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Peter the Great

Index Peter the Great

Peter the Great (ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I (ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Peter Alexeyevich (p; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January. [1]

2282 relations: Aarhus Cathedral, Abbeville, Abkhazians of African descent, Abortion in Russia, Abram Petrovich Gannibal, Absolute monarchy, Accounts Chamber of Russia, Achilles Alferaki, Active Privy Councillor, Active Privy Councillor, 1st class, Active State Councillor, Adam Brand (explorer), Adam Olearius, Adam Silo, Adam Veyde, Addiscombe, Administrative divisions of Arkhangelsk Oblast, Administrative divisions of Leningrad Oblast, Administrative divisions of Novgorod Oblast, Administrative divisions of Pskov Oblast, Administrative divisions of Russia in 1708–1710, Administrative divisions of Russia in 1719–1725, Administrative divisions of Russia in 1727–1728, Administrative divisions of the Novgorod Republic, Administrative divisions of Tver Oblast, Administrative divisions of Vologda Oblast, Admiraliteitslijnbaan, Amsterdam, Admiralty Board (Russian Empire), Admiralty Shipyard, Afanasy Ordin-Nashchokin, African diaspora, Afro-Russian, Afrosinya, Ahmed III, Ahmedabad, Akinfiy Nikitich Demidov, Aksay dungeons, Albanian Battalion, Albert Lortzing, Albertus Seba, Albin Schram, Aleksandr Baluev, Alekseevsky Gate, Aleksei Petrenko, Aleksei Shein, Aleksei Smirnov (actor), Aleksey Trubetskoy, Alexander Afanasyev, Alexander Alexandrovich Menshikov, Alexander Bekovich-Cherkassky, ..., Alexander Brückner, Alexander Buturlin, Alexander Danilovich Menshikov, Alexander Gordon (general), Alexander I of Russia, Alexander II of Russia, Alexander Kurakin, Alexander Lazarev (actor), Alexander Nevsky, Alexander Nevsky Lavra, Alexander Pushkin, Alexander Romanovich Bruce, Alexander Rumyantsev, Alexander Turgenev, Alexandra Hamilton, Duchess of Abercorn, Alexandre Benois, Alexei Petrovich, Tsarevich of Russia, Alexei Senyavin, Alexey, Alexey Bestuzhev-Ryumin, Alexey Cherkassky, Alexey Grigoryevich Dolgorukov, Alexey Verstovsky, Alexey Zubov, Alexis of Russia, Alferaki Palace, All-Russian nation, Allotment (gardening), Altyn, Ambassadors and envoys from Russia to Poland 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Aarhus Cathedral

Aarhus Cathedral (Aarhus Domkirke) is a cathedral in Aarhus, Denmark.

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Abbeville

Abbeville is a commune in the Somme department and in Hauts-de-France region in northern France.

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Abkhazians of African descent

Afro-Abkhazians, or Abkhazians of African descent, also known as African Caucasians, were a small group of people of African descent in Abkhazia, who used to live mainly in the settlement Adzyubzha at the mouth of the Kodori River and the surrounding villages (Chlou, Pokvesh, Agdarra, and Merkulov) on the eastern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe.

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Abortion in Russia

Abortion in Russia is legal as an elective procedure up to the 12th week of pregnancy, and in special circumstances at later stages.

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Abram Petrovich Gannibal

Abram Petrovich Gannibal, also Hannibal or Ganibal, or Abram Hannibal or Abram Petrov (Абра́м Петро́вич Ганниба́л; 1696 – 14 May 1781), was a Russian military engineer, general, and nobleman of African origin.

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Absolute monarchy

Absolute monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.

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Accounts Chamber of Russia

Accounts Chamber of the Russian Federation (Счётная палата Российской Федерации) is the parliamentary body of the financial control in the Russian Federation.

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Achilles Alferaki

Achilles Nikolayevich Alferaki ("Achilles" sometimes spelled Akhilles or Ahilles) (July 3, 1846, Kharkov, Russian Empire – December 27, 1919, Saint Petersburg, Soviet Union) was a Russian composer and statesman of Greek descent.

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Active Privy Councillor

Active Privy Councillor (действительный тайный советник, deystvitelny tayniy sovetnik) was the civil rank (ru: чин / tchin) in the Russian Empire, according to the Table of Ranks introduced by Peter the Great in 1722.

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Active Privy Councillor, 1st class

Active Privy Councillor, 1st class (действительный тайный советник первого класса, deystvitelny tayniy sovetnik pervogo klassa) was the civil position (class) in the Russian Empire, according to the Table of Ranks introduced by Peter the Great in 1722.

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Active State Councillor

Active State Councillor (действительный статский советник, deystvitelny statskiy sovetnik) was the civil position (class) in the Russian Empire, according to the Table of Ranks introduced by Peter the Great in 1722.

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Adam Brand (explorer)

Adam Brand (born before 1692 - died 1746) was a German merchant and explorer.

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Adam Olearius

Adam Olearius (born Adam Ölschläger or Oehlschlaeger, September 24, 1599February 22, 1671), was a German scholar, mathematician, geographer and librarian.

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Adam Silo

Adam Silo (Amsterdam, 25 December 1674 - Amsterdam, 1760) was a Dutch painter who specialized in maritime scenes — particularly naval ships, but also trading and whaling vessels.

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Adam Veyde

Adam Adamovich Veyde (Адам Адамович Вейде) (1667 – January 26, 1720) was a Russian infantry general and a close associate of Peter the Great.

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Addiscombe

Addiscombe is an area of South London, England, within the London Borough of Croydon.

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Administrative divisions of Arkhangelsk Oblast

Within the framework of administrative divisions, Arkhangelsk Oblast is divided into six cities and towns of oblast significance, twenty-one districts, and two island territories (Franz Joseph Land and Victoria Island).

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Administrative divisions of Leningrad Oblast

Administratively, Leningrad Oblast is divided into seventeen districts and a town of oblast significance, Sosnovy Bor.

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Administrative divisions of Novgorod Oblast

Administratively, Novgorod Oblast is divided into three cities and towns of oblast significance and twenty-one districts.

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Administrative divisions of Pskov Oblast

Administratively, Pskov Oblast is divided into two cities and towns of oblast significance and twenty-four districts.

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Administrative divisions of Russia in 1708–1710

The administrative division reform of 1708 was carried out by Russian Tsar Peter the Great in an attempt to improve the manageability of the vast territory of Russia.

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Administrative divisions of Russia in 1719–1725

The second administrative reform of 1719 was carried out by Peter the Great in order to fix the deficiencies of the original system.

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Administrative divisions of Russia in 1727–1728

The administrative reform of 1727 was carried out soon after Peter the Great's death, when it became apparent that previous reform was not working as planned.

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Administrative divisions of the Novgorod Republic

The administrative division of Novgorod Republic is not definitely known; the country was divided into several tysyachas (lit. thousands) and volosts.

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Administrative divisions of Tver Oblast

Administratively, Tver Oblast is divided into two urban-type settlements under the federal government management, five cities and towns of oblast significance, and thirty-six districts.

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Administrative divisions of Vologda Oblast

Administratively, Vologda Oblast is divided into four cities and towns of oblast significance and twenty-six districts.

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Admiraliteitslijnbaan, Amsterdam

The Admiraliteitslijnbaan (Ropewalk of the Admiralty of Amsterdam) is a 17th-century building on Oostenburgergracht canal in Amsterdam.

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Admiralty Board (Russian Empire)

Admiralty Board (Адмиралтейств-коллегия, Admiralteystv-Kollegiya) was a supreme body for the administration of the Imperial Russian Navy in the Russian Empire, established by Peter the Great on December 12, 1718, and headquartered in the Admiralty building, Saint Petersburg.

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Admiralty Shipyard

The Admiralty Shipyard (Адмиралтейские верфи) (formerly Soviet Shipyard No. 194) is one of the oldest and largest shipyards in Russia, located in Saint Petersburg.

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Afanasy Ordin-Nashchokin

Afanasy Lavrentievich Ordin-Nashchokin (Афанасий Лаврентьевич Ордин-Нащокин) (1605–1680) was one of the most important Russian statesmen of the 17th century.

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African diaspora

The African diaspora consists of the worldwide collection of communities descended from Africa's peoples, predominantly in the Americas.

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Afro-Russian

Afro-Russians are people of Black African descent, or those who are perceived to be dark-skinned compared to other given populations that have migrated to and settled in Russia.

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Afrosinya

Yefrosinya Fedorova (also Euphrosyne, Afrosinya, Afrosina, Ofrosinya; 1699/1700 – 1748), was a Russian serf.

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Ahmed III

Ahmed III (Ottoman Turkish: احمد ثالث, Aḥmed-i sālis) (30/31 December 16731 July 1736) was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and a son of Sultan Mehmed IV (r. 1648–87).

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Ahmedabad

Ahmedabad, also known as Amdavad is the largest city and former capital of the Indian state of Gujarat.

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Akinfiy Nikitich Demidov

Akinfiy Nikitich Demidov (Акинфий Никитич Демидов) (1678 – 5 August 1745) was a Russian industrialist of the Demidov family.

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Aksay dungeons

Aksay dungeons are dungeons of the town Aksay in Rostov oblast.

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Albanian Battalion

The Albanian Battalions (1775-1859) were a series of mostly Albanian battalions under the Russian Imperial army which fought against the Ottoman Empire.

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Albert Lortzing

Gustav Albert Lortzing (23 October 1801 – 21 January 1851) was a German composer, actor and singer.

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Albertus Seba

Albertus Seba (May 12, 1665, Etzel near Friedeburg – May 2, 1736, Amsterdam) was a Dutch pharmacist, zoologist and collector.

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Albin Schram

Albin Schram (1926–2005) was one of the greatest collectors of autograph letters by shapers of world history.

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Aleksandr Baluev

Aleksandr Nikolaevich Baluev (Алекса́ндр Никола́евич Балу́ев; born 6 December 1958) is a Soviet and Russian theatre and film actor who appeared in more than 100 films and numerous stage productions since 1980.

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Alekseevsky Gate

The Alekseevsky Gate (Russian: Алексеевские ворота) is a monument of military and engineering art, former main gate of the Azov Fortress of the XV century.

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Aleksei Petrenko

Aleksei Vasilyevich Petrenko (Алексей Васильевич Петренко; 26 March 1938 – 22 February 2017) was a Soviet and Russian film and stage actor.

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Aleksei Shein

Aleksei Semyonovich Shein (Алексей Семенович Шеин in Russian) (1662 – February 12, 1700), Russian commander and statesman, the first Russian Generalissimo (1696), boyar, great-grandson of Mikhail Shein.

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Aleksei Smirnov (actor)

Aleksei Makarovich Smirnov (Алексей Макарович Смирнов; 28 February 1920 in Danilov – 7 May 1979 in Leningrad) was a Russian actor.

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Aleksey Trubetskoy

Prince Aleksey Nikitich Trubetskoy (Алексей Никитич Трубецкой; 17 March 1600? – 1680) was the last voivode of the Trubetskoy family and a diplomat who was active in negotiations with Poland and Sweden in 1647 and with the ambassadors of Bohdan Khmelnytsky in 1654.

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Alexander Afanasyev

Alexander Nikolayevich Afanasyev (Afanasief, Afanasiev or Afanas'ev, Александр Николаевич Афанасьев) (—) was a Russian Slavist and ethnographer who published nearly 600 Russian fairy and folk tales, one of the largest collections of folklore in the world.

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Alexander Alexandrovich Menshikov

Prince Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Menshikov (1 March 1714 – 27 November 1764) was a son of Prince Menshikov who, at one stage, was betrothed to Grand Duchess Natalya Alexeyevna, a granddaughter of Peter the Great.

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Alexander Bekovich-Cherkassky

Prince Alexander Bekovich-Cherkassky (Алекса́ндр Беко́вич-Черка́сский), born Devlet-Girei-mırza (Девлет-Гирей-мурза) (died 1717), was a Russian officer of Circassian origin who led the first Russian military expedition into Central Asia.

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Alexander Brückner

Alexander Brückner (5 August 1834, Saint Petersburg – 15 November 1896, Jena) was a Baltic German historian who specialized in Russian studies.

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Alexander Buturlin

Count Aleksander Borisovich Buturlin (Russian, in full: граф Александр Борисович Бутурлин; 1694 – 1767) was a Russian general and courtier whose career was much furthered by his good looks and personal affection of Empress Elizabeth.

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Alexander Danilovich Menshikov

Prince Aleksander Danilovich Menshikov (Алекса́ндр Дани́лович Ме́ншиков; –) was a Russian statesman, whose official titles included Generalissimus, Prince of the Russian Empire and Duke of Izhora (Duke of Ingria), Prince of the Holy Roman Empire, Duke of Cosel.

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Alexander Gordon (general)

Alexander Gordon of Auchintoul (–July 1752) was a Scottish general who fought in the Russian army under Peter the Great in 1696–1711, and for the Jacobites in the Jacobite rising of 1715.

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Alexander I of Russia

Alexander I (Александр Павлович, Aleksandr Pavlovich; –) reigned as Emperor of Russia between 1801 and 1825.

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Alexander II of Russia

Alexander II (p; 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881) was the Emperor of Russia from the 2nd March 1855 until his assassination on 13 March 1881.

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Alexander Kurakin

Prince Alexander Borisovich Kurakin, sometimes spelled Kourakine (18 January 1752 – Weimar, 6 / 24 June 1818) was a Russian statesman and diplomat, a member of the State Council (from 1810), who was ranked Actual Privy Counsellor 1st Class (see Table of Ranks).

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Alexander Lazarev (actor)

Alexander Sergeyevich Lazarev (Алекса́ндр Серге́евич Ла́зарев; January 3, 1938 – May 2, 2011) was a Soviet and Russian theater and film actor, the People's Artist of Russia and the USSR State Prize laureate (both 1977).

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Alexander Nevsky

St.

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Alexander Nevsky Lavra

Saint Alexander Nevsky Lavra or Saint Alexander Nevsky Monastery was founded by Peter I of Russia in 1710 at the eastern end of the Nevsky Prospekt in Saint Petersburg supposing that that was the site of the Neva Battle in 1240 when Alexander Nevsky, a prince, defeated the Swedes; however, the battle actually took place about away from that site.

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Alexander Pushkin

Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin (a) was a Russian poet, playwright, and novelist of the Romantic eraBasker, Michael.

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Alexander Romanovich Bruce

Count Alexander Romanovich Bruce (1704–1760) was a lieutenant general in the Imperial Russian army.

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Alexander Rumyantsev

Count Alexander Ivanovich Rumyantsev (Александр Иванович Румянцев) (1677–1749) was an assistant of Peter the Great and father of Field Marshal Peter Rumyantsev-Zadunaisky.

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Alexander Turgenev

Alexander Ivanovich Turgenev (Алекса́ндр Ива́нович Турге́нев; (27 March 1784, Simbirsk - 3 December 1845, Moscow) was a Russian statesman and historian.

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Alexandra Hamilton, Duchess of Abercorn

Alexandra Anastasia "Sacha" Hamilton, Duchess of Abercorn, (b. 27 February 1946, Tucson, Arizona, U.S.), is the wife of His Grace The 5th Duke of Abercorn.

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Alexandre Benois

Alexandre Nikolayevich Benois (Алекса́ндр Никола́евич Бенуа́, also spelled Alexander Benois;,Salmina-Haskell, Larissa. Russian Paintings and Drawings in the Ashmolean Museum. pp. 15, 23-24. Published by Ashmolean Museum, 1989 Saint Petersburg9 February 1960, Paris) was a Russian artist, art critic, historian, preservationist, and founding member of Mir iskusstva (World of Art), an art movement and magazine.

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Alexei Petrovich, Tsarevich of Russia

Alexei Petrovich Romanov (28 February 1690 – 7 July 1718) was a Russian Tsarevich.

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Alexei Senyavin

Alexei Naumovich Senyavin (also spelled Sinyavin) (Алексей Наумович Сенявин) (5 October 1716 – 10 August 1797) was an admiral of the Imperial Russian Navy, son of Naum Senyavin.

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Alexey

Alexey (Aleksey; Алексе́й,; Алексей) is a Russian and Bulgarian male first name deriving from the Greek Alexios (Αλέξιος), meaning "Defender", and thus of the same origin as the Latin Alexius.

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Alexey Bestuzhev-Ryumin

Count Alexey Petrovich Bestuzhev-Ryumin (Алексе́й Петро́вич Бесту́жев-Рю́мин) (1 June 1693 – 21 April 1768), Chancellor of the Russian Empire, was one of the most influential and successful European diplomats of the 18th century.

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Alexey Cherkassky

Prince Alexey Mikhailovich Cherkassky or Tcherkassky (Алексей Михайлович Черкасский in Russian, 1680–1742) was the Chancellor of the Russian Empire in the beginning of Empress Elizabeth's reign.

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Alexey Grigoryevich Dolgorukov

Alexey Grigoryevich Dolgorukov (died 1734 in Beryozov) was a Russian politician and member of the Supreme Privy Council under Peter II.

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Alexey Verstovsky

Alexey Nikolayevich Verstovsky (Алексéй Никола́евич Верстóвский) was a Russian composer, musical bureaucrat and rival of Mikhail Glinka.

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Alexey Zubov

Alexey Fyodorovich Zubov (Алексе́й Фёдорович Зу́бов) (1682–c.1741) was a Russian etcher.

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Alexis of Russia

Aleksey Mikhailovich (p; –) was the tsar of Russia from 12 July 1645 until his death, 29 January 1676.

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Alferaki Palace

Alferaki Palace is a museum in Taganrog, Russia, originally the home of the wealthy merchant Nikolay Alferaki.

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All-Russian nation

The All-Russian nation (obshcherusskiy narod), also known as the pan-Russian nation or the triune Russian nation (triyedinyy russkiy narod) is a Russophile and Russian irredentist ideology which sees the Russian nation as comprising the three historical and geographic regions of Kievan Rus' (Great Russia, Little Russia and White Russia) and branches of Rus' people, which include modern East Slavs (namely, Russians, Ukrainians and Belarusians), rather than only modern Russia and ethnic Russians.

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Allotment (gardening)

An allotment garden (British English), often called simply an allotment, or a community garden (North America) is a plot of land made available for individual, non-commercial gardening or growing food plants.

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Altyn

Altyn (Russian алты́н, also алты́нник altýnnik) is a historical Russian currency (symbol). The name in Tatar is altı (алты) meaning "six", since it was worth 6 half-dengas (six halves, Russ. шесть полушек), equivalent to three kopek silver, then copper, a small value coin, or 180–206 copper puls.

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Ambassadors and envoys from Russia to Poland (1763–1794)

Ambassadors and envoys from Russia to Poland–Lithuania in the years 1763–1794 were among the most important characters in the politics of Poland.

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Amber Room

The Amber Room (r, Bernsteinzimmer, Bursztynowa komnata) is a reconstructed chamber decorated in amber panels backed with gold leaf and mirrors, located in the Catherine Palace of Tsarskoye Selo near Saint Petersburg.

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Amcazade Köprülü Hüseyin Pasha

Amcazade Köprülü Hüseyin Pasha ("Köprülü Hüseyin Pasha the Nephew"; in Hysein Pashë Kypriljoti) (1644–1702) of the Köprülü family, was the grand vizier of the Ottoman Empire under Mustafa II from September 1697 until September 1702.

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Amusement Palace

The Amusement Palace is located at the Kremlin’s western wall.

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Anastasia de Torby

Countess Anastasia Mikhailovna of Torby, CBE (9 September 1892 – 7 December 1977), otherwise styled Lady Zia Wernher, was the elder daughter of Grand Duke Michael Mikhailovich of Russia, a grandson of Tsar Nicholas I of Russia, by Countess Sophie of Merenberg.

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Anastasia Hendrikova

Countess Anastasia Vasilyevna Hendrikova, (23 June 1887 – 4 September 1918), was a lady in waiting at the court of Tsar Nicholas II and Tsarina Alexandra.

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Andreapol

Andreapol (Андреа́поль) is a town and the administrative center of Andreapolsky District in Tver Oblast, Russia, located on the Valdai Hills on the left bank in the upper course of the Western Dvina River.

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Andreapolsky District

Andreapolsky District (Андреа́польский райо́н) is an administrative and municipalLaw #4-ZO district (raion), one of the thirty-six in Tver Oblast, Russia.

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Andreas Schlüter

Andreas Schlüter (July 16, 1659 in Gdansk; May 1714) was a German baroque sculptor and architect, active in the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and the Russian Tsardom.

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Andrei Bely

Boris Nikolaevich Bugaev (a), better known by the pen name Andrei Bely (a; – 8 January 1934), was a Russian novelist, poet, theorist, and literary critic.

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Andrei Ivanovich Bogdanov

Andrei Ivanovich Bogdanov (Андрей Иванович Богданов) (1692 – September 11, 1766) was one of the first Russian bibliographers and ethnographers.

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Andrei Tarkovsky

Andrei Arsenyevich Tarkovsky (p; 4 April 1932 – 29 December 1986) was a Russian filmmaker, writer, film editor, film theorist, theatre and opera director.

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Andrew Vinius

Andrew Vinius (Андре́й Андре́евич Ви́ниус, Andrey Andreyevich Vinius) (1641–1717) was a Russian statesman and a friend of Peter the Great.

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Andrey Khilkov

Prince Andrey Yakovlevich Khilkoff (1676–1716) was Russian ambassador to Sweden.

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Andrey Matveyev

Count Andrey Artamonovich Matveev (Андрей Артамонович Матвеев) (1666–1728) was a Russian statesman of the Petrine epoch best remembered as one of the first Russian ambassadors and Peter the Great's agent in London and the Hague.

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Andrey Matveyev (painter)

Andrey Matveyev (Russian: Андрей Матвеевич Матвеев. 1701 – 23 April 1739) was a Russian artist.

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Andrey Nartov

Andrey Konstantinovich Nartov (Андрей Константинович Нартов) (1683—1756) was a Russian scientist, military engineer, inventor and sculptor.

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Andrey Osterman

Count Andrey Ivanovich Osterman (Андрей Иванович Остерман) (9 June 1686 31 May 1747) was a German-born Russian statesman who came to prominence under Tsar Peter I of Russia (Peter the Great) and served until the accession of the Tsesarevna Elizabeth.

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Anglo-Russian

The Anglo-Russians were an English expatriate business community centred in St Petersburg, then also Moscow, from the 1730s till the 1920s.

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Angus Konstam

Angus Konstam (born 2 January 1960) is a Scottish author and historian.

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Anichkov Bridge

The Anichkov Bridge (Russian: Аничков мост, Anichkov Most) is the oldest and most famous bridge across the Fontanka River in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

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Anikita Repnin

Prince Anikita Ivanovich Repnin (Аники́та Ива́нович Репни́н; 1668 – 3 July 1726, in Riga) was a prominent Russian general during the Great Northern War who superintended the taking of Riga in 1710 and served as the Governor of Livland from 1719 until his death.

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Anisya Kirillovna Tolstaya

Anisya Kirillovna Tolstaya (died 1732), was a Russian noblewoman, lady-in-waiting and royal mistress to Tsar Peter the Great.

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Anklam

Anklam, formerly known as Tanglim and Wendenburg, is a town in the Western Pomerania region of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.

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Anna Ivanovna Kramer

Anna Ivanovna Kramer (1694-1770), was a Russian court official.

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Anna Leopoldovna

Anna Leopoldovna (А́нна Леопо́льдовна; 18 December 1718 – 19 March 1746), born as Elisabeth Katharina Christine von Mecklenburg-Schwerin and also known as Anna Carlovna (А́нна Ка́рловна), was regent of Russia for a few months in 1740 and 1741 during the minority of her infant son Emperor Ivan VI.

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Anna Lopukhina

Princess Anna Petrovna Lopukhina (Анна Петровна Лопухина) (8 November 1777 – 25 April 1805) was a royal mistress to Emperor Paul of Russia.

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Anna Mons

Anna Mons (1672–1714) was a Dutch commoner who almost succeeded in marrying Tsar Peter the Great.

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Anna of Russia

Anna Ioannovna (Анна Иоанновна; –), also spelled Anna Ivanovna and sometimes anglicized as Anne, was regent of the duchy of Courland from 1711 until 1730 and then ruled as Empress of Russia from 1730 to 1740.

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Anna Pavlovna of Russia

Anna Pavlovna of Russia (Анна Павловна; Dutch: Anna Paulowna; 18 January 1795 — 1 March 1865) was a queen consort of the Netherlands.

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Annenkrone

Annenkrone (St Anne's Crown, Анненские укрепления, Annenskiye ukrepleniya, Pyhän Annan kruunu) is an early 18th century fortification in Vyborg, Russia.

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Annenschule

Saint Anna German High School (Главное немецкое училище Святой Анны), usually known as Annenschule (Анненшуле), was a school in Saint Petersburg, Russia founded in 1736 for children of the German population of the city.

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Anrep family

Anrep is a family, belonging to Swedish and Russian nobility.

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Anthony Deane (mayor)

Sir Anthony Deane (c.16381721) was a 17th-century mayor of Harwich, naval architect, Master Shipwright and commercial shipbuilder, and Member of Parliament.

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Anthony Ulrich, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel

Anthony Ulrich (German: Anton Ulrich; 4 October 1633 – 27 March 1714), a member of the House of Welf, was Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and ruling Prince of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel from 1685 until 1702 jointly with his elder brother Rudolph Augustus, and solely from 1704 until his death.

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Anti-Catholicism in the Soviet Union

Anti-Catholicism in the Soviet Union, including the Soviet Anti-Catholic Campaigns, refer to those concerted efforts taken by the Soviet Union to defame, undermine, or otherwise decrease or limit the role of the Catholic Church in Europe.

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Anti-Mongolianism

Anti-Mongolian sentiment has been prevalent throughout history, often perceiving the Mongols to be a barbaric and uncivilized people.

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Anti-religious campaign during the Russian Civil War

Following the October Revolution of 1917, the Bolshevik seizure of power led to the Russian Civil War which continued until 1922.

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Anti-Ukrainian sentiment

Anti-Ukrainian sentiment or Ukrainophobia is animosity towards Ukrainians, Ukrainian culture, language or Ukraine as a nation.

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Antichrist

In Christianity, antichrist is a term found solely in the First Epistle of John and Second Epistle of John, and often lowercased in Bible translations, in accordance with its introductory appearance: "Children, it is the last hour! As you heard that antichrist is coming, so now many antichrists have come".

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Antiochus Kantemir

Antiochus or Antioch Kantemir or Cantemir (Антиох Дмитриевич Кантемир, Antiokh Dmitrievich Kantemir; Antioh Cantemir; Antioh Kantemiroğlu; Antioche Cantemir; 8 September 1708 – 31 March 1744) was a Moldavian who served as a man of letters, diplomat, and prince during the Russian Enlightenment.

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Antioh Cantemir

Antioh Cantemir (died 1726), better known in English by the anglicized form Antioch Cantemir, was a Moldavian noble who ruled as voivode of Moldavia (18 December 1695 – 12 September 1700 and 23 February 1705 –31 July 1707).

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Antisemitism in the Russian Empire

Antisemitism in the Russian Empire included numerous pogroms and the designation of the Pale of Settlement, from which Jews were forbidden to migrate into the interior of Russia, unless they converted to the Russian Orthodox state religion.

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Anton Bakov

Anton Bakov (Антон Алексеевич Баков; born 29 December 1965) is a businessman, politician, traveller, writer and human rights activist.

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Anton de Vieira

António Manuel de Vieira, known in Russia as Count Anton Manuilovich Devier, Антон Мануилович Девиер (1682? &ndash), was one of Peter I's foreign associates, who proved to be an efficient administrator in St Petersburg and Siberia.

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Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

Antonie Philips van Leeuwenhoek FRS (24 October 1632 – 26 August 1723) was a Dutch businessman and scientist in the Golden Age of Dutch science and technology.

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Antonio Corradini

Antonio Corradini (19 October 1688, Venice – 12 August 1752, Naples) was an Italian Rococo sculptor.

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Antonio Poggi

Antonio Poggi (1806 – 15 April 1875) was an Italian operatic tenor who had an active international career from 1827–1848.

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Apollon Maykov

Apollon Nikolayevich Maykov (Аполло́н Никола́евич Ма́йков,, Moscow –, Saint Petersburg) was a Russian poet, best known for his lyric verse showcasing images of Russian villages, nature, and history.

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Aptekarsky Island

Aptekarsky Island (Апте́карский о́стров) is a small island situated in the northern part of the Neva delta.

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Arabian horse

The Arabian or Arab horse (الحصان العربي, DMG ḥiṣān ʿarabī) is a breed of horse that originated on the Arabian Peninsula.

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Arabic numerals

Arabic numerals, also called Hindu–Arabic numerals, are the ten digits: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, based on the Hindu–Arabic numeral system, the most common system for the symbolic representation of numbers in the world today.

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Archangelgorod Governorate

Archangelgorod Governorate (Архангелогородская губерния, Arkhangelogorodskaya guberniya), or the Government of Archangelgorod, was an administrative division (a guberniya) of the Tsardom of Russia and then the Russian Empire, which existed from 1708 until 1780.

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Archibald Pitcairne

Archibald Pitcairne or Pitcairn (25 December 165220 October 1713) was a Scottish physician.

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Archil of Imereti

Archil (არჩილი) (1647 – April 16, 1713), of Bagrationi dynasty, king of Imereti in western Georgia (1661–1663, 1678–1679, 1690–1691, 1695–1696, and 1698) and of Kakheti in eastern Georgia (1664–75).

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Arctic Ocean Hydrographic Expedition

The Arctic Ocean Hydrographic Expedition (GESLO) (1910–1915) was a scientific expedition organized by Russia for the purpose of the development of the Northern Sea Route.

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Arctic policy of Russia

The Arctic policy of Russia is the domestic and foreign policy of the Russian Federation with respect to the Russian region of the Arctic.

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Arkhangelsk

Arkhangelsk (p), also known in English as Archangel and Archangelsk, is a city and the administrative center of Arkhangelsk Oblast, in the north of European Russia.

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Arkhangelsk Gostiny Dvor

The Merchant Court (Гостиный двор) is a network of fortified depots built on the Pur-Navolok promontory in Arkhangelsk by a team of German and Dutch masons between 1668 and 1684.

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Arkhangelsk Oblast

Arkhangelsk Oblast (Арха́нгельская о́бласть, Arkhangelskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast).

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Army

An army (from Latin arma "arms, weapons" via Old French armée, "armed" (feminine)) or land force is a fighting force that fights primarily on land.

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Arnold Boonen

Arnold van Boonen (16 December 1669 – 2 October 1729) was a Dutch portrait painter.

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Around the World in 80 Treasures

Around the World in 80 Treasures is a 10 episode art and travel documentary series by the BBC, presented by Dan Cruickshank, and originally aired in February, March, and April 2005.

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Arsenal Design Bureau

Arsenal Design Bureau (Konstruktorskoye byuro Arsenal) is an engineering company active in the fields of space technology, ship artillery and civilian machine building.

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Arsenije III Čarnojević

Arsenije III Čarnojević (Арсеније III Чарнојевић, 1633 – 27 October 1706) was the Archbishop of Peć and Serbian Patriarch from 1674 to his death in 1706.

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Artamon Matveyev

Artamon Sergeyevich Matveyev (Артамон Сергеевич Матвеев in Russian) (1625–1682) was a Russian statesman, diplomat and reformer.

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Artemy Volynsky

Artemy Petrovich Volynsky (Russian: Арте́мий Петро́вич Волы́нский; 1689–1740) was a Russian statesman and diplomat.

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Ascension Convent (Kiev)

The Ascension Convent (Флорівський монастир, Флоровский монастырь) in the Kievan neighbourhood of Podil, also known as the Florivsky, originated in the 16th century as the wooden church of Sts.

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Ascension Convent (Moscow)

Ascension Convent, known as the Starodevichy Convent or Old Maiden's until 1817 (Russian: Voznesensky monastery, Вознесенский монастырь), was an Orthodox nunnery in the Moscow Kremlin which contained the burials of grand princesses, tsarinas, and other noble ladies from the Muscovite royal court.

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Asdvadzadur of Armenia

Catholicos Asdvadzadur was the Catholicos of the Armenian Apostolic Church between 1715 and 1725.

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Asia

Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.

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Astrakhan

Astrakhan (p) is a city in southern Russia and the administrative center of Astrakhan Oblast.

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At the Beginning of Glorious Days

At the Beginning of Glorious Days (V nachale slavnykh del) is the second part of a two-part film that started with The Youth of Peter the Great.

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Atatürk's Reforms

Atatürk's Reforms (Atatürk Devrimleri) were a series of political, legal, religious, cultural, social, and economic policy changes that were designed to convert the new Republic of Turkey into a secular, modern nation-state and implemented under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in accordance with Kemalist ideology.

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Auguste de Montferrand

Auguste de Montferrand (January 23, 1786 – July 10, 1858) was a French Classicism architect who worked primarily in Russia.

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Augustus II the Strong

Augustus II the Strong (August II.; August II Mocny; Augustas II; 12 May 16701 February 1733) of the Albertine line of the House of Wettin was Elector of Saxony (as Frederick Augustus I), Imperial Vicar and elected King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania.

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Australia–Russia relations

Australia–Russia relations (Российско-австралийские отношения) date back to 1807, when the Russian warship ''Neva'' arrived in Sydney as part of its circumnavigation of the globe.

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Austria–Russia relations

Austria–Russia relations (Российско-австрийские отношения or Австрийско-российские отношения, Österreichisch-russische Beziehungen) refers to the political, economic and social relations between Austria and Russia and their predecessor states.

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Austrian-Russian Friendship Society

The Austrian-Russian Friendship Society (ORFG) is a networking society that hosts meetings between Austrians and Russians in areas such as agriculture, politics, education and culture.

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Austro-Turkish War (1716–1718)

The Austro-Turkish War was fought between Austria and the Ottoman Empire.

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Avdotya Chernysheva

Avdotya Ivanovna Chernysheva (Авдотья Ивановна Чернышева; February 12, 1693 – June 17, 1747) was a Russian noble and lady in waiting.

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Avilova Cave

Avilova Cave (Avilova peshchera) is the cave that is situated in Avilovy Mountains in Belokalitvinsky District in Rostov Oblast.

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Avtonom Golovin

General Avtonom Mikhailovich Golovin (October 7, 1667 – July 3, 1720) was a Russian military leader and one of the associates of Peter the Great.

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Axel Gyllenkrok

Axel Gyllenkrok, or Gyllenkrook (August 16, 1665 – September 17, 1730) was a Swedish baron, military general, and governor of Gothenburg.

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Ayuka Khan

Ayuka or Ayuki Khan (1669–1724) was a Kalmyk leader under whose rule the Kalmyk Khanate reached its zenith in terms of economic, military, and politic power.

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Azerbaijanis in Russia

Azerbaijanis in Russia or Russian Azerbaijanis (Rusiya azərbaycanlıları (Latin), Русија азәрбајҹанлылары (Cyrillic); Азербайджанцы в России, Azerbajdzhanchy v Rossii) are Azerbaijani people in the Russian Federation, and are Russian citizens or permanent residents of ethnic Azerbaijani background.

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Azov

Azov (Азов), formerly known as Azoff, is a town in Rostov Oblast, Russia, situated on the Don River just from the Sea of Azov, which derives its name from the town.

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Azov campaigns (1695–96)

The Azov campaigns of 1695–96 (Азо́вские похо́ды, Azovskiye Pokhody), were two Russian military campaigns during the Russo-Turkish War of 1686–1700, led by Peter the Great and aimed at capturing the Turkish fortress of Azov (garrison - 7,000 men), which had been blocking Russia's access to the Azov Sea and the Black Sea.

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Azov Fortress

The Azov Fortress (r) is a fortified complex in Azov, Rostov oblast, Russia, overlooking the Don River and the Port of Azov to the north.

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Çorlulu Ali Pasha

Çorlulu Damat Ali Pasha (1670 in Çorlu – 1711 in Lesbos) was an Ottoman grand vizier who held the office from 1706 to 1710.

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Étienne Maurice Falconet

Étienne Maurice Falconet (1 December 1716 – 24 January 1791) was a French baroque, rococo and neoclassical sculptor, best-known for his equestrian statue of Peter the Great, the Bronze Horseman (1782), in St.

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Šćepan Mali

"Tsar" Šćepan Mali (Stephen the Little) (? - 22 September 1773) was the de facto ruler tsar of Montenegro from 1767 until his death in 1773.

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Babayevsky District

Babayevsky District (Баба́евский район) is an administrativeLaw #371-OZ and municipalLaw #1105-OZ district (raion), one of the twenty-six in Vologda Oblast, Russia.

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Babushkinsky District, Vologda Oblast

Babushkinsky District (Ба́бушкинский райо́н) is an administrativeLaw #371-OZ and municipalLaw #1106-OZ district (raion), one of the twenty-six in Vologda Oblast, Russia.

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Bakhmut

Bakhmut (Ба́хмут, Бахмут) formerly Artemivsk/Artyomovsk (Артемівськ, Артёмовск), is a city of regional significance in Donetsk Oblast, Ukraine.

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Balagansk

Balagansk (Балага́нск) is an urban locality (a work settlement) and the administrative center of Balagansky District of Irkutsk Oblast, Russia.

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Balagansky District

Balagansky District (Балаганский райо́н) is an administrative district, one of the thirty-three in Irkutsk Oblast, Russia.

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Balakirev the Buffoon

Balakirev The Buffoon (Шут Балакирев) is a 2002 Russian televised version of 1999 Lenkom theatrical presentation, written by Grigori Gorin.

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Balchug

Balchug (Ба́лчуг), also known as Bolotny Island ("The Marsh Island", Боло́тный о́стров), is an island in the very centre of Moscow, Russia, in between the Moskva River (right across from the Kremlin) and its old riverbed, which was turned into the Vodootvodny Canal in 1786.

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Bald–hairy

Bald–hairy (лысый–волосатый) is a common joke in Russian political discourse, referring to the empirical rule of the state leaders' succession defined as a change of a bald leader to a hairy one and vice versa.

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Baltacı Mehmet Pasha

Baltacı Mehmet Pasha (also called Pakçemüezzin Baltacı Mehmet Pasha, sometimes known just as Baltacı or Baltadji; 1662, Osmancık – July 1712, Lemnos) was an Ottoman statesman who served as grand vizier of the Ottoman Empire from 1704 to 1706, and as Kapudan Pasha (grand admiral of the Ottoman Navy) in 1704.

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Baltic Fleet

The Baltic Fleet (Балтийский флот) is the fleet of the Russian Navy in the Baltic Sea.

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Baltic Sea

The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.

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Baltic states

The Baltic states, also known as the Baltic countries, Baltic republics, Baltic nations or simply the Baltics (Balti riigid, Baltimaad, Baltijas valstis, Baltijos valstybės), is a geopolitical term used for grouping the three sovereign countries in Northern Europe on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.

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Baltiysk

Baltiysk (Балти́йск), before 1946 known by its German name Pillau (Piława; Piliava; Yiddish: פּילאַווע, Pilave), is a seaport town and the administrative center of Baltiysky District in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the northern part of the Vistula Spit, on the shore of the Strait of Baltiysk separating the Vistula Lagoon from the Gdańsk Bay.

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Bandura

A bandura (банду́ра) is a Ukrainian, plucked string, folk instrument.

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Bandy

Bandy is a team winter sport played on ice, in which skaters use sticks to direct a ball into the opposing team's goal.

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Barberini Faun

The life-size marble statue known as the Barberini Faun, Fauno Barberini or Drunken Satyr is located in the Glyptothek in Munich, Germany.

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Baron

Baron is a rank of nobility or title of honour, often hereditary.

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Baroque

The Baroque is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century.

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Baroque architecture

Baroque architecture is the building style of the Baroque era, begun in late 16th-century Italy, that took the Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical and theatrical fashion, often to express the triumph of the Catholic Church.

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Bashkir rebellion of 1735–1740

The Bashkir rebellion of 1735–1740 refers to a rebellion which was initiated by the Bashkirs against the Russian Empire.

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Bashkir Uprising (1704–11)

The Bashkir Rebellion from 1704 to 1711 was one of the longest in the series of Bashkir rebellions in the 17th and 18th centuries in the Russian Empire.

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Bashkirs

The Bashkirs (Башҡорттар, Başqorttar,; Башкиры, Baškiry) are a Turkic ethnic group, indigenous to Bashkortostan and to the historical region of Badzhgard, extending on both sides of the Ural Mountains, in the area where Eastern Europe meets North Asia.

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Basmanny District

Basmanny District (райо́н Басма́нный) is a district of Central Administrative Okrug of the federal city of Moscow, Russia.

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Batog

A batog is a rod or stick about the thickness of a man's finger traditionally used for corporal punishment in Russia.

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Battle of Berezina (disambiguation)

Battle of Berezina may refer to one of the following events that happened by the Berezina River.

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Battle of Dynekilen

The naval Battle of Dynekilen (Slaget ved Dynekilen) took place on 8 July 1716 during the Great Northern War.

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Battle of Erastfer

The battle of Erastfer (also Battle of Errestfer, Battle of Erastvere) took place on 29 December 1701 (O.S.) / 30 December 1701 (Swedish calendar) / 9 January / 1702 (N.S.) near Erastfer in eastern Swedish Livonia (present-day Erastvere in Estonia) between a Russian force of around 13,000 regulars along with 6,000 irregulars led by general Boris Sheremetev and a Swedish force of about 3,470 men (at least 1,000 men were absent from the ranks for various reasons on the day of the battle, resulting in an actual fighting force of about 2,200–2,470 men), under the command of Wolmar Anton von Schlippenbach.

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Battle of Gangut

The Battle of Gangut (Гангутское сражение, Riilahden taistelu, Finland Swedish: Slaget vid Rilax, Sjöslaget vid Hangöudd) took place on 27 JulyJul./ 7 August 1714Greg. during the Great Northern War (1700–21), in the waters of Riilahti Bay, north of the Hanko Peninsula, near the site of the modern-day city of Hanko, Finland, between the Swedish Navy and Imperial Russian Navy.

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Battle of Grodno (1706)

The Battle of Grodno (1706) refers to the battle during the Great Northern War.

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Battle of Grodno (1708)

Battle of Grodno (1708) refers to the short battle on January 26, 1708, during the Great Northern War.

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Battle of Holowczyn

The Battle of Holowczyn or Holofzin or Golovchin was fought between the Russian forces, and the Swedish army, led by Charles XII of Sweden, only 26 years of age at the time.

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Battle of Kletsk (1706)

The Battle of Kletsk took place on 30 April 1706 (Gregorian calendar), in- and outside the city of Kletsk, Belarus during Charles XII's Polish campaign of 1701–1706, in the Great Northern War.

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Battle of Kliszów

The Battle of Kliszów (Klissow) (Klezow) took place on July 8 (Julian calendar) / July 9 (Swedish calendar) / July 19, 1702 (Gregorian calendar) near Kliszów, Poland-Lithuania, during the Great Northern War.

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Battle of Krtsanisi

The Battle of Krtsanisi (კრწანისის ბრძოლა, k'rts'anisis brdzola) was fought between the Qajars of Iran and the Georgian armies of the Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti and Kingdom of Imereti at the place of Krtsanisi near Tbilisi, Georgia, from September 8 to September 11, 1795, as part of Qajar Emperor Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar's war in response to King Heraclius II of Georgia’s alliance with the Russian Empire.

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Battle of Lesnaya

The Battle of Lesnaya (Битва при Лесной Bitva pri Lesnoy, Slaget vid Lesna, Bitwa pod Leśną), was one of the major battles of the Great Northern War.

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Battle of Malatitze

The Battle of Molyatichi (Swedish: Malatitze), also known as the Battle of Dobroye, took place on August 31, 1708 at Molyatichi (present-day Belarus near the Russian border) during the Great Northern War.

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Battle of Napue

The Battle of Napue was fought on February 19, 1714 (O.S.) / March 2, 1714 (N.S.) at the villages of Napue and Laurola in the Isokyrö parish of the Swedish Empire (modern Finland) between the Swedish Empire and the Tsardom of Russia.

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Battle of Narva (1700)

The Battle of Narva (Битва при Нарве; Slaget vid Narva) on (20 November in the Swedish transitional calendar) was an early battle in the Great Northern War.

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Battle of Pälkäne

The Battle of Pälkäne, sometimes called the Battle at Kostianvirta or Battle on the Pialkiane River (Битва на реке Пялькяне) was fought between the Russian army under Admiral Fyodor Apraksin and the defending Finnish army of Sweden under General Carl Gustaf Armfeldt on 17 October 1713, as part of the Great Northern War.

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Battle of Petschora

The Battle of Petschora took place on February 23, 1701 near the village of Pechory, Russia during the second year of the Great Northern War.

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Battle of Poltava

The Battle of Poltava (Slaget vid Poltava; Полта́вская би́тва; Полта́вська би́тва) on 27 June 1709 (8 July, N.S.) was the decisive victory of Peter I of Russia, also known as "the Great," over the Swedish forces under Field Marshal Carl Gustav Rehnskiöld, in one of the battles of the Great Northern War.

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Battle of Rajovka

The Battle of Rajovka took place on September 20, 1708 near Rajovka during the Swedish invasion of Russia in the Great Northern War.

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Battle of Samarra (1733)

The Battle of Samarra was the key engagement between the two great generals Nader & Topal Osman, which led to the siege of Baghdad being lifted, keeping Ottoman Iraq under Istanbul's control.

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Battle of the Palaces

The "Battle of the Palaces" occurred in the Russian Empire in the last decade of the reign of Catherine II (1784–1796) and the reign of Paul I (1796–1801), with ripple effects extending into the beginning of the reign of Alexander I. A bitter standoff between Catherine and Paul, her only legitimate son and heir, manifested itself in transient political and ideological conflicts, but also had a lasting, tangible impact on Russian architecture.

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Battle of Warsaw (1705)

The Battle of Warsaw (also known as the Battle of Rakowitz or Rakowiec)Rakowiec later became part of the Ochota district of Warsaw.

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Battledress

A battledress is a type of uniform used as combat uniforms, as opposed to dress uniforms or formal uniform worn at parades and functions.

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Battles of Latrun (1948)

The Battles of Latrun were a series of military engagements between the Israel Defense Forces and the Jordanian Arab Legion on the outskirts of Latrun between 25 May and 18 July 1948, during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War.

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Beard

A beard is the collection of hair that grows on the chin and cheeks of humans and some non-human animals.

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Beard tax

A beard tax is one of several taxes introduced throughout history on men who wear beards.

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Belgium–Russia relations

Belgium–Russia relations refers to the bilateral foreign relations between the two countries, Belgium and Russia.

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Belgorod

Belgorod (p) is a city and the administrative center of Belgorod Oblast, Russia, located on the Seversky Donets River north of the border with Ukraine.

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Belgorod Oblast

Belgorod Oblast (Белгоро́дская о́бласть, Belgorodskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast).

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Belozersk

Belozersk (Белозе́рск) is a town and the administrative center of Belozersky District in Vologda Oblast, Russia, located on the southern bank of Lake Beloye, from which it takes the name, northwest of Vologda, the administrative center of the oblast.

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Belozersky Canal

The Belozersky Bypass Canal (Белозерский канал, Белозерский обводной канал) is a canal around the south-western part of Lake Beloye in Belozersky District of Vologda Oblast in north-western Russia.

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Belozersky District, Vologda Oblast

Belozersky District (Белозе́рский райо́н) is an administrativeLaw #371-OZ and municipalLaw #1107-OZ district (raion), one of the twenty-six in Vologda Oblast, Russia.

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Belsky District, Tver Oblast

Belsky District (Бе́льский райо́н) is an administrative and municipalLaw #4-ZO district (raion), one of the thirty-six in Tver Oblast, Russia.

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Bely, Tver Oblast

Bely (Бе́лый) is a town and the administrative center of Belsky District in Tver Oblast, Russia, located on the Obsha River.

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Benjamin Danielsson Roth

Benjamin Danielsson Roth (German: Roht) was a Saxon blacksmith and farrier who emigrated to Sweden sometime between 1706 and 1709 during the Great Northern War.

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Berdsk

Berdsk (Бердск) is a town in Novosibirsk Oblast, Russia, a satellite of Novosibirsk, situated on a bank of the Berd River.

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Berezina River

The Berezina or Biarezina (Бярэ́зіна) is a river in Belarus and a tributary of the Dnieper River.

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Bernard Forest de Bélidor

Bernard Forest de Bélidor (1698, Catalonia, Spain – 8 September 1761, Paris, France) was a French engineer, significant to the development of the science of hydraulics and ballistics.

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Beryozovo, Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug

Beryozovo (Берёзово) is an urban locality (an urban-type settlement) and the administrative center of Beryozovsky District of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug, Russia, located on the Ob River.

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Bezhanitsky District

Bezhanitsky District (Бежа́ницкий райо́н) is an administrativeLaw #833-oz and municipalLaw #420-oz district (raion), one of the twenty-four in Pskov Oblast, Russia.

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Bezhanitsy

Bezhanitsy (Бежаницы) is an urban locality (a work settlement) and the administrative center of Bezhanitsky District of Pskov Oblast, Russia.

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Bezhetsk

Bezhetsk (Бе́жецк) is a town and the administrative center of Bezhetsky District in Tver Oblast, Russia, located on the Mologa River at its confluence with the Ostrechina River.

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Bezhetsky District

Bezhetsky District (Бе́жецкий райо́н) is an administrative and municipalLaw #4-ZO district (raion), one of the thirty-six in Tver Oblast, Russia.

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Bhakti Thapa

Bhakti Thapa (1741 Lamjung, Nepal – 1815) is a National hero of Nepal.

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Bible translations into Church Slavonic

Translations into Old Church Slavonic The oldest translation of the Bible into a Slavic language, Old Church Slavonic, has close connections with the activity of the two apostles to the Slavs, Cyril and Methodius, in Great Moravia in 864–865.

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Bible translations into Russian

The tradition of Bible translations in Christianity in Russia begins with Slavic translations of the Bible and Old Church Slavonic.

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Biržai

Biržai (known also by several alternative names) is a city in northern Lithuania.

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Biysk

Biysk (p) is a city in Altai Krai, Russia, located on the Biya River not far from its confluence with the Katun River.

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Boksitogorsky District

Boksitogorsky District (Бокситого́рский райо́н) is an administrativeOblast Law #32-oz and municipalLaw #78-oz district (raion), one of the seventeen in Leningrad Oblast, Russia.

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Bolghar

Bolghar (Болгар, Пăлхар) was intermittently capital of Volga Bulgaria from the 8th to the 15th centuries, along with Bilyar and Nur-Suvar.

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Bologovsky District

Bologovsky District (Болого́вский райо́н) is an administrative and municipalLaw #4-ZO district (raion), one of the thirty-six in Tver Oblast, Russia.

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Bologoye, Tver Oblast

Bologoye (Болого́е) is a town and the administrative center of Bologovsky District in Tver Oblast, Russia, as well as a major railway hub.

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Bolshaya Nikitskaya Street

Bolshaya Nikitskaya Street (Большая Никитская улица, Nikitskaya Ulitsa) is a radial street that runs west from Mokhovaya Street to Garden Ring in Moscow, between Vozdvizhenka Street (south) and Tverskaya Street (north).

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Bolsheokhtinsky Bridge

Bolsheokhtinsky Bridge (Большеохтинский мост, before 1917 - Peter the Great Bridge, Мост Петра́ Вели́кого, Most Petra Velikogo; from 1917 to 1956 - Bolsheokhtensky Bridge, Большеохтенский мост; also known as Okhtinsky Bridge, Охтинский мост) is a bridge across the Neva River in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

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Bootsmann

The German term Bootsmann translates to Boatswain, i.e. the senior crewman of the deck department.

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Boris Akunin

Boris Akunin (Борис Акунин) is the pen name of Grigori Chkhartishvili (Григорий Шалвович Чхартишвили; გრიგორი ჩხარტიშვილი) (born May 20, 1956), a Russian writer of Georgian and Jewish origin.

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Boris Alexeyevich Galitzine

Prince Boris Alexeyevich Golitsyn (pron; 1654–1714) was a Russian aristocrat of the Golitsyn family.

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Boris Grigoryevich Yusupov

Boris Grigoryevich Yusupov (Russian: Борис Григорьевич Юсупов; 1695–1759) was a Russian nobleman and politician.

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Boris Kurakin

Prince Boris Ivanovich Kurakin (Борис Иванович Куракин in Russian) (30 July 1676, Moscow – 28 October 1727, Paris) was the third permanent Russian ambassador abroad, succeeding Andrey Matveyev in The Hague and one of the closest associates of Peter the Great.

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Boris Sheremetev

Boris Petrovich Sheremetev (Бори́с Петро́вич Шереме́тев; –) was a Russian diplomat and general field marshal during the Great Northern War.

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Borovichi

Borovichi (Боровичи́) is the second largest town in Novgorod Oblast, Russia, located on the Msta River in the northern spurs of the Valdai Hills, east of Veliky Novgorod, the administrative center of the oblast.

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Borovichsky District

Borovichsky District (Боровичский райо́н) is an administrativeLaw #559-OZ and municipalLaw #373-OZ district (raion), one of the twenty-one in Novgorod Oblast, Russia.

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Botik of Peter the Great

The Botik of Peter the Great (also called St. Nicholas) is a miniaturized scaled-down warship discovered by Peter the Great at the Royal Izmaylovo Estate in 1688.

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Boyar

A boyar was a member of the highest rank of the feudal Bulgarian, Kievan, Moscovian, Wallachian and Moldavian and later, Romanian aristocracies, second only to the ruling princes (in Bulgaria, tsars), from the 10th century to the 17th century.

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Boyuk Zira

Boyuk Zira (Böyük Zirə), also known as Nargin, is an island in the Caspian Sea.

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Brattsevo

Brattsevo (Бра́тцево) is an area in Yuzhnoye Tushino District of North-Western Administrative Okrug of Moscow, Russia; formerly a country estate and a village.

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Bronnitsy

Bronnitsy (Бро́нницы) is a town in Moscow Oblast, Russia, located southeast of central Moscow and west of the Bronnitsy station on the Moscow–Ryazan railroad.

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Bronze Horseman

The Bronze Horseman (Медный всадник, literally "copper horseman") is an equestrian statue of Peter the Great in the Senate Square in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

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Bruce (Russian nobility)

Bruce is the name of noble family of Scottish origin.

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Brussels Park

Parc de Bruxelles (French) or (Dutch), is the largest urban public park in the centre of Brussels.

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Bryansk

Bryansk (p) is a city and the administrative center of Bryansk Oblast, Russia, located southwest of Moscow.

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Bryansk Oblast

Bryansk Oblast (Бря́нская о́бласть, Bryanskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast).

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Bulavin Rebellion

The Bulavin Rebellion (Astrakhan Revolt) is the name given to a war of Don Cossacks against Imperial Russia between the years 1707 and 1708.

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Burial sites of European monarchs and consorts

This list contains all European emperors, kings and regent princes and their consorts as well as well-known crown princes since the Middle Ages, whereas the lists are starting with either the beginning of the monarchy or with a change of the dynasty (e.g. England with the Norman king William the Conqueror, Spain with the unification of Castile and Aragon, Sweden with the Vasa dynasty, etc.). In addition, it contains the still-existing principalities of Monaco and Liechtenstein and the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg.

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Burkhard Christoph von Münnich

Count Burkhard Christoph von Münnich (9 May 1683 – 16 October 1767) (Христофо́р Анто́нович Миних) was a German soldier-engineer who became a field marshal and political figure in the Russian Empire.

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Butyrka prison

Butyrka prison (Бутырка, a colloquial term for the official Бутырская тюрьма, Butyrskaya tyurma) is a prison in the Tverskoy District of central Moscow, Russia.

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Byambyn Rinchen

Yenshööbü ovogt Byambyn Rinchen (Еншөөбү овогт Бямбын Ринчен, also known in Russian as Rinchin-Dorzhi Radnazhapovich Bimbaev, 25 December 1905 – 4 March 1977) was one of the founders of modern Mongolian literature, a translator of literature and a scholar in various areas of Mongolian studies, especially linguistics.

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Byaroza

Biaroza (Бяро́за, official Belarusian romanization standard: Biaroza, formerly Бяро́за-Карту́зская; Beryoza; Bereza) is a town of 31 000 inhabitants (1995) in Western Belarus in Brest Region and the administrative center of the Byaroza District.

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Byaroza Monastery

Byaroza monastery refers to the ruins of the former Carthusian baroque Roman Catholic Monastery of the Holy Cross, constructed in the seventeenth century in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and today situated in Belarus.

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Byzantine calendar

The Byzantine calendar, also called "Creation Era of Constantinople" or "Era of the World" (Ἔτη Γενέσεως Κόσμου κατὰ Ῥωμαίους, also Ἔτος Κτίσεως Κόσμου or Ἔτος Κόσμου, abbreviated as ε.Κ.), was the calendar used by the Eastern Orthodox Church from c. 691 to 1728 in the Ecumenical Patriarchate.

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Ca' Foscari

Ca' Foscari, the palace of the Foscari family, is a Gothic building on the waterfront of the Grand Canal in the Dorsoduro sestiere of Venice, Italy.

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Cabin of Peter the Great

The cabin of Peter the Great (Russian: Domik Petra I or Domik Petra Pervogo or Domik Petra Velikogo) is a small wooden house which was the first St Petersburg "palace" of Tsar Peter the Great.

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Cabinet of curiosities

Cabinets of curiosities (also known in German loanwords as Kunstkabinett, Kunstkammer or Wunderkammer; also Cabinets of Wonder, and wonder-rooms) were encyclopedic collections of objects whose categorical boundaries were, in Renaissance Europe, yet to be defined.

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Caesaropapism

Caesaropapism is the idea of combining the power of secular government with the religious power, or of making secular authority superior to the spiritual authority of the Church; especially concerning the connection of the Church with government.

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Campaign of Grodno

The Campaign of Grodno was a plan developed by Johann Patkul and Otto Arnold von Paykull during the Swedish invasion of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, a part of the Great Northern War.

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Canals of Amsterdam

Amsterdam, capital of the Netherlands, has more than one hundred kilometers of grachten (canals), about 90 islands and 1,500 bridges.

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Cantonist

Cantonists (Russian language: кантонисты; more properly: военные кантонисты, "military cantonists") were underage sons of Russian conscripts who from 1721 were educated in special "canton schools" (Кантонистские школы) for future military service (the schools were called garrison schools in the 18th century).

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Capital city

A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government.

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Capital punishment in Russia

Capital punishment in Russia currently is not allowed.

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Capitulation of Estonia and Livonia

With the Capitulation of Estonia and Livonia in 1710 the Swedish dominions Estonia and Livonia were integrated into the Russian EmpireLuts (2006), p. 159 following their conquest during the Great Northern War.

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Captain 1st rank

Kapitan 1st rank (Капитан 1-го ранга; literal: captain of the 1st rank) is in the Navy of the Russian Federation the designation to the most senior rank in the staff officer´s career group.

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Capture of Rasht

The Capture of Rasht, also written as Capture of Resht, occurred between December 1722 and late March 1723 amidst the successful spree of campaigns of Peter the Great during the Russo-Persian War (1722-1723).

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Carl Ewald von Rönne

Carl Ewald von Rönne (15 December 1663 – 29 December 1716) was a German-born Russian cavalry officer.

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Carl Piper

Carl, Count (or Greve) Piper (July 29, 1647, Stockholm – May 29, 1716, Schlüsselburg) was a Swedish statesman.

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Carlo Bartolomeo Rastrelli

Carlo Bartolomeo Rastrelli (1675 in Florence, Italy – 18 November 1744 in Saint Petersburg, Russia) was an Italian sculptor and architect.

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Carlo Ruzzini

Carlo Ruzzini (11 November 1653 – 5 January 1735) was a Venetian diplomat, statesman and Doge.

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Caspian Flotilla

The Caspian Flotilla (r) is the flotilla of the Russian Navy in the Caspian Sea.

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Caspian Sea

The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.

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Cathedral of the Archangel

The Cathedral of the Archangel (Архангельский собор, or Arkhangelsky sobor) is a Russian Orthodox church dedicated to the Archangel Michael.

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Catherine Alekseyevna of Russia

Tsarevna Catherine Alekseyevna (Екатерина Алексеевна; 27 November 1658 - 1 May 1718) was the fifth daughter of Tsar Alexis of Russia and Maria Miloslavskaya, sister of Tsar Feodor III of Russia and Tsar Ivan V of Russia and half-sister of Tsar Peter the Great.

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Catherine I of Russia

Catherine I (Yekaterina I Alekseyevna, born, later known as Marta Samuilovna Skavronskaya; –) was the second wife of Peter the Great and Empress of Russia from 1725 until her death.

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Catherine Palace

The Catherine Palace (Екатерининский дворец) is a Rococo palace located in the town of Tsarskoye Selo (Pushkin), 30 km south of St. Petersburg, Russia.

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Catherine Pavlovna of Russia

Grand Duchess Catherine Pavlovna of Russia (Екатерина Павловна; 21 May 1788 – 9 January 1819) later Queen Catharina of Württemberg, was the fourth daughter of Tsar Paul I of Russia and Princess Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg.

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Catherine the Great

Catherine II (Russian: Екатерина Алексеевна Yekaterina Alekseyevna; –), also known as Catherine the Great (Екатери́на Вели́кая, Yekaterina Velikaya), born Princess Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst, was Empress of Russia from 1762 until 1796, the country's longest-ruling female leader.

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Catherinehof

Ekaterinhof or Catherinehof (Екатеринго́ф) is a historic district in the south-west of St Petersburg, Russia.

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Censorship in the Russian Empire

In the Russian Empire, government agencies exerted varying levels of control over the content and dissemination of books, periodicals, music, theatrical productions, works of art, and motion pictures.

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Central heating

A central heating system provides warmth to the whole interior of a building (or portion of a building) from one point to multiple rooms.

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Central Naval Museum

Central Naval Museum (Центральный военно-морской музей) is a naval museum in St Petersburg, Russia.

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Central Saint Petersburg

Central Saint Petersburg is the central and the leading part of Saint Petersburg, Russia.

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Cesare Lombroso

Cesare Lombroso (born Ezechia Marco Lombroso; 6 November 1835 – 19 October 1909), was an Italian criminologist and physician, founder of the Italian School of Positivist Criminology.

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Chagodoshchensky District

Chagodoshchensky District (Чагодо́щенский райо́н) is an administrativeLaw #371-OZ and municipalLaw #1128-OZ district (raion), one of the twenty-six in Vologda Oblast, Russia.

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Chancellor (Russia)

Chancellor of the Russian Empire was the civil position (class) in the Russian Empire, according to the Table of Ranks introduced by Peter the Great in 1722.

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Chaplygin, Lipetsk Oblast

Chaplygin (Чаплы́гин) is a town and the administrative center of Chaplyginsky District in Lipetsk Oblast, Russia, located at the confluence of the Stanovaya Ryasa and Yagodnaya Ryasa Rivers, north of Lipetsk, the administrative center of the oblast.

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Charles de Steuben

Baron Charles Auguste Guillaume Steuben (April 18, 1788 – November 21, 1856), also Charles de Steuben, was a German-born French Romantic painter and lithographer active during the Napoleonic Era.

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Charles Eugène de Croÿ

Charles Eugène de Croÿ (Карл Евгений де Круа) (1651–1702) was a field marshal and duke from the House of Croÿ.

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Charles Frederick, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp

Duke Charles Frederick of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp (30 April 1700 – 18 June 1739) was a Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp and an important member of European royalty.

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Charles Plumier

Charles Plumier (20 April 1646 – 20 November 1704) was a French botanist, after whom the Frangipani genus Plumeria is named.

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Charles Whitworth, 1st Baron Whitworth

Charles Whitworth, 1st Baron Whitworth (14 October 1675 – 23 October 1725) was a British diplomat.

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Charles XII of Sweden

Charles XII, also Carl (Karl XII; 17 June 1682 – 30 November 1718 O.S.), Latinized to Carolus Rex, was the King of Sweden from 1697 to 1718.

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Charlotte Christine of Brunswick-Lüneburg

Charlotte Christine Sophie also known as Sophie Charlotte or simply Charlotte (28 August 1694, Wolfenbüttel – 2 November 1715, Saint Petersburg), was the wife of Tsarevich Alexei Petrovich of Russia.

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Charlottenburg Palace

Charlottenburg Palace (German: Schloss Charlottenburg) is the largest palace in Berlin, Germany.

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Château de la Muette

The Château de la Muette is a château located on the edge of the Bois de Boulogne in Paris, France, near the Porte de la Muette.

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Château de Meudon

The castle of Meudon, called the royal castle of Meudon, or imperial palace of Meudon, is a castle located in Meudon in the department of Hauts-de-Seine.

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Château de Petit-Bourg

The château de Petit-Bourg is located in Évry-sur-Seine (Essonne).

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Chechens

Chechens (Нохчий; Old Chechen: Нахчой Naxçoy) are a Northeast Caucasian ethnic group of the Nakh peoples originating in the North Caucasus region of Eastern Europe.

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Chechnya

The Chechen Republic (tɕɪˈtɕɛnskəjə rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə; Нохчийн Республика, Noxçiyn Respublika), commonly referred to as Chechnya (p; Нохчийчоь, Noxçiyçö), is a federal subject (a republic) of Russia.

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Cherepakha Islet

Cherepakha or Cherepashka (literally "The Turtle") was a small artificial islet, which was man-made on a sand bank in the Gulf of Taganrog on Azov Sea in about 2 kilometers from the Taganrog Fortress.

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Cherepovetsky District

Cherepovetsky District (Черепове́цкий райо́н) is an administrativeLaw #371-OZ and municipalLaw #1129-OZ district (raion), one of the twenty-six in Vologda Oblast, Russia.

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Chervonets

The following text is translated from the Russian Wikipedia version. Chervonets is the traditional Russian name for large foreign, and domestic gold coins.

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Children's literature

Children's literature or juvenile literature includes stories, books, magazines, and poems that are enjoyed by children.

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Chistyye Prudy (Moscow Metro)

Chistyye Prudy (Чи́стые пруды́, Clean Ponds) is a Moscow Metro station in the Basmanny District, Central Administrative Okrug, Moscow.

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Christian Thomsen Carl

Christian Thomsen Carl, Christian Thomasen Carl, Christian Thomæsen Carl, Christian Thomesen Carl, Christen Thomasen Carl or Christen Thomesen Carl, in German tradition Carlson or Karlson, rarely Carlsen (born 1676 in Assens, Funen - died 29 March 1713 in Greifswald, Swedish Pomerania) was a Danish naval officer.

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Christianity in the 18th century

Christianity in the 18th century is marked by the First Great Awakening in the Americas, along with the expansion of the Spanish and Portuguese empires around the world, which helped to spread Catholicism.

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Christmas traditions

Christmas traditions vary from country to country.

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Chronology of Ukrainian language suppression

The chronology of Ukrainian language suppression.

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Chudov Monastery

The Chudov Monastery (Чу́дов монасты́рь) (more formally known as Alexius’ Archangel Michael Monastery) was founded in the Moscow Kremlin in 1358 by Metropolitan Alexius of Moscow.

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Chudovsky District

Chudovsky District (Чу́довский райо́н) is an administrativeLaw #559-OZ and municipalLaw #368-OZ district (raion), one of the twenty-one in Novgorod Oblast, Russia.

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Chukotka Autonomous Okrug

Chukotka Autonomous Okrug (p; Chukchi: Чукоткакэн автономныкэн округ, Chukotkaken avtonomnyken okrug) or Chukotka (Чуко́тка) is a federal subject (an autonomous okrug) of Russia.

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Church of Aphrodite

The Church of Aphrodite is a Neopagan religious group founded in 1938 by Gleb Botkin (1900–1969), a Russian émigré to the United States.

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Church of Saint Nicetas, Yaroslavl

The Church of St.

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Church of St. Catherine (Saint Petersburg)

The Catholic Church of St Catherine (Католическая церковь Святой Екатерины) in St. Petersburg is the oldest Catholic church in the Russian Federation, and the only church with the title of basilica (status granted on 23 July 2013).

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Church of St. John the Warrior

Church of St.

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Church of St. Paraskeva, Vilnius

St.

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Church of the Intercession at Fili

The Church of the Intercession at Fili (Це́рковь Покрова́ в Филя́х) is a Naryshkin baroque church commissioned by the boyar Lev Naryshkin in his suburban estate Fili; the territory has belonged to City of Moscow since 1935.

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Church of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Nizhny Novgorod

Church of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary (Церковь Собора Пресвятой Богородицы), better known as Nativity or Stroganov is a Russian Orthodox church, located at the Rozhdestvenskaya Street in Nizhny Novgorod.

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Church reform of Peter the Great

The Church reform of Peter I introduced what some believe was a period of Caesaropapism in the history of the Russian Orthodox Church, when the church apparatus effectively became a department of state.

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Chusovaya River

The Chusovaya River (Чусова́я) is a river flowing in Perm Krai, Sverdlovsk Oblast and Chelyabinsk Oblast of Russia.

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Chuvash language

Chuvash (Чӑвашла, Čăvašla) is a Turkic language spoken in European Russia, primarily in the Chuvash Republic and adjacent areas.

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City of Military Glory

City of Military Glory («Город воинской славы») is an honorary title bestowed upon the citizenry of Russian cities, where soldiers had displayed courage and heroism during the Second World War.

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Civil war in Poland (1704–06)

The civil war in Poland (1704–1706) was a part of a larger European conflict, the Great Northern War.

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Cloudesley

Cloudesley: A Tale (1830) is the fifth novel published by eighteenth-century philosopher and novelist William Godwin.

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Coastal Monastery of Saint Sergius

The Coastal Monastery of St.

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Coat of arms of Moscow

The coat of arms of Moscow depicts a horseman with a spear in his hand slaying a basilisk and is identified with Saint George and the Dragon.

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Coat of arms of Russia

The coat of arms of the Russian Federation derives from the earlier coat of arms of the Russian Empire which was abolished with the Russian Revolution in 1917 and restored in 1993 after the constitutional crisis.

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Collegiate Councillor

Collegiate Councillor (Russian: колле́жский сове́тник, kollezhskii sovetnik) was a civil rank of 6th class in the Russian Empire, according to the Table of Ranks introduced by Peter the Great in 1722.

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Collegium (ministry)

The collegia (plural of a collegium, "joined by law") were government departments in Imperial Russia, established in 1717 by Peter the Great.

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Collegium of Little Russia (1722–27)

Collegium of Little Russia (Малороссийская коллегия) was an administrative body of the Russian Empire in the Hetmanate created for the first time by the ukase of Peter the Great on May 27, 1722 in place of the Little Russia Prikase.

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Commander

Commander is a common naval and air force officer rank.

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Commemorative coins of Russia

This is an incomplete list of commemorative coins of Russia.

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Commissar

Commissar (or sometimes Kommissar) is an English transliteration of the Russian комиссáр, which means commissary.

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Conditions (Russia)

The Conditions (Кондиции, Konditsii) were an 18th-century constitutional project in Russia, signed by Empress Anna of Russia in Mitau on 18 January 1730, giving substantial power to the Supreme Privy Council.

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Conscription in the Russian Empire

Conscription in the Russian Empire was introduced by Peter I of Russia.

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Constantin Brâncoveanu

Constantin Brâncoveanu (1654 – August 15, 1714) was Prince of Wallachia between 1688 and 1714.

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Constantin Ranst de Jonge

Constanti(j)n Ranst de Jonge (October 28, 1635 – January 10, 1714) was a Dutch businessman employed by the Dutch East India Company (VOC) who was chief of the trading posts in Tonkin and Dutch Bengal and three times opperhoofd of Dejima in Japan.

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Constitution of Pylyp Orlyk

The Constitution of Pylyp Orlyk (Конституція Пилипа Орлика (Konstytutsiya Pylypa Orlyka) or Pacts and Constitutions of Rights and Freedoms of the Zaporizhian Host Пакти і Конституції прав і вольностей Війська Запорозького (Pakty i Konstytutsii Prav i Volnostei Viyska Zaporozkoho), Pacta et Constitutiones Legum Libertatumque Exercitus Zaporoviensis) was a 1710 constitutional document written by Hetman Pylyp Orlyk, a Cossack of Ukraine.

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Convoys Wharf

Convoys Wharf, formerly called the King's Yard, is the site of Deptford Dockyard, the first of the Royal Dockyards, built on a riverside site in Deptford, by the River Thames in London.

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Copyright law of Russia

Copyright in Russia developed originally along the same lines as in Western European countries.

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Cornelis de Bruijn

Cornelis de Bruijn (also spelled Cornelius de Bruyn,; 16521726/7) was a Dutch artist and traveler.

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Cornelius Kruys

Cornelius Cruys (Крюйс, Корнелий Иванович) (1655 – 1727) was a Norwegian-Dutch admiral of the Imperial Russian Navy and the first commander of the Russian Baltic Fleet.

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Coronation of the Russian monarch

Coronations in Russia involved a highly developed religious ceremony in which the Emperor of Russia (generally referred to as the Tsar) was crowned and invested with regalia, then anointed with chrism and formally blessed by the church to commence his reign.

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Corps of Topographs (Russian Empire)

The Corps of Topographs of the Imperial Russian Army has a long history dating back to the mid-18th century.

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Cossack Hetmanate

The Cossack Hetmanate (Гетьманщина), officially known as Zaporizhian Host (Військо Запорозьке), was a Cossack state in Central Ukraine between 1649 and 1764 (some sources claim until 1782).

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Cossacks

Cossacks (козаки́, translit, kozaky, казакi, kozacy, Czecho-Slovak: kozáci, kozákok Pronunciations.

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Cossacks in Turkey

Cossacks in Turkey refers to descendants of a group of Don Cossacks who had lived in the territory of the Republic of Turkey until they migrated in 1962.

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Count of Merenberg

Count of Merenberg (German: Graf von Merenberg) is the title bestowed in 1868 by the reigning Prince of Waldeck and Pyrmont, George Victor, upon the morganatic wife and male-line descendants of Prince Nikolaus Wilhelm of Nassau (1832-1905), who married Natalia Alexandrovna Pushkina (1836-1913), former wife of Russian General Mikhail Leontievich von Dubelt.

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County Down

County Down is one of six counties that form Northern Ireland in the northeast of the island of Ireland.

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County of Oldenburg

The County of Oldenburg was a county of the Holy Roman Empire.

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Court chapel

A court chapel (German: Hofkapelle) is a chapel (building) and/or a chapel as a musical ensemble associated with a royal or noble court.

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Court Jew

In the early modern period, a court Jew, or court factor (Hofjude, Hoffaktor), was a Jewish banker who handled the finances of, or lent money to, European royalty and nobility.

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Craiovești

The Craiovești, later Brâncovenești, were a boyar family in Wallachia who gave the country several of its Princes and held the title of Ban of Oltenia (whether of Strehaia or Craiova) for ca.

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Crimean Khanate

The Crimean Khanate (Mongolian: Крымын ханлиг; Crimean Tatar / Ottoman Turkish: Къырым Ханлыгъы, Qırım Hanlığı, rtl or Къырым Юрту, Qırım Yurtu, rtl; Крымское ханство, Krymskoje hanstvo; Кримське ханство, Krymśke chanstvo; Chanat Krymski) was a Turkic vassal state of the Ottoman Empire from 1478 to 1774, the longest-lived of the Turkic khanates that succeeded the empire of the Golden Horde.

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Crimean Tatars

Crimean Tatars or Crimeans (Crimean Tatar: Qırımtatarlar, qırımlar, Kırım Tatarları, Крымские Татары, крымцы, Кримськi Татари, кримцi) are a Turkic ethnic group that formed in the Crimean Peninsula during the 13th–17th centuries, primarily from the Turkic tribes that moved to the land now known as Crimea in Eastern Europe from the Asian steppes beginning in the 10th century, with contributions from the pre-Cuman population of Crimea.

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Crimean War

The Crimean War (or translation) was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia.

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Cultural legacy of Mazeppa

*The spelling "Mazepa" refers to the historical person; the double-p "Mazeppa" is used for the artistic and literary works. Ivan Mazepa (1639–1709) was a significant figure in the history of Ukraine.

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Culture of Hungary

The culture of Hungary varies across Hungary, starting from the capital city of Budapest on the Danube, to the Great Plains bordering Ukraine.

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Culture of Switzerland

Switzerland lies at the crossroads of several major European cultures.

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Cyrillic numerals

Cyrillic numerals are a numeral system derived from the Cyrillic script, developed in the First Bulgarian Empire in the late 10th century.

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Cyrillic script

The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).

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Czar Peter House (Netherlands)

The Czar Peter House (Czaar Peterhuisje) is a historical building in Zaandam, the Netherlands.

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Dagestan

The Republic of Dagestan (Респу́блика Дагеста́н), or simply Dagestan (or; Дагеста́н), is a federal subject (a republic) of Russia, located in the North Caucasus region.

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Daniel Gottlieb Messerschmidt

Daniel Gottlieb Messerschmidt (Да́ниэль Го́тлиб Ме́ссершмидт) (September 16, 1685 – March 25, 1735) was a German physician, naturalist and geographer.

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Danilo I, Metropolitan of Cetinje

Danilo Šćepčević (Данило Шћепчевић, 1670 – January 11, 1735) was the Metropolitan of Cetinje between 1697 and 1735.

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Danylo Apostol

Danylo Apostol (1654–1734), was a Hetman of Zaporizhian Host from 1727 to 1734.

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Darya Petrovna Saltykova

Countess Darya Petrovna Saltykova, née Countess Chernysheva (20 September 1739 – December 23, 1802), was a Russian lady in waiting, socialite and noble and Dame of the Order of St. Catherine's first degree.

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Dasha Zhukova

Darya "Dasha" Alexandrovna Zhukova (Дарья Александровна Жукова; born 8 June 1981) is a Russian businesswoman, art collector, magazine editor, and philanthropist.

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Date and time notation in Russia

Dates are usually written in "day month year" (DMY) order.

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David Mitchell (Royal Navy officer)

Sir David Mitchell (ca. 1650 – 1 June 1710) was a Scottish admiral, courtier and parliamentary official.

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David Mountbatten, 3rd Marquess of Milford Haven

David Michael Mountbatten, 3rd Marquess of Milford Haven, (12 May 1919 – 14 April 1970), styled Viscount Alderney before 1921 and Earl of Medina between 1921 and 1938, was the son of the 2nd Marquess of Milford Haven and Countess Nadejda de Torby.

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David Tukhmanov

David Fyodorovich Tukhmanov PAR (Дави́д Фёдорович Тухма́нов, was born on July 20, 1940, in Moscow, USSR) is a Soviet and Russian composer.

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Davit Bek

Davit Bek or David Beg (died 1728) was an Armenian military commander and one of the most prominent military figures of the Armenian liberation movement of the 18th century.

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Death mask

A death mask is an image, typically in wax or plaster cast made of a person's face following death, often by taking a cast or impression directly from the corpse.

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Decembrist revolt

The Decembrist revolt or the Decembrist uprising (r) took place in Imperial Russia on.

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Decimal Day

On 15 February 1971, known as Decimal Day, the United Kingdom and Ireland decimalised their currencies.

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Decimalisation

Decimalisation is the process of converting a currency from its previous non-decimal denominations to a decimal system (i.e., a system based on one basic unit of currency and one or more sub-units, such that the number of sub-units in one basic unit is a power of 10, most commonly 100).

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Decolonization

Decolonization (American English) or decolonisation (British English) is the undoing of colonialism: where a nation establishes and maintains its domination over one or more other territories.

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Dedovichsky District

Dedovichsky District (Де́довичский райо́н) is an administrativeLaw #833-oz and municipalLaw #420-oz district (raion), one of the twenty-four in Pskov Oblast, Russia.

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Delisle scale

The Delisle scale (°D) is a temperature scale invented in 1732 by the French astronomer Joseph-Nicolas Delisle (1688–1768).

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Dembei

Dembei (伝兵衛 Denbei, Дэмбэй) was a Japanese castaway who, through Vladimir Atlasov, provided Russia with some of its first knowledge of Japan.

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Demidov

The Demidov family (Деми́довы) also Demidoff, was a prominent Russian noble family during the 18th and 19th centuries.

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Demidov, Smolensk Oblast

Demidov (Деми́дов) is a town and the administrative center of Demidovsky District in Smolensk Oblast, Russia, located on the Kasplya River at its confluence with the Gobza River.

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Demidovsky District

Demidovsky District (Деми́довский райо́н) is an administrativeResolution #261 and municipalLaw #131-z district (raion), one of the twenty-five in Smolensk Oblast, Russia.

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Demographics of the Republic of Artsakh

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Artsakh, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

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Demyansk

Demyansk (Демя́нск) is an urban locality (a work settlement) and the administrative center of Demyansky District of Novgorod Oblast, Russia, located along the Yavon River.

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Demyansky District

Demyansky District (Демянский район) is an administrativeLaw #559-OZ and municipalLaw #397-OZ district (raion), one of the twenty-one in Novgorod Oblast, Russia.

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Denga

A denga (деньга, earlier денга) was a Russian monetary unit with a value latterly equal to ½ kopek (100 kopeks.

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Deptford

Deptford is a district of south-east London, England, within the London Borough of Lewisham.

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Deptford Dockyard

Deptford Dockyard was an important naval dockyard and base at Deptford on the River Thames, in what is now the London Borough of Lewisham, operated by the Royal Navy from the sixteenth to the nineteenth centuries.

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Der Kongreß tanzt

Der Kongress tanzt (English: The Congress Dances) is a German musical comedy film produced in 1931 by Ufa, directed by Erik Charell, starring Lilian Harvey as Christel Weinzinger, the glove seller, Willy Fritsch as Tsar Alexander I of Russia and his doppelgänger, Uralsky, Otto Wallburg as Bibikoff, his Adjutant, Conrad Veidt as Prince Metternich, Carl-Heinz Schroth as his Secretary, Pepi, Lil Dagover as the Countess and Alfred Abel as the King of Saxony.

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Der Zarewitsch

Der Zarewitsch (The Tsarevich) is an operetta in three acts by Franz Lehár.

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Derbent

Derbent (Дербе́нт; دربند; Dərbənd; Кьвевар; Дербенд), formerly romanized as Derbend, is a city in the Republic of Dagestan, Russia, located on the Caspian Sea, north of the Azerbaijani border.

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Derbent Khanate

The Derbent Khanate (خانات دربند — Khānāt-e Darband, Dərbənd xanlığı) was a Caucasian khanate that was established in Afsharid Iran.

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Devichye Pole

Devichye Pole (Девичье Поле, Maidens' Field) is a historical medical campus, built in 1887-1897 in Khamovniki District of Moscow, Russia, to the master plan of Konstantin Bykovski.

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Devlet II Giray

Devlet II Giray (1648 – 1718) was Crimean Khan in 1699–1702 and 1709–1713.

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Devonshire House Ball of 1897

The Devonshire House Ball or the Devonshire House Fancy Dress Ball was an elaborate fancy dress ball, hosted by the Duke and Duchess of Devonshire, held on 2 July 1897 at Devonshire House in Piccadilly to celebrate Queen Victoria’s diamond jubilee.

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Diamond Fund

The Diamond Fund (Алмазный фонд) is a unique collection of gems, jewelry and natural nuggets, which are stored and exhibited in the Moscow Kremlin in Russia.

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Diane Stanley

Diane Stanley (born December 27, 1943) is an American children's author and illustrator.

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Dimitrie Cantemir

Dimitrie or Demetrius Cantemir (1673–1723), also known by other spellings, was a Moldavian soldier, statesman, and man of letters.

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Dimitry of Rostov

Saint Dimitry of Rostov (sometimes Latinized as Demetrius, sometimes referred to simply as Dmitri Rostovsky, Димитрій (Туптало)) was a leading opponent of the Caesaropapist reform of the Russian Orthodox church promoted by Feofan Prokopovich.

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Diocese of Novgorod

The Novgorod and Staraya Russa Diocese (Новгородская и Старорусская епархия) is one of the oldest offices in the Russian Orthodox Church.

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Diplomatic Privileges Act 1708

The Diplomatic Privileges Act 1708 (7 Ann c 12) was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain.

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Dmitri Pokrovsky Ensemble

The Dmitri Pokrovsky Ensemble (Russian: Ансамбль Дмитрия Покровского) was founded by Dmitri Pokrovsky (1944-1996) together with his wife and life-long partner, Tamara Smyslova, in Moscow in 1973 as an experimental singing group under folk Commission of the URSS Сomposers Union.The appearance of this team completely changed in modern society the understanding and view of folklore.

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Dmitry Laptev

Dmitry Yakovlevich Laptev (Дмитрий Яковлевич Лаптев) (1701 -) was a Russian Arctic explorer and Vice Admiral (1762).

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Dmitry Merezhkovsky

Dmitry Sergeyevich Merezhkovsky (p; – December 9, 1941) was a Russian novelist, poet, religious thinker, and literary critic.

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Dmitry Milyutin

Count Dmitry Alekseyevich Milyutin (Дмитрий Алексеевич Милютин; 28 June 1816, Moscow – 25 January 1912, Simeiz near Yalta) was Minister of War (1861–81) and the last Field Marshal of Imperial Russia (1898).

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Dmitry Pavlutsky

Dmitry Ivanovich Pavlutsky (Дмитрий Иванович Павлуцкий; died 21 March 1747) was a Russian polar explorer and leader of military expeditions in Chukotka, best known for his campaigns against the indigenous Chukchi people.

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Dnovsky District

Dnovsky District (Дно́вский райо́н) is an administrativeLaw #833-oz and municipalLaw #420-oz district (raion), one of the twenty-four in Pskov Oblast, Russia.

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Dobruja

Dobruja or Dobrudja (Добруджа, transliterated: Dobrudzha or Dobrudža; Dobrogea or; Dobruca) is a historical region in Eastern Europe that has been divided since the 19th century between the territories of Bulgaria and Romania.

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Domenico Trezzini

Domenico Trezzini (c. 1670 – 1734) was a Swiss Italian architect who elaborated the Petrine Baroque style of Russian architecture.

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Dominions of Sweden

The Dominions of Sweden or Svenska besittningar ("Swedish possessions") were territories that historically came under control of the Swedish Crown, but never became fully integrated with Sweden.

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Don Army

The Don Army (Донская армия, Donskaya Armiya) was the military of the short lived Don Republic and a part of the White movement in the Russian Civil War.

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Don Cossacks

Don Cossacks (Донские казаки) are Cossacks who settled along the middle and lower Don.

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Donajowsky

Donajowsky (first name unknown) is a non-existent Russian composer listed in English language sources as author of The Preobrajensky March (Преображенский марш), the march of the Preobrazhensky Regiment (Russian Empire), which later became the official slow march of the Royal Marines.

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Donets

The Siverskyi Donets (Siverśkyj Doneć) or Seversky Donets (Severskij Donec), usually simply called the Donets, is a river on the south of the East European Plain.

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Donkey walk

The donkey walk (хождение на осляти, шествие на осляти) is a Russian Orthodox Palm Sunday ritual re-enactment of Jesus Christ's entry into Jerusalem.

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Dositheos II of Jerusalem

Dositheos II Notaras of Jerusalem (Δοσίθεος Β΄ Ιεροσολύμων; Arachova 31 May 1641 – Constantinople 8 February 1707) was the Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem between 1669 and 1707 and a theologian of the Orthodox Church.

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Double-headed eagle

In heraldry and vexillology, the double-headed eagle is a charge associated with the concept of Empire.

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Drabiv

Drabiv (Драбів) is an urban-type settlement located in Cherkasy Oblast (province) in the central Ukraine.

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Duchy of Bukovina

The Duchy of Bukovina was a constituent land of the Austrian Empire from 1849 and a Cisleithanian crown land of Austria–Hungary from 1867 until 1918.

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Duchy of Courland and Semigallia

The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia (Ducatus Curlandiæ et Semigalliæ, Księstwo Kurlandii i Semigalii, Herzogtum Kurland und Semgallen, Kurzemes un Zemgales hercogiste) was a duchy in the Baltic region that existed from 1561 to 1569 as a vassal state of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and from 1569 to 1726 to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, incorporated into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth by Sejm in 1726, On 28 March 1795, it was annexed by the Russian Empire in the Third Partition of Poland.

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Duchy of Oldenburg

The Duchy of Oldenburg (Herzogtum Oldenburg) — named after its capital, the town of Oldenburg — was a state in the north-west of present-day Germany.

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Duel

A duel is an arranged engagement in combat between two people, with matched weapons, in accordance with agreed-upon rules.

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Dugna

Dugna (Дугна́) is an urban locality (a settlement) in Ferzikovsky District of Kaluga Oblast, Russia, located on the left bank of the Dugna River, from Ferzikovo, on the main rail line between Kaluga and Tula.

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Duke of Holstein-Gottorp

Holstein-Gottorp or Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp is the historiographical name, as well as contemporary shorthand name, for the parts of the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, also known as Ducal Holstein, that were ruled by the dukes of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp.

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Duma

A duma (дума) is a Russian assembly with advisory or legislative functions.

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Dutch East India Company

The United East India Company, sometimes known as the United East Indies Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie; or Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie in modern spelling; abbreviated to VOC), better known to the English-speaking world as the Dutch East India Company or sometimes as the Dutch East Indies Company, was a multinational corporation that was founded in 1602 from a government-backed consolidation of several rival Dutch trading companies.

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Dutch people

The Dutch (Dutch), occasionally referred to as Netherlanders—a term that is cognate to the Dutch word for Dutch people, "Nederlanders"—are a Germanic ethnic group native to the Netherlands.

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Dze

Dze (Ѕ ѕ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script, used in the Macedonian language to represent the voiced alveolar affricate, pronounced like ⟨ds⟩ in "pods".

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Dzyatlava

Dziatlava (Дзятлава, Zietela, Zdzięcioł, Дятлово, זשעטל Zhetl) is a town in Belarus in the Hrodna voblast, about 165 km southeast of Hrodna.

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E (Cyrillic)

E (Э э; italics:; also known as backwards e, from Russian э оборо́тное, e oborótnoye) is a letter found in two Slavic languages: Russian and Belarusian.

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Early Cyrillic alphabet

The Early Cyrillic alphabet is a writing system that was developed during the late ninth century on the basis of the Greek alphabet for the Orthodox Slavic population in Europe.

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Early Modern Romania

The Early Modern Times in Romania started after the death of Michael the Brave, who ruled in a personal union, Wallachia, Transylvania and Moldaviathree principalities in the lands that now form Romania for three months, in 1600.

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East Slavic honorifics

The system of East Slavic honorifics is used by the speakers of East Slavic languages to linguistically encode relative social status, degree of respect and the nature of interpersonal relationship.

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Eastern Orthodox Church

The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.

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Eastern Slavic naming customs

Eastern Slavic naming customs are the traditional ways of identifying a person by name in countries influenced by East Slavic languages (Russian, Ukrainian and Belorussian: in Russia, Belarus, Ukraine. They are also used in some countries using South Slavic languages, including Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia and Macedonia, as well as some countries using non-Slavic languages (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan) because of the expansion of Russia, with its Russification. The full name uses the following standard structure.

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Economic reforms under Peter the Great

In the year 1682, Peter the Great became the new Tsar of Russia.

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Edward Anhalt

Edward Anhalt (March 28, 1914 in New York City – September 3, 2000 in Pacific Palisades, California) was a noted screenwriter, producer, and documentary film-maker.

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Elżbieta Sieniawska

Elżbieta Helena Sieniawska née Lubomirska (1669 in Końskowola – 21 March 1729 in Oleszyce) was a Polish noblwoman, Grand Hetmaness of the Crown (Hetmanowa wielka koronna) and renowned patron of arts.

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Elena Mumm Thornton Wilson

Elena Mumm Thornton Wilson (27 August 1906 – 27 July 1979) was born into an unusual, wealthy, aristocratic European family and was the fourth wife of the famed American writer Edmund Wilson.

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Elizabeth Bible

The Elizabeth Bible (Елизаветинская Библия) is the authorized version of the Russian Orthodox Church.

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Elizabeth of Russia

Elizabeth Petrovna (Елизаве́та (Елисаве́та) Петро́вна) (–), also known as Yelisaveta or Elizaveta, was the Empress of Russia from 1741 until her death.

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Emil Jannings

Emil Jannings (born Theodor Friedrich Emil Janenz, 23 July 1884 – 2 January 1950) was a German actor, popular in 1920s film in Hollywood.

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Emperor

An emperor (through Old French empereor from Latin imperator) is a monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm.

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Emperor of All Russia

The Emperor or Empress of All Russia ((pre 1918 orthography) Императоръ Всероссійскій, Императрица Всероссійская, (modern orthography) Император Всероссийский, Императрица всероссийская, Imperator Vserossiyskiy, Imperatritsa Vserossiyskaya) was the absolute and later the constitutional monarch of the Russian Empire.

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Empire

An empire is defined as "an aggregate of nations or people ruled over by an emperor or other powerful sovereign or government, usually a territory of greater extent than a kingdom, as the former British Empire, Spanish Empire, Portuguese Empire, French Empire, Persian Empire, Russian Empire, German Empire, Abbasid Empire, Umayyad Empire, Byzantine Empire, Ottoman Empire, or Roman Empire".

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Empress of Russia

Empress of Russia was a title in the Russian Empire between 1721 and 1917.

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Endirey

Endirey (Эндирей; OKATO: 82254815001) is a village (selo) in the Khasavyurt District of the Republic of Dagestan in Russia.

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Engalychev

Engalychev, also transliterated Yengalychev, Engalytscheff and Jengalitschev (Almanach de Gotha 1937) (Енгалычев), is a princely family recognized by the Russian empire.

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Engineering education

Engineering education is the activity of teaching knowledge and principles to the professional practice of engineering.

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Ennoblement

Ennoblement is the conferring of nobility—the induction of an individual into the noble class.

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Equestrian statue

An equestrian statue is a statue of a rider mounted on a horse, from the Latin "eques", meaning "knight", deriving from "equus", meaning "horse".

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Estonian Orthodox Church of Moscow Patriarchate

The Estonian Orthodox Church of Moscow Patriarchate (Moskva Patriarhaadi Eesti Õigeusu Kirik) is a semi-autonomous Church in the canonical jurisdiction of the Patriarchate of Moscow whose primate is appointed by the Holy Synod of the latter.

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Eudoxia

Eudoxia (Ευδοξία, Eudoxía), Eudokia (Ευδοκία, Eudokía, anglicized as Eudocia) or Evdokia is a feminine given name, which originally meant "good deeds" or "she whose deeds are good" in Greek.

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Eudoxia Lopukhina

Tsarina Eudoxia Feodorovna Lopukhina (Евдоки́я Фёдоровна Лопухина;, Moscow –, Moscow) was a Russian Tsaritsa as the first wife of Peter I of Russia, and the last ethnic Russian and non-foreign wife of a Russian monarch.

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Eugene Schuyler

Eugene Schuyler (Ithaca, New York, February 26, 1840 – Venice, Italy, July 16, 1890) was a nineteenth-century American scholar, writer, explorer and diplomat.

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Evangelical Lutheran Church in Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Central Asia

The Evangelical Lutheran Church in Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Central Asia (Евангелическо-лютеранская церковь в России, Украине, в Казахстане и Средней Азии), also known as the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Russia and the Other States (ELCROS), is a Lutheran denomination that itself comprises seven regional Lutheran denominations in Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan as well as individual congregations in Azerbaijan, Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan.

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Evangelical Lutheran Church of Saint Katarina

The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Saint Katarina (Евангелическо-лютеранская церковь Святой Екатерины) is an Evangelical Lutheran church located at Malaya Konyushnaya Ulitsa 1 in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

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Evangelical Lutheran Church of Saint Mary

The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Saint Mary (Евангелическо-лютеранская церковь Святой Марии) is an Evangelical Lutheran church located in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

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Evgraf Semenovich Sorokin

Evgraf Semenovich Sorokin, or Yevgraf Semyonovich Sorokin (Евгра́ф Семёнович Соро́кин; December 18, 1821, Nekrasovskoye (Bolshie Soli) – 1892, Moscow) was a Russian artist and teacher; known for historical, religious and genre paintings.

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Exarch

The term exarch comes from the Ancient Greek ἔξαρχος, exarchos, and designates holders of various historical offices, some of them being political or military and others being ecclesiastical.

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Execution of the Romanov family

The Russian Imperial Romanov family (Tsar Nicholas II, his wife Tsarina Alexandra and their five children Olga, Tatiana, Maria, Anastasia, and Alexei) and all those who chose to accompany them into imprisonment—notably Eugene Botkin, Anna Demidova, Alexei Trupp and Ivan Kharitonov—were shot, bayoneted and clubbed to death in Yekaterinburg on the night of 16-17 July 1918.

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Executions of Cossacks in Lebedin

Executions Cossacks in Lebedin (Катівня в Лебедині), (Казни казаков в Лебедине) was a large scale execution of Ukrainian Cossacks suspected of having sided with Hetman Ivan Mazepa after his break with Tsar Peter I during the Great Northern War.

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Facial hair in the military

Facial hair in the military has been at various times common, prohibited, or an integral part of the uniform.

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False Dmitry I

Dmitry I (Dmitrii) (historically known as Pseudo-Demetrius I) was the Tsar of Russia from 10 June 1605 until his death on 17 May 1606 under the name of Dimitriy Ivanovich (Дмитрий Иванович).

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Falsters Minder

Falsters Minder (literally Falster's Memories) is the city museum of Nykøbing on the Danish island of Falster.

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Father of the Nation

The Father of the Nation is an honorific title given to a man considered the driving force behind the establishment of his country, state, or nation.

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Favourite

A favourite or favorite (American English) was the intimate companion of a ruler or other important person.

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February 8

No description.

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Fedor Ivanovich Soimonov

Fedor Ivanovich Soimonov (Фёдор Иванович Соймо́нов; 1692 – 22 July 1780), Knight of the Order of St. Alexander Nevsky, was a nautical surveyor of the Imperial Russian Navy, hydrographer and pioneering explorer of the Caspian Sea who charted the until then little known body of water.

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Fedor Solntsev

Fedor Grigoryevich Solntsev (Фёдор Григорьевич Солнцев) (14 April 1801 – 3 March 1892) was a Russian painter and historian of art.

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Feldwebel

Feldwebel (Fw or F), literally "field usher", is a non-commissioned officer (NCO) rank in several countries.

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Felix Aderca

Felix Aderca or F. Aderca (born Froim-Zelig (Froim-Zeilic) Aderca,, in Realitatea Evreiască, Nr. 280-281 (1080-1081), August–September 2007 Boris Marian,, in Realitatea Evreiască, Nr. 292-293 (1092-1093), March–April 2008 also known as Zelicu Froim Adercu, biographical entry at the; retrieved March 1, 2010 or Froim Aderca; March 13, 1891 – December 12, 1962), was a Romanian novelist, playwright, poet, journalist and critic, noted as a representative of rebellious modernism in the context of Romanian literature.

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Feminism in Russia

Feminism in Russia originated in the 18th century, influenced by the Western European Enlightenment and mostly confined to the aristocracy.

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Feodor Abramovich Lopukhin

Hilarion (Fedor) Abramovich Lopukhin (Russian - Илларион (Фёдор) Аврамович Лопухин; 1638 - 21 March 1713) was a Russian lawyer, nobleman, colonel, courtier and Boyar.

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Feodor III of Russia

Feodor (Theodore) III Alexeyevich of Russia (in Russian: Фёдор III Алексеевич) (9 June 1661 – 7 May 1682) was the Tsar of all Russia between 1676 and 1682.

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Feodosia Alekseyevna of Russia

Tsarevna Feodosia Alekseyevna (Феодосия Алексеевна; 29 March 1662 – 14 December 1713) was the seventh daughter of Tsar Alexis of Russia and Maria Miloslavskaya, sister of Tsar Feodor III of Russia and Tsar Ivan V of Russia and half-sister of Tsar Peter the Great.

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Fersman Mineralogical Museum

Fersman Mineralogical Museum (Минералогический музей им.) is one of the largest mineral museums of the world, located in Moscow, Russia.

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Fili (Moscow)

Fili (Фили́) is a former suburban village, now a neighborhood in the western section of Moscow, Russia, notable for the events of September 1812, following the Battle of Borodino.

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Finland under Swedish rule

Finland under Swedish rule refers to the period in the history of Finland when it was a part of Sweden.

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Finnhorse

The Finnhorse or Finnish Horse (Suomenhevonen, literally "horse of Finland"; nickname: Suokki, or Finskt kallblod, literally "finnish cold-blood") is a horse breed with both riding horse and draught horse influences and characteristics, and is the only breed developed fully in Finland.

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Fireworks

Fireworks are a class of low explosive pyrotechnic devices used for aesthetic and entertainment purposes.

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Firovsky District

Firovsky District (Фи́ровский райо́н) is an administrative and municipalLaw #4-ZO district (raion), one of the thirty-six in Tver Oblast, Russia.

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First Kamchatka expedition

The First Kamchatka expedition was commissioned in December 1724 by Peter I of Russia to explore the northern part of the Pacific Ocean and confirm the presence of the strait between Asia and America.

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Flag of Russia

The flag of Russia (Флаг России) is a tricolor flag consisting of three equal horizontal fields: white on the top, blue in the middle and red on the bottom.

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Flag of the Netherlands

The flag of the Netherlands (Vlag van Nederland) is a horizontal tricolor of red, white, and blue.

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Fleet review (Commonwealth realms)

A fleet review is a traditional gathering of ships from a particular navy to be observed by the reigning monarch or his or her representative, a practice allegedly dating back to the 15th century.

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Floods in Saint Petersburg

Floods in Saint Petersburg refer to a rise of water on the territory of St. Petersburg, a major city in Russia and its former capital.

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Foolishness for Christ

Foolishness for Christ (διά Χριστόν σαλό, оуродъ, юродъ) refers to behavior such as giving up all one's worldly possessions upon joining a monastic order, or to deliberate flouting of society's conventions to serve a religious purpose–particularly of Christianity.

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Footwraps

Footwraps (also referred to as foot cloths, rags, bandages or bindings, or by their Russian name portyanki) are rectangular pieces of cloth that are worn wrapped around the feet to avoid chafing, absorb sweat and improve the foothold.

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Foreign policy of the Russian Empire

The Foreign policy of the Russian Empire covers Russian foreign relations down to 1917.

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Foreign relations of imperial China

Imperial China had a long tradition of foreign relations.

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Forms of address in the Russian Empire

Since the time of Peter the Great, forms of address in the Russian Empire had been well-codified, determined by a person’s title of honor, as well as military or civil rank (see Table of Ranks) and ecclesiastical order.

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Fort Alexander (Saint Petersburg)

Fort Alexander, also Fort Alexander I, or Plague Fort (Форт Александр Первый Fort Aleksandr Perviy or Чумной форт Chumnoy fort, English: "Plague fort") is a naval fortress on an artificial island in the Gulf of Finland near St. Petersburg and Kronstadt.

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Fort Friedrichsburg

Friedrichsburg is situated in the western Pregel in this map of Königsberg from 1905. Fort Friedrichsburg in modern Kaliningrad Fort Friedrichsburg or Feste Friedrichsburg was a fort in Königsberg, Germany.

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Forum Hadriani

Forum Hadriani, in the modern town of Voorburg, was the northern-most Roman city on the European continent and the second oldest city of the Netherlands.

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Foundling hospital

A foundling hospital was originally an institution for the reception of foundlings, i.e., children who had been abandoned or exposed, and left for the public to find and save.

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Fountain

A fountain (from the Latin "fons" (genitive "fontis"), a source or spring) is a piece of architecture which pours water into a basin or jets it into the air to supply drinking water and/or for a decorative or dramatic effect.

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Françoise d'Aubigné, Marquise de Maintenon

Françoise d'Aubigné, Marquise de Maintenon (27 November 1635 – 15 April 1719) was the second wife of King Louis XIV of France.

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France–Russia relations

France–Russia relations (Российско-французские отношения, Rossiysko-frantsuzskiye otnosheniya) date back to the early modern period.

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Francesco Penso

Francesco Penso called "Cabianca" (1665? — 1737) was an Italian sculptor.

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Francis II Rákóczi

Francis II Rákóczi (II.,; 27 March 1676 – 8 April 1735) was a Hungarian nobleman and leader of the Hungarian uprising against the Habsburgs in 1703-11 as the prince (fejedelem) of the Estates Confederated for Liberty of the Kingdom of Hungary.

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Francophile

A Francophile (Gallophile) is a person who has a strong affinity towards any or all of the French language, French history, French culture or French people.

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Franz Lefort

Franz Jakob Lefort (Франц Яковлевич Лефорт; December 23, 1655 – March 2(12), 1699) was a Russian military figure of Genevan Huguenot origin, general admiral (1695), and close associate of Tsar Peter the Great.

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Frýdlant

Frýdlant, sometimes cited also as Frýdlant v Čechách (Friedland in Böhmen) is a town in the Liberec District of the Liberec Region in the Czech Republic.

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Freak show

A freak show is an exhibition of biological rarities, referred to in popular culture as "freaks of nature".

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Frederick Adolphus, Count of Lippe-Detmold

Frederick Adolphus of Lippe-Detmold (Friedrich Adolf zur Lippe-Detmold; 2 September 1667 – 18 July 1718) was a German nobleman and the Count of Lippe-Detmold from 1697 to 1718.

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Frederick Casimir Kettler

Frederick Casimir Kettler (German: Friedrich Casimir Kettler; 6 July 1650 – 22 January 1698) was Duke of Courland and Semigallia from 1682 to 1698.

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Frederick I of Sweden

Frederick I (Fredrik I; 28 April 1676 – 5 April 1751) was prince consort of Sweden from 1718 to 1720, and King of Sweden from 1720 until his death and (as Frederick I) also Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel from 1730.

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Frederick IV, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp

Frederick IV (18 October 1671 – 19 July 1702) was the reigning Duke of Holstein-Gottorp.

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Frederick William, Duke of Courland

Frederick William (Friedrich Wilhelm; 19 July 1692 – 21 January 1711) was Duke of Courland and Semigallia from 1698 to 1711.

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Frederik Ruysch

Frederik Ruysch (March 28, 1638 – February 22, 1731) was a Dutch botanist and anatomist.

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Frederiksberg Palace

Frederiksberg Palace (Frederiksberg Slot) is a Baroque residence, located in Frederiksberg, Denmark, adjacent to the Copenhagen Zoo.

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Freedom Monument

The Freedom Monument (Brīvības piemineklis) is a memorial located in Riga, Latvia, honouring soldiers killed during the Latvian War of Independence (1918–1920).

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Freedom of religion by country

The status of religious freedom around the world varies from country to country.

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French invasion of Russia

The French invasion of Russia, known in Russia as the Patriotic War of 1812 (Отечественная война 1812 года Otechestvennaya Voyna 1812 Goda) and in France as the Russian Campaign (Campagne de Russie), began on 24 June 1812 when Napoleon's Grande Armée crossed the Neman River in an attempt to engage and defeat the Russian army.

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Friedrich Christian Weber

Friedrich Christian Weber was an 18th-century German diplomat and writer.

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Friedrich von Adelung

Friedrich von Adelung (February 25, 1768 – January 30, 1843) was a German-Russian linguist, historian and bibliographer.

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Friedrich von Hessen-Darmstadt (1677–1708)

Friedrich von Hessen-Darmstadt (September 18, 1677, Darmstadt – October 18 1708, Chavusy) was a prince of Hesse-Darmstadt and Russian General.

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Fyodor Alexeyevich Golovin

Count Feodor Alekseyevich Golovin (Фёдор Алексеевич Головин; 1650 &ndash) was the last Russian boyar and the first Chancellor of the Russian Empire, field marshal, general admiral (1700).

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Fyodor Apraksin

Count Fyodor Matveyevich Apraksin (also Apraxin; Фёдор Матве́евич Апра́ксин; 27 October 1661 10 November 1728, Moscow) was one of the first Russian admirals, governed Estonia and Karelia from 1712 to 1723, was made general admiral (1708), presided over the Russian Admiralty from 1718 and commanded the Baltic Fleet from 1723.

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Fyodor Dostoevsky

Fyodor Mikhailovich DostoevskyHis name has been variously transcribed into English, his first name sometimes being rendered as Theodore or Fedor.

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Fyodor Romodanovsky

Prince Fyodor Yuryevich Romodanovsky (Фёдор Юрьевич Ромодановский; ca. 1640 – 1717) was one of Peter the Great's foremost assistants in the task of modernizing Russia.

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Fyodor Rtishchev

Feodor Mikhailovich Rtishchev (Фёдор Миха́йлович Рти́щев; April 16, 1625, Chekalinsky uyezd – July 1, 1673, Moscow) was a boyar and an intimate friend of Alexis I of Russia who was renowned for his piety and alms-deeds.

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Fyodor Shaklovity

Fyodor Leontiyevich Shaklovity (Bryansk -, Moscow) was a Russian diplomat best known as a staunch adherent of the regent Sophia Alekseyevna, who had promoted him from a regular scrivener to a member of the Boyar Duma and okolnichy.

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Gagarin, Smolensk Oblast

Gagarin (Гага́рин), known until 1968 as Gzhatsk (Гжатск), is a town and the administrative center of Gagarinsky District of Smolensk Oblast, Russia, located on the Gzhat River, northeast of Smolensk, the administrative center of the oblast.

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Galich, Russia

Galich (Га́лич) is a town in Kostroma Oblast, Russia, located on the southern bank of Lake Galichskoye.

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Galley

A galley is a type of ship that is propelled mainly by rowing.

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Gamontov (Russian nobility)

Gamoltov is the name of Russian noble family of Scottish origin, descend from Petr Gamoltov-Hamilton, an officer in Russian service since 1610.

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Gangut-class battleship

The Gangut-class battleships, also known as the "Sevastopol class", were the first dreadnoughts begun for the Imperial Russian Navy before World War I. They had a convoluted design history involving several British companies, evolving requirements, an international design competition, and foreign protests.

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Gantimurov family

The Gantimurovs (Гантимуровы) is a Russian princely family descending from Tungusic Evenk or Mongolic Daur prince Gantimur (Mongolian Gan:steel, tömör:iron).

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Garden Ring

The Garden Ring, also known as the "B" Ring (Садо́вое кольцо́, кольцо́ "Б"; transliteration: Sadovoye Koltso), is a circular ring road avenue around central Moscow, its course corresponding to what used to be the city ramparts surrounding Zemlyanoy Gorod in the 17th century.

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Garrison school

Garrison schools (гарнизо́нные шко́лы) in 18th century Russia were military schools that provided the primary education for the children of the military recruits.

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Gatchina

Gatchina (Га́тчина) is a town and the administrative center of Gatchinsky District in Leningrad Oblast, Russia.

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Gatchinsky District

Gatchinsky District (Га́тчинский райо́н) is an administrativeOblast Law #32-oz and municipalLaw #113-oz district (raion), one of the seventeen in Leningrad Oblast, Russia.

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Gavriil Golovkin

Count Gavrila (Gavriil) Ivanovich Golovkin (Гаври́ла (Гаврии́л) Ива́нович Голо́вкин) (1660 – 20 January 1734) was a Russian statesman who formally presided over foreign affairs of the Russian Empire from 1706 until his death.

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Gavrilo Stefanović Venclović

Gavrilo "Gavril" Stefanović Venclović (Гаврилo Стефановић Венцловић; fl. 1670–1749) was a Serbian priest, writer, poet, orator, philosopher, neologist, polyglot, and illuminator.

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Gazikumukh Khanate

Gazikumukh Khanate was a Lak entity that was established in present-day Dagestan after the disintegration of Gazikumukh Shamkhalate in 1642.

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Gdov

Gdov (Гдов; Oudova) is a town and the administrative center of Gdovsky District in Pskov Oblast, Russia, located on the Gdovka River, just from its outflow into Lake Peipus.

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Gdov Kremlin

The Gdov Kremlin (Гдовский Кремль) is located on a bank of the Gdovka River, overlooking the Russian town of Gdov.

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Gdovsky District

Gdovsky District (Гдо́вский райо́н) is an administrativeLaw #833-oz and municipalLaw #420-oz district (raion), one of the twenty-four in Pskov Oblast, Russia.

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Gefreiter

Gefreiter (abbr. Gefr.) is a German, Swiss and Austrian military rank that has existed since the 16th century.

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Geheimrat

Geheimrat was the title of the highest advising officials at the Imperial, royal or princely courts of the Holy Roman Empire, who jointly formed the Geheimer Rat reporting to the ruler.

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General of the branch

A "general of the branch" or "general of the branch of service" is a rank equivalent to a three-star lieutenant general or four-star general.

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General-in-chief

General-in-chief has been a military rank or title in various armed forces around the world.

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Georg Bernhard Bilfinger

Georg Bernhard Bilfinger (23 January 1693 – 18 February 1750), German philosopher, mathematician and statesman, son of a Lutheran minister.

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Georg Friedrich Parrot

Georg Friedrich Parrot (15 July 1767 – 8 July 1852) was a German scientist, the first rector of the Imperial University of Dorpat (today Tartu, Estonia) in what was then the Governorate of Livonia of the Russian Empire.

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Georg Gsell

Georg Gsell (Георг Гзель; 28 January 1673 – 22 November 1740) was a Swiss Baroque painter, art consultant and art dealer.

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Georg Johann Mattarnovi

Georg Johann Mattarnovi (Георг Иванович Маттарнови, Georg Ivanovich Mattarnovi; died 2 November 1719) was a German Baroque architect and sculptor, notable for his work in Saint Petersburg.

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George Charles Deering

George Charles Deering, originally Georg Karl Dering (c.1695–1749) was a German botanist and medical practitioner, resident in Great Britain for the last 30 years of his life.

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George Douglas, 2nd Earl of Dumbarton

George Douglas, 2nd Earl of Dumbarton (1687–1749) was a Scottish nobleman and soldier.

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George Mountbatten, 4th Marquess of Milford Haven

George Ivar Louis Mountbatten, 4th Marquess of Milford Haven (born 6 June 1961), styled Earl of Medina before 1970, is a British businessman, peer, and current Head of the House of Mountbatten.

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Georgia within the Russian Empire

The country of Georgia became part of the Russian Empire in the 19th century.

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Georgia–Persia relations

Persia and Georgia have had relations for thousands of years.

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Georgian Hussar Regiment

The Georgian Hussar Regiment (Грузинский гусарский полк; Gruzinskiy Hussarskiy Polk) was a military unit of the Russian Imperial Army which predominantly consisted by Moscow's Georgian community.

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Gerard Wigmana

Gerard Wigmana (27 September 1673, in Workum – 27 May 1741, in Amsterdam), was an 18th-century painter from the Northern Netherlands.

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Gerhard Johann von Löwenwolde

Gerhard Johann von Löwenwolde (Гергард Иоганн Левенвольде, died 1721)Bushkovitch (2001), p. 295 was a Baltic German Estonian knight.

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German Quarter

German Quarter (Неме́цкая слобода́, Nemetskaya sloboda), also known as the Kukuy Quarter (слобода Кукуй), was a neighborhood in the northeast of Moscow, located on the right bank of the Yauza River east of Kukuy Creek (hence the name Kukuy Quarter), within the present-day Basmanny District of Moscow.

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German–Serbian dictionary (1791)

The 1791 German–Serbian dictionary, referred to as the Avramović Dictionary (Аврамовићев речник or Avramovićev rečnik; full title in Deutsch und Illyrisches Wörterbuch zum Gebrauch der Illyrischen Nation in den K. K. Staaten; full title in Slavonic-Serbian: Нѣмецкïй и сербскïй словарь на потребу сербскагѡ народа въ крал. державахъ, transliterated as Německij i serbskij slovar' na potrebu serbskago naroda v kral. deržavah, meaning "German and Serbian Dictionary for Use by the Serbian People in the Royal States"), is a historical bidirectional translation dictionary published in the Habsburg Empire's capital of Vienna in 1791, though 1790 is given as the year of publication in some of its copies.

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Germanism (linguistics)

A Germanism is a loan word or other loan element borrowed from German for use in some other language.

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Giacomo Meyerbeer

Giacomo Meyerbeer (born Jacob Liebmann Beer; 5 September 1791 – 2 May 1864) was a German opera composer of Jewish birth who has been described as perhaps the most successful stage composer of the nineteenth century.

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Giacomo Pylarini

Giacomo Pylarini (Jacob) (1659–1718) was a Venetian physician and consul for the republic of Venice in Smyrna who in 1701 on the children of the English ambassador to Constantinople, gave the first smallpox inoculation outside of Asia.

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Gilan Province

Gilan Province (اُستان گیلان, Ostān-e Gīlān, also Latinized as Guilan) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.

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Gilles Schey

Gilles Schey (bapt. 28 August 1644 in Arnhem – 15 June 1703 in Amsterdam) was a Dutch admiral.

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Giovanni Maria Fontana

Giovanni Maria Fontana (c1670 – after 1712) was an Italian-Swiss architect, born in Lugano, who worked in Russia, on the invitation of Peter the Great, who assembled a team of European architects and artisans for the construction of St Petersburg during his grand tour in 1697 and 1698.

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Gleb Derujinsky

Gleb Derujinsky (March 19, 1925 – June 9, 2011) was an American fashion photographer.

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Gligorije Trlajić

Gligorije Trlajić (25 January 1766, Mol (Bačka) – 28 September 1811, Harkov, then part of Imperial Russia) was a Serbian writer, poet, polylgot and professor of law at the universities of St. Petersburg and Kharkiv (Harkov).

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Glinsk Hermitage

The Glinsk Hermitage (formally known as the Nativity of the Theotokos Stavropegial Male Monastery) is a Russian Orthodox stavropegial monastery located in Ukraine, near the Russian border.

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Global spread of the printing press

The global spread of the printing press began with the invention of the printing press with movable type by Johannes Gutenberg in Mainz, Germany.

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Globe of Gottorf

The Globe of Gottorf (Gottor'''p'''er Globus or Gottor'''f'''er Globus., Den gottorpske kæmpeglobus or Gottorpsk kæmpeglobus) is a 17th-century large globe of the earth in the Kunstkamera museum in St. Petersburg in Russia.

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Gogland

Gogland or Hogland (Гогланд; Suursaari; Hogland, Suursaar, Hochland) is an island in the Gulf of Finland in the eastern Baltic Sea, about 180 km west from Saint Petersburg and 35 km from the coast of Finland (near Kotka).

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Gold of Polubotok

The Gold of Polubotok (translit) is the story of a large amount of gold which Ukrainian Hetman Pavlo Polubotok supposedly deposited into an English bank in 1723, and which would have been returned upon the independence of Ukraine with an astronomical amount of interest.

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Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Miniseries or Television Film

The Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Miniseries or Television Film is an award presented annually by the Hollywood Foreign Press Association (HFPA).

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Golden Ring

The Golden Ring (Золото́е кольцо&#769) is a ring of cities northeast of Moscow, the capital of Russia.

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Golden Weapon "For Bravery"

The Gold Sword for Bravery (Russian: Золотое оружие «За храбрость») was a Russian Empire award for bravery.

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Goldwasser

Danziger Goldwasser (Gdańska wódka, "vodka of Gdańsk"), with Goldwasser as the registered tradename, is a strong (40% ABV) root and herbal liqueur which was produced from 1598 to 2009 in Danzig (Gdańsk).

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Gorodki

Gorodki (Городки, townlets; Poppi) is an ancient Russian folk sport whose popularity has spread to Karelia, Finland, Sweden, Ingria, Lithuania, and Estonia.

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Gostilitsy

Gostilitsy is a village and the administrative center of Gostilitskoye Rural Settlement in Lomonosovsky District, Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located several kilometers west of the town of Petergof.

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Gostiny dvor

Gostinyi dvor (p) is a historic Russian term for an indoor market or shopping centre.

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Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz (or; Leibnitz; – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath and philosopher who occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy.

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Governing Senate

The Governing Senate (Правительствующий сенат) was a legislative, judicial, and executive body of the Russian Emperors, instituted by Peter the Great to replace the Boyar Duma and lasted until the very end of the Russian Empire.

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Government reform of Alexander I

The early Russian system of government instituted by Peter the Great, which consisted of various state committees, each named Collegium with subordinate departments named Prikaz, was largely outdated by the 19th century.

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Government reform of Peter the Great

The government reforms of Peter I aimed to modernize the Tsardom of Russia (later the Russian Empire) based on Western and Central European models.

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Governor

A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the executive branch of a non-sovereign or sub-national level of government, ranking under the head of state.

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Governor-General of Baltic provinces

Governor-General of the Baltic provinces or Governor-General of Estonia, Livonia, and Courland was the military commander of the Riga Military District and the highest administrator of the Baltic governorates of Estonia, Livonia and Courland sporadically under Russian rule in the 19th century.

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Governorate (Russia)

A governorate, or a guberniya (p; also romanized gubernia, guberniia, gubernya), was a major and principal administrative subdivision of the Russian Empire and the early Russian SFSR and Ukrainian SSR.

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Govert Bidloo

Govert Bidloo or Govard Bidloo (12 March 1649 – 30 March 1713) was a Dutch Golden Age physician, anatomist, poet and playwright.

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Goznak

Joint Stock Company "Goznak" (short for Государственный знак, or State Insignia) is a Joint Stock Company in Russia, responsible for R&D as well as manufacturing in security products, including banknotes, coins, stamps, ID-cards, secure documents, state orders and medals, as well as providing secure IT services.

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Grad (toponymy)

Grad (Cyrillic: Град) is an Old Slavic word meaning "town", "city", "castle" or "fortified settlement".

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Graham McGrath

Graham McGrath (born 29 July 1971) is an English actor with film, television, radio and theatre credits.

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Grand Duchess Alexandra Pavlovna of Russia

Grand Duchess Alexandra Pavlovna of Russia, (Александра Павловна: 9 August 1783 at Saint Petersburg – 16 March 1801 in Buda) was a daughter of Tsar Paul I of Russia and sister of Emperors Alexander I and Nicholas I. She married Archduke Joseph of Austria, Governor of Hungary.) Her marriage was the only Romanov-Habsburg marital alliance that ever occurred.

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Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna of Russia

Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna of Russia, Tsesarevna of Russia (Anna Petrovna Romanova) Анна Петровна; 27 January 1708, in Moscow – 4 March 1728, in Kiel) was the elder daughter of Emperor Peter I of Russia and Empress Catherine I of Russia. Her sister, Elizabeth of Russia, ruled as Empress between 1741 and 1762. While a potential heir in the reign of her father and her mother, she never acceded to the throne due to political reasons. However, her son Peter would rule as Emperor in 1762, succeeding Elizabeth. She was the Duchess of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp by marriage.

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Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna of Russia

Grand Duchess Elena of Russia, Hereditary Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg (24 December 1784 – 24 September 1803) was a daughter of Grand Duke, later Tsar Paul I of Russia and his second wife Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg.

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Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna of Russia (1786–1859)

Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna of Russia (Мария Павловна; 16 February 1786 – 23 June 1859) was the third daughter of Paul I of Russia and Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg.

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Grand Duchess Natalia Petrovna of Russia (1718–1725)

Grand Duchess Natalia Petrovna of Russia was the youngest daughter of Peter the Great and his second wife Catherine I.

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Grand Duchess Natalya Alexeyevna of Russia (1714–1728)

Grand Duchess Natalya Alexeyevna of Russia (Наталья Алексеевна; 21 July 1714 – 22 November 1728) was a Russian Grand Duchess.

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Grand Duchess Olga Pavlovna of Russia

Grand Duchess Olga Pavlovna of Russia (Ольга Павловна) was a Grand Duchess of Russia as the second youngest daughter and seventh child of Emperor Paul I of Russia and his empress consort, Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg.

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Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolayevich of Russia

Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolayevich of Russia (Константи́н Никола́евич Рома́нов; 21 September 1827 – 25 January 1892) was the second son of Tsar Nicholas I of Russia and younger brother of Tsar Alexander II.

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Grand Duke Konstantin Pavlovich of Russia

Konstantin Pavlovich (Константи́н Па́влович; 8 May 1779 27 June 1831 was a grand duke of Russia and the second son of Emperor Paul I and Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg. He was the Tsesarevich of Russia throughout the reign of his elder brother Alexander I, but had secretly renounced his claim to the throne in 1823. For 25 days after the death of Alexander I, from 19 November (O.S.)/1 December 1825 to 14 December (O.S.)/26 December 1825 he was known as His Imperial Majesty Konstantin I Emperor and Sovereign of Russia, although he never reigned and never acceded to the throne. His younger brother Nicholas became Tsar in 1825. The succession controversy became the pretext of the Decembrist revolt. Konstantin was known to eschew court etiquette and to take frequent stands against the wishes of his brother Alexander I, for which he is remembered fondly in Russia, but in his capacity as the governor of Poland he is remembered as a strong ruler.

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Grand Duke Michael Mikhailovich of Russia

Grand Duke Michael Mikhailovich of Russia (Russian: Михаил Михайлович; 16 October 1861 – 26 April 1929) was a son of Grand Duke Michael Nicolaievich of Russia and a grandson of Tsar Nicholas I of Russia.

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Grand Duke Michael Pavlovich of Russia

Grand Duke Michael Pavlovich of Russia (Михаи́л Па́влович; Mikhail Pavlovich) (8 February 1798 – 9 September 1849) was a Russian prince, the tenth child and fourth son of Paul I of Russia and Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg.

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Grand Embassy of Peter the Great

The Grand Embassy (translit) was a Russian diplomatic mission to Western Europe in 1697–98 led by Peter the Great.

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Grand prince

The title grand prince or great prince (magnus princeps, Greek: megas archon) ranked in honour below king and emperor and above a sovereign prince.

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Grand Trianon

The Grand Trianon is a château (palace) situated in the northwestern part of the Domain of Versailles.

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Grünes Gewölbe

The Grünes Gewölbe (English: Green Vault) in Dresden is a unique historic museum that contains the largest collection of treasures in Europe.

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Great Famine of Estonia (1695–97)

The Great Famine of Estonia (also The great starvation) killed about a fifth of Estonian and Livonian population (70,000–75,000 people) in two years.

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Great fire of Tartu

The Great fire of Tartu took place on and destroyed most of the city of Tartu in what is now Estonia.

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Great Frost of 1709

The Great Frost, as it was known in England, or Le Grand Hiver ("The Great Winter"), as it was known in France, was an extraordinarily cold winter in Europe in late 1708 and early 1709,.

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Great Northern Expedition

The Great Northern Expedition (Великая Северная экспедиция) or Second Kamchatka expedition (Вторая Камчатская экспедиция) was one of the largest exploration enterprises in history, mapping most of the Arctic coast of Siberia and some parts of the North America coastline, greatly reducing "white areas" on maps.

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Great Northern War

The Great Northern War (1700–1721) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe.

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Great Northern War plague outbreak

During the Great Northern War (1700–1721), many towns and areas of the Circum-Baltic and East-Central Europe suffered from a severe outbreak of the plague with a peak from 1708 to 1712.

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Great Podil fire

The 1811 Great fire of Podil (Велика пожежа, Velyka pozhezha) occurred on the morning of July 9, 1811 in the historical and commercial neighborhood of Podil in Kiev (Kyiv), the capital of Ukraine.

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Great Reduction (Sweden)

In the Great Reduction of 1680, by which the ancient landed nobility lost its power base, the Swedish Crown recaptured lands earlier granted to the nobility.

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Great Tower Street

Great Tower Street, originally known just as Tower Street, is a street in the City of London, the historic nucleus and modern financial centre of London.

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Greek War of Independence

The Greek War of Independence, also known as the Greek Revolution (Ελληνική Επανάσταση, Elliniki Epanastasi, or also referred to by Greeks in the 19th century as the Αγώνας, Agonas, "Struggle"; Ottoman: يونان عصياني Yunan İsyanı, "Greek Uprising"), was a successful war of independence waged by Greek revolutionaries against the Ottoman Empire between 1821 and 1830.

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Gregory Ephimovich Shchurovsky

Gregory Ephimovich Shchurovsky (30 January 1804 – March 20, 1884) was a Russian Professor of geology in Moscow.

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Greifswald

Greifswald, officially the University and Hanseatic City of Greifswald (German: Universitäts- und Hansestadt Greifswald), is a city in northeastern Germany.

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Gremuchiy Spring

Gremuchiy (Гремучий, literally ― Fulminating) is a spring and a nature monument that is situated in Western part of Zheleznodorozhny District of Rostov-on-Don, Russia.

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Grid plan

The grid plan, grid street plan, or gridiron plan is a type of city plan in which streets run at right angles to each other, forming a grid.

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Grigory Danilevsky

Grigory Petrovich Danilevsky (Григо́рий Петро́вич Даниле́вский; &ndash) was a Russian historical novelist.

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Grigory Dmitriyevich Stroganov

Grigory Dmitriyevich Stroganov (Григорий Дмитриевич Строганов) (25 January 1656 – 21 November 1715) was a Russian landowner and statesman, the most notable member of the prominent Stroganov family in the late 17th century-early 18th century, a strong supporter of the reforms and initiatives of Peter the Great.

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Grigory Dmitriyevich Yusupov

Grigory Dmitriyevich Yusupov (17 (27) November 1676 - 2 (13) September 1730, Moscow) was a Russian nobleman and member of the Yusupov family.

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Grodno

Grodno or Hrodna (Гродна, Hrodna; ˈɡrodnə, see also other names) is a city in western Belarus.

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Growth of Pedro II of Brazil

In the life of Pedro II of Brazil, growth in both his personal and public roles took place in the decade beginning in 1853.

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Gryazovetsky District

Gryazovetsky District (Гря́зовецкий райо́н) is an administrativeLaw #371-OZ and municipal districtLaw #1114-OZ (raion), one of the twenty-six in Vologda Oblast, Russia.

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Guillaume Delisle

Guillaume Delisle, also spelled Guillaume de l'Isle, (28 February 1675, Paris – 25 January 1726, Paris) was a French cartographer known for his popular and accurate maps of Europe and the newly explored Americas.

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Gulf of Finland

The Gulf of Finland (Suomenlahti; Soome laht; p; Finska viken) is the easternmost arm of the Baltic Sea.

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Gunno Dahlstierna

Gunno Dahlstierna (September 7, 1661September 7, 1709) was a Swedish poet.

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Gustaf Otto Douglas

Count Gustaf (also Gustav) Otto Douglas (23 February 1687, Stockholm – 2 February 1771, Reval) was a Swedish mercenary of Scottish descent, grandson of Robert Douglas, Count of Skenninge.

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Gymnasium of Karlovci

The Gymnasium of Karlovci (Karlovačka gimnazija / Карловачка гимназија) is the high school (gymnasium) located in the town of Sremski Karlovci.

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Haapsalu Castle

Haapsalu Castle (also Haapsalu Episcopal Castle, Haapsalu piiskopilinnus) is a castle with cathedral in Haapsalu, Estonia, founded in the thirteenth century as the seat of the Bishopric of Ösel-Wiek.

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Hamina Fortress

Hamina Fortress is located in Finland on the coast of the Gulf of Finland and it is an integral part of the Hamina city centre.

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Hardstone carving

Hardstone carving is a general term in art history and archaeology for the artistic carving of predominantly semi-precious stones (but also of gemstones), such as jade, rock crystal (clear quartz), agate, onyx, jasper, serpentine, or carnelian, and for an object made in this way.

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Hare Island (Saint Petersburg)

Zayachy (Hare) Island (Russian Заячий остров, transliteration Zayachy ostrov) is an island in the Neva River in St. Petersburg, Russia.

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Harju County

Harju County (Harju maakond), or Harjumaa (Harrien or Rugel, Harria) is one of the 15 counties of Estonia.

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Harmen van Bol'es

Harmen van Bol'es (Amsterdam 1689 - Saint-Petersburg 1764) was a royal master builder in Russia.

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Hasan (Janissary secretary)

Hasan was an Ottoman civil servant who wrote about his experiences during the Russo-Ottoman War of 1710–11.

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Hôtel d'Estrées

The Hôtel d'Estrées is a hôtel particulier, a type of large townhouse of France, at 79 rue de Grenelle in the 7th arrondissement of Paris.

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Heir apparent

An heir apparent is a person who is first in a line of succession and cannot be displaced from inheriting by the birth of another person.

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Hellenoturkism

Hellenoturkism is a political concept that encompasses two things: a) a fact of civilization i.e. the co-habitation and interdependence, since the 11th century A.D., of the Greek and Turkish peoples and cultures, and b) a political ideology based on the above civilizational phenomenon, which aims at establishing a Greek-Turkish political ensemble.

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Hemmema

A hemmema (from Finnish "Hämeenmaa", Tavastia) was a type of warship built for the Swedish archipelago fleet and the Russian Baltic navy in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

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Henry Every

Henry Every, also Avery or Evory, (23 August 1659 – time of death uncertain, possibly 1699) sometimes erroneously given as Jack Avery or John Avery, was an English pirate who operated in the Atlantic and Indian oceans in the mid-1690s.

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Henry Farquharson

Henry Farquharson (1675 – 19 December 1739) was a teacher who pioneered the study of mathematics in Russia.

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Heraclius I of Kakheti

Heraclius I (ერეკლე I, Erekle I) or Nazar Alī Khān (1642–1709), of the Bagrationi dynasty, was a Georgian monarch who ruled the kingdoms of Kakheti (1675–1676, 1703–1709) and Kartli (1688–1703) under the protection of the Safavid dynasty of Iran.

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Herman Boerhaave

Herman Boerhaave (31 December 1668 – 23 September 1738)Underwood, E. Ashworth.

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Hermes (Museo Pio-Clementino)

The Hermes of the Museo Pio-Clementino is an ancient Roman sculpture, part of the Vatican collections, Rome.

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Hermitage Museum

The State Hermitage Museum (p) is a museum of art and culture in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

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Hermitage Theatre

The Hermitage Theatre (ɪrʲmʲɪˈtaʐnɨj tʲɪˈatər) in Saint Petersburg, Russia is one of five Hermitage buildings lining the Palace Embankment of the Neva River.

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Het Loo Palace

Het Loo Palace (Paleis Het Loo,, meaning "The Woods Palace") is a palace in Apeldoorn, Netherlands, built by the House of Orange-Nassau.

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Hey Diddle Diddle

"Hey Diddle Diddle" (also "Hi Diddle Diddle", "The Cat and the Fiddle", or "The Cow Jumped Over the Moon") is an English nursery rhyme.

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History of anthropology by country

Anthropology is the study of various aspects of humans within past and present societies.

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History of Artsakh

Artsakh is located in the southern part of the Lesser Caucasus range, at the eastern edge of the Armenian Highlands, encompassing the highland part of the wider geographical region known as Karabakh.

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History of Azerbaijan

Azerbaijan is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.

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History of Baku

Baku is the capital of Azerbaijan Republic, which was also the capital of Shirvan (during the reigns of Akhsitan I and Khalilullah I), Baku khanate, Azerbaijan Democratic Republic and Azerbaijan SSR and the administrative center of Russian Baku governorate.

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History of Bălți

Bălţi is the second largest city in Moldova.

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History of Central Asia

The history of Central Asia concerns the history of the various peoples that have inhabited Central Asia.

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History of Chechnya

The history of Chechnya may refer to the history of the Chechens, of their land Chechnya, or of the land of Ichkeria.

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History of Dagestan

Historically, Dagestan (Caucasian Albania) consisted of a federation of mountainous principalities in the eastern part of the North Caucasus.

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History of Europe

The history of Europe covers the peoples inhabiting Europe from prehistory to the present.

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History of Germans in Russia, Ukraine and the Soviet Union

The German minority in Russia, Ukraine and the Soviet Union was created from several sources and in several waves.

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History of Gilan

Gīlān is an Iranian province at the southwestern coast of the Caspian Sea.

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History of international law in Russia

The history of international law in Russia is marked by several important periods, among these.

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History of Iran

The history of Iran, commonly also known as Persia in the Western world, is intertwined with the history of a larger region, also to an extent known as Greater Iran, comprising the area from Anatolia, the Bosphorus, and Egypt in the west to the borders of Ancient India and the Syr Darya in the east, and from the Caucasus and the Eurasian Steppe in the north to the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman in the south.

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History of Kazan

The origin of the name Kazan is uncertain.

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History of Latvia

The history of Latvia began around 9000 BC with the end of the last glacial period in northern Europe.

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History of Minsk

Early East Slavs settled the forested hills of today's Minsk by the 9th century.

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History of modern Christianity

The history of modern Christianity concerns the Christian religion from the end of the Early Modern era to the present day.

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History of Moscow

The city of Moscow gradually grew around the Moscow Kremlin, beginning in the 14th century.

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History of Nizhny Novgorod

Nizhny Novgorod was founded by Prince Yuri II of Vladimir in 4 February 1221.

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History of Poland in the Early Modern era (1569–1795)

The early modern era of Polish history follows the late Middle Ages.

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History of Riga

The history of Riga, the capital of Latvia, begins as early as the 2nd century with a settlement, the Duna urbs, at a natural harbor not far upriver from the mouth of the Daugava River.

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History of Russia

The History of Russia begins with that of the East Slavs.

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History of Russia (1721–96)

Peter changed the rules of succession to the throne after the death of his son Aleksey, who had opposed his father's reforms and served as a rallying figure for anti-reform groups.

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History of Russia (1796–1855)

In Russian history, the period from 1796 to 1855 (covering the reigns of Paul I, Alexander I and Nicholas I) saw the Napoleonic wars, Government reform, political reorganization and economic growth.

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History of Russia (1855–92)

In 1855 Alexander II began his reign as Tsar of Russia, and presided over a period of political and social reform, notably the emancipation of serfs in 1861 and the lifting of censorship.

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History of Russian military ranks

Modern Russian military ranks trace their roots to Table of Ranks established by Peter the Great.

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History of Saint Petersburg

Founded by Tsar Peter the Great on 27 May 1703.

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History of Siberia

The early history of Siberia is greatly influenced by the sophisticated nomadic civilizations of the Scythians (Pazyryk) on the west of the Ural Mountains and Xiongnu (Noin-Ula) on the east of the Urals, both flourishing before the Christian era.

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History of slavery

The history of slavery spans many cultures, nationalities, and religions from ancient times to the present day.

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History of submarines

Beginning in ancient times, humans sought to operate under the water.

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History of Sweden

During the 11th and 12th centuries, Sweden gradually became a unified Christian kingdom that later included what is today Finland.

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History of Taganrog

The southern Russian city of Taganrog began as one of Russia's first planned cities under Peter the Great.

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History of the administrative division of Russia

The modern administrative-territorial structure of Russia is a system of territorial organization which is a product of a centuries-long evolution and reforms.

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History of the Åland Islands

The Åland Islands occupy a position of great strategic importance, commanding as they do both one of the entrances to the port of Stockholm and the approaches to the Gulf of Bothnia, in addition to being situated proximate to the Gulf of Finland.

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History of the Jews in Russia

Jews in the Russian Empire have historically constituted a large religious diaspora; the vast territories of the Russian Empire at one time hosted the largest population of Jews in the world.

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History of the metric system

The history of the metric system began in the Age of Enlightenment with simple notions of length and weight taken from natural ones, and decimal multiples and fractions of them.

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History of the oil shale industry

The history of the oil shale industry started in ancient times.

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History of the Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire was founded by Osman I. As sultan Mehmed II conquered Constantinople (today named Istanbul) in 1453, the state grew into a mighty empire.

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History of the Palace of Versailles

The Palace of Versailles is a royal château in Versailles, in the Île-de-France region of France.

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History of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1648–1764)

History of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1648–1764) covers a period in the history of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, from the time their joint state became the theater of wars and invasions fought on a great scale in the middle of the 17th century, to the time just before the election of Stanisław August Poniatowski, the last king of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

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History of the Royal Castle in Warsaw

The Royal Castle in Warsaw was a seat of the Sejm and Senate of the first Rzeczpospolita and also an official residence of the monarchs in Warsaw.

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History of the Russian language

Note: in the following sections, all examples of vocabulary appear in their modern spelling.

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History of the Russian State from Gostomysl to Timashev

History of the Russian State from Gostomysl to Timashev (translit) is a poem in 83 verses by the Russian poet and dramatist Aleksey Konstantinovich Tolstoy, written in 1868.

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History of the Russo-Turkish wars

The Russo–Turkish wars (or Ottoman–Russian wars) were a series of wars fought between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire between the 16th and 20th centuries.

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History of tobacco

Tobacco has a long history from its usages in the early Americas.

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History of Toruń

The first settlement in the vicinity of Toruń is dated by archaeologists to 1100 BC (Lusatian culture).

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History of Trinity College, Oxford

The history of Trinity College, Oxford documents the 450 years from the foundation of Trinity – a collegiate member of the University of Oxford – on 8 March 1554/5.

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History of Warsaw

The history of Warsaw spans over 1400 years.

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History of Western civilization

Western civilization traces its roots back to Europe and the Mediterranean.

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Hlukhiv

Hlukhiv (Глу́хів, Głuchów) or Glukhov (Глухов) is a small historic town on the Esman River.

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HMS Paramour (1694)

HMS Paramour was a 6-gun pink of the Royal Navy, briefly commanded by the astronomer Edmond Halley, initially as a civilian and later as a "temporary captain".

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HMY Britannia (Royal Cutter Yacht)

His Majesty's Yacht Britannia was a gaff-rigged cutter built in 1893 for Commodore Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, who later became King Edward VII.

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HMY William & Mary (1694)

HM Yacht William and Mary was a royal yacht of the Kingdom of Great Britain, named after the joint monarchs who ruled between 1689 and 1694.

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Holstein Party

The Holstein Party (Swedish: Holsteinska partiet), was the name of a political group in 18th-century Sweden which played a significant role in politics after the death of Charles XII of Sweden in 1718 and until 1727.

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Holy Synod

In several of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches and Eastern Catholic Churches, the patriarch or head bishop is elected by a group of bishops called the Holy Synod.

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Homberg, Kusel

Homberg is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Kusel district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

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Horodnia

Horodnia (Городня) is a town in Chernihiv Raion, Chernihiv Oblast (province) of Ukraine.

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Horsley Hall, Gresford

Horsley Hall was a Jacobethan style house with formal gardens, near to Gresford, Wrexham County Borough, that was destroyed in 1963.

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House of Croÿ

The House of Croÿ is a family of European mediatized nobility, which held a seat in the Imperial Diet from 1486, and was elevated to the rank of Princes of the Holy Roman Empire in 1594.

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House of Golitsyn

The Golitsyn (ɡɐˈlʲitsɨn) family, one of the largest and most princely of the noble houses of Russia, originated in the Duchy of Lithuania.

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House of Hasan-Jalalyan

The House of Hasan-Jalalyan (Հասան-Ջալալյաններ) was an Armenian dynasty that ruled the region of Khachen (Greater Artsakh) from 1214 onwards in what are now the regions of lower Karabakh, Nagorno-Karabakh and small part of Syunik. Ulubabyan, Bagrat. "Հասան-Ջալալյաններ". Armenian Soviet Encyclopedia. Yerevan: Armenian Academy of Sciences, 1980, vol. 6, p. 246. It was named after Hasan-Jalal Dawla (Հասան-Ջալալ Դոլա), an Armenian feudal prince from Khachen. The Hasan-Jalalyan family was able to maintain its autonomy throughout several centuries of foreign domination of the region by Seljuk Turks, Persians and Mongols as they, as well as the other Armenian princes and meliks of Khachen, saw themselves of holding the last bastion of Armenian independence in the region. Through their many patronages of churches and other monuments, the Hasan-Jalalyans helped cultivate Armenian culture throughout the region. By the late 16th century, the Hasan-Jalalyan family had branched out to establish melikdoms in Gulistan and Jraberd, making them, along with Khachen, Varanda and Dizak, a part of what was then known as the "Melikdoms of Khamsa.".

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House of Romanov

The House of Romanov (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. also Romanoff; Рома́новы, Románovy) was the second dynasty to rule Russia, after the House of Rurik, reigning from 1613 until the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II on March 15, 1917, as a result of the February Revolution.

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House of Siberia

Sibirsky (Russian:Сибирский, pl. Сибирские) was the foremost of many Genghisid (Shaybanid) families formerly living in Russia.

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House of Yusupov

The Yusupovs (r) were a Russian noble family descended from the monarchs of the Nogai Horde, renowned for their immense wealth, philanthropy and art collections in the 18th and 19th centuries.

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How Czar Peter the Great Married Off His Moor

How Czar Peter the Great Married Off His Moor (Сказ про то, как царь Пётр арапа женил, Skaz pro to, kak tsar Pyotr arapa zhenil) is a 1976 musical film directed by the Russian filmmaker Aleksandr Mitta.

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Hrenovuha

Hrenovuha (Хріновуха, Хреновуха) is a type of strong vodka, common in Ukraine and Russia.

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Hussar

A hussar was a member of a class of light cavalry, originating in Eastern and Central Europe during the 15th and 16th centuries, originally Hungarian.

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Ice palace

An ice palace or ice castle is a castle-like structure made of blocks of ice.

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Idea of progress

In intellectual history, the Idea of Progress is the idea that advances in technology, science, and social organization can produce an improvement in the human condition.

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Igor Grabar

Igor Emmanuilovich Grabar (Игорь Эммануилович Грабарь, 25 March 1871 in Budapest – 16 May 1960 in Moscow) was a Russian post-impressionist painter, publisher, restorer and historian of art.

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Igor Roma

Igor Roma is an Italian virtuoso pianist.

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Il borgomastro di Saardam

(The mayor of Saardam) is an 1827 melodramma giocoso (opera buffa) in two acts by Gaetano Donizetti.

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Il falegname di Livonia

Il falegname di Livonia, o Pietro il grande, czar delle Russie (The Livonian Carpenter, or Peter the Great, Tsar of the Russias) is an 1819 opera buffa in two acts with music by Gaetano Donizetti set to a libretto by Gherardo Bevilacqua-Aldobrandini.

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Ilya Uralov

Ilya Matveyevich Konkov (Илья Матвеевич Коньков, 1972, — 16 October 1920) was a Russian stage actor better known under his stage name Uralov (Уралов).

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Imperator

The Latin word imperator derives from the stem of the verb imperare, meaning ‘to order, to command’.

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Imperial Crown of Russia

The Imperial Crown of Russia, also known as the Great Imperial Crown, was used by the monarchs of Russia from 1762 until the monarchy's abolition in 1917.

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Imperial Guard (Russia)

The Russian Imperial Guard, officially known as the Leib Guard (Лейб-гвардия leyb-gvardiya, from German Leib "Body"; cf. Life Guards / Bodyguard) were military units serving as personal guards of the Emperor of Russia.

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Imperial Porcelain Factory

The Imperial Porcelain Factory (Imperatorskii Farforovyi Zavod), also known as the Imperial Porcelain Manufactory (abbreviated as IPM), is a producer of hand-painted ceramics in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

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Imperial Russian Army

The Imperial Russian Army (Ру́сская импера́торская а́рмия) was the land armed force of the Russian Empire, active from around 1721 to the Russian Revolution of 1917.

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Imperial Russian Navy

The Imperial Russian Navy was the navy of the Russian Empire.

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Imperial Theatres

Imperial Theatres of Russian Empire (Императорские театры Российской империи) was a theatrical organization financed by the Imperial exchequer and managed by a single directorate headed with a director; was pertain to the Ministry of the Imperial Court from 1742.

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Imperium

Imperium is a Latin word that, in a broad sense, translates roughly as 'power to command'.

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India–Russia relations

Indo-Russian relations (Российско-индийские отношения भारत-रूस सम्बन्ध) refer to the bilateral relations between the Republic of India and the Russian Federation.

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Ingala Valley

The Ingala Valley (Ингальская долина) is an archaeological district in the area between the Tobol and Iset rivers.

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Ingria

Historical Ingria (Inkeri or Inkerinmaa; Ингрия, Ingriya, Ижорская земля, Izhorskaya zemlya, or Ингерманландия, Ingermanlandiya; Ingermanland; Ingeri or Ingerimaa) is the geographical area located along the southern shore of the Gulf of Finland, bordered by Lake Ladoga on the Karelian Isthmus in the north and by the River Narva on the border with Estonia in the west.

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Intelligentsia

The intelligentsia (/ɪnˌtelɪˈdʒentsiə/) (intelligentia, inteligencja, p) is a status class of educated people engaged in the complex mental labours that critique, guide, and lead in shaping the culture and politics of their society.

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International relations, 1648–1814

International relations from 1648–1814 covers the major interactions of the nations of Europe, as well as the other continents, with emphasis on diplomacy, warfare, migration, and cultural interactions, from the Peace of Westphalia to the Congress of Vienna.

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Ion Neculce

Ion Neculce (1672–1745) was a Moldavian chronicler.

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Iran–Russia relations

Relations between the Grand Duchy of Moscow and the Persian Empire (Iran), officially commenced in 1521, with the Safavids in power.

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Irina Mikhailovna of Russia

Irina Mikhailovna (Ирина Михайловна; 22 April 1627 – 8 February 1679), was a Russian Tsarevna, the eldest daughter of Tsar Michael of Russia from his second marriage to Eudoxia Streshneva, a noblewoman from Mozhaysk.

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Irreligion in Russia

Irreligion was official state policy during the Soviet Union and was rigorously enforced.

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Irtysh River

The Irtysh River (Эрчис мөрөн, Erchis mörön, "erchleh", "twirl"; Иртыш; Ертіс, Ertis, ه‌رتىس; Chinese: 额尔齐斯河, pinyin: É'ěrqísī hé, Xiao'erjing: عَعَرٿِسِ حْ; Uyghur: ئېرتىش, Ertish; ﻴﺋرتئش, Siberian Tatar: Эйәртеш, Eya’rtes’) is a river in Russia, China, and Kazakhstan.

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Isaac of Dalmatia

Saint Isaac the Confessor (died May 30, 383 or 396), founder of the Dalmatian Monastery in Constantinople, was a Christian monk who is honored as a saint and confessor.

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Ishim, Tyumen Oblast

Ishim (Иши́м) is a town in the south of Tyumen Oblast, Russia.

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Israel Ori

Israel Ori (1658–1711) was a prominent figure of the Armenian national liberation movement and a diplomat that sought the liberation of Armenia from Persia and the Ottoman Empire.

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Issachar Berend Lehmann

Issachar Berend Lehmann, Berend Lehmann, Yissakhar Bermann Segal, Yissakhar ben Yehuda haLevi, Berman Halberstadt (April 23, 1661 in Essen, Westphalia – July 9, 1730 in Halberstadt, Kingdom of Prussia), was a Jewish-German banker, merchant, diplomatic agent as well as army and mint contractor working as a court Jew for Elector Augustus II the Strong of Saxony, King of Poland, and other German princes.

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Itelmens

The Itelmen, sometimes known as Kamchadal, are an ethnic group who are the original inhabitants living on the Kamchatka Peninsula in Russia.

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Ivan Andreyevich Khovansky (Tararui)

Prince Ivan Andreyevich Khovansky (Ива́н Андре́евич Хова́нский) was a Russian boyar who led the Streltsy during the Moscow Uprising of 1682, alternatively known as the Khovanshchina.

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Ivan Andreyevich Tolstoy

Ivan Andreevich Tolstoy (Иван Андреевич Толстой) (1644–1713) was a Russian officer in the army of Tsar Peter I. Ivan Andreevich was a member of prominent Tolstoy family, son of Andrey Vasiliyevich Tolstoy and Solomonida Miloslavskaya, older brother of Pyotr Andreyevich Tolstoy, distant relation of Maria Miloslavskaya (first wife of tzar Aleksey Mikhailovich).

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Ivan Balakirev

Ivan Aleksandrovich Balakirev (Ива́н Александрович Бала́кирев; 1699-1763) was a court jester of to Peter I of Russia Coming from an old noble family.

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Ivan Botsis

Count Ivan Fedoseevich Botsis (Ιωάννης Μπότσης, Иван Федосеевич Боцис, died 18 May 1714 at biografija.ru) was a Russian admiral and one of the founders of the Imperial Russian Navy under Peter the Great.

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Ivan Chemnitzer

Ivan Ivanovitch Chemnitzer or Khemnitzer (Ива́н Ива́нович Хемни́цер) (1745–84) was a Russian fabulist, born at Yenotayevsk, Astrakhan Governorate, the son of a German physician of Chemnitz, who had served in the Russian army under Peter the Great.

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Ivan Ganetsky

Ivan Ganetsky (October 8, 1810 – 1887) was an Imperial Russian division commander.

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Ivan Iskra

Ivan Ivanovych Iskra (Іван Іванович Іскра) (died July, 14, 1708) was a colonel of Poltava (1696–1703).

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Ivan Ivanovich Khovansky

Ivan Ivanovich Khovansky (Иван Иванович Хованский) (died March 15, 1701) was a Russian boyar, son of Ivan Nikitich Khovansky, opponent of Peter the Great's reforms.

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Ivan Kireyevsky

Ivan Vasilyevich Kireyevsky (Ива́н Васи́льевич Кире́евский; 3 April 1806 in Moscow – 23 June 1856 in Saint Petersburg) was a Russian literary critic and philosopher who, together with Aleksey Khomyakov, is credited as a co-founder of the Slavophile movement.

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Ivan Lukačević (soldier)

Ivan Lukačević (Иван Лукачевић, Иван Лукачевич; 1711–12), known as Podgoričanin (Подгоричанин), was a Russian Imperial captain of Serb origin from Podgorica (now in Montenegro) that participated in planning of a Balkan Orthodox uprising with Russian aid against the Ottoman Empire.

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Ivan Mazepa

Ivan Stepanovych Mazepa (Іван Степанович Мазепа, Jan Mazepa Kołodyński). Retrieved 10 July 2015 served as the Hetman of Zaporizhian Host in 1687–1708.

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Ivan Neplyuyev

Ivan Ivanovich Neplyuyev (Ива́н Ива́нович Неплю́ев; 15 November 1693 – 22 November 1773) was a Russian diplomat and administrator prominent in the service of Peter the Great and Catherine the Great.

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Ivan Nikitin (painter)

Ivan Nikitich Nikitin (Иван Никитич Никитин c. 1690–1741) was a Russian painter, an author of portraits and battle paintings.

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Ivan Rerberg

Ivan Ivanovich Rerberg (October 4, 1869 – 1932, Moscow) was a Russian civil engineer, architect and educator active in Moscow in 1897–1932.

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Ivan Skoropadsky

Ivan Skoropadsky (Іван Скоропадський) (1646 – 3 July 1722) was a Polish–Lithuanian-born Hetman of Zaporizhian Host, and the successor to the famous Hetman Ivan Mazepa.

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Ivan the Terrible

Ivan IV Vasilyevich (pron; 25 August 1530 –), commonly known as Ivan the Terrible or Ivan the Fearsome (Ivan Grozny; a better translation into modern English would be Ivan the Formidable), was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1533 to 1547, then Tsar of All Rus' until his death in 1584.

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Ivan Trubetskoy

Ivan Yurievich Trubetskoy (Иван Юрьевич Трубецкой; 18 June 1667 – 16 January 1750 in Aleksandr Nevsky Monastery) was a Russian Field Marshal, promoted in 1728.

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Ivan Tsykler

Ivan Yeliseevich Tsykler (Tzykler) (Ива́н Елисе́евич Ци́клер, before 1660 –) was a Russian nobleman who was dismembered in 1697 on charges of conspiracy against Peter the Great.

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Ivan V of Russia

Ivan V Alekseyevich (Russian: Иван V Алексеевич, &ndash) was a joint Tsar of Russia (with his younger half-brother Peter I) who co-reigned between 1682 and 1696.

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Ivan Yevreinov

Ivan Mikhaylovich Yevreinov (Ива́н Миха́йлович Евре́инов) (1694–February 3 O.S. 1724) was a Russian geodesist and explorer.

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Ivan Zarudny

Ivan Petrovich Zarudny was a Baroque wood-carver and icon-painter from Sloboda Ukraine who was active in Moscow in the reign of Peter the Great.

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Ivangorod Fortress

Ivangorod Fortress (Ивангородская крепость, Jaanilinna linnus, Jaanilidna) is a medieval castle in Ivangorod, Leningrad Oblast, Russia.

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Izhevsk

Izhevsk (p; Иж, Iž, or Ижкар, Ižkar) is the capital city of the Udmurt Republic, Russia, located along the Izh River in the Western Ural Mountains.

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Izhorskiye Zavody

Izhorskiye Zavody or Izhora Plants (Ижо́рские заво́ды) is a Russian machine building joint stock company (OAO) belonging to the OMZ Group.

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Izmaylovo District

Izmaylovo District (райо́н Изма́йлово) is a district in Eastern Administrative Okrug of the federal city of Moscow, Russia.

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Izmaylovo Estate

Izmaylovo Estate (Усадьба Измайлово) was a country residence of the House of Romanov built in the reign of Alexis I of Russia.

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Izmaylovsky Park

Izmaylovsky Park or Izmaylovo Park is one of the largest parks in Moscow, Russia.

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Jacob Bruce

Count Jacob or James Daniel Bruce (Граф Яков Вилимович Брюс, Graf Yakov Vilimovich Bryus; 11 May 1669 – 30 April 1735) was a Russian statesman, military leader and scientist of Scottish descent (Clan Bruce), one of the associates of Peter the Great.

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Jacob de Wilde

Jacob de Wilde (1645–1721) was a citizen of the Dutch Republic.

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Jacobus Josephus Eeckhout

Jacobus Josephus Eeckhout or Jacques Joseph Eeckhout at the Netherlands Institute for Art History (6 or 8 February 1793 – 25 December 1861) was a Flemish painter, sculptor, pastellist, water-colourist and lithographer and a Director of the Royal Academy of Art in The Hague.

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Jacobus Poel

Jacobus "Jan" Poel (1712-1775) was a Dutch-born merchant in Saint Petersburg and Arkhangelsk.

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Jacopo Riccati

Jacopo Francesco Riccati (28 May 1676 – 15 April 1754) was an Venetian mathematician and jurist from Venice.

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Jacques-Joachim Trotti, marquis de La Chétardie

Jacques-Joachim Trotti, marquis de La Chétardie (3 October 1705 – 1 January 1759) was a French diplomat who engineered the coup d'etat that brought Elizaveta Petrovna to the Russian throne in 1741.

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James Abbott McNeill Whistler

James Abbott McNeill Whistler (July 10, 1834 – July 17, 1903) was an American artist, active during the American Gilded Age and based primarily in the United Kingdom.

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James Francis Edward Keith

The Hon. James Francis Edward Keith (11 June 1696 – 14 October 1758) was a Scottish soldier and Prussian field marshal.

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Jan Kupecký

Jan Kupecký or Ján Kupecký (in German: Johann Kupetzky, in Hungarian: Kupecky János, or Kupeczky János, 1667, Bazin, Royal Hungary (today Pezinok, Slovakia) – 16 July 1740, Nürnberg) was a Czech portrait painter during the baroque.

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Jan Niklas

Jan Niklas (born 15 October 1947) is a German film and television actor.

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Jan Weenix

Jan Weenix or Joannis Wenix (between 1640/1649 – 19 September 1719 (buried)) was a Dutch painter.

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Jane Porter

Jane Porter (17 January 1776 – 24 May 1850) was a historical novelist, dramatist and literary figure.

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Janissaries

The Janissaries (يڭيچرى, meaning "new soldier") were elite infantry units that formed the Ottoman Sultan's household troops, bodyguards and the first modern standing army in Europe.

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January 28

No description.

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Japanese language education in Russia

Japanese language education in Russia formally dates back to December 1701 or January 1702, when Dembei, a shipwrecked Japanese merchant, was taken to Moscow and ordered to begin teaching the language as soon as possible.

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Japanese people in Russia

Japanese people in Russia form a small part of the worldwide community of Nikkeijin, consisting mainly of Japanese expatriates and their descendants born in Russia.

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Jean Armand de Lestocq

Count Jean Armand de L'Estocq (German: Johann Hermann Lestocq, Russian: Иван Иванович Лесток, 29 April 1692 in Lüneburg – 12 June 1767 in Saint Petersburg) was a French adventurer who wielded immense influence on the foreign policy of Russia during the early reign of Empress Elizabeth.

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Jean-Baptiste Alexandre Le Blond

Jean-Baptiste Alexandre Le Blond (1679 – 10 March 1719) was a French architect and garden designer who became the chief architect of Saint Petersburg in 1716.

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Jean-Baptiste Oudry

Jean-Baptiste Oudry (17 March 1686 – 30 April 1755) was a French Rococo painter, engraver, and tapestry designer.

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Jean-Marc Nattier

Jean-Marc Nattier (17 March 1685 – 7 November 1766), French painter, was born in Paris, the second son of Marc Nattier (1642–1705), a portrait painter, and of Marie Courtois (1655–1703), a miniaturist.

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Jeremias III of Constantinople

Jeremias III (Ιερεμίας Γ΄, (c. 1650/1660 – 1735) was Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople two times, in 1716–1726 and 1732–1733.

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Jerusalem cross

The Jerusalem cross (also known as "Five-fold Cross", or "cross-and-crosslets") is a heraldic cross and Christian cross variant consisting of a large cross potent surrounded by four smaller Greek crosses, one in each quadrant.

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Joan Huydecoper II

Joan Huydecoper van Maarsseveen II (21 February 1625, Amsterdam – 1 December 1704, Amsterdam) was the eldest son of burgomaster Joan Huydecoper van Maarsseveen I and the brother-in-law of the collector Jan J. Hinlopen and the sheriff Jacob Boreel.

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Joanna Koerten

Joanna Koerten, (married name Joanna Block) (17 November 1650 in Amsterdam – 28 December 1715 in Amsterdam) was a Dutch artist who excelled in painting, drawing, embroidery, glass etching, and wax modeling.

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Joel Roberts Poinsett

Joel Roberts Poinsett (March 2, 1779 – December 12, 1851) was an American physician and diplomat.

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Johann Bessler

Johann Ernst Elias Bessler (ca. 1680 – November 30, 1745), known as Orffyreus or Orffyré, was a German entrepreneur who claimed to have built several perpetual motion machines.

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Johann Christian Buxbaum

Johann Christian Buxbaum (no later than 5 October 1693 – 7 July 1730), was a German physician, botanist and traveller.

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Johann Daniel Schumacher

Johann Daniel Schumacher (Russian: Ива́н Дани́лович Шума́хер; German: Johann Daniel von Schumacher; 5 February 1690 – 14 June 1761) was the secretary of the Russian Academy of Sciences and director of the Library of the Russian Academy of Sciences, during the Russian Empire.

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Johann Ernst Glück

Johann Ernst Glück (Ernsts Gliks; 10 November 1652 – 5 May 1705) was a German translator and Lutheran theologian active in Livonia, which is now in Latvia.

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Johann Friedrich Mayer (theologian)

Johann Friedrich Mayer (6 December 1650 – 30 March 1712) was a German Lutheran theologian and professor of theology at Wittenberg University.

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Johann Gottfried Tannauer

Johann Gottfried Tannauer, or Dannhauer (1680, Saxony -1733/37, Saint Petersburg) was a German painter, portraitist and miniaturist who worked in Russia after 1711.

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Johann Patkul

Johann Reinhold Patkul (27 July 1660 – 10 October 1707) was a Livonian nobleman, politician and agitator of Baltic German extraction.

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Johann Steinhauer

Johann Steinhauer (Jānis Šteinhauers, born Jānis Akmeņkalis; 19 January 1705 – 21 February 1779) was a Latvian entrepreneur, social reformer and landowner, who made significant contributions to the Latvian civil rights throughout the 18th century.

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John Bell (traveller)

John Bell (1691–1780) was a Scottish doctor and traveller.

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John Benbow

John Benbow (10 March 16534 November 1702) was an English officer in the Royal Navy.

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John Carteret, 2nd Earl Granville

John Carteret, 2nd Earl Granville, 7th Seigneur of Sark, (22 April 1690 – 2 January 1763), commonly known by his earlier title Lord Carteret, was a British statesman and Lord President of the Council from 1751 to 1763; he worked extremely closely with the Prime Minister of the country, Spencer Compton, Earl of Wilmington, in order to manage the various factions of the Government.

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John Chrysostom

John Chrysostom (Ἰωάννης ὁ Χρυσόστομος; c. 349 – 14 September 407), Archbishop of Constantinople, was an important Early Church Father.

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John Derdrake

John Derdrake, known was “Jack of the Baltic,” was a Danish pirate active in the 1700s.

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John Evelyn

John Evelyn, FRS (31 October 1620 – 27 February 1706) was an English writer, gardener and diarist.

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John Norcross

John Norcross (1688-1758, last name occasionally Northcross) was an English Jacobite pirate and privateer who sailed in service to Sweden.

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John Norris (Royal Navy officer)

Admiral of the Fleet Sir John Norris (1670 or 167113 June 1749) was a Royal Navy officer.

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John Rogerson (physician)

Dr John Rogerson FRS FRSE (1741–1823) was a Scottish physician remembered as the personal physician to Catherine the Great of Russia.

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John Speed

John Speed (1551 or 1552 – 28 July 1629) was an English cartographer and historian.

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John the Russian

Saint John the Russian (Йоан Руський, Иоанн Русский) (1690, Cossack Hetmanate (modern Ukraine) – May 27 (N.S. June 9), 1730) is one of the most renowned saints in the Greek Orthodox Church.

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Josef Jiří Kolár

Josef Jiří Kolár (9 February 1812 – 31 January 1896) was a Czech theatrical actor, director, translator, and writer.

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Joseph Stalin

Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.

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Joseph-Nicolas Delisle

Joseph-Nicolas Delisle (4 April 1688 – 11 September 1768) was a French astronomer and cartographer.

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Jovan Albanez

Jovan Albanez (Јован Албанез; –d.) or Ivan Albanez (Serbian, Иван Албанез, Iван Албанез)) was a military officer of Montenegrin Serb origin who led the first group of colonists from the Military Frontier of the Habsburg Monarchy to the Russian Empire in the first half of the 18th century.

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Jubilee Medal "300 Years of the Russian Navy"

The Jubilee Medal "300 Years of the Russian Navy" (Юбилейная медаль «300 лет Российскому флоту») was a state commemorative medal of the Russian Federation awarded to deserving citizens to denote the 300th anniversary of the Russian Navy.

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Judicial system of the Russian Empire

The judicial system of the Russian Empire was established as part of the system of government reforms of Peter the Great.

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Julius Rappoport

Julius Alexandrovitch Rappoport, Russian silversmith, Fabergé workmaster.

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July 8

No description.

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June 26

No description.

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June 28

In common years it is always in ISO week 26.

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June 9

No description.

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Juraj Križanić

Juraj Križanić (c. 1618 – 12 September 1683), also known as Yuriy Krizhanich or Iurii Krizhanich (Крижанич, Юрий), was a Croatian Catholic missionary who is often regarded as the earliest recorded pan-Slavist.

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Kadriorg

Kadriorg (Estonian for "Catherine's Valley") is a subdistrict (asum) in the district of Kesklinn (Midtown), Tallinn, the capital of Estonia.

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Kadriorg Palace

Kadriorg Palace (Kadrioru loss, Schloss Katharinental) is a Petrine Baroque palace built for Catherine I of Russia by Peter the Great in Tallinn, Estonia.

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Kaduysky District

Kaduysky District (Ка́дуйский райо́н) is an administrativeLaw #371-OZ and municipalLaw #1115-OZ district (raion), one of the twenty-six in Vologda Oblast, Russia.

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Kaliningrad

Kaliningrad (p; former German name: Königsberg; Yiddish: קעניגסבערג, Kenigsberg; r; Old Prussian: Twangste, Kunnegsgarbs, Knigsberg; Polish: Królewiec) is a city in the administrative centre of Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic Sea.

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Kalininsky District, Tver Oblast

Kalininsky District (Кали́нинский райо́н) is an administrative and municipalLaw #4-ZO district (raion), one of the thirty-six in Tver Oblast, Russia.

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Kaluga Oblast

Kaluga Oblast (Калу́жская о́бласть, Kaluzhskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast).

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Kamennogorsk

Kamennogorsk (Каменного́рск), known under the Finnish name of Antrea (А́нтреа; S:t Andree) before 1948, is a town in Vyborgsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the Karelian Isthmus on the left bank of the Vuoksa River (Lake Ladoga's basin) northwest of St. Petersburg.

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Kamenny Islands

Kamenny Islands (Каменные острова, Kamenny Ostrova, meaning 'Stony Islands') are a group of three islands in the Neva delta, in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

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Kamianets-Podilskyi

Kamianets-Podilskyi (Kamyanets-Podilsky, Kamieniec Podolski, Camenița, Каменец-Подольский, קאמענעץ־פאדאלסק) is a city on the Smotrych River in western Ukraine, to the north-east of Chernivtsi.

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Kamyshin

Kamyshin (Камы́шин) is a city in Volgograd Oblast, Russia, located on the right bank of the Volgograd Reservoir of the Volga River, in the estuary of the Kamyshinka River.

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Kang Youwei

Kang Youwei (Cantonese: Hōng Yáuh-wàih; 19March 185831March 1927) was a Chinese scholar, noted calligrapher and prominent political thinker and reformer of the late Qing dynasty.

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Kargopolsky District

Kargopolsky District (Каргопо́льский райо́н) is an administrative district (raion), one of the twenty-one in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia.

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Karion Istomin

Karion Istomin (Карион Истомин) (Late 1640s, Kursk - no earlier than 1718, Moscow) was a Russian poet, translator, and one of the first Muscovite enlighteners (student of Simeon Polotsky).

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Karl Blank

Karl Blank (Карл Иванович Бланк) (1728–1793) was a Russian architect, notable as one of the last practitioners of Baroque architecture and the first Moscow architect to build early neoclassical buildings.

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Karl Formes

Karl Johann Franz Formes (b. Mülheim am Rhein, 7 August 1815; d. San Francisco, 15 December 1889), also called Charles John Formes, was a German bass opera and oratorio singer who had a long international career especially in Germany, London and New York.

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Karl Gustav von Löwenwolde

Count Karl Gustav von Löwenwolde (17th century - April 30, 1735 Räpina) (Karl Gustaw von Loewenwolde, Левенвольде, Карл Густав, Kārlis Gustavs Lēvenvolde) was a Russian diplomat and military commander.

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Karlovy Vary

Karlovy Vary or Carlsbad (Karlsbad) is a spa town situated in western Bohemia, Czech Republic, on the confluence of the rivers Ohře and Teplá, approximately west of Prague (Praha).

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Karp Zolotaryov

Karp Ivanovich Zolotaryov (Карп Иванович Золотарёв, fl. last quarter of the 17th century) was a Muscovite painter, interior designer and wood carver, employed by Posolsky prikaz and the Kremlin Armoury.

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Kashinsky District

Kashinsky District (Ка́шинский райо́н) is an administrative and municipalLaw #4-ZO district (raion), one of the thirty-six in Tver Oblast, Russia.

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Kazan

Kazan (p; Казан) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia.

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Kazan Governorate

The Kazan Governorate (Каза́нская губе́рния; قازان عوبئرناسئ; Хусан кӗперниӗ, Husan kĕperniĕ), or the Government of Kazan, was a governorate (a guberniya) of the Tsardom of Russia, the Russian Empire, and the Russian SFSR from 1708–1920, with its seat in the city of Kazan.

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Kazan Kremlin

The Kazan Kremlin (Казанский Кремль; Казан кирмәне) is the chief historic citadel of Tatarstan, situated in the city of Kazan.

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Kazanskaya, Rostov Oblast

Kazanskaya (Казанская) is a rural locality (a stanitsa) in Verkhnedonskoy District of Rostov Oblast, Russia, located on the left bank of Don River from Rostov-on-Don.

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Köprülüzade Numan Pasha

Köprülüzade Numan Pasha (Numan Pashë Kypriljoti; 1670–1719) was an Ottoman statesman who was the grand vizier of the Ottoman Empire between June and August 1710.

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Keri (island)

Keri (Kockskär) is a Estonian island in the Gulf of Finland.

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Kesklinn, Tallinn

Kesklinn (Estonian for "Central Town") is one of the 8 administrative districts (linnaosa) of Tallinn, the capital of Estonia.

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Kesova Gora

Kesova Gora (Ке́сова Гора́) is an urban locality (an urban-type settlement) and the administrative center of Kesovogorsky District of Tver Oblast, Russia, located from Kashin and from Bezhetsk.

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Kesovogorsky District

Kesovogorsky District (Кесового́рский райо́н) is an administrative and municipalLaw #4-ZO district (raion), one of the thirty-six in Tver Oblast, Russia.

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Ketevan of Kakheti (1648–1719)

Ketevan (ქეთევანი; 1648 – 16 April 1719) was a princess (batonishvili) of the royal house of Kakheti, a kingdom in eastern Georgia.

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Khakassia

The Republic of Khakassia (r,; Khakas: Хака́с Респу́бликазы, tr. Khakás Respúblikazy), or simply Khakassia (Хака́сия; Khakas: Хака́сия) is a federal subject (a republic) of Russia.

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Khamovniki District

Khamovniki District (Хамо́вники) is a district of Central Administrative Okrug of the federal city of Moscow, Russia.

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Khan's Mosque

Khan's Mosque in Kasimov is the oldest mosque in Central Russia.

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Kharkiv

Kharkiv (Ха́рків), also known as Kharkov (Ха́рьков) from Russian, is the second-largest city in Ukraine.

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Kharovsky District

Kharovsky District (Ха́ровский райо́н) is an administrativeLaw #371-OZ and municipalLaw #1127-OZ district (raion), one of the twenty-six in Vologda Oblast, Russia.

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Khilok, Zabaykalsky Krai

Khilok (p) is a town and the administrative center of Khiloksky District in Zabaykalsky Krai, Russia, located on the Khilok River, a right-hand tributary of the Selenga, west of Chita, the administrative center of the krai.

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Kholmogorsky District

Kholmogorsky District (Холмого́рский райо́н) is an administrative district (raion), one of the twenty-one in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia.

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Kholmogory bone carving

Kholmogory bone carving (Холмогорская резная кость) is a traditional handicraft practised in the villages of Kholmogorsky District, Arkhangelsk Oblast, in the north of Russia.

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Kholmogory, Arkhangelsk Oblast

Kholmogory (Холмого́ры) is a historic rural locality (a selo) and the administrative center of Kholmogorsky District of Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia.

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Kholmsky District, Novgorod Oblast

Kholmsky District (Хо́лмский райо́н) is an administrativeLaw #559-OZ and municipalLaw #353-OZ district (raion), one of the twenty-one in Novgorod Oblast, Russia.

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Khovanshchina

Khovanshchina (Хованщина, Hovánščina, sometimes rendered The Khovansky Affair; since the ending -ščina is pejorative) is an opera (subtitled a 'national music drama') in five acts by Modest Mussorgsky. The work was written between 1872 and 1880 in St. Petersburg, Russia. The composer wrote the libretto based on historical sources. The opera was unfinished and unperformed when the composer died in 1881. Like Mussorgsky's earlier Boris Godunov, Khovanshchina deals with an episode in Russian history, first brought to the composer's attention by his friend the critic Vladimir Stasov. It concerns the rebellion of Prince Ivan Khovansky, the Old Believers, and the Muscovite Streltsy against the regent Sofia Alekseyevna and the two young Tsars Peter the Great and Ivan V, who were attempting to institute Westernizing reforms in Russia. Khovansky had helped to foment the Moscow Uprising of 1682, which resulted in Sofia becoming regent on behalf of her younger brother Ivan and half-brother Peter, who were crowned joint Tsars. In the fall of 1682 Prince Ivan Khovansky turned against Sofia. Supported by the Old Believers and the Streltsy, Khovansky — who supposedly wanted to install himself as the new regent — demanded the reversal of Patriarch Nikon's reforms. Sofia and her court were forced to flee Moscow. Eventually, Sofia managed to suppress the so-called Khovanshchina (Khovansky affair) with the help of the diplomat Fyodor Shaklovity, who succeeded Khovansky as leader of the Muscovite Streltsy. With the rebellion crushed, the Old Believers committed mass suicide (in the opera, at least). Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov completed, revised, and scored Khovanshchina in 1881–1882. Because of his extensive cuts and "recomposition", Dmitri Shostakovich revised the opera in 1959 based on Mussorgsky's vocal score, and it is the Shostakovich version that is usually performed. In 1913 Igor Stravinsky and Maurice Ravel made their own arrangement at Sergei Diaghilev's request. When Feodor Chaliapin refused to sing the part of Dosifei in any other orchestration than Rimsky-Korsakov's, Diaghilev's company employed a mixture of orchestrations which did not prove successful. The Stravinsky-Ravel orchestration was forgotten, except for Stravinsky's finale, which is still sometimes used. Although the background of the opera comprises the Moscow Uprising of 1682 and the Khovansky affair a few months later, its main themes are the struggle between progressive and reactionary political factions during the minority of Tsar Peter the Great and the passing of old Muscovy before Peter's westernizing reforms. It received its first performance in the Rimsky-Korsakov edition in 1886.

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Khvoyninsky District

Khvoyninsky District (Хвойнинский район) is an administrativeLaw #559-OZ and municipalLaw #396-OZ district (raion), one of the twenty-one in Novgorod Oblast, Russia.

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Khwarezm

Khwarezm, or Chorasmia (خوارزم, Xvârazm) is a large oasis region on the Amu Darya river delta in western Central Asia, bordered on the north by the (former) Aral Sea, on the east by the Kyzylkum desert, on the south by the Karakum desert, and on the west by the Ustyurt Plateau.

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Kichmengsko-Gorodetsky District

Kichmengsko-Gorodetsky District (Ки́чменгско-Городе́цкий райо́н) is an administrativeLaw #371-OZ and municipalLaw #1117-OZ district (raion), one of the twenty-six in Vologda Oblast, Russia.

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Kichmengsky Gorodok

Kichmengsky Gorodok (Кичменгский Городок) is a rural locality (a selo) and the administrative center of Kichmengsko-Gorodetsky District, Vologda Oblast, Russia, located on the left bank of the Yug River, at its confluence with the Kichmenga River.

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Kidney stone disease

Kidney stone disease, also known as urolithiasis, is when a solid piece of material (kidney stone) occurs in the urinary tract.

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Kiev Governorate (1708–64)

Kiev Governorate (pre-reform Russian: Кіевская губернія), or the Government of Kiev, was an administrative division (a guberniya) of the Tsardom of Russia and then the Russian Empire.

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Kiev Theological Academy

The Kiev Theological Academy was the oldest higher educational institution of the Russian Orthodox Church, situated in Kiev, the Russian Empire.

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Kineshemsky District

Kineshemsky District (Ки́нешемский райо́н) is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the twenty-one in Ivanovo Oblast, Russia.

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Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti

The Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti (ქართლ-კახეთის სამეფო) (1762–1801) was created in 1762 by the unification of two eastern Georgian kingdoms of Kartli and Kakheti.

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Kingisepp

Kingisepp (Ки́нгисепп or Кингисе́пп; Jaamahttp://www.hs.fi/english/article/Last+of+the+Ingrian+grannies+hold+on/1329104265831), formerly Yamburg (Я́мбург), Yam (Ям), and Yama (Я́ма), is an ancient town and the administrative center of Kingiseppsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located along the Luga River southwest of St. Petersburg, east of Narva, and south of the Gulf of Finland.

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Kingiseppsky District

Kingiseppsky District (Кингисе́ппский райо́н) is an administrativeOblast Law #32-oz and municipalLaw #81-oz district (raion), one of the seventeen in Leningrad Oblast, Russia.

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Kirill Naryshkin

Kirill Poluektovich Naryshkin (Кирилл Полуэктович Нарышкин) (1623 – April 30, 1691) was the maternal grandfather of Peter the Great.

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Kirillov (town)

Kirillov (Кири́ллов) is a town and the administrative center of Kirillovsky District in Vologda Oblast, Russia, located on the shores of Lakes Siverskoye and Dolgoye, northwest of Vologda, the administrative center of the oblast.

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Kirillovsky District

Kirillovsky District (Кири́лловский райо́н) is an administrativeLaw #371-OZ and municipalLaw #1116-OZ district (raion), one of the twenty-six in Vologda Oblast, Russia.

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Kirishsky District

Kirishsky District (Ки́ришский райо́н) is an administrativeOblast Law #32-oz and municipalLaw #49-oz district (raion), one of the seventeen in Leningrad Oblast, Russia.

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Kirov-class battlecruiser

The Kirov-class battlecruiser is a class of nuclear-powered warship of the Russian Navy, the largest and heaviest surface combatant warships (i.e. not an aircraft carrier or amphibious assault ship) in operation in the world.

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Kirovsky District, Leningrad Oblast

Kirovsky District (Ки́ровский райо́н) is an administrativeOblast Law #32-oz and municipalLaw #100-oz district (raion), one of the seventeen in Leningrad Oblast, Russia.

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Kizhi Island

Kizhi (p, Kiži) is an island near the geometrical center of the Lake Onega in the Republic of Karelia (Medvezhyegorsky District), Russia.

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Kloveniersdoelen, Amsterdam

The Kloveniersdoelen ("musketeers' shooting range") was a complex of buildings in Amsterdam which served as headquarters and shooting range for the local schutterij (civic guard).

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Knout

A knout is a heavy scourge-like multiple whip, usually made of a bunch of rawhide thongs attached to a long handle, sometimes with metal wire or hooks incorporated.

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Knyaz

Knyaz or knez is a historical Slavic title, used both as a royal and noble title in different times of history and different ancient Slavic lands.

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Koch (boat)

The koch (a) was a special type of small one or two mast wooden sailing ships designed and used in Russia for transpolar voyages in ice conditions of the Arctic seas, popular among the Pomors.

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Kodak Fortress

Kodak fortress (Кодак; Kudak) was a fort built in 1635 by the order of the Polish king Władysław IV Vasa and the Sejm on the Dnieper River near what would become the town of Stari Kodaky (now near the city of Dnipro in Ukraine. In 1711 according to the Treaty of the Pruth the fortress was destroyed by the Muscovites.

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Kola Peninsula

The Kola Peninsula (Ко́льский полуо́стров, Kolsky poluostrov; from Куэлнэгк нёаррк, Kuelnegk njoarrk; Guoládatnjárga; Kuolan niemimaa; Kolahalvøya) is a peninsula in the far northwest of Russia.

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Kolomenskoye

Kolomenskoye (Коло́менское) is a former royal estate situated several kilometers to the southeast of the city center of Moscow, Russia, on the ancient road leading to the town of Kolomna (hence the name).

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Kolsky Uyezd

Kolsky Uyezd (Ко́льский уе́зд) was an administrative division (an uyezd) of the Tsardom of Russia and later of the Russian Empire.

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Konevets

Konevets (Коневец; Konevitsa or Kononsaari) is an approximately 8.5-km² island famous as the site of the Konevsky Monastery.

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Konoshsky District

Konoshsky District (Ко́ношский райо́н) is an administrative district (raion), one of the twenty-one in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia.

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Konstantin Posyet

Constantine Possiet (Russian: Константин Николаевич Посьет, Konstantin Nikolayevich Posyet, 21 December 1819 – 26 April 1899) was a Russian statesman and admiral who served as Minister of Transport Communications between 1874 and 1888.

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Konstanty Kazimierz Brzostowski

Konstanty Kazimierz Brzostowski (1644–1722) was a Polish noble, count of the Holy See, and papal prelate.

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Korela Fortress

Korela Fortress (Russian: Корела, Finnish: Käkisalmen linna, Swedish: Kexholms slott), at the town of Priozersk.

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Korochansky Uyezd

Korochansky Uyezd (Russian: Корочанский уезд) was one of the ''uyezds'' (administrative units) of Kursk Governorate of the Russian Empire and then of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic with its center in Korocha until its formal abolition in 1924 by Soviet authorities.

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Korotoyak, Voronezh Oblast

Korotoyak (Коротояк) is a rural locality (a selo) in Ostrogozhsky District of Voronezh Oblast, Russia,Law #87-OZ located on the right bank of the Don River.

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Kosse (Königsberg)

Kosse or Cosse was a quarter of western Königsberg, Germany.

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Kotlassky District

Kotlassky District (Ко́тласский райо́н) is an administrative district (raion), one of the twenty-one in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia.

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Kotlin Island

Kotlin (or Kettle, Retusaari, Reitskär) is a Russian island, located near the head of the Gulf of Finland, west of Saint Petersburg in the Baltic Sea.

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Kotomin House

Kotomin House (Дом Котомина) is a historical landmark building located at Nevsky Prospekt 18 (between Bolshaya Morskaya Street and Moika River embankment) in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

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Krasninsky District, Smolensk Oblast

Krasninsky District (Кра́снинский райо́н) is an administrativeResolution #261 and municipalLaw #77-z district (raion), one of the twenty-five in Smolensk Oblast, Russia.

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Krasnoborsky District

Krasnoborsky District (Краснобо́рский райо́н) is an administrative district (raion), one of the twenty-one in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia.

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Krasnogorodsky District

Krasnogorodsky District (Красногоро́дский райо́н) is an administrativeLaw #833-oz and municipalLaw #420-oz district (raion), one of the twenty-four in Pskov Oblast, Russia.

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Krasnokholmsky District

Krasnokholmsky District (Краснохо́лмский райо́н) is an administrative and municipalLaw #4-ZO district (raion), one of the thirty-six in Tver Oblast, Russia.

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Krasnoselsky District, Moscow

Krasnoselsky District (Красносе́льский райо́н is a district of Central Administrative Okrug of the federal city of Moscow, Russia. Population: Most of the district's territory is occupied by railroads, rail yards, and the three rail terminals around Komsomolskaya Square. It also contains a narrow sector of central Moscow, extending north-east from Lubyanka Square within the boundaries of Myasnitskaya Square and Bolshaya Lubyanka Street. However, the famous KGB-FSB Lubyanka building technically belongs to Meshchansky District. The boundary between Krasnoselsky and southbound Basmanny District passes through Red Gates Square and Novaya Basmannaya Street, thus Krasnoselsky District contains the northern edge of historical Basmannaya Sloboda, including the church of Saint Peter and Paul, built in 1705–1723 to a draft by Peter I. Black Angel of Glory on the coat of arms commemorates the loss of Red Gates in 1927; white Y denoted three railroads that converge in Komsomoskaya Square.

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Krasny Kholm, Krasnokholmsky District, Tver Oblast

Krasny Kholm (Кра́сный Холм) is a town and the administrative center of Krasnokholmsky District in Tver Oblast, Russia.

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Krasny, Krasninsky District, Smolensk Oblast

Krasny (Кра́сный) is an urban locality (an urban-type settlement) and the administrative center of Krasninsky District of Smolensk Oblast, Russia, located at the confluence of the Svinaya and the Mereya Rivers Great Soviet Encyclopedia, entry on Krasny southwest of Smolensk.

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Kremlin Armoury

The Kremlin Armoury,Officially called the "Armou/ory Chamber" but also known as the cannon yard, the "Armou/ory Palace", the "Moscow Armou/ory", the "Armou/ory Museum", and the "Moscow Armou/ory Museum" but different from the Kremlin Arsenal.

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Kremlin Arsenal

The Kremlin Arsenal (Арсенал Московского Кремля) is a former armory built within the grounds of the Moscow Kremlin in Russia.

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Kremlin Clock

The Kremlin Clock (Кремлёвские часы; Kremlyovskiye chasy) or Kremlin Chimes (Кремлёвские куранты; Kremlyovskiye kuranty), also known colloquially in the West as Moscow Clock Tower, is a historic clock on the Spasskaya Tower of Moscow Kremlin.

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Kremlin Senate

The Kremlin Senate (Сенатский дворец.) is a building within the grounds of the Moscow Kremlin in Russia.

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Kremlin Wall Necropolis

Burials in the Kremlin Wall Necropolis in Moscow began in November 1917, when 240 pro-Bolshevik victims of the October Revolution were buried in mass graves at Red Square.

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Krestetsky District

Krestetsky District (Кресте́цкий райо́н) is an administrativeLaw #559-OZ and municipalLaw #351-OZ district (raion), one of the twenty-one in Novgorod Oblast, Russia.

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Kresttsy, Krestetsky District, Novgorod Oblast

Kresttsy (Кре́стцы) is an urban locality (a work settlement) and the administrative center of Krestetsky District of Novgorod Oblast, Russia, situated on the M10 highway connecting Moscow and St. Petersburg, east of Veliky Novgorod.

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Kronstadt

Kronstadt (Кроншта́дт), also spelled Kronshtadt, Cronstadt or Kronštádt (Krone for "crown" and Stadt for "city"; Kroonlinn), is a municipal town in Kronshtadtsky District of the federal city of Saint Petersburg, Russia, located on Kotlin Island, west of Saint Petersburg proper near the head of the Gulf of Finland.

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Kronstadt Naval Cathedral

The Naval cathedral of Saint Nicholas in Kronstadt (Морской Никольский собор, Morskoj Nikol'skij sobor) is a Russian Orthodox cathedral built in 1903–1913 as the main church of the Russian Navy and dedicated to all fallen seamen.

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Krutitsy

Krutitsy Metochion (Крути́цкое подворье), full name: Krutitsy Patriarchal Metochion (Крутицкое Патриаршее подворье) is an operating ecclesiastical estate of Russian Orthodox Church, located in Tagansky District of Moscow, Russia, 3 kilometers south-east from the Kremlin.

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Ksi (Cyrillic)

Ksi (Ѯ, ѯ) is a letter of the early Cyrillic alphabet, derived from the Greek letter Xi (Ξ, ξ).

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Kuban Cossacks

Kuban Cossacks (Кубанские кaзаки, Kubanskiye Kаzaki; Кубанські козаки, Kubans'ki Kozaky) or Kubanians (кубанцы, кубанці) are Cossacks who live in the Kuban region of Russia.

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Kumyks

Kumyks (къумукълар, qumuqlar, кумыки) are a Turkic people living in the Kumyk plateau (in northern Dagestan to the south of the Terek river), the lands bordering the Caspian Sea, Northern Ossetia, Chechnya and the banks of the Terek river.

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Kungur Ice Cave

Kungur Ice Cave is a karst cave located in the Urals, near the town Kungur in Perm Krai, Russia, on the right bank of the Sylva River.

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Kunstkamera

The Kunstkamera (or Kunstkammer; Кунсткамера) is the first museum in Russia.

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Kunyinsky District

Kunyinsky District (Ку́ньинский райо́н) is an administrativeLaw #833-oz and municipalLaw #420-oz district (raion), one of the twenty-four in Pskov Oblast, Russia.

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Kura Island

Kura or Kurkosa (Kür dili), also known as Kurinskiy in the Russian language, is an island in the Caspian Sea off the coast of Azerbaijan.

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Kuranty

200px The Kuranty (occasionally titled Vesti, Vedomosti, or Vestovye pisma) was the first Russian hand-written newspaper, published in the 17th century in Muscovy.

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Kursk

Kursk (p) is a city and the administrative center of Kursk Oblast, Russia, located at the confluence of the Kur, Tuskar, and Seym Rivers.

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Kuskovo

Kuskovo (Куско́во) was the summer country house and estate of the Sheremetev family.

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Kuvshinovo, Kuvshinovsky District, Tver Oblast

Kuvshinovo (Кувши́ново) is a town and the administrative center of Kuvshinovsky District in Tver Oblast, Russia, located on the Osuga, from Tver, the administrative center of the oblast.

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Kuvshinovsky District

Kuvshinovsky District (Кувши́новский райо́н) is an administrative and municipalLaw #4-ZO district (raion), one of the thirty-six in Tver Oblast, Russia.

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Kuzminki District

Kuzminki District (райо́н Кузьми́нки) is a district of South-Eastern Administrative Okrug of the federal city of Moscow, Russia.

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Kvass

Kvass is a traditional Slavic and Baltic beverage commonly made from rye bread, known in many Eastern European countries and especially in Ukraine and Russia as black bread.

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L'étoile du nord

(The North Star) is an opéra comique in three acts by Giacomo Meyerbeer.

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Ladoga Canal

The Ladoga Canal (Лaдожский канал, Ladozhsky Canal) is a historical water transport route, now situated in Leningrad Oblast, linking the Neva and the Svir River so as to bypass the stormy waters of Lake Ladoga which lies immediately to the northwest.

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Lady-in-waiting of the Imperial Court of Russia

A lady-in-waiting of the Imperial Russian Court (придворные дамы) was a woman of high aristocracy at the service of a woman of the Imperial family.

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Lake Onega

Lake Onega (also known as Onego, p; Ääninen or Äänisjärvi; Oniegu or Oniegu-järve; Änine or Änižjärv) is a lake in the north-west European part of Russia, located on the territory of Republic of Karelia, Leningrad Oblast and Vologda Oblast.

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Lake Pleshcheyevo

Lake Pleshcheyevo (p), a lake in Russia, and formerly a resort for Russian tsars, is located in Yaroslavl Oblast.

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Lake Tambukan

Tambukan Lake (Тамбукан) is a lake with bitter-salt water on Northern Caucasus in Stavropol Krai (about 33% surface) and the Kabardino-Balkar Republic (about 66% surface) of Russia, located eight kilometers from Pyatigorsk.

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Lakhta, Saint Petersburg

Lakhta (Ла́хта) is a historical area in Lakhta-Olgino Municipal Okrug of St. Petersburg, Russia, situated west of Lake Lakhta (hence the name).

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Land of Scoundrels

Land of Scoundrels (Страна негодяев, Strana Negodyayev) is a poem by Russian poet Sergei Yesenin completed in 1923.

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Landed Army

Landed army (Поместное войско, Pomestnoe voisko) was the feudal cavalry militia of the Grand Duchy of Moscow and Tsardom of Russia in the 15th to 17th centuries.

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Landmarks of Saint Petersburg

The appearance of St. Petersburg includes long, straight boulevards, vast spaces, gardens and parks, decorative wrought-iron fences, monuments and decorative sculptures.

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Languages of Russia

Of all the languages of Russia, Russian is the only official language at the national level.

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Laurentius Blumentrost

Laurentius Blumentrost (Russian transcription Лаврентий Лаврентьевич Блюментрост; 1692-1755) was the personal physician to the Tsar, founder and first president of the Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences, from December 7, 1725 to June 6, 1733.

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Lawrence Schiller

Lawrence Julian Schiller (born December 28, 1936) is a noted American film producer, director and screenwriter.

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Le Curé de Tours

Le Curé de Tours is a long short story (or, more properly, a novella) by Honoré de Balzac, written in 1832.

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Le Fiamme di Zaporoze

Le Fiamme di Zaporoze is an epic historical novel written in Italian about the Zaporozhian Cossacks at the time of Hetman Ivan Mazepa and Czar Peter the Great during the Great Northern War, by Mario Dimitrio Donadio and published in Italy by Giraldi Editore in 2008.

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Leaning Tower of Nevyansk

The Leaning Tower of Nevyansk (Невья́нская ба́шня) is a tower in the town of Nevyansk in Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia, built in the 18th century.

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Lebedev Physical Institute

The Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (LPI RAS) (in Физи́ческий институ́т имени П.Н.Ле́бедева Российской академии наук (ФИАН)), situated in Moscow, is one of the leading Russian research institutes specializing in physics.

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Lebedyn

Lebedyn (Лебеди́н) is a city in Sumy Oblast, Ukraine.

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Lebyazhye, Lomonosovsky District, Leningrad Oblast

Lebyazhye (Лебя́жье; Lepäsi) is an urban locality (an urban-type settlement) in Lomonosovsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the coast of the Gulf of Finland west of Lomonosov and east of Sosnovy Bor.

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Lefortovo (Moscow Metro)

Lefortovo (Лефортово) is a future station on the Bolshaya Koltsevaya line of the Moscow Metro.

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Lefortovo District

Lefortovo District (p) is a district of South-Eastern Administrative Okrug of the federal city of Moscow, Russia.

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Lefortovo Prison

Lefortovo Prison (p) is a prison in Moscow, Russia, which, since 2005, has been under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation.

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Legal rights of women in history

The legal rights of women refers to the social and human rights of women.

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Lekianoba

. Lekianoba (ლეკიანობა) was the name given to sporadic forays and marauds by Dagestani people into Georgia from the 16th to the 19th centuries.

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Leksikon vokabulam novym po alfavitu

The Leksikon vokabulam novym po alfavitu (Лексикон вокабулам новым по алфабиту) is a Russian dictionary of foreign words in published during Peter the Great's age, possibly ordered by him.

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Leningrad Oblast

Leningrad Oblast (lʲɪnʲɪnˈgratskəjə ˈobləsʲtʲ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast).

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Lensky District, Arkhangelsk Oblast

Lensky District (Ле́нский райо́н) is an administrative district (raion), one of the twenty-one in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia.

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Leo Tolstoy

Count Lyov (also Lev) Nikolayevich Tolstoy (also Лев) Николаевич ТолстойIn Tolstoy's day, his name was written Левъ Николаевичъ Толстой.

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Leonhard Euler

Leonhard Euler (Swiss Standard German:; German Standard German:; 15 April 170718 September 1783) was a Swiss mathematician, physicist, astronomer, logician and engineer, who made important and influential discoveries in many branches of mathematics, such as infinitesimal calculus and graph theory, while also making pioneering contributions to several branches such as topology and analytic number theory.

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Leonid Parfyonov

Leonid Gennadievich Parfyonov (Леонид Геннадьевич Парфёнов, born January 26, 1960 in Cherepovets, Vologda Oblast) is a Russian veteran journalist, news presenter, TV producer and author of many popular documentary TV shows.

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Leontiy Spafaryev

Knight Leontiy Vassilievich Spafaryev (Леонтий Васильевич Спафарьев; 19 March 1765 – 30 January 1847) was a Lieutenant General of the Imperial Russian Navy.

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Leonty Magnitsky

Leonty Filippovich Magnitsky (Леонтий Филиппович Магницкий), born Telyatin (Телятин), (June 9, 1669, Ostashkov – October 19, 1739, Moscow) was a Russian mathematician and educator.

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Leshukonskoye

Leshukonskoye (Лешуконское) is a rural locality (a selo) and the administrative center of Leshukonsky District of Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, located on the left bank of the Vashka River.

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Leshukonsky District

Leshukonsky District (Лешуко́нский райо́н) is an administrative district (raion), one of the twenty-one in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia.

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Lesnoy District

Lesnoy District (Лесно́й райо́н) is an administrative and municipalLaw #4-ZO district (raion), one of the thirty-six in Tver Oblast, Russia.

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Lesnoye, Tver Oblast

Lesnoye (Лесное) is a rural locality (a selo) and the administrative center of Lesnoy District of Tver Oblast, Russia.

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Letitia Cross

Letitia Cross (1681/1682 – 4 April, 1737) was a British singer and actor.

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Lev Kiszka

Luka Lev Kiszka (Леў Кішка, Лев Кишка, Leon Kiszka) (1663—1728) was the Metropolitan of Kiev, Galicia and Russia of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church from 1714 to his death in 1728.

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Lev Zalenskyj

Lev Szlubic Zalenskyj (Лев Слюбич-Заленський, Леў Шлюбіч-Заленскі, Lew Ślubicz-Załęski) (c. 1648—1708) was the Metropolitan of Kiev, Galicia and Russia of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church from 1694 to his death in 1708.

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Levinus Vincent

Levinus Vincent (1658 in Amsterdam – 8 November 1727 in Haarlem) was a rich Dutch designer and merchant of luxurious textiles, such as damask, silk and brocade.

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LGBT culture in Russia

Although life in modern Russia allows many more liberties for gays and lesbians than it did before the Revolutions of 1989, unofficial discrimination and fear are still rampant.

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LGBT history in Russia

The history of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people (LGBT) in Russia and its historical antecedents (the Soviet Union and the Russian Empire) has largely been influenced by the political leanings of its rulers.

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Libertine

A libertine is one devoid of most moral or sexual restraints, which are seen as unnecessary or undesirable, especially one who ignores or even spurns accepted morals and forms of behaviour sanctified by the larger society.

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Library of the Russian Academy of Sciences

The Library of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Библиотека Российской академии наук (БАН)) is a large state-owned Russian library based in Saint Petersburg on Vasilievsky Island and open to employees of institutions of the Russian Academy of Sciences and scholars with higher education.

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Liepāja

Liepāja (pronounced) (Libau; see other names) is a city in western Latvia, located on the Baltic Sea.

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Ligovo

Ligovo (Лигово) is a historical area of the federal city of Saint Petersburg (Russia).

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Ligovsky Canal

Ligovsky Canal (Ли́говский кана́л) is one of the most extended channels of Saint Petersburg (Russia).

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Ligovsky Pond

Ligovsky pond (Лиговский пруд) is artificial lake existing in Ligovo, suburb of Saint Petersburg (Russia) in 1716–1941.

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Likhoslavlsky District

Likhoslavlsky District (Лихосла́вльский райо́н) is an administrative and municipalLaw #4-ZO district (raion), one of the thirty-six in Tver Oblast, Russia.

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Limbaži

Limbaži (Lemsalu, Lemsal, Limbaž) is a town in the Vidzeme region of northern Latvia.

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Lindsey Hughes

Lindsey Hughes (4 May 1949 – 26 April 2007) was a British historian who studied seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Russia, especially the reign of Peter the Great.

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Line (unit)

The line (abbreviated L or l or &#x2034) was a small English unit of length, variously reckoned as,,, or of an inch.

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Line infantry

Line infantry was the type of infantry that composed the basis of European land armies from the middle of the 17th century to the middle of the 19th century.

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Lines of Vasilyevsky Island

Lines of Vasilyevsky Island (Rus. plural linii линии, singular liniya (also linia) линия "a line") is a group of streets in a part (called Vasilyevsky Island) of downtown Saint Petersburg, Russia, and their mostly numeric names atypical for the rest of the modern Saint Petersburg.

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Lipetsk

Lipetsk (p) is a city and the administrative center of Lipetsk Oblast, Russia, located on the banks of the Voronezh River in the Don basin, southeast of Moscow.

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List of ambassadors of Russia to China

The Russian ambassador in Beijing is the official representative of the government in Moscow to the government of China.

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List of ambassadors of Russia to France

Russian-French contacts began on August 9, 1717, when Hans Christoph Shleynits, the first Russian ambassador to France, was appointed by Tsar Peter I of Russia and presented his credentials to King Louis XV of France.

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List of assassinations in fiction

Assassinations have formed a major plot element in various works of fiction.

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List of Baroque residences

This is a list of Baroque palaces built in the late 17th and 18th centuries.

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List of battles 1601–1800

No description.

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List of biographers

Biographers are authors who write an account of another person's life, while autobiographers are authors who write their own biography.

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List of biographical films

This is a list of biographical films.

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List of butterflies of Russia

This is a list of butterflies of Russia.

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List of cemeteries in Russia

The following is a list of cemeteries in Russia.

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List of Christian clergy in politics

There are existing sub-sections on religious denominations to deal with Christian lay people in politics, e.g. List of LDS politicians.

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List of commemorative coins of the Soviet Union

Commemorative coins were released in the USSR between 1965 and 1991.

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List of consorts of Holstein-Gottorp

The Duchesses of Holstein-Gottorp were the consorts of the rulers of Holstein-Gottorp.

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List of conspiracy theories

Many unproven conspiracy theories exist with varying degrees of popularity, frequently related to clandestine government plans and elaborate murder plots.

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List of country subdivisions named after people

This is a list of country subdivisions named after people.

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List of cultural icons of Russia

This is a list of cultural icons of Russia.

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List of Dutch inventions and discoveries

The Netherlands had a considerable part in the making of modern society.

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List of English words of Russian origin

This page transcribes Russian (written in Cyrillic script) using the IPA.

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List of eponymous adjectives in English

An eponymous adjective is an adjective which has been derived from the name of a person, real or fictional.

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List of eponymous roads in London

The following is a partial list of eponymous roads in London – that is, roads named after people – with notes on the link between the road and the person.

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List of equestrian statues

This is a list of equestrian statues by country.

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List of equestrian statues in Russia

This is a list of equestrian statues in Russia.

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List of films about the Romanovs

This is a list of films about the Romanovs, the ruling family of Russia from 1613 to 1917.

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List of former national capitals

Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed.

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List of Grand Duchesses of Russia

This is a list of those members of the Russian Imperial House who bore the title Velikaia Kniaginia (Великая Княгиня) or Velikaia Knazhna (Великая Княжна) (usually translated into French and English as Grand Duchess, but more accurately Grand Princess).

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List of heads of state and government who died in office

This is a list of heads of state and government who died in office.

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List of heads of the Russian Orthodox Church

This is a list of heads of the Russian Orthodox Church.

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List of heirs to the Russian throne

This is a list of the individuals who were, at any given time, considered the next in line to inherit the throne of Russia or Grand Prince of Moscow.

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List of historic houses in Denmark

This is a list of historic houses in Denmark.

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List of historical opera characters

This is a list of historical figures who have been characters in opera or operetta.

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List of historical period drama films and series set in Near Eastern and Western civilization

The historical period drama is a film genre in which stories are based upon historical events and famous people.

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List of individual trees

The following is a list of notable trees from around the world.

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List of international presidential trips made by Vladimir Putin

This is a list of presidential trips made by Vladimir Putin.

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List of inventors

This is a list of notable inventors.

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List of islands named after people

This is a list of islands known to be named after individual people.

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List of kidney stone formers

There are a number of documented cases of historical figures and distinguished members of society who were kidney stone formers.

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List of kingdoms and royal dynasties

Monarchism is a movement that supports the monarchy as a form of government.

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List of Knights of the Order of the Elephant

These are the Knights of the Order of the Elephant (since 1900).

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List of Landor's Imaginary Conversations

This is a list of the Imaginary Conversations of Walter Savage Landor, a series of dialogues of historical and mythical characters.

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List of mercenaries

This is a list of mercenaries.

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List of Metropolitans and Patriarchs of Kiev

This list contains the names of all the Eastern Orthodox hierarchs whose title contains a reference to the city of Kiev, arranged chronologically and grouped as per the jurisdictions, some of them unrecognised.

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List of Metropolitans and Patriarchs of Moscow

This article lists the Metropolitans and Patriarchs of Moscow, spiritual heads of the Russian Orthodox Church, since 1308.

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List of micronations

Micronations, sometimes also referred to as model countries and new country projects, are small, self-proclaimed entities that claim to be independent sovereign states but which are not acknowledged as such by any recognised sovereign state, or by any supranational organization.

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List of modern great powers

A great power is a nation or state that, through its great economic, political and military strength, is able to exert power and influence over not only its own region of the world, but beyond to others.

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List of motifs on banknotes

This is a list of current motifs on the banknotes of different countries.

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List of museums in Estonia

This is a list of museums in Estonia.

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List of museums in Saint Petersburg

No description.

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List of national founders

The following list of national founding figures is a record, by country, of people who were credited with establishing their nation.

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List of nicknames of European royalty and nobility: P–Q

No description.

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List of palaces

No description.

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List of people claimed to be Jesus

This is a partial list of notable people who have been claimed, either by themselves or by their followers, in some way to be the reincarnation or incarnation of Jesus, or the Second Coming of Christ.

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List of people from Moscow

This is a list of famous people who were born or have lived in Moscow, Russia.

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List of people from Taganrog

This is a list of famous people who have lived in Taganrog.

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List of people from the London Borough of Lewisham

Among those who were born in the London Borough of Lewisham, or have dwelt within the borders of the borough are.

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List of people known as "the Great"

This is a list of people known as "the Great".

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List of people named Peter

Peter is a common name.

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List of people on banknotes

This is a list of people on the banknotes of different countries.

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List of people on the postage stamps of Batumi

This is a list of people on postage stamps of Batum.

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List of people on the postage stamps of the Soviet Union

This article lists people who have been featured on postage stamps of the Soviet Union.

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List of people who were beheaded

The following is a list of people who were beheaded, arranged alphabetically by country or region and with date of decapitation.

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List of places named after people

There are a number of places named after famous people.

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List of pre-Holland submarines

List of pre-Holland submarines is a list of submarines constructed prior to the USS ''Holland'' (1900) and the HMS ''Holland 1'' (1901).

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List of regents

A regent is a person selected to act as head of state (ruling or not) because the ruler is a minor, not present, or debilitated.

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List of regional characteristics of European cathedral architecture

The regional characteristics of European cathedrals are those characteristic architectural features which define the local cathedrals of any given region, and often transcend period and style.

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List of rulers of Estonia

The following list of rulers of Estonia indicates the rules throughout that nation's history.

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List of Russian admirals

This list of Russian admirals includes the admirals of all ranks, serving in the Russian Imperial Navy, the Soviet Navy and the modern Russian Navy.

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List of Russian architects

This is a list of architects of the Russian Federation, Soviet Union, Russian Empire, Tsardom of Russia and Grand Duchy of Moscow, both ethnic Russians and people of other ethnicities.

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List of Russian consorts

The Russian consorts were the spouses of the Russian rulers.

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List of Russian explorers

The history of exploration by citizens or subjects of the Russian Federation, the Soviet Union, the Russian Empire, the Tsardom of Russia and other Russian predecessor states forms a significant part of the history of Russia as well as the history of the world.

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List of Russian inventors

This is a list of inventors from the Russian Federation, Soviet Union, Russian Empire, Tsardom of Russia and Grand Duchy of Moscow, including both ethnic Russians and people of other ethnicities.

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List of Russian marine engineers

This list of Russian marine engineers includes naval engineers and inventors of the Tsardom of Russia, Russian Empire, the Soviet Union and the Russian Federation.

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List of Russian people

This is a list of people associated with the modern Russian Federation, the Soviet Union, Imperial Russia, Russian Tsardom, the Grand Duchy of Moscow, and other predecessor states of Russia.

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List of Russian royal mistresses and lovers

List of Russian royal mistresses and lovers includes mistresses, minions, favourites and simply lovers of the Russian emperors and reigning empresses before and after coronation.

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List of Russian rulers

This is a list of all reigning monarchs in the history of Russia.

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List of Russian saints

This list of Russian saints includes the saints canonized by the Russian Orthodox Church and the Russian saints canonized by other Orthodox Churches.

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List of Russian saints (until 15th century)

Saints in the Russian Orthodox Church are confirmed by canonization which lists the decedent into the Community of Saints.

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List of Russian scientists

Alona Soschen.

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List of Serbian musicians

This is a list of Serbian musicians.

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List of Serbs

This is a list of historical and living Serbs (of Serbia or the Serb diaspora).

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List of Serbs of Bosnia and Herzegovina

This is the List of Serbs of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

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List of ships of the line of Russia

This is a list of Russian ships of the line from the period 1668–1860: The format is: Name, number of guns (rank/real amount), launch year (A.

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List of slaves

Slavery is a social-economic system under which persons are enslaved: deprived of personal freedom and forced to perform labor or services without compensation.

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List of Soviet and Eastern Bloc defectors

Soon after the formation of the Soviet Union, emigration restrictions were put in place to keep citizens from leaving the various countries of the Soviet Socialist Republics, though some defections still occurred.

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List of state leaders in 1682

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List of state leaders in 1683

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List of state leaders in 1684

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List of state leaders in 1685

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List of state leaders in 1686

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List of state leaders in 1687

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List of state leaders in 1688

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List of state leaders in 1689

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List of state leaders in 1690

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List of state leaders in 1691

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List of state leaders in 1692

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List of state leaders in 1693

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List of state leaders in 1694

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List of state leaders in 1695

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List of state leaders in 1696

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List of state leaders in 1697

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List of state leaders in 1698

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List of state leaders in 1699

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List of state leaders in 1700

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List of state leaders in 1701

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List of state leaders in 1702

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List of state leaders in 1703

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List of state leaders in 1704

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List of state leaders in 1705

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List of state leaders in 1706

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List of state leaders in 1707

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List of state leaders in 1708

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List of state leaders in 1709

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List of state leaders in 1710

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List of state leaders in 1711

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List of state leaders in 1712

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List of state leaders in 1713

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List of state leaders in 1714

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List of state leaders in 1715

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List of state leaders in 1716

No description.

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List of state leaders in 1717

No description.

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List of state leaders in 1718

No description.

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List of state leaders in 1719

No description.

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List of state leaders in 1720

No description.

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List of state leaders in 1721

No description.

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List of state leaders in 1722

No description.

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List of state leaders in 1723

No description.

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List of state leaders in 1724

No description.

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List of state leaders in 1725

No description.

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List of state leaders in the 17th century

;State leaders in the 16th century – State leaders in the 18th century – State leaders by year This is a list of state leaders in the 17th century (1601–1700) AD, such as the heads of state and heads of government.

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List of state leaders in the 18th century

;State leaders in the 17th century – State leaders in the 19th century – State leaders by year This is a list of state leaders in the 18th century (1701–1800) AD, such as the heads of state and heads of government.

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List of tallest Eastern Orthodox church buildings

This is a list of tallest Orthodox church buildings in the world, all those higher than 70 metres.

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List of television programs in which one character was played by multiple actors

This is a list of television programs in which one character was played by multiple actors.

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List of The Deer and the Cauldron characters

The following is a list of characters from the novel The Deer and the Cauldron by Jin Yong.

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List of time periods

The categorization of the past into discrete, quantified named blocks of time is called periodization.

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List of TV Guide covers (1980s)

This is a list of issue covers of TV Guide magazine from the decade of the 1980s, from January 1980 to December 1989.

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List of works about the Dutch East India Company

The Dutch East India Company (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie or VOC) is one of the most influential and best researched business enterprises in history,Brook, Timothy: Vermeer's Hat: The Seventeenth Century and the Dawn of the Global World.

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Lithotomy

Lithotomy from Greek for "lithos" (stone) and "tomos" (cut), is a surgical method for removal of calculi, stones formed inside certain organs, such as the kidneys (kidney stones), bladder (bladder stones), and gallbladder (gallstones), that cannot exit naturally through the urinary system or biliary tract.

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Little Russian identity

The Little Russian identity was a cultural, political, and ethnic self-identificationКотенко А. Л., Мартынюк О. В., Миллер А. И. of the elite population of Ukraine who aligned themselves as one of the constituent parts of the triune Russian nationality.

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Livonians

The Livonians, or Livs (Livonian: līvlizt), are a Finnic ethnic group indigenous to northern Latvia and southwestern Estonia.

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Lobnya

Lobnya (Ло́бня) is a town in Moscow Oblast, Russia, located north west of Moscow.

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Lodeynopolsky District

Lodeynopolsky District (Лодейнопо́льский райо́н) is an administrativeOblast Law #32-oz and municipalLaw #63-oz district (raion), one of the seventeen in Leningrad Oblast, Russia.

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Lodeynoye Pole

Lodeynoye Pole (Лоде́йное По́ле, lit. the field of boats) is a town and the administrative center of Lodeynopolsky District in Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the left bank of the Svir River (Lake Ladoga's basin) northeast of St. Petersburg.

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Loknya, Pskov Oblast

Loknya (Локня) is an urban locality (a work settlement) and the administrative center of Loknyansky District of Pskov Oblast, Russia.

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Loknyansky District

Loknyansky District (Локнянский райо́н) is an administrativeLaw #833-oz and municipalLaw #420-oz district (raion), one of the twenty-four in Pskov Oblast, Russia.

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Lomonosov, Russia

Lomonosov (Ломоно́сов; before 1948: Oranienbaum, Ораниенба́ум) is a municipal town in Petrodvortsovy District of the federal city of Saint Petersburg, Russia, located on the southern coast of the Gulf of Finland, west of Saint Petersburg proper.

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Lomonosovsky District, Leningrad Oblast

Lomonosovsky District (Ломоно́совский райо́н) is an administrativeOblast Law #32-oz and municipalLaw #117-oz district (raion), one of the seventeen in Leningrad Oblast, Russia.

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Lopukhin family

The Lopukhin family was a noble family of the Russian Empire, forming one of the branches of the Sorokoumova-Glebov family.

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Lorenz Lange

(Not to be confused with Lorentz Lange, a Norwegian politician).

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Losino-Petrovsky

Losino-Petrovsky (Лоси́но-Петро́вский) is a town in Moscow Oblast, Russia, located at the confluence of the Vorya and Klyazma Rivers northeast of Moscow.

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Lost Library of Ivan the Terrible

The Lost Library of the Moscow Tsars also known as the "Golden Library," is a library speculated to have been created by Ivan III (the Great) of Russia in the sixteenth century.

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Louis Caravaque

Louis Caravaque (Marseilles, 1684-1754, St. Petersburg) was a French portrait painter who worked in Russia.

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Louis Ellies Dupin

Louis Ellies du Pin, or Dupin (17 June 1657 – 6 June 1719) was a French ecclesiastical historian, who was responsible for the Nouvelle bibliothèque des auteurs ecclésiastiques.

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Louis Henri, Duke of Bourbon

Louis Henri de Bourbon, Duke of Bourbon, or Louis Henri I, Prince of Condé (18 August 1692 – 27 January 1740), was head of the Bourbon-Condé cadet branch of the France's reigning House of Bourbon from 1710 to his death, and served as prime minister to his kinsman Louis XV from 1723 to 1726.

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Louis Rudolph, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg

Louis Rudolph (Ludwig Rudolf; 22 July 1671 – 1 March 1735), a member of the House of Welf, was Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and ruling Prince of Wolfenbüttel from 1731 until his death.

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Louis XV of France

Louis XV (15 February 1710 – 10 May 1774), known as Louis the Beloved, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1 September 1715 until his death in 1774.

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Louis, Duke of Orléans (1703–1752)

Louis, Duke of Orléans (4 August 1703 – 4 February 1752) was a member of the royal family of France, the House of Bourbon, and as such was a prince du sang.

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Lovisa von Burghausen

Lovisa von Burghausen (1698 – 20 January 1733) was a Swedish memoirist who became famous for her story about her time in captivity as a slave in Russia after being taken prisoner by the Russians during the Great Northern War.

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Lubok

A lubok (plural Lubki, Cyrillic: лубо́к, лубо́чная картинка) is a Russian popular print, characterized by simple graphics and narratives derived from literature, religious stories and popular tales.

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Ludolf Bakhuizen

Ludolf Bakhuizen at the Netherlands Institute for Art History (28 December 1630 – 17 November 1708) was a German-born Dutch painter, draughtsman, calligrapher and printmaker.

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Lukh, Russia

Lukh (Лух) is an urban-type settlement and the administrative center of Lukhsky District of Ivanovo Oblast, Russia, with a population of It is located on banks of the Lukh River.

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Lutheran Church of Saint Peter and Saint Paul

The Lutheran Church of Saint Peter and Saint Paul (in Лютеранская церковь Святых Петра и Павла or in German: Lutherische Kirche der Heiligen Peter und Paul) is a Lutheran church located in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

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Luxembourg Palace

The Luxembourg Palace (Palais du Luxembourg) is located at 15 rue de Vaugirard in the 6th arrondissement of Paris.

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Luzhsky District

Luzhsky District (Лу́жский райо́н) is an administrativeOblast Law #32-oz and municipalLaw #65-oz district (raion), one of the seventeen in Leningrad Oblast, Russia.

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Lysychansk

Lysychansk (Лисича́нськ) Лисича́нск) is a city in the Luhansk region of Ukraine. It is incorporated as a city of oblast significance and located on the high right bank of the Siverskyi Donets River, approximately 115 km from the oblast capital, Luhansk. Its population is approximately. In 1952 Lysychansk became the regional center. The present borders of Lysychansk were finalized by the mid-1960s. In 1962 the city of Sievierodonetsk separated from Lysychansk and became its own independent city. In 1963 towns of Novodruzhesk and Pryvillia were included in the city limits of Lysychansk and became cities. In 1965 Lysychansk incorporated the cities of Verkhnie and Proletarsk. Now, the administration of Lysychansk Municipality includes the cities of Novodruzhesk and Pryvillia. Together with the cities of Sievierodonetsk, Rubizhne, Kreminna and the nearest towns, the Lysychansk area constitutes a major urban and industrial hub of the Donetsk coal basin area, with a population of about 353,000 (2009).

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Lyubertsy

Lyubertsy (p) is a city and the administrative center of Lyuberetsky District in Moscow Oblast, Russia.

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Lyubytinsky District

Lyubytinsky District (Любытинский райо́н) is an administrativeLaw #559-OZ and municipalLaw #357-OZ district (raion), one of the twenty-one in Novgorod Oblast, Russia.

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M10 highway (Russia)

The M10 is a federal highway in Russia connecting the country's two largest cities, Moscow and Saint Petersburg.

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M8 highway (Russia)

The Russian route M8, also known as the Kholmogory Highway or Yaroslavl highway, is a major trunk road that links Moscow to the Russian North in general and the sea harbour of Arkhangelsk in particular.

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Magnus Stiernstråle

Magnus Stiernstråle (died 18 December 1738) was a Swedish military colonel, and was most likely from Livonia.

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Mahmud II

Mahmud II (Ottoman Turkish: محمود ثانى Mahmud-u sānī, محمود عدلى Mahmud-u Âdlî) (İkinci Mahmut) (20 July 1785 – 1 July 1839) was the 30th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1808 until his death in 1839.

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Makhachkala

Makhachkala (p; Анжи-кала; Lak: Гьанжи; Avar: МахӀачхъала; Lezgian: Магьачкъала; Rutul: МахаӀчкала) is the capital city of the Republic of Dagestan, Russia.

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Maksatikha

Maksatikha (Максатиха) is an urban-type settlement and the administrative center of Maksatikhinsky District of Tver Oblast, Russia, with a population of It is located on the left bank of the Mologa River close to the mouth of the Volchina River.

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Maksatikhinsky District

Maksatikhinsky District (Макса́тихинский райо́н) is an administrative and municipalLaw #4-ZO district (raion), one of the thirty-six in Tver Oblast, Russia.

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Malovishersky District

Malovishersky District (Малови́шерский райо́н) is an administrativeLaw #559-OZ and municipalLaw #356-OZ district (raion), one of the twenty-one in Novgorod Oblast, Russia.

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Marfa Alekseyevna of Russia

Tsarevna Marfa Alekseyevna of Russia (Марфа Алексеевна; 26 August 1652 – 19 June 1707) was a Russian princess, daughter of Tsar Alexis of Russia and Maria Miloslavskaya, sister of Tsar Feodor III of Russia and Tsar Ivan V of Russia and half-sister of Tsar Peter the Great.

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Marfino, Mytishchinsky District, Moscow Oblast

Marfino is a rural locality (a selo) in Fedoskinskoye Rural Settlement of Mytishchinsky District, Moscow Oblast, Russia, located several kilometers northeast of the town of Lobnya, on the right bank of the Ucha River.

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Maria Alekseyevna of Russia

Tsarevna Maria Alekseyevna (Мари́я Алексе́евна; 18 January 1660 - 9 March 1723) was a Russian Princess, daughter of Tsar Alexis of Russia and Maria Miloslavskaya, sister of Tsar Feodor III of Russia and Tsar Ivan V of Russia and half sister of Tsar Peter the Great.

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Maria Cantemir

Maria Cantemir (1700–1754) was a Romanian noblewoman, a lady in waiting and salonist, and a mistress of Peter the Great.

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Maria de Wilde

Maria de Wilde (7 January 1682 – 11 April 1729) was a Dutch engraver and playwright of the Dutch Republic.

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Maria Margaretha Kirch

Maria Margaretha Kirch (née Winckelmann, in historic sources named Maria Margaretha Kirchin; 25 February 1670 – 29 December 1720) was a German astronomer, and one of the first famous astronomers of her period due to her writings on the conjunction of the sun with Saturn, Venus, and Jupiter in 1709 and 1712 respectively.

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Maria Menshikova

Princess Maria Alexandrovna Menshikova (26 December 1711 – 1729) was a daughter of Aleksandr Danilovich Menshikov, the favourite of Peter I of Russia.

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Maria Rumyantseva

Countess Maria Andreyevna Rumyantseva née Matveyeva (1699–1788) was a Russian lady in waiting and alleged royal mistress of Tsar Peter the Great.

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Maria Sibylla Merian

Maria Sibylla Merian (2 April 164713 January 1717) was a German-born naturalist and scientific illustrator, a descendant of the Frankfurt branch of the Swiss Merian family.

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Mariana Victoria of Spain

Mariana Victoria of Spain (Mariana Vitória; 31 March 1718 – 15 January 1781) was an Infanta of Spain by birth and was later the Queen of Portugal as wife of King Joseph I. The eldest daughter of Philip V of Spain and Elisabeth Farnese, she was engaged to the young Louis XV of France at the age of seven.

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Marie Louise Élisabeth d'Orléans

Marie Louise Élisabeth d'Orléans, Duchess of Berry (20 August 1695 in Palace of Versailles – 21 July 1719 in Paris), known affectionally with the moniker Joufflotte, was a member of the House of Orléans who married Charles, Duke of Berry.

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Mariupol

Mariupol (Маріу́поль, also Mariiupil; Мариу́поль; Marioupoli) is a city of regional significance in south eastern Ukraine, situated on the north coast of the Sea of Azov at the mouth of the Kalmius river, in the Pryazovia region.

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Mark Antokolsky

Mark Matveyevich Antokolsky (Марк Матве́евич Антоко́льский in Russian; 2 November 184014 July 1902) was a Litvak sculptor.

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Mark Slonim

Mark Lvovich Slonim (Марк Льво́вич Сло́ним, also known as Marc Slonim and Marco Slonim; March 23, 1894 Giuseppina Giuliano,, entry; retrieved October 15, 2015 – 1976) was a Russian politician, literary critic, scholar and translator.

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Market Square (Lviv)

Rynok Square (Площа Ринок, Rynek we Lwowie) is a central square of the city of Lviv, Ukraine.

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Marquis de Custine

Astolphe-Louis-Léonor, Marquis de Custine (18 March 1790 – 25 september 1857) was a French aristocrat and writer who is best known for his travel writing, in particular his account of his visit to Russia La Russie en 1839.

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Mary Hamilton

"Mary Hamilton," or "The Fower Maries" ("The Four Marys"), is a common name for a well-known sixteenth-century ballad from Scotland based on an apparently fictional incident about a lady-in-waiting to a Queen of Scotland.

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Mary Hamilton (lady in waiting)

Mary Hamilton, or Maria Danilovna Gamentova (died 14 March 1719), was the lady-in-waiting of Empress Catherine I of Russia and a royal mistress of Tsar Peter the Great of Russia.

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Maryovo

Maryovo (Марёво) is a rural locality (a selo) and the administrative center of Maryovsky District of Novgorod Oblast, Russia, located in the south of the oblast, on the Maryovka River, a tributary of the Pola River.

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Maryovsky District

Maryovsky District (Марёвский район) is an administrativeLaw #559-OZ and municipalLaw #401-OZ district (raion), one of the twenty-one in Novgorod Oblast, Russia.

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Mastermind (TV series)

Mastermind is a British game show, well known for its challenging questions, intimidating setting, and air of seriousness.

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Matija Zmajević

Matija Zmajević (also Matej Zmajević, in Russia Matvei Khristoforovich Zmayevich Матвей Христофорович Змаевич; January 6, 1680 – August 23, 1735) was admiral of the Baltic Fleet and the shipbuilder of the Russian Tsar Peter the Great, building a fleet in Voronezh.

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Matryoshka doll

A matryoshka doll (a), also known as a Russian nesting doll, stacking dolls, or Russian doll, is a set of wooden dolls of decreasing size placed one inside another.

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Maurice Baquoy

Maurice Baquoy, a French engraver, was born about 1680, and worked in Paris from 1710 to 1740.

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Maurice de Saxe

Maurice, Count of Saxony (Hermann Moritz Graf von Sachsen, Maurice de Saxe; 28 October 1696 – 20 November 1750) was a German soldier and officer of the Army of the Holy Roman Empire, the Imperial Army, and at last in French service who became a Marshal and later also Marshal General of France.

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Max, the 2000-Year-Old Mouse

Max, the 2000-Year-Old Mouse was a Canadian animated television series produced by Steve Krantz, which originally aired in Canada in 1967 and became popular in several parts of the world, most notably the United States, where it was syndicated on both local and PBS stations between 1970 and 1979, and also the United Kingdom, where it was repeated numerous times on the ITV network between its original transmission in 1969 and its last showing to date in 1992.

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Maximilian Schell

Maximilian Schell (8 December 1930 – 1 February 2014) was an Austrian-born Swiss film and stage actor, who also wrote, directed and produced some of his own films.

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May 27

No description.

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May 31 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)

May 30 - Eastern Orthodox Church calendar - June 1 All fixed commemorations below celebrated on June 13 by Orthodox Churches on the Old Calendar.

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Mazeppa (opera)

Mazeppa, properly Mazepa (Мазепа), is an opera in three acts (six scenes) by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky.

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Meanings of minor planet names: 2001–3000

139 | 2139 Makharadze || 1970 MC || The Georgian city of Ozurgeti (formerly known as Makharadze) is the twin city of Genichesk, Ukraine.

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Medal "In Commemoration of the 300th Anniversary of Saint Petersburg"

The Medal "In Commemoration of the 300th Anniversary of Saint Petersburg" (Медаль «В память 300-летия Санкт-Петербурга») is a state commemorative medal of the Russian Federation established on February 19, 2003 by Presidential Decree № 210 to denote the 300th anniversary of the foundation of the city of St Petersburg, known as Leningrad during the Soviet Era.

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Meleski

Meleski is a village in Kolga-Jaani Parish, Viljandi County, in central Estonia.

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Menus-Plaisirs du Roi

The Menus-Plaisirs du Roi was, in the organisation of the French royal household under the Ancien Régime, the department of the Maison du Roi responsible for the "lesser pleasures of the King", which meant in practice that it was in charge of all the preparations for ceremonies, events and festivities, down to the last detail of design and order.

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Mercantilism

Mercantilism is a national economic policy designed to maximize the trade of a nation and, historically, to maximize the accumulation of gold and silver (as well as crops).

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Mestnichestvo

In Russian history, Mestnichestvo (Ме́стничество,; from ме́сто, a position) was a feudal hierarchical system in Russia from the 15th to 17th centuries.

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Metre Convention

The Metre Convention (Convention du Mètre), also known as the Treaty of the Metre, is an international treaty that was signed in Paris on 20 May 1875 by representatives of 17 nations (Argentina, Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Brazil, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Peru, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Sweden and Norway, Switzerland, Turkey, United States of America, and Venezuela).

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Metropolitan Borough of Deptford

The Metropolitan Borough of Deptford was a Metropolitan borough in the County of London between 1900 and 1965, when it became part of the London Borough of Lewisham along with the Metropolitan Borough of Lewisham.

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Mezen horse

The Mezen horse or Mezenok is a Russian breed of draft horse similar to the Pechora.

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Mezensky District

Mezensky District (Мезе́нский райо́н) is an administrative district (raion), one of the twenty-one in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia.

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Mezhdurechensky District, Vologda Oblast

Mezhdurechensky District (Междуре́ченский райо́н) is an administrativeLaw #371-OZ and municipalLaw #1118-OZ district (raion), one of the twenty-six in Vologda Oblast, Russia.

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Mezhyhirya Monastery

The Mezhyhirya Savior-Transfiguration Monastery (Межигірський Спасо-Преображенський монастир, Mezhyhirskyi Spaso-Preobrazhenskyi Monastyr) was an Eastern Orthodox female monastery that was located in the neighborhood of Mezhyhiria.

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Michał Serwacy Wiśniowiecki

Prince Michał Serwacy Wiśniowiecki (Mykolas Servacijus Višnioveckis) (1680–1744) was a Polish-Lithuanian nobleman, magnate, politician, diplomat, general, a successful military commander and the last male representative of the Wiśniowiecki family.

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Michael Manege

Michael Manege (Mikhailovsky Manezh; Михайловский манеж) is the Neoclassical building of an early 19th-century riding academy in the historic center of Saint Petersburg, Russia.

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Michelangelo Tamburini

Very Rev.

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Mihai Racoviță

Mihai or Mihail Racoviță (died July 1744) was a Prince of Moldavia on three separate occasions (September 1703 – February 23, 1705; July 31, 1707 – October 28, 1709; January 5, 1716 – October 1726) and Prince of Wallachia on two occasions (between October 1730 and October 2, 1731, and from September 1741 until his death).

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Mikhail Kheraskov

Mikhail Matveyevich Kheraskov (Михаи́л Матве́евич Хера́сков; –) was Russian poet and playwright.

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Mikhail Kutuzov

Prince Mikhail Illarionovich Golenishchev-Kutuzov (князь Михаи́л Илларио́нович Голени́щев-Куту́зов) was a Field Marshal of the Russian Empire.

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Mikhail Lomonosov

Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov (ləmɐˈnosəf|a.

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Mikhail Matyushkin

Mikhail Athanas'evich Matyushkin (Михаил Афанасьевич Матюшкин; 1676-1737) was a general of the Russian Empire during the reign of Peter the Great.

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Mikhail Miloradovich

Count Mikhail Andreyevich Miloradovich (Михаи́л Андре́евич Милора́дович), spelled Miloradovitch in contemporary English sources (&ndash) was a Russian general of Serbian origin, prominent during the Napoleonic Wars.

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Mikhail Petrovich Bestuzhev-Ryumin

Count Mikhail Petrovich Bestuzhev-Ryumin (Михаи́л Петро́вич Бесту́жев-Рю́мин; 1688, Moscow – 1760) was a Russian diplomat.

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Mikhail Pokrovsky

Mikhail Nikolayevich Pokrovsky (Михаи́л Никола́евич Покро́вский, – April 10, 1932) was a Russian Marxist historian.

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Mikhail Shcherbatov

Prince Mikhailo Mikhailovich Shcherbatov (Михаи́л Миха́йлович Щерба́тов, July 22, 1733 – December 12, 1790) was a leading ideologue and exponent of the Russian Enlightenment, on the par with Mikhail Lomonosov and Nikolay Novikov.

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Mikhail Shultz

Mikhail Mikhaylovich Shultz (Михаи́л Миха́йлович Шульц, also spelled Schultz, Shul'ts, Shults, Shul’c etc.) (1 July 1919 – 9 October 2006), was a Soviet/Russian physical chemist, artist.

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Mikhail Zemtsov

Mikhail Grigorievich Zemtsov (Михаи́л Григо́рьевич Земцо́в; 1688 – 1743) was a Russian Empire architect who practiced a sober, restrained Petrine Baroque style, which he learned from his peer Domenico Trezzini.

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Mikhail Zharov

Mikhail Ivanovich Zharov (Михаи́л Ива́нович Жа́ров; 27 October 1899 – 15 December 1981) was a Soviet actor.

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Military Band Service of the Armed Forces of Russia

The Military Band Service of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation serves as the official service of military bands in active service within the Russian Armed Forces and formerly the Soviet Armed Forces.

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Military Historical Museum of Artillery, Engineers and Signal Corps

The Military Historical Museum of Artillery, Engineers and Signal Corps (Военно-исторический музей артиллерии, инженерных войск и войск связи.), also known simply as the Artillery Museum, is a state-owned military museum in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

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Military history of Iran

With thousands of years of recorded history, and due to an unchanging geographic (and subsequently geopolitical) condition, Iran (previously known as Persia in the West until 1935) has had a long, varied, and checkered military culture and history, ranging from triumphant and unchallenged ancient military supremacy affording effective superpower status in its day, to a series of near catastrophic defeats (beginning with the destruction of Elam) at the hand of previously subdued and conquered peripheral nations (including Greece, Macedon and the Asiatic nomadic tribes at the Eastern boundary of the lands traditionally home to the Iranian people).

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Military history of the Russian Empire

The military history of the Russian Empire encompasses the history of armed conflict in which the Russian Empire participated.

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Military uniform

A military uniform is the standardised dress worn by members of the armed forces and paramilitaries of various nations.

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Militsiya (Ukraine)

The militsiya (міліція) was the national police service of Ukraine from the 1950s until 2015.

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Millennium of Russia

The Millennium of Russia (Russian Тысячелетие России) is a bronze monument in the Novgorod Kremlin.

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Miloradović noble family

The Miloradovići (Милорадовићи) or Hrabreni (Храбрени), was a noble family and clan, whose members served the Kingdom of Bosnia, Republic of Ragusa, Ottoman Empire, Habsburg Monarchy and Russian Empire, between the 15th to 19th centuries.

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Milovan Vidaković

Milovan Vidaković (Милован Видаковић; 1780—1841) was a Serbian novelist.

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Milton, Vale of White Horse

Milton is a village and civil parish about west of Didcot and a similar distance south of Abingdon.

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Milyukov

Milyukov (Милюков), also spelled Milukoff, Milukov, Melukov, Melukoff, is an old Russian noble family (first recorded in the mid-14th century).

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Minister of Foreign Affairs (Russia)

This is a list of foreign ministers of Tsardom of Russia, Russian Empire, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Soviet Union, and Russian Federation.

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Ministry of Emergency Situations (Russia)

Russian President Boris Yeltsin established the Ministry of the Russian Federation for Affairs for Civil Defence, Emergencies and Elimination of Consequences of Natural Disasters (Министерство России по делам гражданской обороны, чрезвычайным ситуациям и ликвидации последствий стихийных бедствий), also known as The Ministry of Emergency Situations, MChS (Министерство по чрезвычайным ситуациям – МЧС России), or internationally as EMERCOM (derived from "Emergency Control Ministry") on January 10, 1994.

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Ministry of Internal Affairs (Russia)

The Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation (MOI, Министерство внутренних дел, МВД, Ministerstvo Vnutrennikh Del, MVD) is the interior ministry of Russia.

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Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (Russia)

The Ministry of Natural Resources and the Environment of the Russian Federation (Министерство природных ресурсов и экологии Российской Федерации) is a governmental agency within the Cabinet of Russia tasked with managing the country's natural resources and protecting the environment.

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Minority reign

The term minority reign or royal minority refers to the period of a sovereign's rule when he or she is legally a minor.

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Minsk

Minsk (Мінск,; Минск) is the capital and largest city of Belarus, situated on the Svislach and the Nyamiha Rivers.

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Mira Avenue

Prospect Mira (Проспект Мира, "Avenue of Peace") is a major arterial avenue in the north-east of Moscow.

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Mitre

The mitre (British English) (Greek: μίτρα, "headband" or "turban") or miter (American English; see spelling differences), is a type of headgear now known as the traditional, ceremonial head-dress of bishops and certain abbots in traditional Christianity.

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Mitrophan of Voronezh

Saint Mitrophan or Mitrofan of Voronezh (1623 - 1703) was appointed in 1682 the first bishop of Voronezh.

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Modern history

Modern history, the modern period or the modern era, is the linear, global, historiographical approach to the time frame after post-classical history.

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Mokresh, Montana Province

Mokresh (Мокреш) is a village in northwestern Bulgaria, located in the Valchedram Municipality of the Montana Province.

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Moldavia

Moldavia (Moldova, or Țara Moldovei (in Romanian Latin alphabet), Цара Мѡлдовєй (in old Romanian Cyrillic alphabet) is a historical region and former principality in Central and Eastern Europe, corresponding to the territory between the Eastern Carpathians and the Dniester River. An initially independent and later autonomous state, it existed from the 14th century to 1859, when it united with Wallachia (Țara Românească) as the basis of the modern Romanian state; at various times, Moldavia included the regions of Bessarabia (with the Budjak), all of Bukovina and Hertza. The region of Pokuttya was also part of it for a period of time. The western half of Moldavia is now part of Romania, the eastern side belongs to the Republic of Moldova, and the northern and southeastern parts are territories of Ukraine.

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Molokovo, Molokovsky District, Tver Oblast

Molokovo (Молоково) is an urban-type settlement and the administrative center of Molokovsky District of Tver Oblast, Russia.

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Molokovsky District

Molokovsky District (Молоко́вский райо́н) is an administrative and municipalLaw #4-ZO district (raion), one of the thirty-six in Tver Oblast, Russia.

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Monarchies in the Americas

There are 13 monarchies in the Americas (self-governing states and territories that have a monarch as head of state).

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Monarchist Party

The Monarchist Party of the Russian Federation is the only legal monarchist political party in Russia since the 1917 Russian Revolution.

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Monarchy

A monarchy is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch, exercises the role of sovereignty.

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Monastyrshchinsky District

Monastyrshchinsky District (Монасты́рщинский райо́н) is an administrativeResolution #261 and municipalLaw #89-z district (raion), one of the twenty-five in Smolensk Oblast, Russia.

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Monbijou Palace

Monbijou Palace was a Rococo palace in central Berlin located in the present-day Monbijou Park on the north bank of the Spree river across from today's Bode Museum and within sight of the Hohenzollern city palace.

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Mongols

The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.

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Monmouth cap

The Monmouth cap was an item of woollen headgear fashionable between the 15th and 18th centuries, and associated with the town of Monmouth in south east Wales.

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Monomakh's Cap

Monomakh's Cap (Russian: шапка Мономаха, shapka Monomakha), also called the Golden Cap (Shapka Zolotaya), is a chief relic of the Russian Grand Princes and Tsars.

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Mons family

The Mons family is a Dutch family associated with several affairs that shocked the court of Peter I of Russia in 1704 and 1724.

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Montenegro–Russia relations

Montenegro–Russia relations (Российско-черногорские отношения) are foreign relations between Montenegro and Russia.

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Monument to Aleksei Shein

Monument to Aleksei Shein (Памятник А.М. Шеину) ― is a sculpture of Russian statesman, general, Boyar (from 1695), and the first Russian Generalissimo (1696) Aleksei Semenovich Shein.

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Monument to Alexander Pushkin (Rostov-on-Don)

Monument to Alexander Pushkin in Rostov-on-Don ― a statue in the center of Rostov-on-Don.

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Monument to Nicholas I

The Monument to Nicholas I (Памятник Николаю I) is a bronze equestrian monument of Nicholas I of Russia on St Isaac's Square (in front of Saint Isaac's Cathedral) in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

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Monument to Peter I (Azov)

Monument to Peter I (Памятник Петру I) is a bronze monument of Peter the Great in the center of Azov, Rostov oblast, Russia.

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Monument to Peter I (St. Michael's Castle)

The Monument to Peter I (памятник Петру I) is a bronze equestrian monument of Peter the Great in front of the St. Michael's Castle in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

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Mooste

Mooste is a small borough in Põlva Parish, Põlva County, Estonia.

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Morpho

The morpho butterflies comprise many species of Neotropical butterfly under the genus Morpho.

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Morsing

A morsing (also mukharshanku, mourching, morching or morchang, Telugu: మోర్సింగ్ Kannada:ಮೋರ್ಸಿಂಗ್ Rajasthani: मोरचंग, Tamil: நாமுழவு அல்லது முகச்சங்கு, Malayalam: മുഖർശംഖ്, English: Jaw Harp) is an instrument similar to the Jew's harp, mainly used in Rajasthan, in the Carnatic music of South India, and in Sindh (Pakistan).

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Moscow

Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.

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Moscow City Police

The Main Department of Internal Affairs of the city of Moscow (Главное управление внутренних дел по городу Москве) or just Moscow Police (Московская полиция), established in 1722, is the largest municipal police force in Russia, with primary responsibilities in law enforcement and investigation in Moscow.

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Moscow Governorate

Moscow Governorate (Московская губерния; pre-reform Russian: Московская губернія), or the Government of Moscow, was an administrative division (a guberniya) of the Tsardom of Russia, the Russian Empire, and the Russian SFSR, which existed in 1708–1929.

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Moscow Kremlin

The Moscow Kremlin (p), usually referred to as the Kremlin, is a fortified complex at the heart of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River to the south, Saint Basil's Cathedral and Red Square to the east, and the Alexander Garden to the west.

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Moscow Oblast

Moscow Oblast (p), or Podmoskovye (p, literally "around/near Moscow"), is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast).

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Moscow Print Yard

The Moscow Print Yard (Московский Печатный двор) was the first publishing house in Russia.

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Moscow School of Mathematics and Navigation

Moscow School of Mathematics and Navigation was a Russian educational institution founded by Peter the Great in 1701 and situated in the Sukharev Tower.

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Moscow State University

Lomonosov Moscow State University (MSU; Московский государственный университет имени М. В. Ломоносова, often abbreviated МГУ) is a coeducational and public research university located in Moscow, Russia.

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Moscow uprising of 1682

The Moscow uprising of 1682, also known as the Streltsy uprising of 1682 (Стрелецкий бунт), was an uprising of the Moscow Streltsy regiments that resulted in supreme power devolving on Sophia Alekseyevna (the daughter of the late Tsar Aleksey Mikhailovich and of his first wife Maria Miloslavskaya).

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Moshenskoy District

Moshenskoy District (Мошенско́й райо́н) is an administrativeLaw #559-OZ and municipalLaw #370-OZ district (raion), one of the twenty-one in Novgorod Oblast, Russia.

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Moshenskoye, Novgorod Oblast

Moshenskoye (Мошенское) is a rural locality (a selo) and the administrative center of Moshenskoy District of Novgorod Oblast, Russia, in the east of the oblast, on the Uver River.

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Moskovsky railway station (Saint Petersburg)

St.Petersburg-Glavny, is a railway station terminal in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

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Most Holy Synod

The Most Holy Governing Synod (Святѣйшій Правительствующій Сѵнодъ, Святейший Правительствующий Синод) was the highest governing body of the Russian Orthodox Church between 1721 and 1918 (when the Church re-instated the Patriarchate).

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Motorin family

The Motorins, also spelled Matorins (Моторины, Маторины in Russian) were a famous Russian family of bellfounders.

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Moyka River

The Moyka River (Мо́йка) is a small river in Russia that encircles the central portion of Saint Petersburg, effectively making it an island.

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Multiple discovery

The concept of multiple discovery (also known as simultaneous invention) is the hypothesis that most scientific discoveries and inventions are made independently and more or less simultaneously by multiple scientists and inventors.

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Muriel Costa-Greenspon

Muriel Costa-Greenspon (December 1, 1937 – December 26, 2005) was an American mezzo-soprano who had a lengthy career at the New York City Opera from 1963-93.

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Museum Boerhaave

Museum Boerhaave is a museum of the history of science and medicine, based in Leiden, Netherlands.

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Music in the Civilization video game series

The music in the Civilization video game series has been composed by various composers.

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Music of Russia

Music of Russia denotes music produced from Russia and/or by Russians.

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Musketeer

A musketeer (mousquetaire) was a type of soldier equipped with a musket.

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Nadejda Mountbatten, Marchioness of Milford Haven

Nadejda Mikhailovna Mountbatten, Marchioness of Milford Haven, née de Torby, (28 March 1896 – 22 January 1963), formerly Princess George of Battenberg, was a member of the Russian Imperial family who married a German prince but became an English subject and aristocrat.

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Nader Shah

Nader Shah Afshar (نادر شاه افشار; also known as Nader Qoli Beyg نادر قلی بیگ or Tahmāsp Qoli Khan تهماسپ قلی خان) (August 1688 – 19 June 1747) was one of the most powerful Iranian rulers in the history of the nation, ruling as Shah of Persia (Iran) from 1736 to 1747 when he was assassinated during a rebellion.

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Naissaar

Naissaar (Nargen; Nargö) is an island northwest of Tallinn (but belonging to Viimsi Parish) in Estonia.

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Nakaz

Nakaz, or Instruction, of Catherine the Great (Наказ Екатерины II Комиссии о составлении проекта нового Уложения) was a statement of legal principles written by Catherine II of Russia, and permeated with the ideas of the French Enlightenment.

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Name of Russia (Russia TV)

Name of Russia (Имя Россия, "The Name Russia") was a project of the Russia TV channel aimed to elect the most notable personality in Russian history through Internet, radio and television voting.

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Naphtali Hirz Wessely

Naphtali(-)Herz (Hartwig) Wessely, a.k.a. Naphtali(-)Hirz Wessely, also Wesel (נפתלי הירץ וויזעל Vezel; born 1725, Hamburg – died February 28, 1805, Hamburg), was an 18th-century German Jewish Hebraist and educationist.

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Napoleon Crossing the Alps

Napoleon Crossing the Alps (also known as Napoleon at the Saint-Bernard Pass or Bonaparte Crossing the Alps) is the title given to the five versions of an oil on canvas equestrian portrait of Napoleon Bonaparte painted by the French artist Jacques-Louis David between 1801 and 1805.

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Narva

Narva (Нарва) is the third largest city in Estonia.

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Narva-Jõesuu

Narva-Jõesuu (Усть-Нарва, Ust'-Narva) is a town in Ida-Viru County, in north-eastern Estonia.

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Naryshkin Baroque

Naryshkin Baroque, also called Moscow Baroque, or Muscovite Baroque, is the name given to a particular style of Baroque architecture and decoration which was fashionable in Moscow from the turn of the 17th into the early 18th centuries.

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Naryshkin family

The Naryshkin family (Нарышкины) was a Moscow boyar family of Tatar descent, going back to a certain Mordko Kurbat Naryshko, a Crimean Tatar, who moved to Moscow in the 15th century.

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Nashi (youth movement)

Nashi (Молодежное демократическое aнтифашистское движение «Наши», Youth Democratic Anti-Fascist Movement "Ours!") was a political youth movement in Russia, which declared itself to be a democratic, anti-fascist, anti-'oligarchic-capitalist' movement.

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Natalia Grosvenor, Duchess of Westminster

Natalia Ayesha Grosvenor, Duchess of Westminster (née Phillips; born 8 May 1959), is the widow of The 6th Duke of Westminster.

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Natalia Lopukhina

Natalia Fyodorovna Lopukhina (1699–1763) was a Russian noble, court official and alleged political conspirator.

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Natalya Alexeyevna of Russia

Tsarevna Natalya Alexeyevna of Russia (22 August 167318 June 1716) was a Russian playwright.

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Natalya Naryshkina

Natalya Kirillovna Naryshkina (Ната́лья Кири́лловна Нары́шкина; 1 September 1651 – 4 February 1694) was the Tsaritsa of Russia from 1671–1676 as the second spouse of Tsar Alexei I of Russia, and regent of Russia as the mother of Tsar Peter I of Russia (Peter the Great) in 1682.

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National Art Museum of Azerbaijan

National Art Museum of Azerbaijan (Azərbaycan Milli İncəsənət Muzeyi) is the biggest art museum of Azerbaijan.

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National Association of Russian Explorers

The National Association of Russian Explorers (NORR; in Russian: Национальная Организация Русских Разведчиков (НОРР), Natsional'naya Organizatsiya Russkih Razvedchikov, НОРР) is a youth organization founded by former Russian Scout Pavel Nikolaevich Bogdanovich, a White emigre and veteran of the Russian Imperial army, in the late 1920s after leaving the National Organization of Russian Scouts of Colonel Oleg Pantyukhov.

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National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy

National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy (NaUKMA) (Національний університет «Києво-Могилянська академія» (НаУКМА), Natsional'nyi universytet "Kyyevo-Mohylians'ka akademiya") is a national, coeducational research university located in Kiev, Ukraine.

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Naum Senyavin

Naum Akimovich Senyavin (Наум Акимович Сенявин in Russian) (c. 1680 &ndash) was a Vice Admiral (1727) of the Imperial Russian Navy.

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Naval Infantry (Russia)

The Russian Naval Infantry (Marines, Морская пехота, Morskaya Pekhota), is the amphibious force of the Russian Navy.

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Nelidovsky District

Nelidovsky District (Нели́довский райо́н) is an administrative and municipalLaw #4-ZO district (raion), one of the thirty-six in Tver Oblast, Russia.

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Neo-Byzantine architecture in the Russian Empire

Neo-Byzantine architecture in the Russian Empire emerged in the 1850s and became an officially endorsed preferred architectural style for church construction during the reign of Alexander II of Russia (1855–1881), replacing the Russo-Byzantine style of Konstantin Thon.

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Neoclassicism in France

Neoclassicism is a movement in architecture, design and the arts which was dominant in France between about 1760 to 1830.

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Netherlands–Russia relations

Netherlands–Russia relations is the relationships between the two countries, the Kingdom of The Netherlands and The Russian Federation.

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Neva Enfilade of the Winter Palace

The Neva Enfilade of the Winter Palace, St Petersburg, is a series of three large halls arranged in an enfilade along the palace's massive facade facing the River Neva.

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Neva Yacht Club

The Neva Yacht Club (Yacht-club Neva or simply Club Neva) is a sailing club located in Saint Petersburg, Russia, close to the Neva River.

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Nevsky Prospect

Nevsky Prospect (p) is the main street in the city of St. Petersburg, Russia, named after the 13th-century Russian prince Alexander Nevsky.

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New Holland Island

New Holland Island (Но́вая Голла́ндия) is a historic triangular artificial island in Saint Petersburg, Russia, dating from the 18th century.

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New Monarchs

The New Monarchs was a concept developed by European historians during the first half of the 20th century to characterize 15th-century European rulers who unified their respective nations, creating stable and centralized governments.

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New Order (Nazism)

The New Order (German: Neuordnung), or the New Order of Europe (German: Neuordnung Europas), was the political order which Nazi Germany wanted to impose on the conquered areas under its dominion.

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New Year

New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.

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New Year tree

New Year trees are decorated trees similar to Christmas trees that are displayed to specifically celebrate the New Year.

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New York City Opera

The New York City Opera (NYCO) is an American opera company located in Manhattan in New York City.

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Nicholas Harold Phillips

Nicholas Harold Phillips (23 August 1947 – 1 March 1991) was a British landowner in Hertfordshire and Bedfordshire with royal connections.

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Nicholas I of Russia

Nicholas I (r; –) was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855.

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Nicholas II of Russia

Nicholas II or Nikolai II (r; 1868 – 17 July 1918), known as Saint Nicholas II of Russia in the Russian Orthodox Church, was the last Emperor of Russia, ruling from 1 November 1894 until his forced abdication on 15 March 1917.

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Nicola Michetti

Nicola Michetti, also known as Niccolo or Niccolò (circa December 7, 1675 in Venice – November 12, 1758 in Rome) was an Italian architect, active in a late-Baroque style in mostly Rome, Italy and St Petersburg, Russia.

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Nicolaas Bidloo

Nicolaas Bidloo (c. 1673/74 in Amsterdam – 23 March 1735) was a Dutch physician who served as the personal physician of Tsar Peter I of Russia (Peter the Great).

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Nicolaas Hartsoeker

Nicolaas Hartsoeker (26 March 1656, Gouda – 10 December 1725, Utrecht) was a Dutch mathematician and physicist who invented the screw-barrel simple microscope circa 1694.

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Nicolaes Witsen

Nicolaes Witsen (8 May 1641 – 10 August 1717; modern Dutch: Nicolaas Witsen) was a Dutch statesman who was mayor of Amsterdam thirteen times, between 1682 and 1706.

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Nicolas Pineau

Nicolas Pineau (1684–1754) was a French carver and ornamental designer, one of the leaders who initiated the exuberant style of the French rocaille or Rococo.

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Nicolaus II Bernoulli

Nicolaus II Bernoulli, a.k.a. Niklaus Bernoulli, Nikolaus Bernoulli, (6 February 1695, Basel, Switzerland – 31 July 1726, St. Petersburg, Russia) was a Swiss mathematician as were his father Johann Bernoulli and one of his brothers, Daniel Bernoulli.

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Nikita Demidov

Nikita Demidov (full name Nikita Demidovich Antufiev; 5 April 1656 – 28 November 1725) was a Russian industrialist who founded the Demidov industrial dynasty.

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Nikita Trubetskoy

Prince Nikita Yurievich Trubetskoy (Russian: Никита Юрьевич Трубецкой) (26 May 1699 – 16 October 1767) was a Russian statesman and Field Marshal (1756), minister of defense of Russia 1760.

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Nikita Villebois

Nikita Petrovich Villebois (Никита Петрович Вильбоа; real name - François Guillemot de Villebois; 1681–1760) was a Russian Vice-Admiral of French origin.

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Nikita Zotov

Count Nikita Moiseevich Zotov (Ru-Nikita_Moiseevich_Zotov.ogg) (1644 – December 1717) was a childhood tutor and lifelong friend of Russian Tsar Peter the Great.

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Nikolai Dante

Nikolai Dante was a comic book series published in the weekly British science fiction anthology 2000 AD from March 1997 through July 2012.

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Nikolai Ge

Nikolai Nikolaevich Ge (from his French ancestral surname "De Gay") (Николай Николаевич Ге; &ndash) was a Russian realist painter and an early Russian symbolist.

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Nikolai Kondratiev

Nikolai Dmitriyevich Kondratiev (in some sources also referred as Kondratieff; Russian: Никола́й Дми́триевич Кондра́тьев; 4 March 1892 – 17 September 1938) was a Russian economist, who was a proponent of the New Economic Policy (NEP), which promoted small private, free market enterprises in the Soviet Union.

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Nikolai Spathari

Nikolai Spathari (Nikolai Gavrilovich Spathari; 1636–1708), also known as Nicolae Milescu and Nicolae Milescu Spătaru (first name also Neculai, signing in Latin as Nicolao Spadario Moldavo-Lacone, Nikolaye Gavrilovich Milesku), or Spătarul Milescu-Cârnu (trans.: "Chancellor Milescu the Snub-nosed"), was a Moldavian writer, diplomat and traveler.

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Nikolay Danilevsky

Nikolay Yakovlevich Danilevsky (Никола́й Я́ковлевич Даниле́вский; 28 November 1822 – 7 November 1885) was a Russian Empire naturalist, economist, ethnologist, philosopher, historian and ideologue of Pan-Slavism and the Slavophile movement.

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Nikolay Gerasimovich Ustryalov

Nikolay Gerasimovich Ustryalov (Никола́й Гера́симович Устря́лов; 4 May (N.S. 16 May) 1805 in Oryol Governorate – 8 June (N.S. 20 June) 1870 in Tsarskoye Selo) was a Russian historian who elaborated the Official Nationality Theory.

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Nikolay Karamzin

Nikolay Mikhailovich Karamzin (p) was a Russian writer, poet, historian and critic.

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Nikolay Raevsky

Nikolay Nikolayevich Raevsky (Николай Николаевич Раевский; —) was a Russian general and statesman who achieved fame for his feats of arms during the Napoleonic Wars.

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Nikolay Sauerweid

Nikolay Alexandrovich Sauerweid (Russian: Николай Александрович Зауервейд; 1836–1866) was a Russian painter; son of Alexander SauerweidA.

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Nikolay Simonov

Nikolay Simonov (December 4, 1901 – April 20, 1973) was a Soviet film and stage actor.

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Nikolsk, Vologda Oblast

Nikolsk (Нико́льск) is a town and the administrative center of Nikolsky District in Vologda Oblast, Russia, located on the right bank of the Yug River.

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Nikolskoye, Tosnensky District, Leningrad Oblast

Nikolskoye (Нико́льское, Lomkka) is a town in Tosnensky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the Tosna River southeast of the center of St. Petersburg.

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Nikolsky District, Vologda Oblast

Nikolsky District (Нико́льский райо́н) is an administrativeLaw #371-OZ and municipalLaw #1119-OZ district (raion), one of the twenty-six in Vologda Oblast, Russia.

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Nikolsky, Leningrad Oblast

Nikolsky (Никольский) is an urban locality (an urban-type settlement) in Podporozhsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the right bank of the Svir River, several kilometers west of the town of Podporozhye.

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Nils Gustaf Nordenskiöld

Nils Gustaf Nordenskiöld (October 12, 1792, Mäntsälä – February 2, 1866) was a mineralogist and a traveller.

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Nizhniy Tagil Iron and Steel Works

OJSC Nizhniy Tagil Iron and Steel Works (ОАО «Нижнетагильский металлургический комбинат», Niznhetagilsky Metallurgichecky Kombinat) is a Russian steel manufacturer.

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Non-decimal currency

A non-decimal currency is a currency that has sub-units that are a non-decimal fraction of the main unit, i.e. the number of sub-units in a main unit is not a power of 10.

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Nord Stream

Nord Stream (former names: North Transgas and North European Gas Pipeline; Северный поток, Severny potok) is an offshore natural gas pipeline from Vyborg in the Russian Federation to Greifswald in Germany that is owned and operated by Nord Stream AG.

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Norfolk Street, Strand

Norfolk Street in the City of Westminster, London, ran from Strand in the north to the edge of the River Thames in the south, and after the Victoria Embankment was built (1865–1870), to what is now Temple Place.

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North Caucasus Line

The '''Kuban''' drains the northwest Caucasus rivers into the Sea of Azov. The '''Laba''' is the fourth river from the left. The North Caucasus Line was a line of Russian forts and Cossack settlements along the north side of the Caucasus Mountains.

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Northeast Passage

The Northeast Passage (abbreviated as NEP) is, from the European and northern Atlantic point of view, the shipping route to the Pacific Ocean, along the Arctic Ocean coasts of Norway and Russia.

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Northern Dvina Canal

The Northern Dvina Canal (Северодвинский канал) is a 64 km long canal in Vologda Oblast in Russia.

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Northern Dvina River

The Northern Dvina (Се́верная Двина́,; Вы́нва / Výnva) is a river in northern Russia flowing through the Vologda Oblast and Arkhangelsk Oblast into the Dvina Bay of the White Sea.

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Northern Fleet

The Northern Fleet (Северный флот, Severnyy Flot) is the fleet of the Russian Navy in the Arctic Ocean.

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Notes on Muscovite Affairs

Notes on Muscovite Affairs (Rerum Moscoviticarum Commentarii) (1549) was a Latin book by Baron Sigismund von Herberstein on the geography, history and customs of Muscovy (the 16th century Russian state).

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Novaya Ladoga

Novaya Ladoga (Но́вая Ла́дога) is a town in Volkhovsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located at the point where the Volkhov River flows into Lake Ladoga, east of St. Petersburg.

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Novgorod Oblast

Novgorod Oblast (Новгоро́дская о́бласть, Novgorodskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast).

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Novgorodsky District

Novgorodsky District (Новгородский район) is an administrativeLaw #559-OZ and municipalLaw #400-OZ district (raion), one of the twenty-one in Novgorod Oblast, Russia.

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Novodevichy Convent

Novodevichy Convent, also known as Bogoroditse-Smolensky Monastery (Новоде́вичий монасты́рь, Богоро́дице-Смоле́нский монасты́рь), is probably the best-known cloister of Moscow.

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Novolipetsk Steel

Novolipetsk Steel, or NLMK, is one of the four largest steel companies in Russia.

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Novorzhevsky District

Novorzhevsky District (Новорже́вский райо́н) is an administrativeLaw #833-oz and municipalLaw #420-oz district (raion), one of the twenty-four in Pskov Oblast, Russia.

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Novoselenginsk

Novoselenginsk (Новоселенги́нск) is a rural locality (a settlement) in Selenginsky District of the Republic of Buryatia, Russia, located on the Selenge River south of Lake Baikal.

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Novy God

Novy God is the Russian phrase for "New Year", and also designates the Russian New Year's Eve and New Year's Day celebration.

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Nyandomsky District

Nyandomsky District (Ня́ндомский райо́н) is an administrative district (raion), one of the twenty-one in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia.

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Nyenschantz

Nyenschantz (Ниенша́нц, Nienshants; Nyenskans; Nevanlinna) was a Swedish fortress at the confluence of the Neva River and Okhta River, the site of present-day Saint Petersburg, Russia.

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Nykøbing Falster

Nykøbing Falster (originally named Nykøbing) is a southern Danish city, seat of the Guldborgsund ''kommune''.

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Nyuksensky District

Nyuksensky District (Ню́ксенский райо́н) is an administrativeLaw #371-OZ and municipalLaw #1120-OZ district (raion), one of the twenty-six in Vologda Oblast, Russia.

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Obsolete Russian units of measurement

A native system of weights and measures was used in Imperial Russia and after the Russian Revolution, but it was abandoned after July 21, 1925, when the Soviet Union adopted the metric system, per the order of the Council of People's Commissars.

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Obsolete Tatar units of measurement

A native system of weights and measures was used by Tatars until 1924, but became obsolete when the Soviet Union adopted the metric system.

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October 9

No description.

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Okhotsk

Okhotsk (p) is an urban locality (a work settlement) and the administrative center of Okhotsky District of Khabarovsk Krai, Russia, located at the mouth of the Okhota River on the Sea of Okhotsk.

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Okolnichy

Okolnichy (Око́льничий) was an old rank and a position at the court of Moscow rulers from the Mongol invasion of Rus' until the government reform undertaken by Peter the Great.

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Oktyabrsky, Lyuberetsky District, Moscow Oblast

Oktyabrsky (Октя́брьский) is an urban locality (a work settlement) in Lyuberetsky District of Moscow Oblast, Russia, located southeast of Moscow and south of Lyubertsy.

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Olbernhau

Olbernhau is a town in the district Erzgebirgskreis, in the Free State of Saxony, Germany.

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Old Believers

In Eastern Orthodox church history, the Old Believers, or Old Ritualists (старове́ры or старообря́дцы, starovéry or staroobryádtsy) are Eastern Orthodox Christians who maintain the liturgical and ritual practices of the Eastern Orthodox Church as they existed prior to the reforms of Patriarch Nikon of Moscow between 1652 and 1666.

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Old City (Baku)

Old City or Inner City (İçərişəhər) is the historical core of Baku, the capital of Azerbaijan.

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Old Saint Petersburg Stock Exchange and Rostral Columns

The Old Saint Petersburg Stock Exchange (also Bourse) and Rostral Columns, located in Saint Petersburg in the Russian Federation, are significant examples of Greek Revival architecture.

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Old Trinity Cathedral

The Old Trinity Cathedral (also known as Peter's Trinity Cathedral, Троице-Петровский собор) was the oldest church in St. Petersburg, Russia.

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Old Turkish bay

The Old Turkish bay is an ice-free bay of elongated arc-shaped form on the northern shore of Taganrog Bay in Azov Sea.

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Oleg Khvostov

Oleg Khvostov (born 19 October 1972) is a Russian painter, representative of naïve art.

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Oleksander Hrekov

Oleksander Petrovych Hrekov (Олександр Петрович Греков) (4 December 1875 – 2 December 1958) was a general of the Imperial Russian Army, Ukrainian People's Army, military professor and one of the most prominent personalities in the History of Ukraine.

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Oleksander Ohloblyn

Oleksander Ohloblyn, Ukr.

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Oleninsky District

Oleninsky District (Оле́нинский райо́н) is an administrative and municipalLaw #4-ZO district (raion), one of the thirty-six in Tver Oblast, Russia.

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Oliver Reed

Robert Oliver Reed (13 February 1938 – 2 May 1999) was an English actor known for his upper-middle class, macho image, hellraiser lifestyle, and "tough guy" roles.

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Olonets Governorate

The Olonets Governorate or Government of Olonets was a guberniya (governorate) of north-western Imperial Russia, extending from Lake Ladoga almost to the White Sea, bounded west by Finland, north and east by Arkhangelsk and Vologda, and south by Novgorod and Saint Petersburg.

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Once Upon a Time... Man

Once Upon a Time...

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Onezhsky District

Onezhsky District (Оне́жский райо́н) is an administrative district (raion), one of the twenty-one in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia.

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Opochetsky District

Opochetsky District (Опо́чецкий райо́н) is an administrativeLaw #833-oz and municipalLaw #420-oz district (raion), one of the twenty-four in Pskov Oblast, Russia.

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Opochka

Opochka (Опо́чка) is a town and the administrative center of Opochetsky District in Pskov Oblast, Russia, located on the Velikaya River, south of Pskov, the administrative center of the oblast.

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Oranienbaum, Russia

Oranienbaum (Ораниенба́ум) is a Russian royal residence, located on the Gulf of Finland west of St. Petersburg.

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Order of battle for the Battle of Lesnaya

The following units fought in the Battle of Lesnaya on October 9, 1708 during the Great Northern War.

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Order of chivalry

A chivalric order, order of chivalry, order of knighthood or equestrian order is an order, confraternity or society of knights typically founded during or in inspiration of the original Catholic military orders of the Crusades (circa 1099-1291), paired with medieval concepts of ideals of chivalry.

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Order of Saint Alexander Nevsky

The Imperial Order of Saint Alexander Nevsky was an order of chivalry of the Russian Empire first awarded on by Empress Catherine I of Russia.

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Order of Saint Anna

The Order of Saint Anna (Орден Святой Анны; also "Order of Saint Ann" or "Order of Saint Anne") was established as a Holstein ducal and then Russian imperial order of chivalry established by Karl Friedrich, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, on 14 February 1735, in honour of his wife Anna Petrovna, daughter of Peter the Great of Russia.

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Order of Saint Catherine

The Order of Saint Catherine (Императорский Орден Святой Екатерины) was an award of Imperial Russia.

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Order of St. Andrew

The Order of St.

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Orest Subtelny

Orest Subtelny (О́рест Субте́льний, 7 May 1941 – 24 July 2016) was a Polish-Canadian historian.

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Origins of the French Foreign Legion

The French Foreign Legion is an elite force composed of soldiers of different race, trade, religion, and sentiments, which began as part of the French Army.

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Orlando Figes

Orlando Guy Figes (born Islington, 20 November 1959) is a British historian and writer known for his works on Russian history.

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Oscar Browning

Oscar Browning (17 January 1837 – 6 October 1923) was a British educationalist, historian and bon viveur, a well-known Cambridge personality during the late Victorian and Edwardian eras.

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Osip Startsev

Osip Dmitrievich Startsev (Осип Дмитриевич Старцев) was a Russian architect who mastered both Muscovite Baroque and Ukrainian Baroque idioms during the early part of Peter the Great's reign.

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Oskemen

Ust-Kamenogorsk (Усть-Каменого́рск) or Oskemen (Өскемен/Öskemen) is the administrative center of East Kazakhstan Region of Kazakhstan.

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Ossowski (Dołęga)

The surname Ossowski (singular masculine), Ossowska (singular feminine), or Ossowscy (plural) (also Osowski / Osowska / Osowscy) belongs to a Polish noble family.

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Ostashkovsky District

Ostashkovsky District (Оста́шковский райо́н) is an administrative and municipalLaw #4-ZO district (raion), one of the thirty-six in Tver Oblast, Russia.

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Ostrogozhsk

Ostrogozhsk (Острого́жск, Острого́зьк) is a town and the administrative center of Ostrogozhsky District in Voronezh Oblast, Russia, located on the Tikhaya Sosna River (a Don's tributary), south of Voronezh, the administrative center of the oblast.

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Ostromir Gospels

The Ostromir Gospels (Russian: Остромирово Евангелие) is the oldest dated East Slavic book.

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Ostrov, Ostrovsky District, Pskov Oblast

Ostrov (О́стров, lit. island) is a town and the administrative center of Ostrovsky District in Pskov Oblast, Russia, located on the Velikaya River, south of Pskov, the administrative center of the oblast.

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Ostrovsky District, Pskov Oblast

Ostrovsky District (О́стровский райо́н) is an administrativeLaw #833-oz and municipalLaw #420-oz district (raion), one of the twenty-four in Pskov Oblast, Russia.

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

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Ottoman invasion of western Georgia (1703)

The 1703 Ottoman invasion of western Georgia was a military expedition undertaken by the Ottoman Empire against the tributary states in western Georgia—Imereti, Guria, and Mingrelia.

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Ottoman Old Regime

War of the Holy League. The history of the Ottoman Empire in the 18th century has classically been described as one of stagnation and reform.

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Ottoman–Hotaki War (1722–27)

The Ottoman–Hotaki War of 1722–1727 were a series of conflicts fought between the Ottoman Empire and the Afghan Hotaki dynasty, over control of all western and northwestern parts of Iran.

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Outline of Saint Petersburg

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Saint Petersburg: Saint Petersburg – second-largest city in Russia.

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Outline of war

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to war: War – organised and often prolonged armed conflict that is carried out by states and/or non-state actors – is characterised by extreme violence, social disruption, and economic destruction.

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Pakri Lighthouse

Pakri Lighthouse (Estonian: Pakri Tuletorn) is a lighthouse located on the Pakri Peninsula (on the coast of the Baltic Sea), Harju County; in Estonia.

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Palace

A palace is a grand residence, especially a royal residence, or the home of a head of state or some other high-ranking dignitary, such as a bishop or archbishop.

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Palace Bridge

Palace Bridge (Dvortsoviy Most), a road- and foot-traffic bascule bridge, spans the Neva River in Saint Petersburg between Palace Square and Vasilievsky Island.

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Palace in Otwock Wielki

Palace at Otwock Wielki or Otwock Grand Palace is otherwise known as the Jezierscy Family palace (Polish: Pałac Jezierskich) or Bielińscy Family palace (Polish: Pałac Bielińskich).

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Palace of Facets

The Palace of the Facets (Грановитая Палата, Granovitaya Palata) is a building in the Moscow Kremlin, Russia, which contains what used to be the main banquet reception hall of the Muscovite Tsars.

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Palace of Fontainebleau

The Palace of Fontainebleau or Château de Fontainebleau, located southeast of the center of Paris, in the commune of Fontainebleau, is one of the largest French royal châteaux.

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Palace of the Shirvanshahs

The Palace of the Shirvanshahs (Şirvanşahlar Sarayı, کاخ شروان‌شاهان) is a 15th-century palace built by the Shirvanshahs and described by UNESCO as "one of the pearls of Azerbaijan's architecture".

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Paliy uprising

Paliy uprising (also Palej uprising) was a Cossack uprising, led by colonel Semen Paliy against the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1702-1704.

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Palkinsky District

Palkinsky District (Па́лкинский райо́н) is an administrativeLaw #833-oz and municipalLaw #420-oz district (raion), one of the twenty-four in Pskov Oblast, Russia.

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Palm Sunday

Palm Sunday is a Christian moveable feast that falls on the Sunday before Easter.

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Parfinsky District

Parfinsky District (Парфинский район) is an administrativeLaw #559-OZ and municipalLaw #354-OZ district (raion), one of the twenty-one in Novgorod Oblast, Russia.

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Parliament

In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government.

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Pashkov House

The Pashkov House (Пашко́в дом) is a neoclassical mansion that stands on a hill overlooking the western wall of the Moscow Kremlin, near the crossing of the Mokhovaya and Vozdvizhenka streets.

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Patriarch Adrian of Moscow

Patriarch Adrian (born Andrey, Андрей; 2 October 1627, 1637, or 1639 – 16 October 1700) was the last pre-revolutionary Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia.

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Patriarch of Moscow and all Rus'

The Patriarch of Moscow and all Rus' (Патриарх Московский и всея Руси Patriarkh Moskovskij i vseja Rusi), also known as the Patriarch of Moscow and all Russia, is the official title of the primate of the Russian Orthodox Church.

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Patrick Gordon

Patrick Leopold Gordon of Auchleuchries (31 March 1635 in Auchleuchries, Aberdeenshire, Scotland – 29 November 1699 in Moscow, Russia) was a general and rear admiral in Russia, of Scottish origin.

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Patriot of Ukraine

The Patriot of Ukraine (Патріо́т Украї́ни) was a Ukrainian extreme nationalist organization.

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Paul Delaroche

Paul Delaroche (Paris, 17 July 1797 – 4 November 1856) was a French painter who achieved his greater successes painting history.

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Paul I of Russia

Paul I (Па́вел I Петро́вич; Pavel Petrovich) (–) reigned as Emperor of Russia between 1796 and 1801.

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Paul Menesius

Paul Menesius (1637–1694, Latinized from Menzies, Russian transliteration: Павел Гаврилович Менезиус or Менезий or Миннюст) was a Scottish soldier and diplomat, who spent most of his life in the service of the Russian Tsar Alexei.

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Pauline Laws

The Pauline Laws are the house laws of the House of Romanov of the Russian Empire.

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Pavel Milyukov

Pavel Nikolayevich Miliukov (p; 31 March 1943) was a Russian historian and liberal politician.

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Pavel Pestel

Colonel Pavel Ivanovich Pestel (Павел Иванович Пестель; in Moscow – in Saint Petersburg) was a Russian revolutionary and ideologue of the Decembrists.

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Pavlo Polubotok

Pavlo Polubotok (Павло Полуботок) (born around 1660, died on 29 December 1724), was a Cossack political and military leader and Acting Hetman of Left-bank Ukraine between 1722 and 1724.

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Pavlovsk, Saint Petersburg

Pavlovsk (Па́вловск) is a municipal town in Pushkinsky District of the federal city of St. Petersburg, Russia, located south from St. Petersburg proper and about southeast from Pushkin.

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Pavlovsk, Voronezh Oblast

Pavlovsk (Па́вловск) is a town and the administrative center of Pavlovsky District in Voronezh Oblast, Russia, located on the left bank of the Don River at its confluence with the Osered), southeast of Voronezh, the administrative center of the oblast. Population.

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Põltsamaa Castle

Põltsamaa Castle (Põltsamaa linnus; Schloss Oberpahlen), also Põltsamaa Order Castle, (Põltsamaa ordulinnus), is a castle in Põltsamaa, Jõgeva County, in eastern Estonia.

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Peace of Travendal

The Peace of Travendal was a peace treaty concluded at the outset of the Great Northern War on 18 August 1700 between the Swedish Empire, Denmark–Norway and Holstein-Gottorp in Traventhal.

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Pechersk Lavra fortification

The Lavra fortification (translit; translit) is a system of walls, towers and other constructions built for the protection of the Cave Monastery in Kiev, the capital of Ukraine.

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Pechorsky District

Pechorsky District (Печо́рский райо́н) is an administrativeLaw #833-oz and municipalLaw #420-oz district (raion), one of the twenty-four in Pskov Oblast, Russia.

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Pechory

Pechory (Печо́ры; Estonian and Seto: Petseri) is a town and the administrative center of Pechorsky District in Pskov Oblast, Russia.

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Pedro II of Brazil

Dom Pedro II (English: Peter II; 2 December 1825 – 5 December 1891), nicknamed "the Magnanimous", was the second and last ruler of the Empire of Brazil, reigning for over 58 years.

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Penovsky District

Penovsky District (Пе́новский райо́н) is an administrative and municipalLaw #4-ZO district (raion), one of the thirty-six in Tver Oblast, Russia.

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Peredelkino

Peredelkino (p) is a dacha complex situated just to the southwest of Moscow, Russia.

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Peregrine Osborne, 2nd Duke of Leeds

Vice-Admiral Peregrine Osborne, 2nd Duke of Leeds (1659 – 25 June 1729), styled Viscount Osborne between 1673 and 1689, Earl of Danby between 1689 and 1694 and Marquess of Carmarthen between 1694 and 1712, was an English Tory politician.

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Pereslavl-Zalessky

Pereslavl-Zalessky (p, lit. Pereslavl beyond the woods), also known as Pereyaslavl-Zalessky, is a town in Yaroslavl Oblast, Russia, located on the main Moscow–Yaroslavl road and on the southeastern shore of Lake Pleshcheyevo at the mouth of the Trubezh River.

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Perm

Perm (p;Gramota.ru.) is a city and the administrative center of Perm Krai, Russia, located on the banks of the Kama River in the European part of Russia near the Ural Mountains.

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Persian carpet

A Persian carpet or Persian rug (Persian: قالی ايرانى qālī-ye īranī),Savory, R., Carpets,(Encyclopaedia Iranica); accessed January 30, 2007.

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Pestovsky District

Pestovsky District (Песто́вский райо́н) is an administrativeLaw #559-OZ and municipalLaw #369-OZ district (raion), one of the twenty-one in Novgorod Oblast, Russia.

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Peter and Alexis

Peter and Alexis (Пётр и Алексей) is a novel by Dmitry Merezhkovsky, written in 1903-1904 and first published in Nos.

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Peter and Paul Fortress

The Peter and Paul Fortress is the original citadel of St. Petersburg, Russia, founded by Peter the Great in 1703 and built to Domenico Trezzini's designs from 1706 to 1740 as a star fortress.

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Peter Englund

Peter Mikael Englund (born 4 April 1957) is a Swedish author and historian.

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Peter I

Peter I may refer to.

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Peter I Island

Peter I Island (остров Петра I, Peter I Øy) is an uninhabited volcanic island in the Bellingshausen Sea, from Antarctica.

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Peter I Monument in Taganrog

The Peter I Monument in Taganrog is a monument to Peter I of Russia in Taganrog.

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Peter I Range

Peter I Range, Peter the First Range or Peter the Great Range (Хребет Петра I or Хребет Петра Первого) is a mountain range in Tajikistan, part of the Pamir Mountain System.

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Peter II of Russia

Peter II Alexeyevich (Russian: Пётр II Алексеевич, Pyotr II Alekseyevich) (–) reigned as Emperor of Russia from 1727 until his death.

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Peter III of Russia

Peter III (21 February 1728 –) (Пётр III Фëдорович, Pyotr III Fyodorovich) was Emperor of Russia for six months in 1762.

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Peter Lacy

Count Peter von Lacy, or Pyotr Petrovich Lacy (Пётр Петро́вич Ла́сси), as he was known in Russia (26 September 1678 – 30 April 1751), was one of the most successful Russian imperial commanders before Rumyantsev and Suvorov.

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Peter Shafirov

Baron Peter Pavlovich Shafirov (Пётр Павлович Шафиров) (16701739), Russian statesman, one of the ablest coadjutors of Peter the Great.

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Peter Tekeli

Peter Tekeli (Петр Авраамович Текели, Serbian: Петар Поповић Текелија or Petar Popović Tekelija, Tököly-Popovics Péter) (1720–1792) was a Russian general-in-chief of Serb origin.

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Peter the Great (1937 film)

Peter the Great (Пётр Первый) is a 1937-1938 Soviet two-part historical biographical film, shot on the Order of Lenin from Leningrad film studio Lenfilm director Vladimir Petrov on the eponymous play by Aleksey Nikolayevich Tolstoy's devoted to the life and activity of the Russian Emperor Peter I.

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Peter the Great (disambiguation)

Peter the Great may refer to.

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Peter the Great (Fabergé egg)

The Peter the Great Egg is a jewelled Easter egg made under the supervision of the Russian jeweler Peter Carl Fabergé in 1903 for the last Tsar of Russia, Nicholas II.

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Peter the Great (film)

Peter the Great (German: Peter der Große) is a 1922 German silent historical film directed by Dimitri Buchowetzki and starring Emil Jannings, Bernhard Goetzke and Dagny Servaes.

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Peter the Great (miniseries)

Peter the Great is a 1986 NBC television mini-series starring Maximilian Schell as Russian emperor Peter the Great, and based on the biography by Robert K. Massie.

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Peter the Great Gulf

The Peter the Great Gulf (Russian: Залив Петра Великого) is a gulf on the southern coast of Primorsky Krai, Russia, and the largest gulf of the Sea of Japan.

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Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University

Peter the Great St.

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Peter the Great Statue

The Peter the Great Statue is a monument to Peter the Great, located at the western confluence of the Moskva River and the Vodootvodny Canal in central Moscow, Russia.

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Peter the Great: His Life and World

Peter the Great: His Life and World is a 1980 work written by Robert K. Massie.

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Peter the Great: The Testament

Peter the Great: The Testament is a Russian TV series about Peter the Great, made in 2011 and based on the novel by Daniil Granin's Evenings with Peter the Great.

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Peter von Sievers

Peter von Sievers, also known as Peter von Sivers, Pyotr Ivanovich Sivers or simply as Peter Sivers (Пётр Иванович Сиверс; 1674 – 1740) was an Admiral of the Imperial Russian Navy.

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Peter's Alley

Peter's Alley (Петрівська алея, Petrivska aleya) is a street in central Kyiv, the capital of Ukraine.

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Petergof

Petergof (Петерго́ф) or Peterhof (German for "Peter's Court"), known as Petrodvorets (Петродворец) from 1944 to 1997, is a municipal town in Petrodvortsovy District of the federal city of St. Petersburg, located on the southern shore of the Gulf of Finland.

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Peterhof Grand Palace

The Peterhof Grand Palace (Большой Петергофский дворец) is actually a part of palaces and gardens, laid out on the orders of Peter the Great.

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Peterhof Palace

The Peterhof Palace (p, Dutch for Peter's Court) is a series of palaces and gardens located in Petergof, Saint Petersburg, Russia, laid out on the orders of Peter the Great.

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Petersburg (novel)

Petersburg (Петербург, Peterbúrg) is a novel by Russian writer Andrei Bely.

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Petrine

Petrine may refer to.

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Petrine Baroque

Petrine Baroque (Rus. Петровское барокко) is a name applied by art historians to a style of Baroque architecture and decoration favoured by Peter the Great and employed to design buildings in the newly founded Russian capital, Saint Petersburg, under this monarch and his immediate successors.

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Petrodvorets Watch Factory

The Petrodvorets Watch Factory (Петродворцовый часовой завод) is one of the oldest factories in Russia.

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Petrogradsky District

Petrogradsky District (Петрогра́дский райо́н) is a district of the federal city of St. Petersburg, Russia.

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Petrogradsky Island

Petrogradsky Island (Russian: Петроградский остров) is the third largest island in the Neva River delta in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

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Petronella Oortman

Petronella Oortman (1656–1716) was a Dutch woman whose elaborate dollhouse is part of the permanent collection of the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam.

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Petrov Val

Petrov Val (Петро́в Вал) is a town in Kamyshinsky District of Volgograd Oblast, Russia, located on the left bank of the Ilovlya River (a tributary of the Don), north of Volgograd, the administrative center of the oblast.

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Petrovsk, Saratov Oblast

Petrovsk (Петро́вск) is a town in Saratov Oblast, Russia, located on the Medveditsa River (left tributary of the Don) northwest of Saratov, the administrative center of the oblast.

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Petrovsk-Zabaykalsky (town)

Petrovsk-Zabaykalsky (p) is a town and the administrative center of Petrovsk-Zabaykalsky District of Zabaykalsky Krai, Russia, located along the Balyaga River in the valley between Zagan-Daban and Zagorinsky mountain ranges, southwest of Chita.

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Petrovskoye-Alabino

Petrovskoye-Alabino (Петровское-Алабино) is a ruined country house near the village of Alabino, in the Naro-Fominsky District of the Moscow Oblast.

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Petrozavodsk

Petrozavodsk (p; Karelian, Vepsian & Petroskoi; Finland Swedish: Petroskoj) is the capital city of the Republic of Karelia, Russia, which stretches along the western shore of Lake Onega for some.

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Pevchy dyak

Pevchy dyak is a historical name of singer's occupation in Russia.

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Phan Bội Châu

Phan Bội Châu (26 December 1867 – 29 October 1940) was a pioneer of Vietnamese 20th century nationalism.

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Phanariotes

Phanariotes, Phanariots, or Phanariote Greeks (Φαναριώτες, Fanarioți, Fenerliler) were members of prominent Greek families in PhanarEncyclopædia Britannica,Phanariote, 2008, O.Ed.

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Philipp Ferdinand of Limburg-Stirum

Philipp Ferdinand von Limburg Stirum (born 1734, died 1794), Count of Limburg, lord of Styrum, was the fourth reigning count from the branch Limburg-Styrum-Styrum.

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Philippe II, Duke of Orléans

Philippe II, Duke of Orléans (Philippe Charles; 2 August 1674 – 2 December 1723), was a member of the royal family of France and served as Regent of the Kingdom from 1715 to 1723.

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Pierre le Grand

Pierre le Grand (Peter the Great) is an opéra comique by André Grétry.

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Pierre Victor, baron de Besenval de Brünstatt

Pierre Victor, baron de Besenval de Brünstatt (1722–1794) was the last commander of the Swiss Guards in France.

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Pinega

Pinega (Пинега) is a rural locality (a settlement), formerly a town, in Pinezhsky District of Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, located on the right bank of the Pinega River (hence the name).

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Pinezhsky District

Pinezhsky District (Пи́нежский райо́н) is an administrative district (raion), one of the twenty-one in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia.

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Pintea the Brave

Grigore Pintea, aka Pintea The Brave (born February 25, 1670, Măgoaja, Solnoc-Dăbâca County, of the Austrian Empire, current day Romania — died August 14, 1703), was a famous heroic haiduc (outlaw) stemming from Măgoaja, Lăpuș Country.

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Piter Poel

Piter Poel (17 June 1760 – 3 October 1837) was a diplomat who in his later years became the publisher if the "Altonaischer Mercurius" (newspaper).

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Planned community

A planned community, or planned city, is any community that was carefully planned from its inception and is typically constructed on previously undeveloped greenfield land.

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Plesetsky District

Plesetsky District (Плесе́цкий райо́н) is an administrative district (raion) one of the twenty-one in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia.

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Plyussky District

Plyussky District (Плю́сский райо́н) is an administrativeLaw #833-oz and municipalLaw #420-oz district (raion), one of the twenty-four in Pskov Oblast, Russia.

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Pochayiv Lavra

Holy Dormition Pochayiv Lavra (Свято-Успенська Почаївська Лавра; Свято-Успенская Почаевская Лавра, Ławra Poczajowska) is a monastery in Pochayiv, Kremenets Raion, Ternopil Oblast, Ukraine.

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Pochinkovsky District, Smolensk Oblast

Pochinkovsky District (Починковский райо́н) is an administrativeResolution #261 and municipalLaw #132-z district (raion), one of the twenty-five in Smolensk Oblast, Russia.

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Pochvennichestvo

Pochvennichestvo (p, roughly "return to the soil", from почва "soil") was a late 19th-century Russian movement tied in closely with its contemporary ideology, the Slavophile movement.

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Poddorsky District

Poddorsky District (По́ддорский райо́н) is an administrativeLaw #559-OZ and municipalLaw #352-OZ district (raion), one of the twenty-one in Novgorod Oblast, Russia.

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Podil

Podil (Поділ, Подол, Padół) is a historic neighborhood in Kiev, the capital of Ukraine.

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Podporozhsky District

Podporozhsky District (Подпоро́жский райо́н) is an administrativeOblast Law #32-oz and municipalLaw #51-oz district (raion), one of the seventeen in Leningrad Oblast, Russia.

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Podporozhye, Leningrad Oblast

Podporozhye (Подпоро́жье; Kos’kenaluine) is a town and the administrative center of Podporozhsky District in Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the Svir River northeast of St. Petersburg.

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Podporuchik

Podporuchik (potporučnik, потпоручник, poručík, podporucznik, подпору́чик, подпоручик, п, poručík) is an Officer's rank out of the Lieutenants rank group in Slavophone armed forces.

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Pojama

A pojama or pojema (also pojanmaa) was a type of warship built for the Swedish archipelago fleet in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

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Polevskoy Copper Smelting Plant

The Polevskoy Copper Smelting Plant (Polevskoj medeplavilnyj zavod), also known as Polevaya or Poleva, was