.
Varonis Systems is an American software company with headquarters in New York City with R&D offices in Herzliya, Israel.
Verizon Communications Inc., or simply Verizon, is an American multinational telecommunications conglomerate and a corporate component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average.
Video clips are short clips of video, usually part of a longer recording.
Video email is the term for the use of email to send videos such that the recipient feels the video is being watched inside the email.
Video logging is a process in which video footage is watched and labeled according to its content.
A video search engine is a web-based search engine which crawls the web for video content.
A video server is a computer-based device that is dedicated to delivering video.
ViewMinder is a computer application for managing content, rights and usage of digital images using structured metadata.
Vinelink.com (VINE) is a national website in the United States that allows victims of crime, and the general public, to track the movements of prisoners held by the various states and territories.
The Video and Image Retrieval and Analysis Tool (VIRAT) program is a video surveillance project funded by the Information Processing Technology Office (IPTO) of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA).
Virtual Design and Construction (VDC) is the management of integrated multi-disciplinary performance models of design-construction projects, including the product (i.e., facilities), work processes and organization of the design - construction - operation team in order to support explicit and public business objectives.
In computing, a virtual folder generally denotes an organizing principle for files that is not dependent on location in a hierarchical directory tree.
Vision IPTV is a niche internet TV and IPTV company located in London.
Visual networking refers to an emerging class of user applications that combine digital video and social networking capabilities.
A Visual Search Engine is a search engine designed to search for information on the World Wide Web through the input of an image or a search engine with a visual display of the search results.
A video blog or video log, usually shortened to vlog, is a form of blog for which the medium is video, and is a form of web television.
The Virtual Open Access Agriculture & Aquaculture Repository Project (VOA3R) was a European research project financed through the Seventh Framework Programme of the European Union.
OneSource is an evolving data analysis tool used internally by the Air Combat Command (ACC) Vocabulary Services Team, and made available to general data management community.
In metadata, a vocabulary-based transformation (VBT) is a transformation aided by the use of a semantic equivalence statements within a controlled vocabulary.
Vodafone Group plc is a British multinational telecommunications conglomerate, with headquarters in London.
VOEvent is a standardized language used to report observations of astronomical events; it was officially adopted in 2006 by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA).
Vorbis is a free and open-source software project headed by the Xiph.Org Foundation.
A Vorbis comment is a metadata container used in the Vorbis, FLAC, Theora, Speex and Opus file formats.
Vormetric, Inc. was a private data security company headquartered in San Jose, California, United States that provided products and services to prevent sensitive data theft from hackers and malicious insiders by securing structured data in databases and unstructured data located in file systems.
The Water Resources Collections and Archives (WRCA), formerly known as the Water Resources Center Archives, is an archive with unpublished manuscript collections and a library with published materials.
Waveform Audio File Format (WAVE, or more commonly known as WAV due to its filename extension - both pronounced "wave") (rarely, Audio for Windows) is a Microsoft and IBM audio file format standard for storing an audio bitstream on PCs.
A waveform monitor is a special type of oscilloscope used in television production applications.
Wear leveling (also written as wear levelling) is a technique Wear leveling techniques for flash EEPROM systems.
Web 2.0 refers to World Wide Web websites that emphasize user-generated content, usability (ease of use, even by non-experts), and interoperability (this means that a website can work well with other products, systems, and devices) for end users.
A web annotation is an online annotation associated with a web resource, typically a web page.
The Web ARChive (WARC) archive format specifies a method for combining multiple digital resources into an aggregate archive file together with related information.
Web archiving is the process of collecting portions of the World Wide Web to ensure the information is preserved in an archive for future researchers, historians, and the public.
The web content lifecycle is the multi-disciplinary and often complex process that web content undergoes as it is managed through various publishing stages.
A web content management system (WCMS) is a software content management system (CMS) specifically for web content.
A Web crawler, sometimes called a spider, is an Internet bot that systematically browses the World Wide Web, typically for the purpose of Web indexing (web spidering).
Web indexing (or Internet indexing) refers to various methods for indexing the contents of a website or of the Internet as a whole.
A web portal is a specially designed website that brings information from diverse sources, like emails, online forums and search engines, together in a uniform way.
The OGC Web Processing Service (WPS) Interface Standard provides rules for standardizing how inputs and outputs (requests and responses) for invoking geospatial processing services, such as polygon overlay, as a web service.
The concept of a web resource is primitive in the web architecture, and is used in the definition of its fundamental elements.
Web scraping, web harvesting, or web data extraction is data scraping used for extracting data from websites.
Web Services Discovery provides access to software systems over the Internet using standard protocols.
Web standards are the formal, non-proprietary standards and other technical specifications that define and describe aspects of the World Wide Web.
WebCite is an on-demand archiving service, designed to digitally preserve scientific and educationally important material on the web by making snapshots of Internet contents as they existed at the time when a blogger, or a scholar or a Wikipedia editor cited or quoted from it.
WebP is an image format employing both lossy and lossless compression.
Website localization is the process of adapting an existing website to local language and culture in the target market.
WebVTT (Web Video Text Tracks) is a W3C standard for displaying timed text in connection with the HTML5 <track> element.
Whisper is a proprietary iOS and Android mobile app available without charge.
Wide Area Information Server (WAIS) is a client–server text searching system that uses the ANSI Standard Z39.50 Information Retrieval Service Definition and Protocol Specifications for Library Applications" (Z39.50:1988) to search index databases on remote computers.
Wikipedia is a multilingual, web-based, free encyclopedia that is based on a model of openly editable content.
Winamp is a media player for Windows, macOS and Android, originally developed by Justin Frankel and Dmitry Boldyrev by their company Nullsoft, which they later sold to AOL in 1999 for $80 million.
Windows Imaging Component (WIC) is a Component Object Model based imaging codec framework introduced in Windows Vista (and later available in Windows XP Service Pack 3) for working with and processing digital images and image metadata.
The Windows Imaging Format (WIM) is a file-based disk image format.
Windows Installer (previously known as Microsoft Installer, codename Darwin) is a software component and application programming interface (API) of Microsoft Windows used for the installation, maintenance, and removal of software.
Windows Media Audio (WMA) is the name of a series of audio codecs and their corresponding audio coding formats developed by Microsoft.
Windows Media Connect (WMC) is a UPnP AV server from Microsoft for Windows XP and later Windows operating systems, to share and stream media on a Windows computer to WMC clients.
Windows Photo Gallery (formerly known as Windows Live Photo Gallery) is an image organizer, photo editor and photo sharing app.
Windows Search, formerly known as Windows Desktop Search (WDS) on Windows XP and Windows Server 2003, is an indexed desktop search platform created by Microsoft for Microsoft Windows.
WinFS (short for Windows Future Storage) was the code name for a canceled data storage and management system project based on relational databases, developed by Microsoft and first demonstrated in 2003 as an advanced storage subsystem for the Microsoft Windows operating system, designed for persistence and management of structured, semi-structured and unstructured data.
Wings of the Wild is the fifth studio album by Australian singer-songwriter Delta Goodrem.
A word clock or wordclock (sometimes sample clock, which can have a broader meaning) is a clock signal used to synchronise other devices, such as digital audio tape machines and compact disc players, which interconnect via digital audio signals.
Workshare is a provider of secure enterprise file sharing and collaboration applications.
Write amplification (WA) is an undesirable phenomenon associated with flash memory and solid-state drives (SSDs) where the actual amount of information physically written to the storage media is a multiple of the logical amount intended to be written.
The Write Anywhere File Layout (WAFL) is a that supports large, high-performance RAID arrays, quick restarts without lengthy consistency checks in the event of a crash or power failure, and growing the filesystems size quickly.
In computer science, write-ahead logging (WAL) is a family of techniques for providing atomicity and durability (two of the ACID properties) in database systems.
WTV (Windows Recorded TV Show) is a proprietary video and audiovisual file container format, developed by Microsoft used for storing TV content recorded by Windows Media Center.
X1, previously known as X1 Technologies, Inc., is a privately held software company, based in Pasadena, California, United States, that develops and markets products for people and organizations that need to find information quickly.
XAM, or the eXtensible Access Method, is a storage standard developed and maintained by the Storage Networking Industry Association (SNIA).
XBRL (eXtensible Business Reporting Language) is a freely available and global standard for exchanging business information.
XBRL assurance is the auditor's opinion on whether a financial statement or other business report published in XBRL, is relevant, accurate, complete, and fairly presented.
XBRLS (XBRL Simple Application Profile) is an application profile of XBRL.
XDMF (eXtensible Data Model and Format) is a library providing a standard way to access data produced by HPC codes.
XFS is a high-performance 64-bit journaling file system created by Silicon Graphics, Inc (SGI) in 1993.
XHTML+RDFa (Extensible Hypertext Markup Language + Resource Description Framework in attributes) is an extended version of the XHTML markup language for supporting RDF through a collection of attributes and processing rules in the form of well-formed XML documents.
XidML (eXtensible Instrumentation Data exchange Mark-up Language) is an open standard XML tailored for the aerospace industry.
XHTML Meta Data Profiles (XMDP) is a format for defining metadata 'profiles' or formats in a machine-readable fashion, while also enabling people to see a description of the definition visually in a web browser.
The Extended Metadata Registry (XMDR) is a project proposing and testing a set of extensions to the ISO/IEC 11179 metadata registry specifications that deal with the development of improved standards and technology for storing and retrieving the semantics of data elements, terminologies, and concept structures in metadata registries.
The XML Metadata Interchange (XMI) is an Object Management Group (OMG) standard for exchanging metadata information via Extensible Markup Language (XML).
XML Shareable Playlist Format (XSPF), pronounced spiff, is an XML-based playlist format for digital media, sponsored by the Xiph.Org Foundation.
XTCE (for XML Telemetric and Command Exchange) is an XML based data exchange format for spacecraft telemetry and command meta-data.
XMMS2 (X-platform Music Multiplexing System 2) is a new generation of the XMMS audio player.
XnView is an image organizer and general-purpose file manager used for viewing, converting, organizing and editing raster images, as well as general purpose file management.
XRDS (eXtensible Resource Descriptor Sequence) is an XML format for discovery of metadata about a web resource – in particular discovery of services associated with the resource, a process known as service discovery.
XSIL (Extensible Scientific Interchange Language) is an XML-based transport language for scientific data, supporting the inclusion of both in-file data and metadata.
xz is a lossless compression program and file format which incorporates the LZMA/LZMA2 compression algorithms.
Yaffs (Yet Another Flash File System) was designed and written by Charles Manning, of Whitecliffs, New Zealand, for the company Aleph One.
The Yarovaya law (rus. Закон Яровой), also Yarovaya package, refers to a pair of Russian federal bills, 374-FZ and 375-FZ, passed in 2016.
The Year 2038 problem relates to representing time in many digital systems as number of seconds passed since 1 January 1970 and storing it as a signed 32-bit integer.
The Yellowdog Updater, Modified (YUM) is a libre and open-source command-line package-management utility for computers running the GNU/Linux operating system using the RPM Package Manager.
Zabasearch.com is a website that searches for and collates disparate information regarding United States residents, including names, current and past addresses, phone numbers, and birth years, and then permits the user to query other search engines with this information to retrieve additional data, such as satellite photos of addresses and criminal background checks.
Zenodotus (Ζηνόδοτος) was a Greek grammarian, literary critic, Homeric scholar, and the first librarian of the Library of Alexandria.
Zero Point Frontiers Corporation (ZPFC) is a private aerospace firm based in Huntsville, Alabama.
A zero byte file or zero length file is a computer file containing no data; that is, it has a length or size of zero bytes.
ZFS is a combined file system and logical volume manager designed by Sun Microsystems and now owned by Oracle Corporation.
Zinf is a free audio player released under the GNU General Public License.
ZL Technologies (also known as ZLTech) was founded in 1999 in Milpitas, California and is a privately held, employee-owned developer of unstructured data archiving software.
Zoner Photo Studio is a software application developed by the Czech-founded company Zoner Software.
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Zune is a discontinued brand of digital media products and services marketed by Microsoft.
Zune is a discontinued media management app for Microsoft Windows that functions as a full media player application with a library, an interface to the Zune Marketplace, and as a media streaming server.
In the Apple macOS operating system,.DS_Store is a file that stores custom attributes of its containing folder, such as the position of icons or the choice of a background image.
DWG (from drawing) is a proprietary binary file format used for storing two- and three- dimensional design data and metadata.
.NET Framework (pronounced dot net) is a software framework developed by Microsoft that runs primarily on Microsoft Windows.
.NET Reflector is a class browser, decompiler and static analyzer for software created with.NET Framework, originally written by Lutz Roeder.
The number 2,147,483,647 is the eighth Mersenne prime, equal to 231 − 1.
2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (usually called 2,4-D) is an organic compound with the chemical formula C8H6Cl2O3.
The 2010s (pronounced "twenty-tens" or "two thousand (and) tens").
3D computer graphics or three-dimensional computer graphics, (in contrast to 2D computer graphics) are graphics that use a three-dimensional representation of geometric data (often Cartesian) that is stored in the computer for the purposes of performing calculations and rendering 2D images.
4DOS is a command line interpreter by JP Software, designed to replace the default command interpreter COMMAND.COM in DOS and Windows 95/98/SE/ME.
8-Bit Sampled Voice (8SVX) is an audio file format standard developed by Electronic Arts for the Commodore-Amiga computer series.