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1850s, 1853, 1853 in the United Kingdom, 1854, 1854 in rail transport, 1854 in science, 1854 in the United Kingdom, 1858, 1858 in rail transport, 1859, 1860, 1860 in the United Kingdom, 1860s, 1861, 1866, 1870, 1870s, 1875, 1876, 1877, 1878, 1878 in the United Kingdom, 1883 in rail transport, 1889 Bashkale clash, 1892 in rail transport, 1894 Sasun rebellion, 1895 in literature, 18th century, 19 Kislev, 1900s (decade), 1901, 1903, 1903 in rail transport, 1904 Sasun uprising, 1906 Intercalated Games, 1908, 1910, 1910s, 1911, 1912, 1912 in aviation, 1913, 1913 Ottoman coup d'état, 1914 in aviation, 1914 in film, 1914 in the United Kingdom, 1915, 1915 in aviation, 1915 in the United Kingdom, 1915 Ottoman Syria locust infestation, 1916, 1916 in aviation, 1916 in the United Kingdom, 1917, 1917 in aviation, 1917 in the United Kingdom, 1918, 1919, 1920, 1920 in aviation, 1920 Nebi Musa riots, 1920 Summer Olympics, 1921, 1922, 1923, 1924, 1929 Palestine riots, 1933, 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine, 1965 Yerevan demonstrations, 1st Army (Austria-Hungary), 1st Infantry Division (United Kingdom), 2003 invasion of Iraq, 20th century, 20th Duke of Cambridge's Own Infantry (Brownlow's Punjabis), 20th-century history of Kosovo, 21st Waffen Mountain Division of the SS Skanderbeg, 26 Baku Commissars, 2nd Battalion (Australia), 2nd millennium, 3 Gorkha Rifles, 31 March Incident, 4th Infantry Division (United Kingdom), 5 October 1910 revolution, 52nd (Lowland) Infantry Division, 5th Division (Australia), 6.5×50mmSR Arisaka, 6th Queen Elizabeth's Own Gurkha Rifles, 7.92×57mm Mauser, 7th Sea (collectible card game), 7th Sea (role-playing game), 7th SS Volunteer Mountain Division Prinz Eugen, 89th Rifle Division (Soviet Union), 8th King's Royal Irish Hussars. 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'Ajjur (عجّور) was a Palestinian Arab village of over 3,700 inhabitants located northwest of Hebron.
'Ara (עָרָה; عاره) is a village in the Haifa District in northern Israel, located in the Wadi Ara valley.
A Christian Turn'd Turk (1612) is a play by the English dramatist Robert Daborne.
A Dangerous Man: Lawrence After Arabia is a British television film of 1992 depicting the experiences of T. E. Lawrence and Emir Feisal of the Hejaz at the Paris Peace Conference after the end of the First World War.
A Distant Mirror: The Calamitous 14th Century is a narrative history book by the American historian Barbara Tuchman, first published by Alfred A. Knopf in 1978.
A History of the Arab Peoples is a book written by the British-born Lebanese historian Albert Hourani.
"A Mighty Fortress Is Our God" (German: "Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott") is one of the best known hymns by the reformer Martin Luther, a prolific hymnodist.
A Peace to End All Peace: The Fall of the Ottoman Empire and the Creation of the Modern Middle East (also subtitled Creating the Modern Middle East, 1914–1922) is a 1989 history book written by Pulitzer Prize finalist David Fromkin, which describes the events leading to the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire during World War I, and the drastic changes that took place in the Middle East as a result, which he claims led to a new world war that's still going on today.
A Study of History is a 12-volume universal history by the British historian Arnold J. Toynbee, published in 1934–61.
A Very Woman, or The Prince of Tarent is an early seventeenth-century stage play, a tragicomedy written by Philip Massinger and John Fletcher.
Aaron David Gordon (אהרן דוד גורדון; 9 June 1856 – 22 February 1922), more commonly known as A. D. Gordon, was a Zionist ideologue and the spiritual force behind practical Zionism and Labor Zionism.
A.I. " Buzz" Bezzerides (August 9, 1908 – January 1, 2007) was an American novelist and screenwriter, best known for writing films noir and action motion pictures, especially several of Warners' "social conscience" films of the 1940s.
Abul Kasem Fazlul Huq (26 October 1873—27 April 1962); was a Bengali lawyer, legislator and statesman in the 20th century.
Aaron Aaronsohn (אהרון אהרנסון) (21 May 1876 – 15 May 1919) was a Jewish agronomist, botanist, and Zionist activist, who was born in Romania and lived most of his life in the Land of Israel, then part of the Ottoman Empire.
Aaron the Tyrant (Aron Tiranul) or Aron Vodă ("Aron the Voivode"), sometimes credited as Aron Emanoil or Emanuel Aaron (Aaron Waida, Aaron Vaivoda, Arvan or Zalim; before 1560 – May 1597), was twice the Prince of Moldavia: between September 1591 and June 1592, and October 1592 to May 3 or 4, 1595.
Ağrı, formerly known as Karaköse (Qerekose) from the early Turkish republican period until 1946, and before that as Karakilise (Karakilisa), is the capital of Ağrı Province at the eastern end of Turkey, near the border with Iran.
The Ağrı Province (Turkish: Ağrı ili) is a province in eastern Turkey, bordering Iran to the east, Kars to the north, Erzurum to the northwest, Muş and Bitlis to the southwest, Van to the south, and Iğdır to the northeast. It has an area of 11,376 km² and a population of 542,022 (2010 est). A majority of the province's population is Kurdish. The region also has got a sizeable Azerbaijani (Qarapapak) minority. The provincial capital is Ağrı, situated on a 1,650 m. high plateau.
Abana is a town and district of the Kastamonu Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey.
The Abashidze (აბაშიძე) is a Georgian family and a former princely house.
The Abazin, Abazinians, or Abaza (Abaza and Abkhaz: Абаза; Circassian: Абазэхэр; Абазины; Abazalar; أباظة) are an ethnic group of the Northwest Caucasus, closely related to the Abkhaz and Circassian people.
Abbas II Helmy Bey (also known as ‘Abbās Ḥilmī Pasha, عباس حلمي باشا) (14 July 1874 – 19 December 1944) was the last Khedive (Ottoman viceroy) of Egypt and Sudan, ruling from 8 January 1892 to 19 December 1914.
Shāh Abbās the Great or Shāh Abbās I of Persia (شاه عباس بزرگ; 27 January 157119 January 1629) was the 5th Safavid Shah (king) of Iran, and is generally considered the strongest ruler of the Safavid dynasty.
Shah Abbas II (Shāh Abbās) (30 August 1632 – 26 October 1666), was the seventh Safavid king (shah) of Iran, ruling from 1642 to 1666.
Abbas Mirza (عباس میرزا) (August 20, 1789October 25, 1833), was a Qajar crown prince of Persia.
Shaykh ′Abd al-Ghani ibn Isma′il al-Nabulsi (an-Nabalusi) (19 March 1641 – 5 March 1731), an eminent Sunni Muslim scholar and Sufi, was born in Damascus in 1641 into a family of Islamic scholarship.
Abd Al-Karim Qasim Muhammed Bakr Al-Fadhli Al-Zubaidi (عبد الكريم قاسم) (21 November 1914 – 9 February 1963), was a nationalist Iraqi Army brigadier who seized power in the 14 July Revolution, wherein the Iraqi monarchy was eliminated.
Qutb-ul Aqtaab Naqib Al Ashraaf Syed Abd ar-Rahman al-Qadri al Gillani (Arabic: عبد الرحمن الكيلاني النقيب) was the first Prime Minister of Iraq, and its head of state.
'Abd al-Rahman al-Kawakibi (عبد الرحمن الكواكبي, 1854 or 1855–1902) was a Syrian author and Pan-Arab solidarity supporter.
Abdallah al-Ghalib Billah (1517 – 22 January 1574, reigned 1557–74) was the second Saadian sultan of Morocco.
Abdülaziz (Ottoman Turkish: عبد العزيز / `Abdü’l-`Azīz, Abdülaziz; 8 February 18304 June 1876) was the 32nd Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and reigned between 25 June 1861 and 30 May 1876.
Abdülhak Hâmid Tarhan (born Abdülhak Hâmid; January 2, 1852 – April 12, 1937) was an early 20th-century Turkish playwright and poet.
Mustafa Abdülhalik Renda (29 November 1881 – 1 October 1957) was a Turkish civil servant and politician.
Abdülkerim Nadir Pasha (1807–1883), also known as Çırpanlı Abdi Pasha or Abdul Kerim Pasha, son of Ahmed Ağa, was an Ottoman military commander, born in Chirpan, Ottoman Bulgaria.
Abdeen Palace (قصر عابدين) is a historic Cairo palace, and one of the official residences and the principal workplace of the President of Egypt, located above Qasr el-Nil Street in eastern Downtown Cairo, Egypt.
Prince Abdol-Hossein Farman Farma (1857–1939) was one of the most prominent Qajar princes, and one of the most influential politicians of his time in Persia.
Abdülhamid I, Abdul Hamid I or Abd Al-Hamid I (عبد الحميد اول, `Abdü’l-Ḥamīd-i evvel; Birinci Abdülhamit; 20 March 1725 – 7 April 1789) was the 27th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning over the Ottoman Empire from 1773 to 1789.
Abdul Hamid Karami (23 October 1890 – 23 November 1950) (عبد الحميد كرامي) was a Lebanese political and religious leader, who had nationalistic Arab inclinations.
Abdul Qadir Al Rassam, عبد القادر الرسام), 1952 - 1882), was born in Baghdad, Iraq and is one of the first generation of Iraqi artists to paint in the European style and to introduce local audiences to European art. He is noted for his portrait and landscapes painted in the Realist style.
Hajj Abdul Rahman Mohammed Arif Aljumaily (Arabic عبد الرحمن محمد عارف الجميلي; April 14, 1916August 24, 2007) was President of Iraq, from April 16, 1966, to July 17, 1968.
Abdul Rahman bin Faisal Al Saud (1845–1928) (عبد الرحمن بن فيصل / ALA-LC: ‘Abd ar Raḥman bin Fayṣal) was the last ruler of the Emirate of Nejd, Second Saudi State.
ʻAbd al-Muḥsin Saʻdūn or Abd al-Muhsin Al-Saadoon, KCMG (عبد المحسن السعدون) (1879 – November 13, 1929) was an Iraqi politician who served as Prime Minister of Iraq on four separate occasions between 1922 and 1929.
Abdulcelil Levni or Abdulcelil Çelebi (died 1732) was an Ottoman court painter and miniaturist.
Abdulhakim Arvasi or Sayyeed Abd al Haqeem-i Arvasi (1865–1943) was a Sunni Islamic scholar.
Abdullah bin Abdul al Kadir (1796–1854) (Arabic: عبد الله بن عبد القادر) also known as Munshi Abdullah, was a Malayan writer of Indian origin.
Abdullah bin Saud (عبد الله بن سعود) (died 1818) ruled the First Saudi State from 1814 to 1818.
Abdullah Cevdet (عبدالله جودت‎; Abdullah Cevdet Karlıdağ; 9 September 1869 – 29 November 1932) was an Ottoman-born Turkish intellectual and physician of ethnic Kurdish origin.
Abdullah Fa'izi al-Daghestani (December 14, 1891 – September 30, 1973), commonly known as Shaykh Abdullah, was a Dagestani shaykh of the Naqshbandi-Haqqani Sufi order.
Abdulla Goran (Kurdish: عەبدوڵڵا گۆران, Ebdella Goran) was a Kurdish poet.
Abdullah I bin al-Hussein, King of Jordan (عبد الله الأول بن الحسين, Abd Allāh ibn al-Husayn, February 1882 – 20 July 1951), born in Mecca, Hejaz, Ottoman Empire, was the second of three sons of Hussein bin Ali, Sharif and Emir of Mecca and his first wife Abdiyya bint Abdullah (d. 1886).
Sheikh Abdullah II Sabah II Al-Jabir I Al-Sabah (1814 – 1892) (الشيخ عبد الله الثاني صباح الثاني الجابر الصباح) was a lead cavalry commander in the Military of Kuwait, the fifth ruler of Kuwait and oldest son of the fourth ruler of Kuwait.
Abdullah Khan (Abdollah Khan Ozbeg) (1533/4–1598), known as "The old Khan", was an Uzbek/Turkoman ruler of the Khanate of Bukhara (1500–1785).
Abdullah Yusuf Ali, CBE, MA, LL.M, FRSA, FRSL (عبداللہ یوسف علی‎; 14 April 1872 – 10 December 1953) was a British-Indian barrister and scholar who wrote a number of books about Islam and whose translation of the Qur'an into English is one of the most widely known and used in the English-speaking world.
Abdulmejid II (عبد المجید الثانی, Abd al-Madjeed al-Thâni – Halife İkinci Abdülmecit Efendi, 29 May 1868 – 23 August 1944) was the last Caliph of Islam, nominally the 37th Head of the Ottoman Imperial House from 1922 to 1924.
Seid Abdulvehab Ilhamija (1773 – 1821) was an 18th-century Bosnian dervish and prose writer.
Tel Abel Beth Maacah, Arabic name: Tell Abil el-Qameḥ, is a large archaeological site consisting of a mound with a small upper northern section and a large lower southern one, connected by a saddle.
Abha (أَبْـهَـا) is the capital of 'Asir province in Saudi Arabia.
Abidin Dino (March 23, 1913 – December 7, 1993) was a Turkish artist and a well-known painter.
Abkhazians or the Abkhaz (Abkhaz: Аҧсуа, Apswa; აფხაზები) are a Northwest Caucasian ethnic group, mainly living in Abkhazia, a disputed region on the Black Sea coast.
The abolition of monarchy involves the ending of monarchical elements in the government of a country.
Aboud (عابود, `Ābūd) is a Palestinian village in the Ramallah and al-Bireh Governorate in the central West Bank, Palestinian territories, northwest of Ramallah and 30 kilometers north of Jerusalem.
Count Abraham Camondo (1781, Constantinople – March 30, 1873, Paris) was a Jewish Ottoman-Italian financier and philanthropist, and the patriarch of the Camondo family.
The Abraj Al-Bait (Translated as "The Towers of the House") is a government-owned megatall complex of seven skyscraper hotels in Mecca, Saudi Arabia.
Abram Petrovich Gannibal, also Hannibal or Ganibal, or Abram Hannibal or Abram Petrov (Абра́м Петро́вич Ганниба́л; 1696 – 14 May 1781), was a Russian military engineer, general, and nobleman of African origin.
Abruzzo (Aquiliano: Abbrùzzu) is a region of Southern Italy, with an area of 10,763 square km (4,156 sq mi) and a population of 1.2 million.
In economics, an absentee landlord is a person who owns and rents out a profit-earning property, but does not live within the property's local economic region.
Absolute monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.
Abu Abdallah Mohammed II, Al-Mutawakkil, often simply Abdallah Mohammed (died 4 August 1578) was Sultan of Morocco from 1574 to 1576.
Abu Ayyub al-Ansari (died 674) — born Khalid bin Zayd bin Kulayb in Yathrib — hailed from the tribe of Banu Najjar and was a close companion (Arabic: الصحابه, sahaba) of Muhammad.
Sultan Abu Bakar Ibni Al-Marhum Tun Temenggung Raja Daing Ibrahim (Jawi: المرحوم سلطان سير ابو بكر ابن المرحوم تماڠڬوڠ دايڠ إبراهيم سري مهاراج جوهر; b.3 February 1833 – d.4 June 1895), also known as Albert Baker, the Temenggong of Johor.He was the 1st Sultan of Modern Johor, the 21st Sultan of Johor and the first Maharaja of Johor from the House of Temenggong.
Sheikh Abu Bakr Effendi (1814–1880) was an Osmanli qadi who was sent in 1862 by the Ottoman sultan Abdülmecid I at the request of the British Queen Victoria to the Cape of Good Hope, in order to teach and assist the Muslim community of the Cape Malays.
Abu Dis or Abu Deis (أبو ديس) is a Palestinian village in the Jerusalem Governorate of the Palestinian National Authority bordering Jerusalem.
Abu Ghosh (أبو غوش; אבו גוש) is an Arab-Israeli local council in Israel, located west of Jerusalem on the Tel Aviv-Jerusalem highway.
Abū Ḥanīfa al-Nuʿmān b. Thābit b. Zūṭā b. Marzubān (أبو حنيفة نعمان بن ثابت بن زوطا بن مرزبان; c. 699 – 767 CE), known as Abū Ḥanīfa for short, or reverently as Imam Abū Ḥanīfa by Sunni Muslims, was an 8th-century Sunni Muslim theologian and jurist of Persian origin,Pakatchi, Ahmad and Umar, Suheyl, “Abū Ḥanīfa”, in: Encyclopaedia Islamica, Editors-in-Chief: Wilferd Madelung and, Farhad Daftary.
Abū Manṣūr Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. Maḥmūd al-Samarḳandī (853-944 CE; محمد بن محمد بن محمود أبو منصور ماتریدی سمرقندی حنفی), often referred to as Abū Manṣūr al-Māturīdī for short, or reverently as Imam Māturīdī by Sunni Muslims, was a Sunni Hanafi jurist, theologian, and scriptural exegete from ninth-century Samarkand who became the eponymous codifier of one of the principal orthodox schools of Sunni theology, the Maturidi school, which became the dominant theological school for Sunni Muslims in Central Asia and later enjoyed a preeminent status as the school of choice for both the Ottoman Empire and the Mughal Empire.
Abu Marwan Abd al-Malik I (أبو مروان عبد الملك الغازي), often simply Abd al-Malik or Mulay Abdelmalek (died 4 August 1578), was the Saadi Sultan of Morocco from 1576 until his death right after the Battle of Ksar El Kebir against Portugal in 1578.
Abu Snan is a Druze local council in the Galilee region of northern Israel, with an area of 4,750 dunams (4.75 km²).
Maulana Sayyid Abul Kalam Ghulam Muhiyuddin Ahmed bin Khairuddin Al-Hussaini Azad (11 November 1888 – 22 February 1958) was an Indian scholar and the senior Muslim leader of the Indian National Congress during the Indian independence movement.
Abulafia (أبو العافية, or; אבולעפיה) is a Sephardi Jewish surname whose etymological origin is in the Arabic language.
The Abus gun (Obüs meaning howitzer) is an early form of artillery created by the Ottoman Empire.
Acarnania (Ακαρνανία) is a region of west-central Greece that lies along the Ionian Sea, west of Aetolia, with the Achelous River for a boundary, and north of the gulf of Calydon, which is the entrance to the Gulf of Corinth.
Acıpayam is a town and a rural district of Denizli Province in high country between the Aegean and Mediterranean regions of Turkey.
The Accrington Pals, officially the 11th (Service) Battalion (Accrington), East Lancashire Regiment, was a pals battalion of Kitchener's Army raised in and around the town of Accrington during the First World War.
Aceh; (Acehnese: Acèh; Jawoë:; Dutch: Atjeh or Aceh) is a province of Indonesia.
The Sultanate of Aceh, officially the Kingdom of Aceh Darussalam (Keurajeuën Acèh Darussalam; Jawoë: كاورجاون اچيه دارالسلام), was a Sultanate centered in the modern-day Indonesian province of Aceh.
The Aceh War, also known as the Dutch War or the Infidel War (1873–1904), was an armed military conflict between the Sultanate of Aceh and the Kingdom of the Netherlands which was triggered by discussions between representatives of Aceh and the United States in Singapore during early 1873.
Achaea or Achaia, sometimes transliterated from Greek as Akhaïa (Αχαΐα Achaïa), is one of the regional units of Greece.
Acquaformosa (Firmosa) is a town and comune in the province of Cosenza in the Calabria region of Italy.
Acre railway station (תחנת הרכבת עכו, Taḥanat HaRakevet Ako) is an Israel Railways passenger station serving the city of Acre (Akko) and the surrounding towns and villages.
The Sanjak of Acre (Akka Sancağı), often referred as Late Ottoman Galilee, was a prefecture (sanjak) of the Ottoman Empire, located in modern-day northern Israel.
Acre (or, עַכּוֹ, ʻAko, most commonly spelled as Akko; عكّا, ʻAkkā) is a city in the coastal plain region of Israel's Northern District at the extremity of Haifa Bay.
The Acritic songs ("frontiersmen songs") are the heroic or epic poetry that emerged in the Byzantine Empire probably around the 9th century.
The Action of 1595 was an indecisive naval battle between forces of Malta, then under the protection of the Order of Saint John, and Bizerte, then part of the Ottoman Empire.
This battle took place on 26 May 1646 at the mouth of the Dardanelles Strait.
Action of 27 August 1661 was a naval battle that took place on 27 August 1661 near Milos, Greece between the Republic of Venice and the Knights Hospitaller over the Ottoman Empire.
The Action of 28 September 1644 refers to a battle that took place on 28 September 1644 about from Rhodes, when six Maltese galleys under Boisbaudran attacked an Ottoman convoy of sailing ships.
This minor battle took place on 3 September 1773 between Russia and the Ottoman Empire during the Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774).
The action of 4 July 1773 was an engagement of the first Russo-Turkish War (1768–74), between naval units of Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire.
This indecisive naval battle took place on 8 July 1716 during a Turkish attempt to capture the island of Corfu (Kerkyra), off the west coast of mainland Greece.
Ad Halom (עַד הֲלוֹם) is a site at the eastern entrance to the city of Ashdod, Israel.
Ada Ciganlija (Ада Циганлија), colloquially shortened to Ada, is a river island that has artificially been turned into a peninsula, located in the Sava River's course through central Belgrade, the capital of Serbia.
Ada Kaleh (from Adakale meaning "Island Fortress", Újorsova or Ada Kaleh, Serbian and Bulgarian: Адакале / Adakale) was a small island on the Danube in what is modern Romania, populated mostly by Turks of Romania, that was submerged during the construction of the Iron Gates hydroelectric plant in 1970.
Ada Međica (Ада Међица) is an island and an urban neighborhood of Belgrade, the capital of Serbia.
The Adal Sultanate, or Kingdom of Adal (alt. spelling Adel Sultanate), was a Muslim Sultanate located in the Horn of Africa. It was founded by Sabr ad-Din II after the fall of the Sultanate of Ifat. The kingdom flourished from around 1415 to 1577. The sultanate and state were established by the local inhabitants of Harar. At its height, the polity controlled most of the territory in the Horn region immediately east of the Ethiopian Empire (Abyssinia). The Adal Empire maintained a robust commercial and political relationship with the Ottoman Empire.
Adam Heinrich Graf von Steinau (died 1712) was a Saxon Generalfeldmarschall.
Adam Bernard Mickiewicz (24 December 179826 November 1855) was a Polish poet, dramatist, essayist, publicist, translator, professor of Slavic literature, and political activist.
Adamantios Korais or Koraïs (Ἀδαμάντιος Κοραῆς; Adamantius Coraes; Adamance Coray; 27 April 17486 April 1833) was a Greek scholar credited with laying the foundations of Modern Greek literature and a major figure in the Greek Enlightenment.
Adana (Ադանա) is a major city in southern Turkey.
Adana kebabı (colloquially known as Kıyma kebabı) is a long, hand-minced meat kebab mounted on a wide iron skewer and grilled on an open mangal filled with burning charcoal.
The Adana massacre occurred in the Adana Vilayet of the Ottoman Empire in April 1909.
Adıyaman (Semsûr; Բերա; حصن منصور) is a city in southeastern Turkey, capital of the Adıyaman Province.
Aden (عدن Yemeni) is a port city in Yemen, located by the eastern approach to the Red Sea (the Gulf of Aden), some east of Bab-el-Mandeb.
The Aden Protectorate (محمية عدن) was a British protectorate in southern Arabia which evolved in the hinterland of the port of Aden and in the Hadramaut following the conquest of Aden by Great Britain in 1839, and it continued until the 1960s.
Adevărul (meaning "The Truth", formerly spelled Adevĕrul) is a Romanian daily newspaper, based in Bucharest.
Adib Bin Hassan Al-Shishakli (أديب بن حسن الشيشكلي, Edip Çiçekli; 1909 – 27 September 1964) was a Syrian military leader and President of Syria (1953–54).
The Adil Shahi or Adilshahi, was a Shia Muslim dynasty, founded by Yusuf Adil Shah, that ruled the Sultanate of Bijapur, centred on present-day Bijapur district, Karnataka in India, in the Western area of the Deccan region of Southern India from 1489 to 1686.
Adile Ayda (7 March 1912 – 5 November 1992) was the first woman career diplomat of Turkey, but is today better remembered as an Etruscologist.
Adile Sultan (23 May 1826 – 12 February 1899) was an Ottoman princess, a female Diwan poet, and a philanthropist.
Adile Sultan Palace is the former royal residence of Ottoman princess Adile Sultan.
Adjara (აჭარა), officially known as the Autonomous Republic of Adjara (Georgian: აჭარის ავტონომიური რესპუბლიკა), is a historical, geographic and political-administrative region of Georgia.
Adlersky City District (А́длерский райо́н) is the southernmost of four city districts of the city of Sochi in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, lying along the Black Sea coast near the southern Russian border with Georgia.
The administrative division of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was the result of the long and complicated history of the fragmentation of the Polish Kingdom and the union of Poland and Lithuania.
The main subdivision in Iraq is the 18 muhafazah, also known as governorates or provinces.
The administrative divisions of the Ottoman Empire were administrative divisions of the state organisation of the Ottoman Empire.
The administrative division of Yemen is divided into two main divisions (governorates and districts).
The British Royal Navy's ironclad Admiral-class battleships of the 1880s followed the pattern of the in having the main armament on centreline mounts fore and aft of the superstructure.
Admont Abbey (Stift Admont) is a Benedictine monastery located on the Enns River in the town of Admont, Austria.
Adnan Menderes (1899 – 17 September 1961) or Ali Adnan Ertekin Menderes was the Turkish Prime Minister between 1950–1960.
The Vilayet of Adrianople or Vilayet of Edirne (Ottoman Turkish:, Vilâyet-i Edirne) was a first-level administrative division (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire.
The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.
Aegina (Αίγινα, Aígina, Αἴγῑνα) is one of the Saronic Islands of Greece in the Saronic Gulf, from Athens.
The Aeolian Islands (Isole Eolie,, Ìsuli Eoli, Αιολίδες Νήσοι, Aiolides Nisoi) are a volcanic archipelago in the Tyrrhenian Sea north of Sicily, named after the demigod of the winds Aeolus.
Aetolia (Αἰτωλία, Aἰtōlía) is a mountainous region of Greece on the north coast of the Gulf of Corinth, forming the eastern part of the modern regional unit of Aetolia-Acarnania.
Aetolia-Acarnania (Αιτωλοακαρνανία, Aitoloakarnanía) is one of the regional units of Greece.
Aetorrachi (Αετορράχη, before 1957: Βάλακα - Valaka) is a settlement and a community in the municipal unit of Vouprasia, Elis Greece.
Afaq Khoja (1626 – 1694), born Hidayat Allah (هدایتالله), a.k.a. Apaq Xoja, or more properly Āfāq Khwāja (Persian: آفاق خواجه) was a religious and political leader with the title of Khwaja in Kashgaria (in present-day southern Xinjiang, China).
Ayşe Afet İnan or Afetinan (29 November 1908 – June 8, 1985) was a Turkish historian and sociologist.
Afonso de Albuquerque, Duke of Goa (1453 – 16 December 1515) (also spelled Aphonso or Alfonso), was a Portuguese general, a "great conqueror",, Vol.
The African diaspora consists of the worldwide collection of communities descended from Africa's peoples, predominantly in the Americas.
Afro Turks are people of Zanj (Bantu) descent in Turkey.
The Afsharid dynasty (افشاریان) were members of an Iranian dynasty that originated from the Turkic Afshar tribe in Iran's north-eastern province of Khorasan, ruling Persia in the mid-eighteenth century.
The aftermath of World War I saw drastic political, cultural, economic, and social change across Eurasia (Europe and Asia), Africa, and even in areas outside those that were directly involved.
Afyonkarahisar (afyon "poppy, opium", kara "black", hisar "fortress") is a city in western Turkey, the capital of Afyon Province.
Aktien-Gesellschaft Vulcan Stettin (short AG Vulcan Stettin) was a German shipbuilding and locomotive building company.
Agadez, formerly spelled Agades, is the largest city in central Niger, with a population of 118,244 (2012 census).
Çapanzade or Çapanoğlu Agah Efendi (1832 – 1885) was an Ottoman civil servant, writer and newspaper editor who, along with his colleague İbrahim Şinasi, published Tercüman-ı Ahvâl ("Interpreter of Events"), the first private newspaper by Turkish journalists, and introduced postage stamps to the Ottoman Empire.
Saint Agathius (Greek: Ακακιος; died 303), also known as Achatius or Agathonas or Acacius of Byzantium, according to Christian tradition, was a Cappadocian Greek centurion of the imperial army, martyred around 304.
The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (approximately from the beginning of the 15th century until the end of the 18th century) is an informal and loosely defined term for the period in European history in which extensive overseas exploration emerged as a powerful factor in European culture and was the beginning of globalization.
Age of Empires III is a real-time strategy video game developed by Microsoft Corporation's Ensemble Studios and published by Microsoft Game Studios.
The Age of Revolution is the period from approximately 1774 to 1849 in which a number of significant revolutionary movements occurred in many parts of Europe and the Americas.
The ages of consent vary by jurisdiction across Europe.
Agha, also Aga (Ottoman Turkish:, آقا āghā "chief, master, lord"), as an honorific title for a civilian or military officer, or often part of such title, and was placed after the name of certain civilian or military functionaries in the Ottoman Empire.
Petros Elia of Baz (ܐܝܠܝܐ ܦܹܛܪܘܼܣ) (April 1880 – 2 February 1932), better known as Agha Petros, was an Assyrian military leader during World War I.
Serob Vartanian, more prominently known by his nom de guerre Aghbiur Serob (Աղբիւր Սերոբ) or Serob Pasha (Սերոբ Փաշա, 1864 – 24 November 1899) born Serob Vardanian (Սերոբ Վարդանեան) was a famed Armenian military commander who organized a guerrilla network that fought against the Ottoman Empire during the latter part of the 19th century.
Agia Efthymia (Αγία Ευθυμία) is a village in the regional unit of Phocis, Greece.
Agios Georgios Langoura (Greek: Άγιος Γεώργιος Λάγγουρα, meaning "Saint George of Langoura area") is a neighbourhood in the eastern part of Patras, Greece.
Agios Georgios Nileias (Άγιος Γεώργιος Νηλείας) is a village and a community in the municipal unit of Milies, Magnesia, Greece.
Agios Vasileios (Άγιος Βασίλειος meaning Saint Basil) is a village in the municipal unit of Tenea in Corinthia, Greece.
Agios Vlasios (Άγιος Βλάσιος meaning Saint Blaise, before 1927: Καραμπάσι - Karampasi, Turkish: Karabaş "black head") is a village and a community in the municipal unit of Artemida, Magnesia, Greece.
Agkistro or alternatively Agistro (Άγκιστρο), is a village in the Serres regional unit, Greece.
Agnatic seniority is a patrilineal principle of inheritance where the order of succession to the throne prefers the monarch's younger brother over the monarch's own sons.
Agnita (Agnetheln; Szentágota; Transylvanian Saxon dialect: Ongenîtlen) is a town on the Hârtibaciu river in Sibiu County, Transylvania, central Romania.
Agrafa (Άγραφα) is a mountainous region in Evrytania and Karditsa regional units in mainland Greece, consisting mainly of small villages.
Agrinio (Greek: Αγρίνιο,, Latin: Agrinium) is the largest city of the Aetolia-Acarnania regional unit of Greece and its largest municipality, with 106,053 inhabitants.
Agropoli (Cilentan: Aruòpole or Aruòpëlë) is a town and comune, former bishopric and present Latin Catholic titular see located in the Cilento area of the province of Salerno, Campania, Italy.
Agrotera (Gr. Ἀγροτέρα, "the huntress") was an epithet of the Greek goddess Artemis, and the most important goddess to Attic hunters.
Ahlat (Խլաթ, Khlat; اخلاط; ხლათი, Khlati; Xelat; Χαλάτα, Chalata), is a historic town and district in Turkey's Bitlis Province in Eastern Anatolia Region.
Ahmad, Ahmed or Ahmet are the principal transliterations of an Arabic given name, أحمد.
Ahmad bin Yahya Hamidaddin (June 18, 1891 – September 19, 1962) was the penultimate king of the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen, who reigned from 1948 to 1962.
Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi (Axmad Ibraahim al-Gaasi, Harari: አሕመድ ኢቢን ኢብራሂም አል ጋዚ, "Acmad Ibni Ibrahim Al-Gaazi" Afar, أحمد بن إبراهيم الغازي) "the Conqueror" (c. 1506 – February 21, 1543) was an Imam and General of the Adal Sultanate who fought against the Abyssinian empire and defeated several Abysinian Emperors.
Ahmad Mukhtar Baban (1900 &ndash) (أحمد مختار بابان) was the last Prime Minister of Iraq under the monarchy in 1958.
Sheikh Ahmad Rida (also transliterated as Ahmad Reda) (1872–1953) (الشيخ أحمد رضا) was a Levantine Arab linguist, writer and politician.
Ahmad Shah Bahadur, Mirza Ahmad Shah, Mujahid-ud-Din Ahmad Shah Ghazi (23 December 1725 – 1 January 1775) was born to Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah.
Ahmad Shāh Qājār (احمد شاه قاجار; 21 January 1898 – 21 February 1930) was Shah of Persia (Iran) from 16 July 1909 to 15 December 1925, and the last ruling member of the Qajar dynasty.
Ahmad al-Shukeiri (January 1, 1908 – February 26, 1980) (أحمد الشقيري) also transcribed al-Shuqayri, Shuqairi, Shuqeiri, Shukeiry, etc.), was the first Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization, serving in 1964–67.
Ahmed Bey ben Mohamed Sherif, also known as Ahmed Bey or Hadj Ahmed Bey (الحاج أحمد باي) (c. 1784 - c. 1850) was the last Ottoman Bey of Constantine, in the Regency of Algiers, ruling from 1826 to 1848.
Ahmed Cevdet Pasha (22 March 1822 – 25 May 1895) was an Ottoman scholar, intellectual, bureaucrat, administrator, and historian who was a prominent figure in the Tanzimat reforms of the Ottoman Empire.
Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr (أحمد حسن البكر; 1 July 1914 – 4 October 1982) was President of Iraq, from 17 July 1968 until 16 July 1979.
Ahmed Hifzi Pasha (Ahmet Hıfzı Paşa; 1832 – 1900) was an Ottoman field marshal, who was the Commander-in-Chief of the Ottoman Army that successfully defeated the Greeks on the Epirus front in the Greco-Turkish War (1897).
Ahmed I (احمد اول; I.; 18 April 1590 – 22 November 1617) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1603 until his death in 1617.
Ahmed II (Ottoman Turkish: احمد ثانى Aḥmed-i sānī) (25 February 1643 – 6 February 1695) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1691 to 1695.
Ahmed III (Ottoman Turkish: احمد ثالث, Aḥmed-i sālis) (30/31 December 16731 July 1736) was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and a son of Sultan Mehmed IV (r. 1648–87).
Ahmed İzzet Pasha (1864 – 31 March 1937), known as Ahmet İzzet Furgaç after the Turkish Surname Law of 1934, was an Ottoman general during World War I. He was also one of the last Grand Viziers of the Ottoman Empire (14 October 1918 - 8 November 1918) and its last Minister of Foreign Affairs.
Ahmed or Ahmad Karamanli or Qaramanli or al-Qaramanli, (most commonly Ahmed Karamanli) (1686–1745) was of Turkish origin and a Member from the Karamanids.
Ahmed Muhtar Pasha (احمد مختار پاشا;‎ 1 November 1839 – 21 January 1919) was an Ottoman field marshal and Grand Vizier.
Ahmed Nihad (5 July 1883 – 4 June 1954), 38th Head of the Imperial House of Osman from 1944 to 1954, was the 38th and second post-imperial head of the Imperial House of Osman.
Achmet Resmî Efendi (English, "Ahmed Efendi of Resmo"), also called by some Arabic sources as Ahmed bin İbrahim Giridî ("Ahmed the son of İbrahim the Cretan"), was a Greek-Ottoman statesman, diplomat and author of the late 18th century.
Ahmed Vefik Pasha (احمد وفیق پاشا.) (3 July 1823, Constantinople2 April 1891, Constantinople), was an Ottoman statesman, diplomat, scholar, playwright, and translator during the Tanzimat and First Constitutional periods.
Ahmet Ağaoğlu, also known as Ahmed bey Agayev (Əhməd bəy Ağayev; 1869–1939) was a prominent Azerbaijani and Turkish politician, publicist and journalist.
Ahmet Adnan Saygun (7 September 1907 – 6 January 1991) was a Turkish composer, musicologist and writer on music.
Ahmet Anzavur (1885-15 April 1921) was a gendarme officer in the Ottoman Empire.
Ahmet Davutoğlu (born 26 February 1959) is a Turkish academic, politician and former diplomat who was the Prime Minister of Turkey and leader of the Justice and Development Party (AKP) from August 2014 to May 2016.
Ahmet Fikri Tüzer (1878, Shumen, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire – 16 August 1942, Ankara) was a member of the Republican People's Party and the acting Prime Minister of the Republic of Turkey for two days from 7 July 1942 to 9 July 1942 (during the 12th government of Turkey).
Ahmet Haşim (also written as Ahmed Hâşim; احمد هاشم; 1884? – 4 June 1933) was an influential Turkish poet of the early 20th century.
Ahmet Hamdi Tanpınar (23 June 1901 – 24 January 1962) was a Turkish poet, novelist, literary scholar and essayist, widely regarded as one of the most important representatives of modernism in Turkish literature.
Ahmet Kutsi Tecer (4 September 1901 – 23 July 1967) was a Turkish poet and politician.
Ahmet Rıza Bey (1858 – 26 February 1930) was an Ottoman-born Turkish political activist, scientist, statesman, educational reformer and a prominent member of the Young Turks, during the Second Constitutional Era of the Ottoman Empire.
Ahmet Tevfik Pasha (احمد توفیق پاشا‎; 11 February 1845 – 8 October 1936), known as Ahmet Tevfik Okday after the Turkish Surname Law of 1934, was an Ottoman-born Turkish statesman of ethnic Crimean Tatar origin.
Ahrida (Ohrid) Synagogue (קהל קדוש אכרידה) is one of the oldest synagogues in Istanbul, Turkey.
Ahtopol (Ахтопол) is a town and seaside resort on the southern Bulgarian Black Sea Coast.
Aigio, also written as Aeghion, Aegion, Aegio, Egio, (Αίγιο) is a town and a former municipality in Achaea, West Greece, Greece.
The term aigrette (from the French for egret, or lesser white heron) refers to the tufted crest or head-plumes of the egret, used for adorning a headdress.
Aimée du Buc de Rivéry (4 December 1768 – ?) was a French heiress who went missing at sea as a young woman.
The Air Battalion Royal Engineers (ABRE) was the first flying unit of the British Armed Forces to make use of heavier-than-air craft.
The Airco DH.9A was a British single-engined light bomber designed and first used shortly before the end of the First World War.
Aitaroun (or Aytaroun, Arabic: عيترون) is a Lebanese village located in the caza of Bint-Jbeil at 33.1156° North, 35.4722° East.
Aitoliko (Greek: Αιτωλικό) is a town and a former municipality in Aetolia-Acarnania, West Greece, Greece.
Aitou (also Ayto, Aytou, Aytu, Aïtou, Aito, Itoo, أيطو) is a village located in the Zgharta District in the North Governorate of Lebanon.
Ajam (عجم) is an Arabic word meaning one who is not understandable in speech.
Ayşe Ajda Pekkan (12 February 1946, Istanbul, Turkey), also known as Superstar, is a Turkish pop singer and actress.
The Ajuran Sultanate (Dawladdii Ajuuraan, الدولة الأجورانيون), also spelled Ajuuraan Sultanate, and often simply as Ajuran, was a Somali empire in the medieval times that dominated the Indian Ocean trade.
The Ajyad Fortress (Ecyad Kalesi; قلعة أجياد) was an Ottoman citadel which stood on a hill overlooking the Grand Mosque of Mecca, in what is now Saudi Arabia.
Akaki Chkhenkeli (აკაკი ჩხენკელი) (1874 – 5 January 1959) was a Georgian Marxist politician and publicist who acted as one of the leaders of the Menshevik movement in Russia and Georgia.
Akçaabat is a town and district of Trabzon Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey.
Akçakoca is both a town and district of Düzce Province, in the Black Sea region of Turkey, located about 200 km east of Istanbul.
The akçe (آقچه) was the chief monetary unit of the Ottoman Empire, a silver coin.
Akşehir is a town and district of Konya Province in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey.
Akhalkalaki (ახალქალაქი, for New City (from Georgian ɑxɑli meaning "new" and kʰɑlɑkʰi meaning "city" or "town"); Ախալքալաք; Ahılkelek) is a town in Georgia's southern region of Samtskhe-Javakheti.
Akhaltsikhe (ახალციხე, literally "new castle"; formerly known as Lomsia) is a small city in Georgia's southwestern region (mkhare) of Samtskhe-Javakheti.
The Akhbaris (اخباري) are Twelver Shia Muslims who reject the use of reasoning in deriving verdicts, and believe Quran and hadith (sayings of Prophet Muhammad and Twelve Shia Imams) as the only source of law.
The Ahchipsou was a Sadz (Abkhaz-Abazin) tribe, lived on Caucasus Major, near the modern border of Krasnodar Krai and Abkhazia.
Akhisar (pronounced: ah-kee-sahr, or more formally, ahk-hee-sahr, اقحصار) is a county district and its town center in Manisa Province in the Aegean region of Western Turkey.
Akinji or akindji (akıncı,; literally, "Warriors ", plural: akıncılar) were irregular light cavalry, scout divisions (deli) and advance troops of the Ottoman Empire's military.
Akköy was a town and a district of Denizli Province in the inner Aegean region of Turkey.
The Akkerman Convention was a treaty signed on October 7, 1826, between the Russian and the Ottoman Empires in the Budjak citadel of Akkerman (present-day Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi, Ukraine).
Akkuş is a town and a district of Ordu Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey.
Aksaray is a city in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey and the capital district of Aksaray Province.
Aksaray Province (Aksaray ili) is a province in central Turkey. Its adjacent provinces are Konya along the west and south, Niğde to the southeast, Nevşehir to the east, and Kırşehir to the north. It covers an area of 7,626 km². The provincial capital is the city of Aksaray. Aksaray is one of the four provinces in the area of Cappadocia, along with Nevşehir, Niğde and Kayseri. Also the 3,000m volcano Mount Hasan stands between Aksaray and Niğde. Summers are hot and dry on the plain, but the area is green and covered in flowers in springtime, when water streams off the mountainside. The 2400 km² salt lake, Tuz Gölü, lies within the boundaries of Aksaray, a large area of swamp with a maximum depth of 1 metre.
Akseki is a town and district of Antalya Province in the Mediterranean region of Turkey.
Al-Hudaydah (al-ḥudayda), also known in English as Hodeda, Hodeida, Hudaida or Hodeidah, is the fourth-largest city in Yemen and its principal port on the Red Sea.
Al pastor (from Spanish, "shepherd style"), also known as tacos al pastor, is a dish developed in Central Mexico that is based on shawarma spit-grilled meat brought by mainly Christian Lebanese immigrants to Mexico.
Al-Ahbash (الأحباش / / "The Ethiopians"), also known as the Association of Islamic Charitable Projects (AICP) (جمعية المشاريع الخيرية الإسلامية /) is a Sufi religious movement which was founded in the mid-1980s.
Al Ahsa (الأحساء al-Aḥsāʾ, locally pronounced al-Ḥasāʾ) is the largest governorate in Saudi Arabia's Eastern Province, named after the Al-Ahsa oasis.
Al-Aqsa Mosque (Al-Masjid al-Aqṣā,, "the Farthest Mosque"), located in the Old City of Jerusalem, is the third holiest site in Islam.
Al-Ashraf Qansuh Al-Ghuri (الأشرف قانصوه الغوري) was the second-to-last of the Mamluk Sultans.
The al-Atrash (الأطرش&lrm), also known as Bani al-Atrash, is a Druze clan based in Jabal Hauran in southwestern Syria.
Al-Bab (الباب / ALA-LC: al-Bāb) is a city, de-jure administratively belonging to the Aleppo Governorate of the Syrian Arab Republic.
al-Bassa' (البصة), also known as Betzet in בצת, was a Palestinian Arab village in the Mandatory Palestine's Acre Subdistrict.
Al-Bireh, al-Birah, or el-Bira (البيرة; also known historically as Castrum Mahomeria, Magna Mahomeria, Mahomeria Major, Birra, or Beirothah) is a Palestinian city in the central West Bank, north of Jerusalem.
Al-Birwa (البروة, also spelled al-Birweh) was a Palestinian Arab village, located east of Acre (Akka).
Al-Damun (الدامون, al-Dâmûn), was a Palestinian Arab village located from the city of Acre that was depopulated during 1948 Arab-Israeli war.
Al-Dawayima, Dawaymeh or Dawayma (الدوايمة) was a Palestinian town, located in the former Hebron Subdistrict of Mandatory Palestine, and in what is now the Lakhish region, some 15 kilometres south-east of Kiryat Gat.
al-Faluja (الفالوجة) was a Palestinian Arab village in the British Mandate for Palestine, located 30 kilometers northeast of Gaza City.
Al-Ghabisiyya was a Palestinian Arab village in northern Palestine, 16 km north-east of Acre in present-day Israel.
Al-Hamidiyah Souq is the largest and the central souk in Syria, located inside the old walled city of Damascus next to the Citadel.
Al-Ahsa, Al-Hasa, or Hadjar (الأحساء al-Aḥsāʾ, locally al-Ahasā) is a traditional oasis historical region in eastern Saudi Arabia whose name is used by the Al-Ahsa Governorate, which makes up much of that country's Eastern Province.
Al-Hasakah (الحسكة, Hesîçe, Ḥasake) also known as Al-Hasakeh, Al-Kasaka or simply Hasakah, is the capital city of the Al-Hasakah Governorate and it is located in the far northeastern corner of Syria.
Al-Jammama (الجمامه) was a Palestinian Arab village located in the Negev desert 30 km west of the city of Beersheba.
Al-Kabri (الكابري) was a Palestinian Arab town in the Galilee located northeast of Acre.
Al-Karak (الكرك), also known as just Karak or Kerak, is a city in Jordan known for its Crusader castle, the Kerak Castle.
Al-Khalisa was a Palestinian Arab village situated on a low hill on the northwestern edge of the Hula Valley of over 1,800 located north of Safad.
Al-Khayriyya (الخيْريّة) was a Palestinian Arab village located 7.5 kilometers east of Jaffa.
Al-Khisas (الخصاص), also known as Khisas or Khissas, was a Palestinian Arab village in the Safad Subdistrict in Mandatory Palestine.
Al-Malikiyya (المالكية) was a Palestinian village located in the Jabal Amil region.
Al-Mansura (المنصورة), was a Palestinian village that was depopulated by the Israeli army during the 1948 Arab-Israeli war.
The Prophet's Mosque (Classical ٱلْـمَـسْـجِـدُ ٱلـنَّـبَـوِيّ, Al-Masjidun-Nabawiyy; Modern Standard ٱلْـمَـسْـجِـدْ اَلـنَّـبَـوِي, Al-Masjid An-Nabawī) is a mosque established and originally built by the Islamic prophet Muhammad, situated in the city of Medina in the Hejazi region of Saudi Arabia.
Al-Mustansir Abu al-Qasim Ahmad was a member of the Abbasid house who was imprisoned by his nephew the Caliph al-Musta'sim in Baghdad.
Al-Mutawakkil III (died 1543) was caliph from 1508 to 1516, and again in 1517.
Al-Nahda (النهضة / ALA-LC: an-Nahḍah; Arabic for "awakening" or "renaissance") was a cultural renaissance that began in the late 19th and early 20th centuries in Egypt, then later moving to Ottoman-ruled Arabic-speaking regions including Lebanon, Syria and others.
al-Nahr (النهر), was a Palestinian village northeast of Acre.
The Sultan al-Nasir Muhammad ibn Qala'un Mosque is an early 14th-century mosque at the Citadel in Cairo, Egypt.
The al-Omari (also spelt al-Umari or el-Umari) (العمري) is a family that claims descent from Umar, the second caliph, or leader, of the Islamic empire.
al-Qubayba (القبيبة), also known as Qubeiba, was a Palestinian village, located 24 kilometers northwest of Hebron.
ar-Rastan (الرستن) is the third largest city in the Homs Governorate, located north of its administrative capital Homs and from Hama.
Al-Salt (السلط Al-Salt — pronounced Es-Sult or Es-Salt) is an ancient agricultural town and administrative centre in west-central Jordan.
Al-Sanamayn (الصنمين, also spelled Sanamein, Sanamain, Sunamein) is a city in southern Syria, administratively part of the Daraa Governorate and the center of al-Sanamayn District.
Al-Sarafand (الصرفند) was a Palestinian Arab village near the Mediterranean shore south of Haifa.
Al-Shatrah (also known as Shatrat al-Muntafiq) is a town in southern Iraq, located northeast of Nasiriyah.
The Royal Family of Al-Sulaim is the dynasty that has sat on the throne of Unaizah in Saudi Arabia since 1817.
Al-Sumayriyya (السُميريه, Katasir in Canaanite times, Someleria during Crusader rule), was a Palestinian village located six kilometers north of Acre that was depopulated after it was captured by the Israel Defense Forces during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War.
Al-Tahir Agha was a Turkish ruler sent to govern a province of Sudan, Al-Getaina, which was in the Ottoman Empire's domain, in the late 18th century.
Al-Tall (التلّ), was a Palestinian village 14 km northeast of Acre in the British Mandate District of Acre.
Alaçam is a central town of Alaçam district of Samsun Province of Turkey.
Alaçatı is a Mediterranean town on the Western coast of Turkey, often noted for its architecture, vineyards and windmills.
Aladzha Monastery (Bulgarian: Аладжа манастир) is a medieval Orthodox Christian cave monastery complex in northeastern Bulgaria, 17 km north of central Varna and 3 km west of Golden Sands beach resort, in a protected forest area adjacent to the Golden Sands Nature Park.
Alaturca and alafranga are musical and cultural concepts specific to the Ottoman Empire and its people.
Alaiye (علائیه) is the medieval Seljuq name for Alanya (on the southern coast of Turkey).
Alanya, formerly Alaiye, is a beach resort city and a component district of Antalya Province on the southern coast of Turkey, in the country's Mediterranean Region, east of the city of Antalya.
Alanya Castle (Alanya Kalesi) is a medieval castle in the southern Turkish city of Alanya.
Sultan Alauddin Ri'ayat Syah al-Kahar (died 28 September 1571) was the third sultan of Aceh, and was one of the strongest warrior rulers in the history of the kingdom.
The Alawite State (دولة جبل العلويين,, Alaouites, informally as État des Alaouites or Le territoire des Alaouites) and named after the locally-dominant Alawites, was a French mandate territory on the coast of present-day Syria after World War I.
The Alawis, also rendered as Alawites (علوية Alawiyyah/Alawīyah), are a syncretic sect of the Twelver branch of Shia Islam, primarily centered in Syria.
Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia or Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe.
The Middle Ages in Albania geographically refers to the region that is now Albania in the Byzantine Empire, until their incorporation in the Ottoman Empire.
Albania was ruled by the Ottoman Empire in different periods from 1480 to 1912.
The Albanian alphabet (alfabeti shqip) is a variant of the Latin alphabet used to write the Albanian language.
American Albanians (singular: Shqiptar i Amerikes / plural: Shqiptaret e Amerikes) are Americans of full or partial Albanian ancestry.
The Albanian art (—) refers to all artistic expressions and artworks in Albania or produced by Albanians.
Albanian literature stretches back to the Middle Ages and comprises those literary texts and works written in the Albanian language.
The Albanian National Awakening (Rilindja Kombëtare) (also known as the National Renaissance or National Revival), refers to the period in the history of Albania from the 19th century until the declaration of independence in 1912.
The Albanian Superliga (Kategoria Superiore) is a professional league for men's association football clubs.
The Albanians (Shqiptarët) are a European ethnic group that is predominantly native to Albania, Kosovo, western Macedonia, southern Serbia, southeastern Montenegro and northwestern Greece, who share a common ancestry, culture and language.
The Albanians (Shqiptarë in Albanian, Albanezi in Romanian) are an ethnic minority in Romania.
Albert Abram Aftalion (October 21, 1874, Rusçuk, Ottoman Empire – December 6, 1956, Geneva, Switzerland) was a French Jewish economist.
Albert the Magnanimous KG (10 August 139727 October 1439) was King of Hungary and Croatia from 1437 until his death and member of the House of Habsburg.
Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Francis Albert Augustus Charles Emmanuel; 26 August 1819 – 14 December 1861) was the husband and consort of Queen Victoria.
Albertirsa (formerly Alberti-Irsa, Irša) is a town in Ceglédi kistérség, ''Pest megye'', and the middle of the Great Hungarian Plain.
Sir Alexander Arnold Constantine Issigonis, (Αλέξανδρος Αρνόλδος Κωνσταντίνος Ισηγόνης Alexandros Arnoldos Konstantinos Isigonis; 18 November 1906 – 2 October 1988) was a British-Greek designer of cars, widely noted for the groundbreaking and influential development of the Mini, launched by the British Motor Corporation (BMC) in 1959.
Aleko Konstantinov (Алеко Константинов) (1 January 1863 – 11 May 1897)(NS: 13 January 1863 – 23 May 1897) was a Bulgarian writer, best known for his character Bay Ganyo, one of the most popular characters in Bulgarian fiction.
Aleksa Šantić (Алекса Шантић; 27 May 1868 – 2 February 1924) was a Yugoslav poet.
Aleksandër Stavre Drenova, best known under his pen name Asdreni (11 April 1872 – 1947), was one of the most well-known Albanian poets.
Aleksey Nikolayevich Kuropatkin (Алексе́й Никола́евич Куропа́ткин; March 29, 1848January 16, 1925) was the Russian Imperial Minister of War from 1898 to 1904, and often held responsible for major Russian defeats in the Russo-Japanese War, most notably at the Battle of Mukden and the Battle of Liaoyang.
Prince Aleksey Borisovich Lobanov-Rostovsky (Алексе́й Бори́сович Лоба́нов-Росто́вский) (in Voronezh Governorate –) was a Russian statesman, probably best remembered for having concluded the Li-Lobanov Treaty with China and for his publication of the Russian Genealogical Book (in two volumes).
Aleksinac (Алексинац) is a town and municipality located in the Nišava District of the southern Serbia.
Alemdar Mustafa Pasha (also called Bayraktar Mustafa Pasha; died 15 November 1808) was an Ottoman military commander and a Grand Vizier born in Khotyn in then Ottoman territory Ukraine in 1765.
Aleppo (ﺣﻠﺐ / ALA-LC) is a city in Syria, serving as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most-populous Syrian governorate.
Aleppo Governorate (محافظة حلب / ALA-LC: Muḥāfaẓat Ḥalab /) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.
Alessandro Farnese (5 October 1520 – 2 March 1589), an Italian cardinal and diplomat and a great collector and patron of the arts, was the grandson of Pope Paul III (who also bore the name Alessandro Farnese), and the son of Pier Luigi Farnese, Duke of Parma, who was murdered in 1547.
Alessandro Poglietti (early 17th century – July 1683) was a Baroque organist and composer of unknown origin.
Alevism (Alevîlik or Anadolu Alevîliği/Alevileri, also called Qizilbash, or Shī‘ah Imāmī-Tasawwufī Ṭarīqah, or Shīʿah-ī Bāṭen’īyyah) is a syncretic, heterodox, and local tradition, whose adherents follow the mystical (''bāṭenī'') teachings of Ali, the Twelve Imams, and a descendant—the 13th century Alevi saint Haji Bektash Veli.
Alexander "Alex" Manoogian (Ալեք Մանուկեան, June 28, 1901 – July 10, 1996) was an Armenian-American industrial engineer, businessman, entrepreneur and philanthropist who had most of his career in Detroit, Michigan.
Alexander Aaronsohn (אלכסנדר אהרנסון; Romania, 1888–Palestine, 1948) was an author and activist who wrote about the plight of people living in Palestine (now Israel) in his book, With the Turks in Palestine.
Alexander (Sandor) Asboth (Hungarian: Asbóth Sándor, December 18, 1811 – January 21, 1868) was a Hungarian military leader best known for his victories as a Union general during the American Civil War.
Prince Alexander Bekovich-Cherkassky (Алекса́ндр Беко́вич-Черка́сский), born Devlet-Girei-mırza (Девлет-Гирей-мурза) (died 1717), was a Russian officer of Circassian origin who led the first Russian military expedition into Central Asia.
Prince (Knyaz) Alexander Stefanov Bogoridi (княз Александър (Алеко) Стефанов Богориди; Turkish: Aleko Pasha; Αλέξανδρος Βογορίδης) (1822 – July 17, 1910) was an Ottoman statesman of Bulgarian origin.
Alexander Charles Vasa (Aleksander Karol Waza; 4 November 1614 – 19 November 1634) was the fifth son of King Sigismund III of Poland and his wife Constance of Austria.
Prince Alexander Chavchavadze (ალექსანდრე ჭავჭავაძე; Александр Чавчавадзе) (1786 – November 6, 1846) was a notable Georgian poet, public benefactor and military figure.
Alexander V. Chayanov (Александр Васильевич Чаянов) (1888 – October 3, 1937) was a Soviet agrarian economist, and scholar of rural sociology and advocate of agrarianism and cooperatives.
Alessandro Farnese (10 January 1635 – 18 February 1689) was an Italian military leader, who was Governor of the Habsburg Netherlands from 1678 until 1682.
General Sir Alexander John Godley, (4 February 1867 – 6 March 1957) was a senior British Army officer.
Alexander Hangerli or Handjeri (Alexandre Handjeri, Alexandru Hangerli or Hangerliu, Russian: Александр Ханжерли, Aleksandr Hanzherli, Александр Хангерли, Aleksandr Hangerli or Александру Хангерли, Aleksandru Hangerli; died June 12, 1854) was a Phanariote Greek Dragoman of the Ottoman Empire, and Prince of Moldavia between March 7 and July 24, 1807.
Alexander the Good (Alexandru cel Bun or Alexandru I Mușat) was a Voivode (Prince) of Moldavia, reigning between 1400 and 1432, son of Roman I Mușat.
Count Alexander Petrovich Izvolsky or Iswolsky (Алекса́ндр Петро́вич Изво́льский,, Moscow – 16 August 1919, Paris) was a Russian diplomat remembered as a major architect of Russia's alliance with Great Britain during the years leading to the outbreak of the First World War.
August Alexander Järnefelt (2 April 1833 – 15 April 1896) was a Finnish general, topographist, governor and senator.
Aleksandar Karađorđević (Cyrillic: Александар Карађорђевић; 11 October 1806 – 3 May 1885) was the prince of Serbia between 1842 and 1858.
Alexander Karatheodori Pasha (Αλέξανδρος Καραθεοδωρής; 1833–1906) was an Ottoman Greek statesman.
Alexander Mantashev (Aleksandr Mantashiants;, Aleksandr Ivanovich Mantashev; 3 March 1842 – 19 April 1911 and was buried on 30 April in the Armenian Pantheon of Tbilisi) was a prominent Armenian oil magnate, industrialist, financier, and a philanthropist.
Alexander Mavrocordatos (Ἀλέξανδρος Μαυροκορδάτος; 163623 December 1709) was a member of the Greek Mavrocordatos family, a doctor of philosophy and medicine of the University of Bologna, and dragoman to Sultan Mehmed IV in 1673 — notably employed in negotiations with the Habsburg Monarchy during the Great Turkish War.
Alexander Mourouzis (Αλέξανδρος Μουρούζης; Alexandru Moruzi; died 1816) was a Grand Dragoman of the Ottoman Empire who served as Prince of Moldavia and Prince of Wallachia.
The St. Alexander Nevsky Cathedral (Храм-паметник "Свети Александър Невски", Hram-pametnik "Sveti Aleksandar Nevski") is a Bulgarian Orthodox cathedral in Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria.
Alexander Joseph (Александър I Батенберг; 5 April 185723 October 1893), known as Alexander of Battenberg, was the first prince (knyaz) of modern Bulgaria from 1879 until his abdication in 1886.
Alexander (Αλέξανδρος, Aléxandros; 1 August 189325 October 1920) was King of Greece from 11 June 1917 until his death three years later, at the age of 27, from the effects of a monkey bite.
Count Aleksander Nikolayevich Samoylov (Александр Николаевич Самойлов) (1744 – 1 November 1814) was a Russian general and statesman.
Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov (Алекса́ндр Васи́льевич Суво́ров, r Aleksandr Vasil‘evich Suvorov; or 1730 –) was a Russian military leader, considered a national hero.
Alexander Vallaury (1850-1921) was a French-Ottoman architect, who founded architectural education and lectured in the School of Fine Arts in Constantinople (Istanbul), Ottoman Empire.
Alexander Ernst Alfred Hermann Freiherr von Falkenhausen (29 October 1878 – 31 July 1966) was a German General and military advisor to Chiang Kai-shek.
Alexander Ypsilantis, Ypsilanti, or Alexandros Ypsilantis (Αλέξανδρος Υψηλάντης Alexandros Yipsilantis; Alexandru Ipsilanti; Александр Константинович Ипсиланти Aleksandr Konstantinovich Ipsilanti; 12 December 179231 January 1828), was a member of a prominent Phanariot Greek family, a prince of the Danubian Principalities, a senior officer of the Imperial Russian cavalry during the Napoleonic Wars, and a leader of the Filiki Eteria, a secret organization that coordinated the beginning of the Greek War of Independence against the Ottoman Empire.
Alexander Ypsilantis (Αλέξανδρος Υψηλάντης Alexandros Ypsilantis, Alexandru Ipsilanti; 1725–1805) was a Greek Voivode (Prince) of Wallachia from 1775 to 1782, and again from 1796 to 1797, and also Voivode (Prince) of Moldavia from 1786 to 1788.
Alexandra Mavrokordatou (Αλεξάνδρα Μαυροκορδάτου; 1605–1684) was a famous Greek intellectual and salonist.
Alexandra of Denmark (Alexandra Caroline Marie Charlotte Louise Julia; 1 December 1844 – 20 November 1925) was Queen consort of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions and Empress of India as the wife of King Edward VII.
Alexandre Saint-Yves, Marquess of Alveydre (26 March 1842 – 5 February 1909) was a French occultist who adapted the works of Fabre d'Olivet (1767–1825) and, in turn, had his ideas adapted by Gérard Encausse alias Papus.
Alexandreia or Alexandria (Αλεξάνδρεια ale'ksaŋðria, before 1953: Γιδάς ʝi'ðas- Gidàs) is a city in the Imathia regional unit of Macedonia, Greece.
The Alexandria expedition of 1807 or Fraser expedition (Arabic:حملة فريزر) was an operation by the Royal Navy and the British Army during the Anglo-Turkish War (1807–1809) of the Napoleonic Wars to capture Alexandria in Egypt with the purpose of securing a base of operations against the Ottoman Empire in the Mediterranean Sea.
Alexandros Koumoundouros (Αλέξανδρος Κουμουνδούρος, 1817 – 26 February 1883) was a Greek politician.
Alexandros Mavrokordatos (Αλέξανδρος Μαυροκορδάτος; February 11, 1791August 18, 1865) was a Greek statesman and member of the Mavrocordatos family of Phanariotes.
Alexandros Papanastasiou (Αλέξανδρος Παπαναστασίου; 8 July 1876 – 17 November 1936) was a Greek politician, lawyer and sociologist, who served twice as Prime Minister of Greece in the interwar period.
Alexandros Rizos Rangavis or Alexander Rizos Rakgabis" (Αλέξανδρος Ρίζος Ραγκαβής; Alexandre Rizos Rangabé; 27 December 180928 June 1892), was a Greek man of letters, poet and statesman.
Alexandros Soutzos (1758 – January 18/19, 1821, Bucharest) was a Phanariote Greek who ruled as Prince of Moldavia (July 10, 1801 – October 1, 1802 and Prince of Wallachia (July 2, 1802 – August 30, 1802; August 24, 1806 – October 15, 1806; December 1806; November 17, 1818 – January 19, 1821). Born in Constantinople, he had earlier been Grand Dragoman of the Ottoman Empire.
Alexandroupoli (Αλεξανδρούπολη) or Alexandroupolis is a city in Greece and the capital of the Evros regional unit in East Macedonia and Thrace.
Alexandru Candiano-Popescu (January 27, 1841 – June 25, 1901) was a Romanian army general, lawyer, journalist, and poet, best known for his role in the Republic of Ploieşti conspiracy.
Alexandru G. Golescu (1819 – 15 August 1881) was a Romanian politician who served as a Prime Minister of Romania in 1870 (between 14 February and 1 May).
Alexandru Ioan Cuza (or Alexandru Ioan I, also anglicised as Alexander John Cuza; 20 March 1820 – 15 May 1873) was Prince of Moldavia, Prince of Wallachia, and later Domnitor (Ruler) of the Romanian Principalities.
Alexandru Macedonski (also rendered as Al. A. Macedonski, Macedonschi or Macedonsky; March 14, 1854 – November 24, 1920) was a Romanian poet, novelist, dramatist and literary critic, known especially for having promoted French Symbolism in his native country, and for leading the Romanian Symbolist movement during its early decades.
Alexandru Sturdza (Александр Скарлатович Стурдза; Iași, Moldavia, 18 November 1791Odessa, 13 June 1854) was a Russian publicist and diplomat of Romanian origin.
Count Alexei Grigoryevich Orlov (Алексей Григорьевич Орлов; –) was a Russian soldier and statesman, who rose to prominence during the reign of Catherine the Great.
Count Alexey Petrovich Bestuzhev-Ryumin (Алексе́й Петро́вич Бесту́жев-Рю́мин) (1 June 1693 – 21 April 1768), Chancellor of the Russian Empire, was one of the most influential and successful European diplomats of the 18th century.
Aleksey Mikhailovich (p; –) was the tsar of Russia from 12 July 1645 until his death, 29 January 1676.
Aley (عاليه), is a city in Lebanon.
Alfred Arthur Greenwood Hales (21 July 1860 – 29 December 1936) was an Australian novelist and war correspondent.
Feldmarschalleutnant Alfred Johann Theophil Jansa von Tannenau, (July 16, 1884 in Stanislawow – December 20, 1963 in Vienna) was an Austrian Army Officer.
Alfred John Shout, VC, MC (8 August 1882 – 11 August 1915) was a New Zealand-born soldier and an Australian recipient of the Victoria Cross (VC), the highest decoration for gallantry "in the face of the enemy" awarded to members of the British and Commonwealth armed forces.
Alfred Victor Smith VC (22 July 1891 – 23 December 1915) was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
Admiral Sir Algernon Frederick Rous de Horsey KCB (25 July 1827 – 22 October 1922) was a Royal Navy officer who served in the nineteenth century.
Algiers (الجزائر al-Jazā’er, ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻ, Alger) is the capital and largest city of Algeria.
Alha was a legendary general of the Chandel king Paramardideva (also known as Parmal), who fought Prithviraj Chauhan in 1182 CE, immortalised in the Alha-Khand ballad.
The Alhambra Decree (also known as the Edict of Expulsion; Spanish: Decreto de la Alhambra, Edicto de Granada) was an edict issued on 31 March 1492, by the joint Catholic Monarchs of Spain (Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon) ordering the expulsion of practicing Jews from the Kingdoms of Castile and Aragon and its territories and possessions by 31 July of that year.
The Alhucemas Islands is a group of islands and one of the Spanish plazas de soberanía just off the Moroccan coast in the Alboran Sea.
Ali Çetinkaya, also known as "Kel" Ali Bey (1878 – 21 February 1949) was an Ottoman-born Turkish army officer and politician who served eight terms in the Grand National Assembly of Turkey, including a period in 1939–40 as his country's first Minister of Transport.
Ali Şen (1918, Adana, Adana Vilayet, Ottoman Empire - 15 December 1989, Istanbul, Turkey) is a Turkish actor, father of the actor Şener Şen.
Ali Bey al-Kabir (Mgebrishvili) (علي بك الكبير) (1728 – 8 May 1773) was a Mamluk leader of Egypt from 1768 to 1769, 1772, or 1773.
Domingo Francisco Jorge Badía y Leblich (Domènec Badia i Leblich; 1767–1818), better known by his pseudonym and nom de plume Ali Bey el Abbassi (علي باي العباسي, Alī Bay al-Abasī), was a Spanish explorer, soldier, and spy in the early 19th century.
Sayyid Ali bin Hamud Al-Busaid (7 June 1884 – 20 December 1918) (علي بن حمود البوسعيد) was the eighth Sultan of Zanzibar from 1902 to 1911.
Ali Fuat Cebesoy (September 1882,Ayfer Özçelik, Ali Fuad Cepesoy, Akçağ Yayınları, 1993,, p. 1. Constantinople (Istanbul) – January 10, 1968, Istanbul) was a Turkish army officer and politician.
Ali Bey (أبو الحسن علي باشا باي بن الحسين) (La Marsa 14 August 1817 – La Marsa 11 June 1902) was the Husainid Bey of Tunis from 1882 until his death.
Ali Jawdat al-Ayubi (Arabic: علي جودت الأيوبي; November 11, 1886 – March 3, 1969) was 11th Prime Minister of Iraq 1934–1935, 1949–1950, 1957.
Ali Kelmendi (3 November 1900 in İpek, now Pejë, Kosovo Vilayet, Ottoman Empire – 11 February 1939 in France), Hero of Albania under the communist government, was a Kosovar Albanian communist, an organizer of the communist movement in Albania.
Ali bin Hussein, GBE (علي بن الحسين بن علي الهاشمي, ‘Alī ibn al-Ḥusayn ibn ‘Alī al-Hāshimī; 18791935) was King of Hejaz and Grand Sharif of Mecca from October 1924 until he was deposed by Ibn Saud in December 1925.
Ali Pasha's Mosque or Ali Pasha Mosque was constructed in Sarajevo during 1560–61 as a vakıf (legacy or perpetual endowment) of Sofu Hadım Ali Pasha, the Ottoman former governor of the Bosnia Eyalet of the Ottoman Empire, after his death in September 1560.
Ali Pasha Mubarak (1823-Nov. 14, 1893 CE) was an Egyptian public works and education minister during the second half of the nineteenth century.
Ali Pasha Shabanagaj (1828–1888) (Serbian: Али-паша Шабанагић, Ali-paša Šabanagić), was an Albanian military commander and one of the leaders of the League of Prizren.
Ali Pasha (1740 – 24 January 1822), variously referred to as of Tepelena or of Janina/Yannina/Ioannina, or the Lion of Yannina, was an Ottoman Albanian ruler who served as pasha of a large part of western Rumelia, the Ottoman Empire's European territories, which was referred to as the Pashalik of Yanina.
Ali Rıza Efendi (1839–1888) was the father of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and the husband of Zübeyde Hanım.
Ali Rıza Pasha (Ali Rıza Paşa, 1860–1932) was an Ottoman statesman, who was one of the last Grand Viziers of the Ottoman Empire, under the reign of the last Ottoman Sultan Mehmed VI, between 14 October 1919 and 2 March 1920.
Ali Sami Yen, born Ali Sami Frashëri (20 May 1886 – 29 July 1951) was an Albanian-Turkish sports official best known as the founder of the Galatasaray Sports Club.
Ali Sami Yen Stadium (Ali Sami Yen Stadyumu) was the home of the football club Galatasaray S.K. in Istanbul, Turkey, from 1964 to 2010.
Ali Suavi (1838–1878) was an Ottoman political activist, educator, theologian and reformer.
Ali Vâsib (13 October 1903 – 9 December 1983) was an Ottoman prince.
Mīr 'Alisher Navaiy (9 February 1441 – 3 January 1501), also known as Nizām-al-Din ʿAlisher Herawī (Chagatai-Turkic/نظامالدین علیشیر نوایی) was a Chagatai Turkic poet, writer, politician, linguist, mystic, and painter.
The Alian Kızılbaşī community (in Turkish Alyanlar or Tajiklar), are a Shi`a order, similar to the Sufi Mevlevi, who live in several regions of Bulgaria.
The Alids are the dynasties descended from Ali ibn Abi Talib, son-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad (see Family tree of Muhammad and Family tree of Husayn ibn Ali).
Alija Izetbegović (8 August 1925 – 19 October 2003) was a Bosnian politician, activist, lawyer, author, and philosopher who in 1992 became the first President of the newly-independent Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Aliyah (עֲלִיָּה aliyah, "ascent") is the immigration of Jews from the diaspora to the Land of Israel (Eretz Israel in Hebrew).
All the King's Men is a feature-length World War I television drama by the BBC starring David Jason, first broadcast on Remembrance Sunday, 14 November 1999.
Allahuekber Mountains (Allahuekber Dağları, which means "Allahu akbar Mountains"), is a mountain range in northeastern Turkey.
Allahverdi Khan (اللّه وردی خان, ალავერდი-ხანი) (ca. 1560 – June 3, 1613) was an Iranian general and statesman of Georgian origin who, initially a ghulām ("military slave"), rose to high office in the Safavid state.
Brigadier Allan Lawrence Mallinson (born 6 February 1949) is an English author and retired British Army officer.
The Allenby Bridge (גשר אלנבי Gesher Allenby, also known as the King Hussein Bridge جسر الملك حسين Jisr al-Malek Hussein), is a bridge that crosses the Jordan River near the city of Jericho, and connects the West Bank with Jordan.
The Alliance israélite universelle (כל ישראל חברים) is a Paris-based international Jewish organization founded in 1860 by the French statesman Adolphe Crémieux to safeguard the human rights of Jews around the world.
The Allied intervention was a multi-national military expedition launched during the Russian Civil War in 1918.
The Allies of World War I, or Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers in the First World War.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
Alma Johansson (1880-1974) was a Swedish missionary who worked in the city of Mush in the Ottoman Empire at the beginning of the 20th century.
The Almagest is a 2nd-century Greek-language mathematical and astronomical treatise on the apparent motions of the stars and planetary paths, written by Claudius Ptolemy. One of the most influential scientific texts of all time, its geocentric model was accepted for more than 1200 years from its origin in Hellenistic Alexandria, in the medieval Byzantine and Islamic worlds, and in Western Europe through the Middle Ages and early Renaissance until Copernicus.
The Almas or Alma (Mongolian: Алмас/Almas, Chechen: Алмазы, Turkish: Albıs), Mongolian for "wild man", is a purported hominid cryptozoological species reputed to inhabit the Caucasus and Pamir Mountains of Central Asia, and the Altai Mountains of western Mongolia.
Almogavars (almogávares, almugávares, almogàvers and almogávares) is the name of a class of soldier from many Christian Iberian kingdoms in the later phases of the Reconquista, during the 13th and 14th centuries.
Almyros or Halmyros (Αλμυρός, which means salty) is a town and a municipality of the regional unit of Magnesia, region of Thessaly, Greece.
Alparslan Türkeş (25 November 1917 – 4 April 1997) was a Turkish politician who was the founder and president of the Nationalist Movement Party.
Alphonse Mingana (born as Hurmiz Mingana; ܗܪܡܙ ܡܢܓܢܐ, in 1878 at Sharanesh, a village near Zakho (present day Iraq) - died 5 December 1937 Birmingham, England) was an ethnic Chaldean theologian, historian, Syriacist, orientalist and a former priest who is best known for collecting and preserving the Mingana Collection of ancient Middle Eastern manuscripts at Birmingham.
Alsace (Alsatian: ’s Elsass; German: Elsass; Alsatia) is a cultural and historical region in eastern France, on the west bank of the upper Rhine next to Germany and Switzerland.
Alsace wine or Alsatian wine (in French: Vin d'Alsace) (German: Weinbau in Elsass) is produced in the Alsace region in France and is primarily white wine.
Alsancak is a centrally situated large quarter (or a zone; semt in Turkish) in İzmir, Turkey, within the boundaries of the metropolitan district of Konak, the historic center of the city.
Altıntaş is a town and a district of Kütahya Province in the Aegean region of Turkey.
Alternate history or alternative history (Commonwealth English), sometimes abbreviated as AH, is a genre of fiction consisting of stories in which one or more historical events occur differently.
Alucra is a town and a district of Giresun Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey, from the city of Giresun.
Aly Maher Pasha (علي ماهر باشا; 9 November 1882 – 25 August 1960) was an Egyptian political figure.
Amadeus VI (4 January 1334, Chambéry – 1 March 1383, Campobasso), nicknamed the Green Count (Il Conte Verde) was Count of Savoy from 1343 to 1383.
Amalia of Oldenburg (Αμαλία; 21 December 1818 – 20 May 1875) was queen consort of Greece from 1836 to 1862 as the spouse of King Otto (1815–1867).
Amara Dunqas was the first ruler of the Kingdom of Sennar, which he ruled from 1504 - 1533/4.
Amarah (العمارة Al ‘Amārah, also spelled Amara, is a city in south-eastern Iraq, located on a low ridge next to the Tigris River waterway south of Baghdad about 50 km from the border with Iran. It lies at the northern tip of the marshlands between the Tigris and Euphrates. Predominantly Shia Muslim, it had a population of about 340,000 as of 2002 and about 420,000 as of 2005. It is the administrative capital of the Maysan province. A major trading center for the surrounding agricultural area, it is known for woven goods and silverware.
Amarynthos (Greek: Αμάρυνθος,, also called Βάθεια Váthia), is a coastal town and a former municipality in Euboea, Greece.
Amasra (from Greek Amastris Ἄμαστρις, gen. Ἀμάστριδος) is a small Black Sea port town in the Bartın Province, Turkey, formerly known as Amastris.
Amasya (Ἀμάσεια) is a city in northern Turkey and is the capital of Amasya Province, in the Black Sea Region.
João Rodrigues de Castelo Branco, better known as Amato Lusitano and Amatus Lusitanus (1511–1568), was a notable Portuguese Jewish physician of the 16th century.
The Ambracian Gulf, also known as the Gulf of Arta or the Gulf of Actium, and in some official documents as the Amvrakikos Gulf (Αμβρακικός κόλπος), is a gulf of the Ionian Sea in northwestern Greece.
Amcazade Köprülü Hüseyin Pasha ("Köprülü Hüseyin Pasha the Nephew"; in Hysein Pashë Kypriljoti) (1644–1702) of the Köprülü family, was the grand vizier of the Ottoman Empire under Mustafa II from September 1697 until September 1702.
America America (British title The Anatolian Smile—a reference to an ongoing acknowledgment of the character Stavros' captivating smile) is a 1963 American dramatic film directed, produced and written by Elia Kazan, adapted from his own book, published in 1962.
The American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (ABCFM) was among the first American Christian missionary organizations.
The American College of Sofia (Американски колеж в София, Amerikanski kolezh v Sofiya; abbreviated as ACS) is among the top and most prestigious secondary schools in Bulgaria and the Balkans, based in the capital city of Sofia.
The American Colony was a colony established in Jerusalem in 1881 by members of a Christian utopian society led by Anna and Horatio Spafford.
American Empire: The Center Cannot Hold is the second book in the American Empire alternate history series by Harry Turtledove.
The American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, also known as the Joint or the JDC, is a Jewish relief organization based in New York City.
Amfilochia (Αμφιλοχία) is a town and a municipality in the northwestern part of Aetolia-Acarnania in Greece, on the site of ancient Amfilochia.
Amfissa (Άμφισσα, also mentioned in classical sources as Amphissa) is a town in Phocis, Greece, part of the municipality of Delphi, of which it is the seat and a municipal unit.
Amharas (አማራ, Āmara; አምሐራ, ʾÄməḥära), also known as Abyssinians, are an ethnic group traditionally inhabiting the northern and central highlands of Ethiopia, particularly the Amhara Region.
Mohammed Amin al-Husseini (محمد أمين الحسيني; 1897 – 4 July 1974) was a Palestinian Arab nationalist and Muslim leader in Mandatory Palestine.
Amine Pierre Gemayel (أمين بيار الجميٌل; born 22 January 1942) is a Lebanese politician who was President of Lebanon from 1982 to 1988 and was the leader of Kataeb Party.
Mirza Taghi Khan Farahani (میرزا تقیخان فراهانی) known as Amir Kabir (امیرکبیر) (1807 – 10 January 1852), also known by the titles of Atabak and Amir-e Nezam; chief minister to Naser al-Din Shah Qajar (Shah of Persia) for the first three years of his reign and one of the most capable and innovative figures to appear in the whole Qajar period.
Amka, also known in Arabic as Amqa (عمقا), is a moshav in the Matte Asher Regional Council of Israel's Northern District, near Acre.
Amman (عمّان) is the capital and most populous city of Jordan, and the country's economic, political and cultural centre.
Amor Vincit Omnia ("Love Conquers All", known in English by a variety of names including Amor Victorious, Victorious Cupid, Love Triumphant, Love Victorious, or Earthly Love) is a painting by the Italian early realist / post-Mannerist artist Caravaggio.
Ampelakia (Αμπελάκια) is a former community in the Larissa regional unit, Thessaly, Greece.
Amphibious warfare is a type of offensive military operation that today uses naval ships to project ground and air power onto a hostile or potentially hostile shore at a designated landing beach.
Amphipolis (Αμφίπολη - Amfipoli; Ἀμφίπολις, Amphípolis) is best known for being a magnificent ancient Greek polis (city), and later a Roman city, whose impressive remains can still be seen.
Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands.
Amuda ('Āmūdā, Amûdê, ܥܐܡܘܕܐ) is a town in Al Hasakah Governorate in northeastern Syria close to the border with Turkey.
Amy Marcy Cheney Beach (September 5, 1867December 27, 1944) was an American composer and pianist.
Anachronism is a tabletop game with aspects of both miniatures and collectible card genres.
Anadoluhisarı (Anatolian Castle), known historically as Güzelce Hisar ("the Beauteous Castle") is a medieval fortress located in Istanbul, Turkey on the Anatolian (Asian) side of the Bosporus.
Anafi (Ανάφη) is a Greek island community in the Cyclades.
Anah or Ana (عانة, ʾĀna), formerly also known as Anna, is an Iraqi town on the Euphrates river, approximately midway between the Gulf of Alexandretta and the Persian Gulf.
Islamic anarchism is based on an interpretation of Islam as "submission to God" which either prohibits or is highly critical of the role of human authority.
Anastasije "Anastas" Jovanović (1817 – 1 November 1899) was the first Serbian photographer of his time to treat photography as an art form and to capture on film historical events as they were happening.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
The Anatolia College in Merzifon or American College of Mersovan (Merzifon Amerikan Koleji) was a 4-year college, high school, theological seminary, orphanage and hospital located in the town of Merzifon in the Rûm Province of the Ottoman Empire (in modern-day Amasya Province, Turkey).
The Eyalet of Anatolia (ایالت آناطولی; Eyālet-i Anaṭolı) was one of the two core provinces (Rumelia being the other) in the early years of the Ottoman Empire.
Anatolian beyliks (Anadolu beylikleri, Ottoman Turkish: Tavâif-i mülûk, Beylik), sometimes known as Turkmen beyliks, were small principalities (or petty kingdoms) in Anatolia governed by Beys, the first of which were founded at the end of the 11th century.
The Anatolian Bulgarians or Bulgarians of Asia Minor (малоазийски българи, maloazijski bǎlgari, or shortly, малоазианци, maloazianci) were Eastern Orthodox Bulgarians who settled in Ottoman-ruled northwestern Anatolia (today in Turkey), possibly in the 18th century, and remained there until 1914.
Anatolian rug is a term of convenience, commonly used today to denote rugs and carpets woven in Anatolia (or Asia minor) and its adjacent regions.
Anazzah (عنزة, `Anizah, `Aniza) is an Arab tribe in the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq, and the Levant.
The Anchiskhati Basilica of St Mary is the oldest surviving church in Tbilisi, Georgia.
Ancona ((elbow)) is a city and a seaport in the Marche region in central Italy, with a population of around 101,997.
Andau (Mosontarcsa, Moson-Tarcsa), (Turcze) is a village in Burgenland, Austria, near the border of Hungary.
Andon Zako Çajupi (27 March 1866 – 11 July 1930) was a leading Albanian rilindas, poet, and playwright writer that actively participated in the Albanian National Awakening.
Andranik Ozanian, commonly known as Andranik (Անդրանիկ; 25 February 186531 August 1927) was an Armenian military commander and statesman, the best known fedayi and a key figure of the Armenian national liberation movement.
Andravida (Ανδραβίδα) is a town and a former municipality in Elis, in the northwest of the Peloponnese peninsula of Greece.
André Marie Chénier (30 October 176225 July 1794) was a French poet of Greek and Franco-Levantine origin, associated with the events of the French Revolution of which he was a victim.
Andrea Doria (30 November 146625 November 1560) was an Italian condottiero and admiral of the Republic of Genoa.
Andrea Gabrieli (1532/1533Bryant, Grove online – August 30, 1585) was an Italian composer and organist of the late Renaissance.
Andrea Gritti (1455 – December 1538) was the Doge of Venice from 1523 to 1538, following a distinguished diplomatic and military career.
Andrea Louise Martin (born January 15, 1947) is an American-Canadian actress, singer, author and comedian, FilmReference.com, accessed August 31, 2011 best known for her work in the television series SCTV.
Andreas Acoluthus (16 March 1654 – 4 November 1704Jöcher, Christian Gottlieb, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon: darinne die Gelehrten aller Stände.. vom Anfange der Welt bis auf ietzige Zeit.. Nach ihrer Geburt, Leben,... Schrifften aus den glaubwürdigsten Scribenten in alphabetischer Ordnung beschrieben werden. Leipzig: Gleditsch, 1750-1751. - 4 Bde) was a German scholar of orientalism and professor of theology at Breslau (Wrocław).
Andreas Fritz Hillgruber (18 January 1925 – 8 May 1989) was a conservative German historian.
Andreas Londos (Ανδρέας Λόντος, 1786–1846) was a Greek military leader and politician.
Andreas Vokos, nicknamed Miaoulis (Ανδρέας "Μιαούλης" Βώκος; May 20, 1769 – June 24, 1835), was an admiral and politician who commanded Greek naval forces during the Greek War of Independence (1821–1829).
Andreas Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Ἀνδρέας Παλαιολόγος; Serbian Cyrillic: Андреја Палеолог; 1453–1502) was the pretender Byzantine emperor and Despot of Morea from 1465 until his death in 1502.
Andreas Syngros (Ανδρέας Συγγρός; October 12, 1830 – February 13, 1899) was a Greek banker from Istanbul, at the time known internationally as Constantinople, and a philanthropist.
Andreas Tsipas (Ανδρέας Τσίπας; translit; translit; born 1904, Patele, Ottoman Empire (today Agios Panteleimonas, near Florina, Greece) – died 1956, Bitola, SFRY (present-day Republic of Macedonia) was a Greek Communist leader during the Second World War and the Greek Civil War. In 1933, he became a leader of the IMRO (United) in Greek Macedonia and member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Greece (KKE). He was a KKE candidate in the last pre-war Greek legislative elections in 1936. Between 1936 and 1941, he was imprisoned in the Acronauplia prison by political reasons. On 30 June 1941, Tzipas was one of 27 communist prisoners released from the Acronauplia at the request of the Bulgarian embassy in Athens with the intercession of Bulgarian Club in Thessaloniki, which had made representations to the German occupation authorities. Most members of the group belonged to the Slavic Macedonian community of northern Greece, which was regarded as Bulgarian by the Bulgarian authorities. With the permission from the leader of KKE Giannis Ioannides to reconstruct the Greek Communist Party, they all declared Bulgarian ethnicity. Some merely pretended to be a Bulgarian in order to be set free, such as Kostas Lazaridis who was a Pontic Greek, Andreas Tzimas a Greek Vlach, Petros Kentros of Arvanite and Vlach descent, etc. After his release, Tsipas and others set about reorganising the decimated KKE. Along with Andreas Tzimas and Kostas Lazaridis, also released from prison, and Petros Rousos, Pandelis Karankitzis and Chrysa Chatzivasileiou constituted themselves as a new central committee, with Tsipas as secretary, at a meeting in July 1941, subsequently named as the VI Plenum by the KKE. This new central committee succeeded in winning the recognition of the "old central committee" and the "provisional leadership" wings of the party. At the VII Plenum of the central committee, held the following September, Tsipas was relieved of his post owing to "political unreliability". Tsipas was careless in security terms and abused alcohol. One account claims that after running up a bill in a bar, he sent the barman to the secret meeting place of the politburo, where someone was expected to pay his bill. After the removal from his post, he was isolated, and in January 1942, he sought refuge in Sofia, where he remained for eight months. According to some sources then he was an agent of the Bulgarian secret service. During the Greek Civil War, he was active in the National Liberation Front (NOF) working as a nurse. After the defeat of the Democratic Army of Greece, he fled to SFRY in the Socialist Republic of Macedonia, in the city of Bitola, where he died in 1956, suffering from alcoholism.
Andreas Asimakou Zaimis (Ανδρέας Ζαΐμης; 1791–1840) was a Greek freedom fighter and government leader during the Greek War of Independence.
Andrejs Pumpurs (on the Courland side of the former Lieljumprava civil parish, now Birzgale parish – in Riga) was a poet who penned the Latvian epic Lāčplēsis (The Bear Slayer, first published in 1888) and a prominent figure in the Young Latvia movement.
Admiral of the Fleet Andrew Browne Cunningham, 1st Viscount Cunningham of Hyndhope, (7 January 1883 – 12 June 1963) was a senior officer of the British Royal Navy during the Second World War.
Andrew Turnbull (1718–1792) was a Scottish physician who later served as a British Consul at Smyrna, then part of the Ottoman Empire, in what is now Turkey.
Andrey Damyanov (Андрей Дамянов; Андреја Дамјанов; Андреј Дамјанов) (Papradište, 1813–Veles, 1878), or Andreja Damjanović is considered one of the most eminent Balkan master-builders from Ottoman Macedonia.
Andrey Tasev Lyapchev (Tarpov) (Андрей Тасев Ляпчев (Tърпов)) (30 November 1866 – 6 November 1933) was a Bulgarian Prime Minister in three consecutive governments.
Andrey Slavov Toshev (Андрей Славов Тошев) (16 April 1867, Stara Zagora – 10 January 1944) was Prime Minister of Bulgaria in 1935.
Andrija Artuković (19 November 1899 – 16 January 1988) was a Croatian lawyer, politician and senior member of the Croatian nationalist and fascist Ustaše organisation, who held the Interior and Justice portfolios in the Government of the Independent State of Croatia (Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, NDH) during World War II.
Andrija Kačić Miošić (April 17, 1704 – December 14, 1760) was a Croatian poet and Franciscan monk, descendant of one of the oldest and most influentinal Croatian noble families - Kačić.
Andrijevica (Montenegrin Cyrillic: Андријевица) is a town and the seat of Andrijevica Municipality in eastern Montenegro.
Andrija "Andrijica" Šimić (1833 – 5 February 1905) was a hajduk from Herzegovina.
Andronikos IV Palaiologos (Ἀνδρόνικος Δ' Παλαιολόγος; 11 April 1348 – 25/28 June 1385), often Latinized as Andronicus IV Palaeologus, was the eldest son of Emperor John V Palaiologos.
Andronikos Palaiologos or Andronicus Palaeologus (Ἀνδρόνικος Παλαιολόγος) was a Byzantine prince and the last Byzantine governor of Thessalonica with the title of despot (despotēs), from 1408 to 1423.
Andros (Άνδρος) is the northernmost island of the Greek Cyclades archipelago, about southeast of Euboea, and about north of Tinos.
Androusa (Ανδρούσα) is a village and a former municipality in Messenia, Peloponnese, Greece.
Andrzej Potocki (1630 – 30 August 1691) was a Polish nobleman, magnate, politician, general and military commander.
Angel Kanchev Angelov (Ангел Кънчев Ангелов) (1850 – 5 March 1872) was a Bulgarian revolutionary from Tryavna.
Blessed Angelo Carletti di Chivasso was a noted moral theologian of the Order of Friars Minor; born at Chivasso in Piedmont, in 1411; and died at Coni, in Piedmont, in 1495.
The Angelos family (Ἄγγελος), feminine form Angelina (Άγγελίνα), plural Angeloi (Ἄγγελοι), was a Byzantine or Eastern Roman noble lineage which gave rise to three Byzantine emperors who ruled between 1185 and 1204.
The Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry was a joint British and American committee assembled in Washington on 4 January 1946.
The Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (السودان الإنجليزي المصري) was a condominium of the United Kingdom and Egypt in the eastern Sudan region of northern Africa between 1899 and 1956, but in practice the structure of the condominium ensured full British control over the Sudan.
The Anglo-French Declaration was published by Great Britain and France, shortly after the Armistice of Mudros saw the capitulation of the Ottoman Empire.
The Anglo-Iraqi Treaty of 1930 was a treaty of alliance between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the British-Mandate-controlled administration of the Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq.
The Anglo-Ottoman Convention of 1913 (29 July 1913) was an agreement between the Sublime Porte of the Ottoman Empire and the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland which defined the limits of Ottoman jurisdiction in the area of the Persian Gulf with respect to Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, and the Shatt al-‘Arab.
The Anglo-Persian Oil Company (APOC) was a British company founded in 1908 following the discovery of a large oil field in Masjed Soleiman, Iran.
The Anglo–Persian War lasted between November 1, 1856 and April 4, 1857, and was fought between Great Britain and Persia (which was at the time ruled by the Qajar dynasty).
The Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907 or the Convention between the United Kingdom and Russia relating to Persia, Afghanistan, and Tibet.
The Anglo-Turkish War was a conflict took place during the Napoleonic Wars between 1807 and 1809.
Ani (Անի; Ἄνιον, Ánion; Abnicum; ანი, Ani, or ანისი, Anisi; Ani) is a ruined medieval Armenian city now situated in Turkey's province of Kars, next to the closed border with Armenia.
Aniconism is a proscription in Islam against the creation of images of sentient beings.
Ankara (English; Turkish Ottoman Turkish Engürü), formerly known as Ancyra (Ἄγκυρα, Ankyra, "anchor") and Angora, is the capital of the Republic of Turkey.
Ankara Province (Ankara ili) is the capital province of Turkey.
Ankara River, (Ankara Çayı) is a small river that runs through the city of Ankara, Turkey.
The Vilayet of Ankara or Angora was a first-level administrative division (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire, centered on the city of Ankara in north-central Anatolia, which included most of ancient Galatia.
Anna Karenina (p) is a novel by the Russian writer Leo Tolstoy, published in serial installments from 1873 to 1877 in the periodical The Russian Messenger. Tolstoy clashed with editor Mikhail Katkov over political issues that arose in the final installment (Tolstoy's negative views of Russian volunteers going to fight in Serbia); therefore, the novel's first complete appearance was in book form in 1878.
Anna Ioannovna (Анна Иоанновна; –), also spelled Anna Ivanovna and sometimes anglicized as Anne, was regent of the duchy of Courland from 1711 until 1730 and then ruled as Empress of Russia from 1730 to 1740.
Anna Ticho (Hebrew: אנה טיכו) (born October 27, 1894, died March 1, 1980) was a Jewish artist who became famous for her drawings of the Jerusalem hills.
Annaba (عنّابة), ("Jujube Town"), formerly known as Bona, and then Bône, is a seaport city in the northeastern corner of Algeria, close to Tunisia.
Anna of Bohemia and Hungary (Buda, Hungary, 23 July 1503 – Prague, Bohemia, 27 January 1547), sometimes known as Anna Jagellonica, Queen of the Romans (Germany), Bohemia and Hungary as the wife of King Ferdinand I, later Holy Roman Emperor.
Antakya (انطاكيا, Anṭākyā, previously أنطاكيّة (Anṭākīyyah) from ܐܢܛܝܘܟܝܐ, Anṭiokia; Ἀντιόχεια, Antiócheia) is the seat of the Hatay Province in southern Turkey.
Antalya is the fifth-most populous city in Turkey and the capital of its eponymous province.
Antalya Province (Antalya ili) is located on the Mediterranean coast of south-west Turkey, between the Taurus Mountains and the Mediterranean sea. Antalya Province is the centre of Turkey's tourism industry, attracting 30% of foreign tourists visiting Turkey. It was the world's third most visited city by number of international arrivals in 2011, displacing New York. Antalya is Turkey's biggest international sea resort. The province of Antalya corresponds to the lands of ancient Pamphylia to the east and Lycia to the west. It features a shoreline of with beaches, ports, and ancient cities scattered throughout, including the World Heritage Site Xanthos. The provincial capital is Antalya city with a population of 1,001,318. Antalya is the fastest-growing province in Turkey; with a 4.17% yearly population growth rate between years 1990–2000, compared with the national rate of 1.83%. This growth is due to a fast rate of urbanization, particularly driven by tourism and other service sectors on the coast.
António Manoel de Vilhena (28 May 1663 – 10 December 1736) was a Portuguese nobleman who was the 66th Prince and Grand Master of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem from 19 June 1722 to his death in 1736.
Ante Pavelić (14 July 1889 – 28 December 1959) was a Croatian general and military dictator who founded and headed the fascist ultranationalist organization known as the Ustaše in 1929 and governed the Independent State of Croatia (Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, NDH), a fascist Nazi puppet state built out of Yugoslavia by the authorities of Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy, from 1941 to 1945.
Ante Starčević (23 May 1823 – 28 February 1896), was a Croatian politician and writer.
Anthim I (secular name Atanas Mihaylov Chalakov,; 1816 – 1 December 1888) was a Bulgarian education figure and clergyman, and a participant in the Bulgarian liberation and church-independence movement.
Anthim the Iberian (Romanian: Antim Ivireanul, Georgian: ანთიმოზ ივერიელი - Antimoz Iverieli; secular name: Andria; 1650 — September or October 1716) was a Georgian theologian, scholar, calligrapher, philosopher and one of the greatest ecclesiastic figures of Wallachia, led the printing press of the prince of Wallachia, and was Metropolitan of Bucharest in 1708-1715.
Anthimos Gazis or Gazes (Ἄνθιμος Γαζῆς, born Anastasios Gazalis, Ἀναστάσιος Γαζαλῆς; 1758 24 June 1828) was a Greek scholar, revolutionary and politician.
Anthon Henrik Lund (15 May 1844 – 2 March 1921) was a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles and the First Presidency of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) and a prominent Utah leader.
Sir Anthony Shirley (or Sherley) (1565–1635) was an English traveller, whose imprisonment in 1603 by King James I caused the English House of Commons to assert one of its privileges—freedom of its members from arrest—in a document known as The Form of Apology and Satisfaction.
Anti-Arabism, Anti-Arab sentiment or Arabophobia is opposition to, or dislike, fear, hatred, and advocacy of genocide of Arab people.
Anti-Armenian sentiment, also known as Anti-Armenianism and Armenophobia, is a diverse spectrum of negative feelings, dislikes, fears, aversion, derision and/or prejudice towards Armenians, Armenia, and Armenian culture.
The Anti-bureaucratic revolution was a campaign of street protests ran between 1986 and 1989 in former Yugoslavia by supporters of Serbian leader Slobodan Milošević.
Anti-Iranian sentiment also known as Anti-Persian sentiment, Persophobia, or IranophobiaRam, H. (2009): Iranophobia: The Logic of an Israeli Obsession, Stanford University Press, refers to feelings and expression of hostility, hatred, discrimination, or prejudice towards Iran (Persia) and its culture, and towards persons based on their association with Iran and Iranian culture.
Anti-Romanian sentiment or Romanophobia (antiromânism, românofobie) is hostility toward or prejudice against Romanians as an ethnic, linguistic, religious, or perceived racial group, and can range from individual hatred to institutionalized, violent persecution.
Anti-Romanyism (also Antigypsyism, Antiziganism, Romaphobia or anti-Romani sentiment) is the hostility, prejudice, discrimination or racism specifically directed at Romani people (Roma, Sinti, Iberian Kale, Welsh Kale, Finnish Kale and Romanichal).
Anti-Russian sentiment or Russophobia is a diverse spectrum of negative feelings, dislikes, fears, aversion, derision and/or prejudice of Russia, Russians or Russian culture.
Anti-Serbian sentiment or Anti-Serb sentiment (антисрпска осећања / antisrpska osećanja) and also Anti-Serbism (антисрбизам / antisrbizam) or Anti-Serbdom (антисрпство / antisrpstvo) or Serbophobia (србофобија / srbofobija) is negative feeling in general towards Serbs as an ethnic group.
Anti-Turkism, also known as Turkophobia or anti-Turkish sentiment, is hostility, intolerance, or racism against Turkish or Turkic people, Turkish culture, Turkic countries, or Turkey itself.
Antikyra or Anticyra (Αντίκυρα) is a port on the north coast of the Gulf of Corinth in modern Boeotia, Greece.
The Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America, often referred to in North America as simply the Antiochian Archdiocese, is the jurisdiction of the Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch in the United States and Canada.
Antiochus or Antioch Kantemir or Cantemir (Антиох Дмитриевич Кантемир, Antiokh Dmitrievich Kantemir; Antioh Cantemir; Antioh Kantemiroğlu; Antioche Cantemir; 8 September 1708 – 31 March 1744) was a Moldavian who served as a man of letters, diplomat, and prince during the Russian Enlightenment.
Antioh Cantemir (died 1726), better known in English by the anglicized form Antioch Cantemir, was a Moldavian noble who ruled as voivode of Moldavia (18 December 1695 – 12 September 1700 and 23 February 1705 –31 July 1707).
Antipatris (Αντιπατρίς) was a city built during the first century BC by Herod the Great, who named it in honour of his father, Antipater.
Antisemitic canards are unfounded rumors or false allegations which are defamatory towards Judaism as a religion, or defamatory towards Jews as an ethnic or religious group.
Antisemitism in the Arab world increased greatly in the 20th century, for several reasons: the breakdown of the Ottoman Empire and traditional Islamic society; European influence, brought about by Western imperialism and Arab Christians; Nazi propaganda;Yadlin, Rifka.
Antoine Ignace Melling (27 April 1763 – November 1831) was a painter, architect and voyager who is counted among the “Levantine Artists”.
Comte Antoine-François Andréossy (6 March 1761 – 10 September 1828) was a Franco-Italian nobleman, who served as a French Army artillery general, diplomat and parliamentarian.
Anton Christoforidis (26 May 1917 – 31 October 1985) was a Greek professional light heavyweight boxer.
Anton Pann (born Antonie Pantoleon-Petroveanu, and also mentioned as Anton Pantoleon or Petrovici; 1790s—2 November 1854) was an Ottoman-born Wallachian composer, musicologist, and Romanian-language poet, also noted for his activities as a printer, translator, and schoolteacher.
Anton Tanev (Dontcho) Yugov (Антон Танев Югов) (28 August 1904 – 6 July 1991) was a leading member of the Bulgarian Communist Party (BCP) served as Prime Minister of the country from 1956 to 1962.
Antonie din Popeşti was ruler of Wallachia from March 1669 to 1672.
Antonio Grimani (28 December 1434 – 7 May 1523) was the Doge of Venice from 1521 to 1523.
Antonios Kriezis (Αντώνιος Κριεζής, 1796–1865) was a Greek captain of the Hellenic navy during the Greek War of Independence and a Prime Minister of Greece from 1849 to 1854.
Antoun Saadeh (Anṭūn Sa‘ādeh; 1 March 1904 – 8 July 1949) was a Lebanese philosopher, writer and politician who founded the Syrian Social Nationalist Party.
Anzac Day is a national day of remembrance in Australia and New Zealand that broadly commemorates all Australians and New Zealanders "who served and died in all wars, conflicts, and peacekeeping operations" and "the contribution and suffering of all those who have served".
Anzah or 'Anza (عنزة) is a Palestinian village in the located 18 km southwest of the city of Jenin in the northern West Bank.
The Aouzou Strip (Arabic قطاع أوزو Qiṭāʿ Awzū, Bande d'Aozou) is a strip of land in northern Chad which lies along the border with Libya, extending south to a depth of about 100 kilometers into Chad's Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti Region for an area of 114,000 km² and is named after the small town and oasis Aouzou.
Aparan (Armenian: Ապարան), is a town and urban municipal community in Armenia, located in the Aragatsotn Province, about 50 kilometers northwest of the capital Yerevan.
Apatin (Апатин) is a town and municipality located in the West Bačka District of the autonomous province of Vojvodina, Serbia.
The Apcar family is an Armenian family originally from New Julfa in Isfahan, Persia.
Apostasy (ἀποστασία apostasia, "a defection or revolt") is the formal disaffiliation from, or abandonment or renunciation of a religion by a person.
Apostasy in Islam (ردة or ارتداد) is commonly defined as the conscious abandonment of Islam by a Muslim in word or through deed.
Apostol Mărgărit or Apostolos Margaritis (5 August 1832 in Avdella – 19 October 1903 in Bitola) was an Aromanian school teacher and writer.
Apostolos Grozos (Απόστολος Γκρόζος; 12 June 1892 – 22 June 1981) was a leader of the Communist Party of Greece (KKE).
Apoyevmatini (in Greek: Απογευματινή, meaning "Afternoon (newspaper)", alternative transliteration Apogevmatini) is a daily Greek-language newspaper published in Istanbul, Turkey.
Apple strudel (Apfelstrudel; štrúdl) is a traditional Viennese strudel, a popular pastry in Austria and in many countries in Europe that once belonged to the Austro-Hungarian Empire (1867–1918).
In music, appropriation is the use of borrowed elements (aspects or techniques) in the creation of a new piece.
The April Uprising (Априлско въстание, Aprilsko vǎstanie) was an insurrection organised by the Bulgarians in the Ottoman Empire from April to May 1876, which indirectly resulted in the re-establishment of Bulgaria in 1878.
The Aprilov National High School (Национална Априловска гимназия) in Gabrovo is the first modern secular school in Bulgaria.
Aptera (Ἄπτερα or Ἀπτερία; more anciently, Ἄptaϝra) also called Apteron was an ancient city, now an archaeological site in western Crete, a kilometre inland from the southern shore of Souda Bay, about 13 km east of Chania in the municipality of Akrotiri.
Apulia (Puglia; Pùglia; Pulia; translit) is a region of Italy in Southern Italy bordering the Adriatic Sea to the east, the Ionian Sea to the southeast, and the Strait of Òtranto and Gulf of Taranto to the south.
The Aq Qoyunlu or Ak Koyunlu, also called the White Sheep Turkomans (Āq Quyūnlū), was a Persianate Sunni Oghuz Turkic tribal federation that ruled present-day Armenia, Azerbaijan, Eastern Turkey, most part of Iran, and Iraq from 1378 to 1501.
Aqaba (العقبة) is the only coastal city in Jordan and the largest and most populous city on the Gulf of Aqaba.
Akre or Aqrah (ܥܩܪܵܐ, عقرة, from the Syriac for "barren" in reference to the land) is a city in Dohuk Governorate, Iraqi Kurdistan.
'Ar'ara (عرعرة, עַרְעָרָה; lit. "Juniper tree")Palmer, 1881, is an Arab town in the Wadi Ara region in northern Israel.
Ar'arat an-Naqab or Ar'ara BaNegev (עַרְעָרָה בַּנֶּגֶב, عرعرة), previously called Aroer, is a Bedouin town (local council) in the Southern District of Israel.
Ara Wardkes Darzi, Baron Darzi of Denham, (Արա Վարդգես Դարզի; born 7 May 1960) is an Armenian-British doctor and Labour politician.
Arab Academy of Damascus (مجمع اللغة العربية بدمشق) is the oldest academy regulating the Arabic language, established in 1918 during the reign of Faisal I of Syria.
Arab Brazilians are Brazilian citizens of Arab ethnic, cultural, linguistic heritage and identity.
The Arab Bureau was a section of the Cairo Intelligence Department established in 1916 during the First World War, and closed in 1920, whose purpose was the collection and dissemination of intelligence about the Arab regions of the Middle East.
Arab Christians (مسيحيون عرب Masīḥiyyūn ʿArab) are Arabs of the Christian faith.
Arab culture is the culture of the Arabs, from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Arabian Sea in the east, and from the Mediterranean Sea.
Arab Jews (اليهود العرب; יהודים ערבים) is a term referring to Jews living in the Arab World.
The Arab Revolt (الثورة العربية, al-Thawra al-‘Arabiyya; Arap İsyanı) or Great Arab Revolt (الثورة العربية الكبرى, al-Thawra al-‘Arabiyya al-Kubrā) was officially initiated by Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca, at Mecca on June 10, 1916 (9 Sha'ban of the Islamic calendar for that year) although his sons ‘Ali and Faisal had already initiated operations at Medina starting on 5 June with the aim of securing independence from the ruling Ottoman Turks and creating a single unified Arab state stretching from Aleppo in Syria to Aden in Yemen.
The Arab slave trade was the practice of slavery in the Arab world, mainly in Western Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, Southeast Africa and Europe.
The Arab Union is a proposed concept of a political union of the Arab states.
The Arab world (العالم العربي; formally: Arab homeland, الوطن العربي), also known as the Arab nation (الأمة العربية) or the Arab states, currently consists of the 22 Arab countries of the Arab League.
The Arab–Israeli conflict refers to the political tension, military conflicts and disputes between a number of Arab countries and Israel.