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AJ Institute of Medical Sciences is a medical college in Mangalore with an annual intake of 150 students.
A type proanthocyanidins are a specific type of proanthocyanidins, which are a class of flavanoid.
Apkar Vania Apkarian is a professor of physiology, anesthesiology, and physical medicine and rehabilitation at Northwestern University in the Feinberg School of Medicine.
Aalborg University Hospital is the largest hospital in the North Denmark Region, Denmark.
Aarhus University (Aarhus Universitet, abbreviated AU) is a public research university located in Aarhus, Denmark.
Abby Gustaitis (born May 9, 1991) is an American rugby union player.
Abby Howe Turner (1875-1957) was a noted professor of Physiology and Zoology who founded the department of physiology at Mount Holyoke College.
The ABC model of flower development is a scientific model of the process by which flowering plants produce a pattern of gene expression in meristems that leads to the appearance of an organ oriented towards sexual reproduction, a flower.
Abhayananda (born 1842), born Marie Louise, was the first woman initiated into Vivekananda's mission.
Abraham Clifford Barger (February 1, 1917 – March 13, 1996) was an American professor of physiology who spent his entire career at Harvard Medical School.
Abraham Colles (23 July 1773 – 16 November 1843) was professor of anatomy, surgery and physiology at the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland.
Abraham Flexner (November 13, 1866 – September 21, 1959) was an American educator, best known for his role in the 20th century reform of medical and higher education in the United States and Canada.
Abraham Myerson (1881–1948) was an American neurologist, psychiatrist, clinician, pathologist, and researcher.
Abu Bakr Rabee Ibn Ahmad Al-Akhawyni Bokhari (Al-Akhawyni Bokhari) (?–983 CE) was a Persian physician and the author of the Hidayat al-Muta`allemin Fi al-Tibb, the oldest document in the history of Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM).
Abu Zayd Ahmed ibn Sahl Balkhi (ابو زید احمد بن سهل بلخی) was a Persian Muslim polymath: a geographer, mathematician, physician, psychologist and scientist.
The Academy of Science - St.
The Academy of Sciences of the Institute of Bologna (Accademia delle Scienze dell'Istituto di Bologna) is an academic society in Bologna, Italy, that was founded in 1714 and prospered in the Age of Enlightenment.
Acid–base homeostasis is the homeostatic regulation of the pH of the body's extracellular fluid (ECF).
Acidithiobacillus caldus formerly belonged to the genus Thiobacillus prior to 2000, when it was reclassified along with a number of other bacterial species into one of three new genera that better categorize sulfur-oxidizing acidophiles.
Acoustical engineering (also known as acoustic engineering) is the branch of engineering dealing with sound and vibration.
Acoustics is the branch of physics that deals with the study of all mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids including topics such as vibration, sound, ultrasound and infrasound.
Acta Ethologica is a triannual peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1998.
Acta Physiologica is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal that is published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the Scandinavian Physiological Society.
Actin is a family of globular multi-functional proteins that form microfilaments.
Acting is an activity in which a story is told by means of its enactment by an actor or actress who adopts a character—in theatre, television, film, radio, or any other medium that makes use of the mimetic mode.
In physiology, an action potential occurs when the membrane potential of a specific axon location rapidly rises and falls: this depolarisation then causes adjacent locations to similarly depolarise.
The activin type 2 receptors modulate signals for ligands belonging to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily of ligands.
Acupuncture is a form of alternative medicine in which thin needles are inserted into the body.
In biology, adaptation has three related meanings.
In ocular physiology, adaptation is the ability of the eye to adjust to various levels of light.
Adaptogens or adaptogenic substances are used in herbal medicine for the claimed stabilization of physiological processes and promotion of homeostasis.
Adelbert Ames Jr. (August 19, 1880 – July 3, 1955) was an American scientist who made contributions to physics, physiology, ophthalmology, psychology, and philosophy.
Alcohol dehydrogenase 6 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ADH6 gene.
The Adil Shahi or Adilshahi, was a Shia Muslim dynasty, founded by Yusuf Adil Shah, that ruled the Sultanate of Bijapur, centred on present-day Bijapur district, Karnataka in India, in the Western area of the Deccan region of Southern India from 1489 to 1686.
ADInstruments is an international company that produces data acquisition and analysis systems for the life sciences industry.
In biology, adipose tissue, body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes.
Adolf Beck (1 January 1863, Kraków – 1942, Lwów) was a Polish Jew, physician of and professor of physiology at the University of Lwów.
Adolf Eugen Fick (3 September 1829 – 21 August 1901) was a German-born physician and physiologist.
Adolf Jarisch (February 15, 1850 – March 21, 1902) was an Austrian dermatologist who specialized in the care of venereal disease.
Adolf Loewy (German spelling- Adolf Löwy); (June 29, 1862 - December 26, 1937) was a German physiologist who was a native of Berlin.
Adolph Christian Heinrich Henke (13 April 1775 in Braunschweig – 8 August 1843) was a German physician and pharmacologist known for his work in medical forensics.
Adolphe-Marie Gubler (5 April 1821 – 20 April 1879) was a French physician and pharmacologist born in Metz.
Situated along the perimeter of the adrenal gland, the adrenal cortex mediates the stress response through the production of mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids, such as aldosterone and cortisol, respectively.
Adriaan Isebree Moens (15 November 1846 – 24 June 1891) was a Dutch physician and physiologist.
Adrian R. Morrison was the 1991 AAAS Scientific Freedom and Responsibility Award recipient.
Aeropause is the region in which the functional effects of the atmosphere on man and craft begin to cease.
The Aerospace Medical Association (AsMA) is the largest professional organization in the fields of aviation, space, and environmental medicine.
Affect is a concept used in psychology to describe the experience of feeling or emotion.
Affect displays are the verbal and non-verbal displays of emotion.
Affective computing (sometimes called artificial emotional intelligence, or emotion AI) is the study and development of systems and devices that can recognize, interpret, process, and simulate human affects.
Affective science is the scientific study of emotion or affect.
Africonus is a subgenus of sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the genus Conus, family Conidae, the cone snails and their allies.
Aging Cell is a peer-reviewed scientific journal and an official journal of the Anatomical Society.
The hemlock moth (Agonopterix alstroemeriana), also known as the defoliating hemlock moth or poison hemlock moth, is a nocturnal moth species of the family Depressariidae.
Agostino Gemelli, O.F.M., (18 January 1878 – 15 July 1959) was an Italian Franciscan friar, physician and psychologist, who was also the founder and first Rector of Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore of Milan (Catholic University of the Sacred Heart).
Agricultural chemistry is the study of both chemistry and biochemistry which are important in agricultural production, the processing of raw products into foods and beverages, and in environmental monitoring and remediation.
Agrometeorology is the study of weather and use of weather and climate information to enhance or expand agricultural crops and/or to increase crop production.
Ahmad Reza Dehpour (Born 1948 in Iran) is an Iranian pharmacologist and biomedical scientist.
Ahn Cheol-soo (born 26 February 1962) is a South Korean politician, physician, and software entrepreneur.
Ain Shams University, Faculty of Medicine or School of Medicine, is a public Egyptian graduate school and one of the faculties of Ain Shams University.
Ajahn Amaro (born 1956) is a Theravada Buddhist monk and teacher, and abbot of the Amaravati Buddhist Monastery at the eastern end of the Chiltern Hills in south east England.
is a Japanese electrophysiologist and Former Chair in Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.
is a Japanese physiologist, sports scientist and writer.
was an Emeritus Professor of Medicine at Tulane University, and the founding Director of the university’s Hébert Research Center, working on neuroendocrinology and biochemistry research.
Al-Risalah al-Dhahabiah (الرسالة الذهبیة,; "The Golden Treatise") is a medical dissertation on health and remedies attributed to Ali ibn Musa al-Ridha (765–818), the eighth Imam of Shia.
Abū al-Qāsim Khalaf ibn al-‘Abbās al-Zahrāwī al-Ansari (أبو القاسم خلف بن العباس الزهراوي;‎ 936–1013), popularly known as Al-Zahrawi (الزهراوي), Latinised as Abulcasis (from Arabic Abū al-Qāsim), was an Arab Muslim physician, surgeon and chemist who lived in Al-Andalus.
Alan Curtis Kay (born May 17, 1940 published by the Association for Computing Machinery 2012) is an American computer scientist.
Sir Alan Lloyd Hodgkin (5 February 1914 – 20 December 1998) was an English physiologist and biophysicist, who shared the 1963 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Andrew Huxley and John Eccles.
Professor Albert A. Bühlmann (16 May 1923 – 16 March 1994) was a Swiss physician who was principally responsible for a number of important contributions to decompression science at the Laboratory of Hyperbaric Physiology at the University Hospital in Zürich, Switzerland.
Albert Baird Hastings (November 20, 1895 – September 24, 1987) was an American biochemist and physiologist.
Albert Buell Lewis (June 21, 1867 – October 10, 1940) was the first American anthropologist to conduct a systematic, long-term field study in Melanesia, A. B. Lewis is best remembered for the collection and documentation of over 14,000 Melanesian objects gathered in the colonial territories of Melanesia during his time as the leader of the Joseph N. Field South Pacific Expedition from 1909 to 1913.
Albert Dastre (7 November 1844 – 22 October 1917) was a French physiologist born in Paris.
The Albert Einstein World Award for Science is an annual award given by the World Cultural Council "as a means of recognition and encouragement for scientific and technological research and development", with special consideration for researches which "have brought true benefit and well being to mankind".
Albert Eulenburg (August 10, 1840 – July 3, 1917) was a German neurologist born in Berlin.
Albert Henry Munsell (January 6, 1858 – June 28, 1918) was an American painter, teacher of art, and the inventor of the Munsell color system.
Albert Jodlbauer (April 27, 1871 in Munich – May 13, 1945 in Thierberg) was a German pharmacologist and toxicologist.
The Albert Memorial is situated in Kensington Gardens, London, directly to the north of the Royal Albert Hall.
Albert Edouard, Baron Michotte van den Berck (13 October 1881, Brussels, Belgium – 2 June 1965) was a Belgian experimental psychologist.
Albert Paul Weiss (September 15, 1879 – April 3, 1931) was a German American behavioral psychologist, theorist, scientist, and experimentalist.
Albert Rothenberg MD (born June 2, 1930) is an American psychiatrist who has carried out long term research on the creative process in literature, art, science and psychotherapy.
Albert Szent-Györgyi von Nagyrápolt (nagyrápolti Szent-Györgyi Albert; September 16, 1893 – October 22, 1986) was a Hungarian biochemist who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1937.
Albert von Bezold (January 7, 1836 – March 2, 1868) was a German physiologist born in Ansbach.
Albert von Kölliker (born Rudolf Albert Kölliker; 6 July 18172 November 1905) was a Swiss anatomist, physiologist, and histologist.
Albert Wojciech Adamkiewicz (11 August 1850 – 31 October 1921) was a Polish pathologist born in Żerków.
Alberto Carlos Taquini (December 6, 1905 – March 4, 1998) was an Argentine cardiologist, clinical researcher and academic.
Albertus Magnus, O.P. (c. 1200 – November 15, 1280), also known as Saint Albert the Great and Albert of Cologne, was a German Catholic Dominican friar and bishop.
Albin Owings Kuhn, also referred to Albin O. Kuhn or AOK, was a prominent figure in the University of Maryland system during the mid-twentieth century.
Albrecht Julius Theodor Bethe (25 April 1872 in Stettin – 19 October 1954 in Frankfurt am Main) was a German physiologist.
Albrecht Fleckenstein (3 March 1917 – 4 April 1992) was a German pharmacologist and physiologist best known for his discovery of calcium channel blockers.
Albrecht von Haller (also known as Albertus de Haller) (16 October 170812 December 1777) was a Swiss anatomist, physiologist, naturalist, encyclopedist, bibliographer and poet.
Alcohol myopia is a cognitive-physiological theory on alcohol abuse in which many of alcohol's social and stress-reducing effects, which may underlie its addictive capacity, are explained as a consequence of alcohol's narrowing of perceptual and cognitive functioning.
Alcoholic ketoacidosis is a common reason for admission of alcohol dependent persons in hospitals emergency rooms.
In physiology, aldosterone escape is a term that has been used to refer to two distinct phenomena involving aldosterone that are exactly opposite each other.
Aleksandr Mikhailovich Lyapunov (Алекса́ндр Миха́йлович Ляпуно́в,; – November 3, 1918) was a Russian mathematician, mechanician and physicist.
Aleksandr Palladin (Олександр Володимирович Палладін, 10 September 1885 – 6 December 1972) is a Ukrainian biochemist, professor, Soviet academician.
Aleksandr Andreyevich Tikhomirov (Александр Андреевич Тихомиров, – October 23, 1931) was a Russian zoologist.
Alexandra "Alex" Danvers, M.D. is a fictional character from the DC Comics television series Supergirl, portrayed by actress Chyler Leigh.
Alexander Aigner (* 18 May 1909 in Graz, † 1988) was a full university professor for mathematics at the Karl Franzens University in Graz, Austria.
Alexander Georg von Bunge (Russian: Aleksandr Andreevich von Bunge, Алекса́ндр Андре́евич Бу́нге; –) was a Russian German botanist.
Alexander Crum Brown FRSE FRS (26 March 1838 – 28 October 1922) was a Scottish organic chemist.
Johann Alexander Ecker (10 July 1816 – 20 May 1887) was a German anthropologist and anatomist born in Freiburg im Breisgau.
Alexander Illich Roitbak (February 17, 1919, Odessa — December 24, 1991, Tbilisi) was a Soviet and Georgian physiologist.
Alexander Mitchell Kellas (21 June 1868 – 5 June 1921) was a Scottish chemist, explorer, and mountaineer known for his studies of high-altitude physiology.
Alexander Rollett (14 July 1834 – 1 October 1903) was an Austrian physiologist and histologist born in Baden bei Wien, Niederösterreich.
Hermann Adolf Alexander Schmidt (1831 – 22 April 1894) was a Baltic German physiologist from what was then the Governorate of Livonia in the Russian Empire.
Alexander Walker (1779—1852) was a Scottish physiologist, aesthetician, encyclopaedist, translator, novelist, and journalist.
Alexei Alexeyevich Ukhtomsky (Алексей Алексеевич Ухтомский; 1875–1942) was a Russian and Soviet physiologist.
The Alfred A. Schiller House was an historic residence in Glen Ellyn, Illinois.
Alfred Blackman Miles (October 29, 1888 – March 18, 1962) was a biology and physiology professor and an American football, basketball, and baseball coach for Middle Tennessee State University.
Alfred Bielschowsky (December 11, 1871 – April 5, 1940) was a German ophthalmologist.
Alfred Binet (July 8, 1857 – October 18, 1911) was a French psychologist who invented the first practical IQ test, the Binet–Simon test.
Alfred Charles Garratt (October 3, 1813 – June 30, 1891) was an American medical doctor who frequently used electricity as a medical tool.
Johannes Karl Eugen Alfred Goldscheider (4 August 1858 – 10 April 1935) was a German neurologist born into a Jewish family in Sommerfeld (today Lubsko, Poland).
Alfred Gottschalk (22 April 1894 – 4 October 1973) was a German biochemist who was a leading authority in glycoprotein research.
Alfred Henry Garrod FRS (May 18, 1846 – October 17, 1879) was an English vertebrate zoologist.
Alfred Taylor Howard (born 12 March 1868) was a Bishop of the Church of the United Brethren in Christ, elected in 1913.
Alfred Wilhelm Volkmann (1 July 1801 – 21 April 1877) was a German physiologist, anatomist, and philosopher.
Alice Woodby McKane (1865–1948) was the first woman to work as a doctor in Savannah, Georgia.
Alkaline diet (also known as the alkaline ash diet, alkaline acid diet, acid ash diet, and acid alkaline diet) describes a group of loosely related diets based on the misconception that different types of food can have an effect on the pH balance of the body.
All India Institute of Medical Sciences Patna (AIIMS Patna) (officially Jayaprakash Narayan All India Institute of Medical Sciences) is a medical college and medical research public university based in Patna, Bihar, India.
Allan Steven Detsky is a Canadian physician and health policy expert.
Allan Victor Hoffbrand is Emeritus Professor of Haematology at University College, London.
Alliesthesia ((allós) - other, and (aísthēsis) - sensation, perception; French: alliesthésie, German: Alliästhesie) describes the dependence of the perception of pleasure or disgust perceived when consuming a stimulus on the "milieu intérieur" of the organism.
Allomerus decemarticulatus is an Amazonian ant species found in the tropics of South America.
Allometry is the study of the relationship of body size to shape, anatomy, physiology and finally behaviour, first outlined by Otto Snell in 1892, by D'Arcy Thompson in 1917 in On Growth and Form and by Julian Huxley in 1932.
Allostatic load is "the wear and tear on the body" that accumulates as an individual is exposed to repeated or chronic stress.
Alternative medicine, fringe medicine, pseudomedicine or simply questionable medicine is the use and promotion of practices which are unproven, disproven, impossible to prove, or excessively harmful in relation to their effect — in the attempt to achieve the healing effects of medicine.--> --> --> They differ from experimental medicine in that the latter employs responsible investigation, and accepts results that show it to be ineffective. The scientific consensus is that alternative therapies either do not, or cannot, work. In some cases laws of nature are violated by their basic claims; in some the treatment is so much worse that its use is unethical. Alternative practices, products, and therapies range from only ineffective to having known harmful and toxic effects.--> Alternative therapies may be credited for perceived improvement through placebo effects, decreased use or effect of medical treatment (and therefore either decreased side effects; or nocebo effects towards standard treatment),--> or the natural course of the condition or disease. Alternative treatment is not the same as experimental treatment or traditional medicine, although both can be misused in ways that are alternative. Alternative or complementary medicine is dangerous because it may discourage people from getting the best possible treatment, and may lead to a false understanding of the body and of science.-->---> Alternative medicine is used by a significant number of people, though its popularity is often overstated.--> Large amounts of funding go to testing alternative medicine, with more than US$2.5 billion spent by the United States government alone.--> Almost none show any effect beyond that of false treatment,--> and most studies showing any effect have been statistical flukes. Alternative medicine is a highly profitable industry, with a strong lobby. This fact is often overlooked by media or intentionally kept hidden, with alternative practice being portrayed positively when compared to "big pharma". --> The lobby has successfully pushed for alternative therapies to be subject to far less regulation than conventional medicine.--> Alternative therapies may even be allowed to promote use when there is demonstrably no effect, only a tradition of use. Regulation and licensing of alternative medicine and health care providers varies between and within countries. Despite laws making it illegal to market or promote alternative therapies for use in cancer treatment, many practitioners promote them.--> Alternative medicine is criticized for taking advantage of the weakest members of society.--! Terminology has shifted over time, reflecting the preferred branding of practitioners.. Science Based Medicine--> For example, the United States National Institutes of Health department studying alternative medicine, currently named National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, was established as the Office of Alternative Medicine and was renamed the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine before obtaining its current name. Therapies are often framed as "natural" or "holistic", in apparent opposition to conventional medicine which is "artificial" and "narrow in scope", statements which are intentionally misleading. --> When used together with functional medical treatment, alternative therapies do not "complement" (improve the effect of, or mitigate the side effects of) treatment.--> Significant drug interactions caused by alternative therapies may instead negatively impact functional treatment, making it less effective, notably in cancer.--> Alternative diagnoses and treatments are not part of medicine, or of science-based curricula in medical schools, nor are they used in any practice based on scientific knowledge or experience.--> Alternative therapies are often based on religious belief, tradition, superstition, belief in supernatural energies, pseudoscience, errors in reasoning, propaganda, fraud, or lies.--> Alternative medicine is based on misleading statements, quackery, pseudoscience, antiscience, fraud, and poor scientific methodology. Promoting alternative medicine has been called dangerous and unethical.--> Testing alternative medicine that has no scientific basis has been called a waste of scarce research resources.--> Critics state that "there is really no such thing as alternative medicine, just medicine that works and medicine that doesn't",--> that the very idea of "alternative" treatments is paradoxical, as any treatment proven to work is by definition "medicine".-->.
Alternatives to evolution by natural selection, also described as non-Darwinian mechanisms of evolution, have been proposed by scholars investigating biology since classical times to explain signs of evolution and the relatedness of different groups of living things.
Alvar Agusti is a Spanish Professor of Medicine at the University of Barcelona.
Amanda Moore O'Leary (born 1967), née Amanda Moore and also known by her nickname Mandee O'Leary, is an American college lacrosse coach and former player.
Ameer-ud-Din Medical College (امیرالدین طبی کالج) (abbreviated as AMC; also known as PGMI Medical College), established in 2011, is one of the six public colleges of medicine located in, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.It is established on the initiative of CM Shehbaz Sharif to give quality education in the region Punjab and especially in Lahore.
The American Academy of Anti-Aging Medicine (A4M) is a United States registered 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization that promotes the questionable field of anti-aging medicine and trains and certifies physicians in this specialty.
The American Academy of Arts and Sciences is one of the oldest learned societies in the United States of America.
The American Board of Nuclear Medicine (ABNM) certifies physicians as specialists in the practice of nuclear medicine.
The American Journal of Physiology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal on physiology published by the American Physiological Society.
The American Journal of Primatology is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal and the official journal of the American Society of Primatologists.
The American Microscopical Society (AMS) is a society of biologists dedicated to promoting the use of microscopy.
The American Physiological Society was founded in 1887 with 28 members.
The American Polygraph Association (APA) is a professional association of polygraph examiners.
An outgrowth of the school hygiene movement, the American School Hygiene Association (ASCHA) was a professional organization of physicians, dentists, administrators, nurses, and other stakeholders in the health and well-being of school children.
The American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR) is a professional, scientific and medical society established in 1977 to promote excellence in bone and mineral research and to facilitate the translation of that research into clinical practice.
Founded in 1924, the American Society of Parasitologists comprises a diverse group of about 700 scientists from academia, industry, and government involved in the study and teaching of the scientific discipline of parasitology.
The American Society of Plant Biologists (ASPB) is a professional society devoted to the advancement of the plant sciences.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
Amniotes (from Greek ἀμνίον amnion, "membrane surrounding the fetus", earlier "bowl in which the blood of sacrificed animals was caught", from ἀμνός amnos, "lamb") are a clade of tetrapod vertebrates comprising the reptiles, birds, and mammals.
Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.
Amy Jadesimi, is a Nigerian physician, businesswoman, entrepreneur and corporate executive, who serves as the chief executive officer of the Lagos Deep Offshore Logistics Base (LADOL), a privately owned state-of-the-art logistics and engineering facility in an industrial Free Zone, located on an island within the Port of Lagos, in Nigeria.
The amygdalofugal pathway (Latin for "fleeing from the amygdala" and commonly distinguished as the ventral amygdalofugal pathway) is one of the three major efferent pathways of the amygdala, meaning that it is one of the three principal pathways by which fibers leave the amygdala.
Amyloids are aggregates of proteins that become folded into a shape that allows many copies of that protein to stick together forming fibrils.
The Anal sampling mechanism (also known as the anal sampling reflex, anorectal sampling reflex, or recto-anal inhibitory reflex (RAIR)) is a reflex which detects the contents of the rectal vault and prevents the unexpected voiding of feces.
The anamniotes are an informal group comprising the fishes and the amphibians, the so-called "lower vertebrates", which lay their eggs in water.
Anaplastology (Gk. ana-again, anew, upon plastos-something made, formed, molded logy-the study of) is a branch of medicine dealing with the prosthetic rehabilitation of an absent, disfigured or malformed anatomically critical location of the face or body.
Anartia fatima, the banded peacock, is a butterfly in the Nymphalidae family.
Anastasie Fătu (originally Năstase Fêtu or Fĕtu, also known as Anastasius Fétul, Anastasie Fĕtul or Anastase Fătul; January 2, 1816 – March 15, 1886) was a Moldavian and Romanian physician, naturalist, philanthropist and political figure, a titular member of the Romanian Academy and founder of Iași's Botanical Garden.
Anatoly Zubkov (Анатолий Анатольевич Зубков; 1900–1967) was a Soviet physiologist, D.Sc..
Anatomy (Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.
Ancel Benjamin Keys (January 26, 1904 – November 20, 2004) was an American physiologist who studied the influence of diet on health.
Ancient Greek medicine was a compilation of theories and practices that were constantly expanding through new ideologies and trials.
Lt Col Anderson Gray McKendrick DSc FRSE (8 September 1876 – 30 May 1943) was a Scottish military physician and epidemiologist pioneered the use of mathematical methods in epidemiology.
Andhra Medical College is in Andhra Pradesh, India; it is affiliated to NTR University of Health Sciences.
André Frédéric Cournand (September 24, 1895 – February 19, 1988) was a French physician and physiologist.
André Kuipers (born 5 October 1958) is a Dutch physician and ESA astronaut.
André Strohl (20 March 1887 – 10 March 1977) was a French physiologist who was a native of Poitiers.
Andrea Cesalpino (Latinized as Andreas Cæsalpinus) (6 June 1519 – 23 February 1603) was an Italian physician, philosopher and botanist.
Andrei Romanovich Chikatilo (Андрей Романович Чикатило, Андрій Романович Чикатило; 16 October 1936 – 14 February 1994) was a Soviet serial killer, nicknamed the Butcher of Rostov, the Red Ripper, and the Rostov Ripper, who committed the sexual assault, murder, and mutilation of at least 52 women and children between 1978 and 1990 in the Russian SFSR, the Ukrainian SSR and the Uzbek SSR.
Andrew Combe (27 October 17979 August 1847) was a Scottish physician and phrenologist.
Andrew D. Huxley (born 1966) is a chair of the physics department of Edinburgh University.
Andrew Zachary Fire (born April 27, 1959) is an American biologist and professor of pathology and of genetics at the Stanford University School of Medicine.
Sir Andrew Fielding Huxley (22 November 191730 May 2012) was a Nobel Prize-winning English physiologist and biophysicist.
Andrew John King (born 8 April 1959) is a Professor of Neurophysiology and Wellcome Trust Principal Research Fellow in the Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics at the University of Oxford and a Fellow of Merton College, Oxford.
Andrew Matheson (born 17 July 1969) is a former New Zealand rower who became a sports administrator.
Andrey Lvovich Kursanov (Андрей Львович Курсанов; 8 November 1902, Moscow – 20 September 1999, Moscow) was a Soviet specialist on the physiology and biochemistry of plants.
Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is an intersex condition in which there is a partial or complete inability of many cells in the affected genetic male to respond to androgenic hormones.
A Certified Anesthesiologist Assistant(CAA) is an advanced non-physician provider who provides anesthesia under the direct supervision and the medical direction of a physician anesthesiologist.
Angella Dorothea Ferguson (born February 15, 1925) is an African American pediatrician known for her groundbreaking research on sickle cell disease.
Angelo Mosso (30 May 1846 – 24 November 1910) is the 19th century Italian physiologist who invented the first neuroimaging technique ever, known as 'human circulation balance'.
Anh Tuan Dinh-Xuan (born 1958 in Sai Gon, Ho Chi Minh City), Vietnam) is a French researcher, doctor and university professor. He manages the hospital department of Physiology - Practical examinations at Cochin hospital in Paris. His research concerns the physiology of the respiratory system and the physiopathology of pulmonary diseases.
Animal attacks are a cause of human injuries and fatalities worldwide.
Animal Behaviour is a double-blind peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1953 as The British Journal of Animal Behaviour, before obtaining its current title in 1958.
Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture concerned with animals that are raised for meat, fibre, milk, eggs, or other products.
Animal locomotion, in ethology, is any of a variety of movements or methods that animals use to move from one place to another.
Animal models of depression are research tools used to investigate depression and action of antidepressants as a simulation to investigate the symptomatology and pathophysiology of depressive illness or used to screen novel antidepressants.
Animal Research Institute Buildings is a heritage-listed set of research station buildings at 681 Fairfield Road, Yeerongpilly, City of Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
Animal welfare is the well-being of animals.
Animal Welfare is a quarterly, peer-reviewed scientific journal covering studies on the welfare of animals, whether in captivity (e.g. on farms, in laboratories, zoos and as companions) or in the wild.
Animal welfare science is the scientific study of the welfare of animals as pets, in zoos, laboratories, on farms and in the wild.
Anne Ferguson (26 July 1941 – 21 December 1998) was a Scottish physician, clinical researcher and expert in inflammatory bowel disease.
Anne E. Warner (25 August 1940 – 16 May 2012) was a British biologist and a professor in the Department of Cell and Developmental Biology at University College London.
Annette Catherine Dolphin (born 1951) is a Professor of Pharmacology in the Department of Neuroscience, Physiology and Pharmacology at University College London (UCL).
An anomaloscope or Nagel's anomaloscope is an instrument used to test for color blindness and color anomaly.
A major organ of the endocrine system, the anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis or pars anterior), is the glandular, anterior lobe that together with the posterior lobe (posterior pituitary, or the neurohypophysis) makes up the pituitary gland (hypophysis).
Anthony Bannon (born December 6, 1943) was the seventh director of the George Eastman Museum He officially retired in May 2012 after 16 years at the Eastman Museum, the longest tenure in the museum's history.
Anthropological criminology (sometimes referred to as criminal anthropology, literally a combination of the study of the human species and the study of criminals) is a field of offender profiling, based on perceived links between the nature of a crime and the personality or physical appearance of the offender.
According to the International Federation of Kinesiology, anthropomaximology is the study of the anatomy, physiology, and mechanics of body movement, especially in humans, and its application to the evaluation and treatment of muscular imbalance or derangement.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
Antoine Ferrein (October 25, 1693 – February 28, 1769) was a French anatomist who was a native of Frespech, which today is a commune in the arrondissement of Villeneuve-sur-Lot.
Antoine François, comte de Fourcroy (15 June 175516 December 1809) was a French chemist and a contemporary of Antoine Lavoisier.
Antoine Frédéric Spring (8 April 1814 in Gerolsbach, Bavaria – 17 January 1872) was a German-born, Belgian physician and botanist.
Antoine Louis (13 February 1723, Metz – 20 May 1792) was an 18th-century French surgeon and physiologist.
Anton Julius Carlson (January 29, 1875 – September 2, 1956) was a Swedish American physiologist.
Anton Rolandsson Martin (3 August 1729 at Mijntenhoff Manor, Reval – 30 January 1785 in Åbo) was a Swedish botanist.
Anton von Frisch (16 February 1849 – 24 May 1917), full name Anton Ritter von Frisch, was an Austrian urologist.
Anton Wilhelm Amo or Anthony William Amo (c. 1703 – c. 1759) was an African philosopher from what is now Ghana.
Anton Wilhelm Plaz (1 January 1708, Leipzig – 26 February 1784, Leipzig) was a German physician and botanist.
Antonio Dal Monte (Rome, October 31, 1931) is an Italian physician, former Scientific Director and Head of the Department of Physiology and Biomechanics Institute of Sports Science of the Italian National Olympic Committee (C.O.N.I.).
Antonio De Martino (25 February 1815 - 29 February 1904) was an Italian physician, researcher and politician.
Antonio Maria Valsalva (17 January 1666 – 2 February 1723), was an Italian anatomist born in Imola.
Aortic insufficiency (AI), also known as aortic regurgitation (AR), is the leaking of the aortic valve of the heart that causes blood to flow in the reverse direction during ventricular diastole, from the aorta into the left ventricle.
In the United States, Advanced Placement Biology (commonly abbreviated to AP Biology or AP Bio), is a course and examination offered by the College Board to high school students as an opportunity to earn placement credit for a college-level biology course.
Diadenosine tetraphosphate or Ap4A is a putative alarmone, ubiquitous in nature being common to everything from bacteria to humans.
APACHE II ("Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation II") is a severity-of-disease classification system (Knaus et al., 1985), one of several ICU scoring systems.
Ape index, or ape factor, or gorilla index is slang or jargon used to describe a measure of the ratio of an individual's arm span relative to their height.
Apoplexy is bleeding within internal organs and the accompanying symptoms.
Applied Physiology is the study of biological systems and steps into practice.
Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism/Physiologie appliquée, nutrition et métabolisme is a bimonthly peer-reviewed medical journal published by NRC Research Press.
Appraisal theory is the theory in psychology that emotions are extracted from our evaluations (appraisals or estimates) of events that cause specific reactions in different people.
Aquashift is a high-end swim suit made by American swim suit maker Tyr which was released in early 2004.
Aquatic Botany ("An International Scientific Journal dealing with Applied and Fundamental Research on Submerged, Floating and Emergent Plants in Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems") is a peer-reviewed scientific journal dedicated to research on structure, function, dynamics, and classification of plant-dominated aquatic communities and ecosystems, as well as molecular, biochemical, and physiological aspects of aquatic plants.
An arbuscular mycorrhiza (plural mycorrhizae or mycorrhizas, a.k.a. endomycorrhiza) is a type of mycorrhiza in which the fungus (AM fungi, or AMF) penetrates the cortical cells of the roots of a vascular plant.
Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.
The Archaeobatrachia are a suborder of Anura containing various primitive frogs and toads.
Archibald Vivian Hill (26 September 1886 – 3 June 1977), known as A. V. Hill, was an English physiologist, one of the founders of the diverse disciplines of biophysics and operations research.
Archibald Byron Macallum, FRS (April 7, 1858 – April 5, 1934) was a Canadian biochemist and founder of the National Research Council of Canada.
The Archives Italiennes de Biologie: A Journal of Neuroscience is a quarterly peer-reviewed open access scientific journal.
AOSR - The Archives of Oral Sciences and Research is the official publication of the Government Dental College and Research Institute, Bangalore, India which aims to publish quality, peer reviewed original research papers and topical reviews within clinical dentistry, on all basic science aspects of structure, chemistry, developmental biology, physiology and pathology of relevant tissues, as well as on microbiology, biomaterials and the behavioural sciences as they relate to dentistry including molecular studies related to oral health and disease.
The human ARG1 gene encodes the protein arginase.
Aristides de Azevedo Pacheco Leão (August 3, 1914 – December 14, 1993 in Rio de Janeiro) was one of the most important Brazilian biologists and scientists, one of the founders of the Biophysics Institute of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro and the discoverer of cortical spreading depression, an electrophysiological phenomenon of the central nervous system, which received his name.
The Ariston Bathhouse raid in 1903 was the first anti-gay police raid on an establishment located in New York City.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Aristotle's biology is the theory of biology, grounded in systematic observation and collection of data, mainly zoological, embodied in Aristotle's books on the science.
Arnold Adolph Berthold or Arnold Adolf Berthold (26 February 1803 – 3 January 1861) was a German physiologist and zoologist.
Arnold Durig (12 November 1872 – 18 October 1961) was an Austrian physiologist remembered for his investigations involving physiological and pathophysiological aspects of individuals exposed to high altitude conditions.
Arnold Ehret (29 July 186610 October 1922) was a German health educator and author of several books on diet, detoxification, fruitarianism, fasting, food combining, health, longevity, naturopathy, physical culture and vitalism.
Aromatase excess syndrome (AES or AEXS), also sometimes referred to as familial hyperestrogenism or familial gynecomastia, is a rare genetic and endocrine syndrome which is characterized by an overexpression of aromatase, the enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of the estrogen sex hormones from the androgens, in turn resulting in excessive levels of circulating estrogens and, accordingly, symptoms of hyperestrogenism.
Arousal is the physiological and psychological state of being awoken or of sense organs stimulated to a point of perception.
The terms "arthrokinetic reflex" was coined by medical researchers at the University of Pittsburgh's Medical School, department of Physiology, in 1956 to refer to the way in which joint movement can reflexively cause muscle activation or inhibition.
Arthur Josef Stanislaus Berson (6 August 1859 – 3 December 1942) was a German meteorologist and pioneer of aerology who was a native of Neu Sandez, Galicia (now Nowy Sącz, Poland).
Arthur C. Custance (1910–1985) was a Canadian physiologist and writer, best known for his advocation of gap creationism.
Prof Arthur Gamgee FRS FRSE (11 October 1841 – 29 May 1909) was a British biochemist.
Arthur Groenouw (27 March 1862 – 1945) was a German ophthalmologist born in Bosatz, a village near Ratibor.
Arthur Clifton Guyton (September 8, 1919 – April 3, 2003) was an American physiologist.
Arthur H. Steinhaus (October 4, 1897 – February 8, 1970) was an American physical fitness and sport physiologist.
Arthur White Greeley (1875 – March 15, 1904) was an American physiologist and ichthyologist.
The field of articulatory phonetics is a subfield of phonetics.
An artificial heart valve is a device implanted in the heart of a patient with valvular heart disease.
Arturo Rosenblueth Stearns (October 2, 1900 – September 20, 1970) was a Mexican researcher, physician and physiologist, who is known as one of the pioneers of cybernetics.
Arye Rosen is Academy Professor of Biomedical and Electrical Engineering in the School of Biomedical Engineering, Science and Health Systems at Drexel University in Philadelphia, PA and associate vice president at Rowan University and a member of the National Academy of Science.
The ASA Silver Medal is an award presented by the Acoustical Society of America to individuals, without age limitation, for contributions to the advancement of science, engineering, or human welfare through the application of acoustic principles or through research accomplishments in acoustics.
Ascidiacea (commonly known as the ascidians or sea squirts) is a paraphyletic class in the subphylum Tunicata of sac-like marine invertebrate filter feeders.
Ascomycota is a division or phylum of the kingdom Fungi that, together with the Basidiomycota, form the subkingdom Dikarya.
The Aspatria Agricultural College was a seat of learning located in Aspatria, Cumberland, England.
Asprella was a genus of sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the family Conidae, the cone snails and their allies.
Association Scientifique Internationale pour le Café (ASIC) (established 1966 in Paris) was initiated by Institut Français du Café et du Cacao, to "establish an inventory of scientific and applied knowledge and to encourage, carry out and coordinate research likely to contribute to a better use of coffee and its derivatives and to the improvement of coffee quality in the mutual interest of producers, wholesalers, industrialists and consumers." ASIC has been active in major areas of coffee production such as agronomy, chemistry, physiology and logistics.
Astrid M. Cleve von Euler (22 January 1875 – 8 April 1968) was a Swedish botanist, geologist, chemist and researcher at Uppsala University.
Astrology is the study of the movements and relative positions of celestial objects as a means for divining information about human affairs and terrestrial events.
Astrology consists of a number of belief systems that hold that there is a relationship between astronomical phenomena and events or descriptions of personality in the human world.
The Atakapa Sturtevant, 659 are an indigenous people of the Southeastern Woodlands, who spoke the Atakapa language and historically lived along the Gulf of Mexico.
Athletic heart syndrome (AHS), also known as athlete's heart, athletic bradycardia, or exercise-induced cardiomegaly is a non-pathological condition commonly seen in sports medicine, in which the human heart is enlarged, and the resting heart rate is lower than normal.
Athletic training has been recognized by the American Medical Association (AMA) as an allied health care profession since June 1991.
Atracurium besilate, also known as atracurium besylate, is a medication used in addition to other medications to provide skeletal muscle relaxation during surgery or mechanical ventilation.
Atrophy is the partial or complete wasting away of a part of the body.
Attachment-based therapy applies to interventions or approaches based on attachment theory, originated by John Bowlby.
Atwater Hill is a hill in Antarctica, south of Benedict Point on the east side of Lavoisier Island, Biscoe Islands.
Audio therapy is the clinical use of recorded sound, music, or spoken words, or a combination thereof, recorded on a physical medium such as a compact disc (CD), or a digital file, including those formatted as MP3, which patients or participants play on a suitable device, and to which they listen with intent to experience a subsequent beneficial physiological, psychological, or social effect.
Auditory imagery is a form of mental imagery that is used to organize and analyze sounds when there is no external auditory stimulus present.
Auditory science or hearing science is a field of research and education concerning the perception of sounds by humans, animals, or machines.
Audrey Ursula Smith (21 May 1915 – 3 June 1981) was a British cryobiologist, who discovered the use of glycerol to protect human red blood cells during freezing.
August Franz Josef Karl Mayer (2 November 1787 in Schwäbisch Gmünd – 9 November 1865 in Bonn) was a German anatomist and physiologist.
Schack August Steenberg Krogh (November 15, 1874 – September 13, 1949) was a Danish professor at the department of zoophysiology at the University of Copenhagen from 1916 to 1945.
August Wilhelm Eduard Theodor Henschel (Breslau, 20 December 1790 - Breslau, 24 July 1856) was a German physician and botanist, best known through his works on history of medicine and about Schola Medica Salernitana.
Augustus Desiré Waller FRS (18 July 1856 – 11 March 1922) was a British physiologist and the son of Augustus Volney Waller.
Austin Flint II (March 28, 1836 – September 21, 1915) was an American physician.
The Australian Institute of Sport (AIS) is a sports training institution in Australia.
The Australian Journal of Zoology is an international peer-reviewed scientific journal published by CSIRO Publishing.
Austroconus is a proposed genus of sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the family Conidae, the cone snails and their allies.
Autar Singh Paintal M.D. Ph.D. (24 September 1925, in Mogok, Burma – 21 December 2004, in Delhi, India) was a medical scientist who made pioneering discoveries in the area of neurosciences and respiratory sciences.
Autopharmacology relates to the scientific study of the regulation of body functions by the activity of its naturally existent (or endogenous) chemical factors of the tissues.
(Nicholas) Avrion Mitchison (born 5 May 1928) is a British zoologist and immunologist.
Ayaad Assaad, Ph.D. (born 1948), is an Egyptian-American microbiologist and toxicologist.
Ayub Medical College (Urdu, Hindko:, د ایوب طب پوهنځی, or AMC) is a leading public medical institute located in Abbottabad, Pakistan.
Azad Jammu Kashmir Medical College (Urdu, Kashmiri:, or AJKMC) is a public medical institute located in Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Pakistan.
Ágoston Pável, also known in Slovenian as Avgust Pavel (28 August 1886, Cankova, Kingdom of Hungary, today in Slovenia – 2 January 1946, Szombathely, Hungary) was a Hungarian Slovene writer, poet, ethnologist, linguist and historian.
Ánimo South Los Angeles Charter High School (also known as "ASLA", or "Animo South LA") is a public charter school operated by Green Dot Public Schools of Los Angeles, United States.
Émile Édouard Charles Antoine Zola (2 April 1840 – 29 September 1902) was a French novelist, playwright, journalist, the best-known practitioner of the literary school of naturalism, and an important contributor to the development of theatrical naturalism.
Wasserzug Étienne Bronislaw (born 1 August 1860 in Motol; died 1888) was a French biologist of Polish origin.
Étienne-Jules Marey (5 March 1830, Beaune, Côte-d'Or – 15 May 1904, Paris) was a French scientist, physiologist and chronophotographer.
The Übermensch (German for "Beyond-Man", "Superman", "Overman", "Superhuman", "Hyperman", "Hyperhuman") is a concept in the philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche.
Bachelor of Ayurved Medicine and Surgery (B.A.M.S.) is a professional degree in Ayurveda offered by Ayurveda schools in India, Nepal, Bangladesh and other South Asian countries.
A Bachelor of Science in Biomedical Engineering is a kind of bachelor's degree typically conferred after a four year undergraduate course of study in biomedical engineering (BME).
Bacteria communicate among themselves and with other living forms in their environment via nano-scale membrane vesicles in their bacterial outer membranes.
Baden (German for "Baths"), unofficially distinguished from other Badens as Baden bei Wien (Baden near Vienna), is a spa town in Austria.
Bailey Turner is a fictional character from the Australian soap opera Neighbours played by Calen Mackenzie.
Ball High School is a public secondary school in Galveston, Texas, United States.
Balliol College, founded in 1263,: Graduate Studies Prospectus - Last updated 17 Sep 08 is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England.
Balloonist theory was a theory in early neuroscience that attempted to explain muscle movement by asserting that muscles contract by inflating with air or fluid.
Balneology is a branch of medical knowledge focused on the study and practical application of own natural therapeutic methods making use of mineral heal waters, gases and peloides.
The Baly Medal is a biennial award awarded by the Royal College of Physicians of London.
Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University (BSMRAU) (বঙ্গবন্ধু শেখ মুজিবুর রহমান কৃষি বিশ্ববিদ্যালয় (বশেমুরকৃবি)) is a public agricultural university in Bangladesh, established in 1998.
Bangladesh Agricultural University (বাংলাদেশ কৃষি বিশ্ববিদ্যালয় Bangladesh Krishi Bishshobiddalôe) or BAU was established as the only university of its kind in Bangladesh in 1961.
Bangor University (Prifysgol Bangor) is a university in Bangor, Gwynedd, Wales.
Barend Joseph Stokvis (16 August 1834 – 28 September 1902) was a physician and professor of physiology and pharmacology at the University of Amsterdam.
Barry Chapman Bishop (January 13, 1932 – September 24, 1994) was an American mountaineer, scientist, photographer and scholar.
Barry R. Bloom is Harvard University Distinguished Service Professor and Joan L. and Julius H. Jacobson Professor of Public Health in the Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases and Department of Global Health and Population in the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health in Boston, where he served as Dean of the Faculty from 1998 through December 31, 2008.
Bartholomeus Anglicus (before 1203 – 1272), also known as Bartholomew the Englishman and Berthelet, was an early 13th-century scholastic of Paris, a member of the Franciscan order.
Baruch Samuel Blumberg (July 28, 1925April 5, 2011) — known as Barry Blumberg — was an American physician, geneticist, and co-recipient of the 1976 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (with Daniel Carleton Gajdusek), for his work on the hepatitis B virus while an investigator at the NIH.
In physiology, base excess and base deficit refer to an excess or deficit, respectively, in the amount of base present in the blood.
The Basel Declaration is a call for greater transparency and communication on the use of animals in research.
Basic body awareness therapy is an evidence-based treatment form in physiotherapy first developed in the ’70..
The Basic Sciences Examination is run by the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons for surgical trainees who are in the Surgical Education and Training Program.
The Bates method is an alternative therapy aimed at improving eyesight.
Bathyconus is a subgenus of sea snails, cone snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the genus Conasprella, family Conidae, the cone snails and their allies.
The Bayliss and Starling Society was founded in 1979 as a forum for research scientists with specific interests in the chemistry, physiology and function of central and autonomic peptides.
The BBCH-scale (sunflower) identifies the phenological development stages of the sunflower (Helianthus annuus).
Bechtheim is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Alzey-Worms district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
Becoming Batman: The Possibility of a Superhero is a 2008 science book by neuroscience professor E. Paul Zehr.
Bed rest, also referred to as the rest-cure, is a medical treatment in which a person lies in bed for most of the time to try to cure an illness.
A behavioral change can be a temporary or permanent effect that is considered a change in an individual's behavior when compared to previous behavior.
Behavior settings are theorized entities that help explain the relationship between individuals and the environment - particularly the social environment.
Behavioral medicine is concerned with the integration of knowledge in the biological, behavioral, psychological, and social sciences relevant to health and illness.
Behavioral neuroscience, also known as biological psychology, biopsychology, or psychobiology, Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary is the application of the principles of biology to the study of physiological, genetic, and developmental mechanisms of behavior in humans and other animals.
Behavioral plasticity refers to a change in an organism's behavior that results from exposure to stimuli, such as changing environmental conditions.
Behavioural genetics also referred to as behaviour genetics, is a field of scientific research that uses genetic methods to investigate the nature and origins of individual differences in behaviour.
Behavioural responses to stress are evoked from underlying complex physiological changes that arise consequently from stress.
The Belfast Royal Academy (commonly shortened to B.R.A) is the oldest school in the city of Belfast, Northern Ireland.
Bell's phenomenon (also known as the palpebral oculogyric reflex) is a medical sign that allows observers to notice an upward and outward movement of the eye, when an attempt is made to close the eyes.
In anatomy and neurophysiology, this is the finding that the anterior spinal nerve roots contain only motor fibers and posterior roots only sensory fibers and that nerve impulses are conducted in only one direction in each case.
Bellefontaine Cemetery is a nonprofit, non-denominational cemetery and arboretum located in St. Louis, Missouri.
Belsazar de la Motte Hacquet (also Balthasar or Balthazar Hacquet) (c. 1739 – January 10, 1815) was a Carniolan physician of French descent in the Enlightenment Era.
Ben Michael Goldacre (born 20 May 1974) is a British physician, academic and science writer.
Benjamin Franklin "Ben" Roller (July 1, 1876 – April 19, 1933) was a physician, a professional wrestler and a football player.
The Bene Gesserit are a key social, religious, and political force in Frank Herbert's fictional ''Dune'' universe.
The beneficial acclimation hypothesis (BAH) is the physiological hypothesis that acclimating to a particular environment (usually thermal) provides an organism with advantages in that environment.
Benita S. Katzenellenbogen née Schulman (born 1945) is an American Professor of Physiology and Cell Biology at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
Benjamin Alcock (1801 – ?) was an Irish anatomist.
Benjamin Cummings specializes in science and is a publishing imprint of Pearson Education, the world's largest education publishing and technology company, which is part of Pearson PLC, the global publisher and former owner of Penguin Books and the Financial Times.
Benjamin James Dale (17 July 188530 July 1943) was an English composer and academic who had a long association with the Royal Academy of Music.
Benjamin Libet (April 12, 1916, Chicago, Illinois – July 23, 2007, Davis, California) was a pioneering scientist in the field of human consciousness.
Benjamin Moore, FRS (14 January 1867 – 3 March 1922) was an early British biochemist.
Sir Benjamin Ward Richardson, M.A., M.D., LL.D., F.R.S. (31 October 1828 – 21 November 1896) was an eminent British physician, anaesthetist, physiologist, sanitarian, and a prolific writer on medical history.
The Beritashvili Institute of Physiology of the Georgian Academy of Sciences, located in Tbilisi, Georgia, is one of the leading Georgian research institutes specializing in the fields of neurobiology, atomic force microscopy, molecular biology, biochemistry, and physiology.
The Berlin scientific balloon flights (Berliner wissenschaftliche Luftfahrten) were a series of 65 manned and 29 unmanned balloon flights carried out between 1888 and 1899 by the German Society for the Promotion of Aeronautics to investigate the atmosphere above the planetary boundary layer.
Bernard Anthony Harris Jr. (born June 26, 1956 in Temple, Texas) is a former NASA astronaut.
Sir Bernard Katz, FRS (26 March 1911 – 20 April 2003) was a German-born Australian physician and biophysicist, noted for his work on nerve physiology.
Bernard L. Oser (1899–1995) was an American biochemist and food scientist who was involved in vitamin analysis.
Bernardo Alberto Houssay (April 10, 1887 – September 21, 1971) was an Argentine physiologist who, in 1947, received one half Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of the role played by pituitary hormones in regulating the amount of blood sugar (glucose) in animals.
Bernd Heinrich (born April 19, 1940 in Bad Polzin, Germany), is a professor emeritus in the biology department at the University of Vermont and is the author of a number of books about nature writing and biology.
Bernhard Sigmund Schultze; sometimes spelled Bernhard Sigismund Schultze (December 29, 1827 – April 17, 1919) was a German obstetrician and gynecologist born in Freiburg im Breisgau.
A berry is a small, pulpy, and often edible fruit.
Bert Sakmann (born 12 June 1942) is a German cell physiologist.
Bertold Paul Wiesner (1901–1972) was an Austrian Jewish physiologist noted firstly for coining the term 'Psi' to denote parapsychological phenomena; secondly for his contribution to research into human fertility and the diagnosis of pregnancy; and thirdly for being biological father to an estimated 600 offspring by anonymously donating sperm used by his wife the obstetrician Mary Barton to perform artificial insemination on women at a private clinic on Harley Street, London, England.
Beth Louise Mallard (born 5 August 1981) is a former New Zealand rugby union player.
Bettina Meyer is a German Antarctic researcher, best known for her work on the ecology and physiology of invertebrates in the pelagic zone.
The Beza Mahafaly Reserve is a nature reserve in Madagascar northeast of Betioky Sud.
Bezzerwizzer is a trivia game combining trivia and tactics.
Bhairab Ganguly College is a college in Belgharia, in the district of North 24 Pgs, West Bengal, India, that was set up on 3 September 1968.
This bibliography of biology is a list of notable works, organized by subdiscipline, on the subject of biology.
Sepioteuthis lessoniana, commonly known as the bigfin reef squid or oval squid, is a commercially important species of loliginid squid.
Bcl10-interacting CARD protein, also known as BinCARD, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the C9orf89 gene on chromosome 9.
Binocular neurons are neurons in the visual system that assist in the creation of stereopsis from binocular disparity.
A Bioamplifier is an electrophysiological device, a variation of the instrumentation amplifier, used to gather and increase the signal integrity of physiologic electrical activity for output to various sources.
BioEssays is a monthly peer-reviewed review journal covering molecular and cellular biology.
Biofeedback is the process of gaining greater awareness of many physiological functions primarily using instruments that provide information on the activity of those same systems, with a goal of being able to manipulate them at will.
A biofilm comprises any group of microorganisms in which cells stick to each other and often also to a surface.
Biohistory is a relatively new school of historiography although its development can be found in the late nineteenth century.
A bioindicator is any species (an indicator species) or group of species whose function, population, or status can reveal the qualitative status of the environment.
Bioinorganic chemistry is a field that examines the role of metals in biology.
Biological anthropology, also known as physical anthropology, is a scientific discipline concerned with the biological and behavioral aspects of human beings, their related non-human primates and their extinct hominin ancestors.
Biological determinism of human gender roles is the view that human sexuality is controlled by an individual's genes or some component of their physiology.
Nitric oxide (nitrogen monoxide) is a molecule and chemical compound with chemical formula of NO.
A biological network is any network that applies to biological systems.
Biological organization is the hierarchy of complex biological structures and systems that define life using a reductionistic approach.
Biological psychiatry or biopsychiatry is an approach to psychiatry that aims to understand mental disorder in terms of the biological function of the nervous system.
Biological psychopathology is the study of the biological basis of mental illness.
A Biological Resource Centre (BRC) is considered to be one of the key elements for sustainable international scientific infrastructure, which is necessary to underpin successful delivery of the benefits of biotechnology, whether within the health sector, the industrial sector or other sectors, and in turn ensure that these advances help drive growth.
A biologist, is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of biology, the scientific study of life.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
The biology of trust is the study of physiological mechanisms involved in mediating trust in social attachments.
A biomarker, or biological marker, is defined as a "cellular, biochemical or molecular alteration in cells, tissues or fluids that can be measured and evaluated to indicate normal biological processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacological responses to a therapeutic intervention." Biomarkers characterize disease progression starting from the earliest natural history of the disease.
In medicine, a biomarker is a measurable indicator of the severity or presence of some disease state.
Biomarker discovery is a medical term describing the process by which biomarkers are discovered.
The BioMedical Admissions Test (BMAT) is an aptitude test used as part of the admissions process for Medicine, Biomedical Sciences and Dentistry in some universities in the United Kingdom, Singapore, Spain, Malaysia, Thailand, Hungary, Croatia and the Netherlands.
The biomedical model of medicine has been around since the mid-19th century as the predominant model used by physicians in diagnosing diseases.
Biomedical sciences are a set of applied sciences applying portions of natural science or formal science, or both, to knowledge, interventions, or technology that are of use in healthcare or public health.
A biomedical scientist is a scientist trained in biology, particularly in the context of medicine.
Biomedicine (i.e. medical biology) is a branch of medical science that applies biological and physiological principles to clinical practice.
The Biopac Student Lab is a proprietary teaching device and method introduced in 1995 as a digital replacement for aging chart recorders and oscilloscopes that were widely used in undergraduate teaching laboratories prior to that time.
Biophysics is an interdisciplinary science that applies the approaches and methods of physics to study biological systems.
Biorheology is the study of flow properties (rheology) of biological fluids.
bioRxiv (pronounced "bio-archive") is an open access preprint repository for the biological sciences co-founded by John Inglis and Richard Sever in November 2013.
Biosalinity is the study and practice of using saline (salty) water for irrigating agricultural crops.
Biosatellite 1, also known as Biosat 1 and as Biosatellite A, was a first artificial satellite unmanned U.S. belonging to Biosatellite program for biological research.
Biosatellite 2, also known as abbreviated as Biosat 2 and as Biosatellite B, was a second artificial satellite unmanned U.S. belonging to Biosatellite program for biological research.
Biotin is a water-soluble B vitamin, also called vitamin B7 and formerly known as vitamin H or coenzyme R. Biotin is composed of a ureido ring fused with a tetrahydrothiophene ring.
Bird anatomy, or the physiological structure of birds' bodies, shows many unique adaptations, mostly aiding flight.
Bird ichnology is the study of avian life traces in ornithology and paleontology.
Bishnupada Mukerjee (1903–1979) was an Indian pharmacologist, known for his contributions in the fields of pharmacological research and standardization of drugs in India.
Björn Folkow (October 13, 1921 - July 23. 2012) was a Swedish physiologist.
BK channels (Big Potassium), also known as Maxi-K, slo1, or Kcal.1, are voltage-gated potassium channels that conduct large amounts of potassium ions (K+) across the cell membrane, hence their name, Big Potassium.
Black Tom Cassidy (Thomas Samuel Eamon Cassidy) is a fictional supervillain appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics.
The blood hammer phenomenon is a sudden increase of the upstream blood pressure in a blood vessel (especially artery or arteriole) when the bloodstream is abruptly blocked by vessel obstruction.
Blood shift has at least two separate meanings.
The blood sugar level, blood sugar concentration, or blood glucose level is the amount of glucose present in the blood of humans and other animals.
A blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a hypodermic needle, or via fingerprick.
Bloomberg Distinguished Professorships (BDPs) were established as part of a $350 million gift by Michael Bloomberg, JHU Class of 1964, to Johns Hopkins University in 2013.
Robert E. "Bob" Fitch (July 29, 1919 – April 15, 2003) was an American athlete and coach.
Body Snatchers is a 1993 American science fiction horror film directed by Abel Ferrara and starring Gabrielle Anwar, Billy Wirth, Terry Kinney, Meg Tilly, Christine Elise, R. Lee Ermey and Forest Whitaker.
In physiology and medicine, the body surface area (BSA) is the measured or calculated surface area of a human body.
In physiology, body water is the water content of an animal body that is contained in the tissues, the blood, the bones and elsewhere.
Institut Pertanian Bogor (IPB or Bogor Agricultural University) is a state-run agricultural university based in the city of Bogor, Indonesia.
Bone healing, or fracture healing, is a proliferative physiological process in which the body facilitates the repair of a bone fracture.
Bonnie Jeanne Dunbar (born March 3, 1949) is a former NASA astronaut.
Hunayn ibn Ishaq's Book of the Ten Treatises of the Eye is a 9th-century theory of vision based upon the cosmological natures of pathways from the brain to the object being perceived.
Boris Petrovitch Babkin FRS, M.D., D.Sc, LL.D (Бори́с Петро́вич Ба́бкин; 17 January 1877 – 3 May 1950) was a Russian-born physiologist, who worked in Russia, England and Canada.
Boris Khodorov (Борис Израилевич Ходоров, b. 17 January 1922 – d. 5 July 2014) was a Soviet and Russian physiologist, M.D., D.Sc., Professor of Physiology, and Head of the Cell Physiology section of Moscow Physiological Society (formerly the Pavlov All-USSR Society of Physiologists; Всесоюзное Физиологическое общество имени И. П. Павлова).
Bornholm (Burgundaholmr) is a Danish island in the Baltic Sea, to the east of the rest of Denmark, south of Sweden, northeast of Germany and north of the westernmost part of Poland.
The Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM) is one of the graduate schools of Boston University.
Boundaries of the Mind is a thorough treatment of the role and conceptualization of the individual in psychology, by author Robert A. Wilson, a professor in the Department of Philosophy at the University of Alberta.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
Brain mapping is a set of neuroscience techniques predicated on the mapping of (biological) quantities or properties onto spatial representations of the (human or non-human) brain resulting in maps.
Brain typing is a system developed by Jonathan P. Niednagel that applies elements from neuroscience, physiology, and psychology to estimate athletic ability.
Brainwashing (also known as mind control, menticide, coercive persuasion, thought control, thought reform, and re-education) is the concept that the human mind can be altered or controlled by certain psychological techniques.
Brainwashing: The Science of Thought Control is a 2004 popular science book explaining mind control, which is also known as brainwashing, thought reform and coercive persuasion, by neuroscientist and physiologist Kathleen Taylor.
The branches of science, also referred to as sciences, "scientific fields", or "scientific disciplines" are commonly divided into three major groups.
The Brazilian Society of Physiology (Sociedade Brasileira de Fisiologia, in Portuguese language, official abbreviation SBFis) is a learned society and association of students and professionals in physiology in Brazil.
Brenda McCowan is a research behaviorist interested in evolutionary, biological, and ecological aspects of animal behavior and communication.
Sir Brian Keith Follett FRS DL (born 22 February 1939) chaired the UK government's Training and Development Agency for Schools (TDA) from 2003-9.
Professor Brian John Grieve (15 August 1907 – 5 September 1997) was an Australian botanist best known for his multi-volume book series How to know Western Australian wildflowers.
Brianna Stubbs (born 13 July 1991) is a British rower and research scientist who won two gold medals for Great Britain at the 2013 U23 and 2016 World Rowing Championships.
Brimstone Love is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics.
The British North Greenland expedition was a British scientific mission, led by Commander James Simpson RN, which lasted from July 1952 to August 1954.
Britton Chance (July 24, 1913 – November 16, 2010) was the Eldridge Reeves Johnson University Professor Emeritus of Biochemistry and Biophysics, as well as Professor Emeritus of Physical Chemistry and Radiological Physics at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine.
Brooklyn College is a senior university of the City University of New York, located on the border of the Midwood and Flatbush neighborhoods of Brooklyn, New York City.
Brown Station (Estación Científica Almirante Brown, or more often Base Brown or Estación Brown) is an Argentine Antarctic base and scientific research station named after Admiral William Brown, the father of the Argentine Navy.
Bruno Wilhelm Zilliacus (11 November 1877 – 3 April 1926) was a Finnish shot putter.
Guy L. "Bud" Tribble is Vice President of Software Technology at Apple Inc.
A bumblebee (or bumble bee, bumble-bee or humble-bee) is any of over 250 species in the genus Bombus, part of Apidae, one of the bee families.
Buprenorphine/samidorphan (developmental code name ALKS-5461) is a combination drug formulation of buprenorphine and samidorphan acting as a κ-opioid receptor (KOR) antagonist which is under development by Alkermes as an adjunct to antidepressant therapy in treatment-resistant depression (TRD).
Burghölzli is the common name given for the psychiatric hospital of the University of Zürich, Switzerland.
The burpee, or squat thrust, is a full body exercise used in strength training and as an aerobic exercise.
The Busitema University Faculty of Health Sciences (BUFHS), also known as the Busitema University Medical School (BUMS) and the Busitema University School of Medicine (BUSM), is the school of medicine of Busitema University, one of Uganda's public universities.
The Buteyko method or Buteyko Breathing Technique is a form of complementary or alternative physical therapy that proposes the use of breathing exercises primarily as a treatment for asthma and other respiratory conditions.
Gluteoplasty (Greek gloutόs, rump + plassein, to shape) denotes the plastic surgery and the liposuction procedures for the correction of the congenital, traumatic, and acquired defects and deformities of the buttocks and the anatomy of the gluteal region; and for the aesthetic enhancement (by augmentation or by reduction) of the contour of the buttocks.
In bone physiology, the C-terminal telopeptide (or more formally, carboxy-terminal collagen crosslinks, and known by the acronym CTX) is a telopeptide that can be used as a biomarker in the serum to measure the rate of bone turnover.
Canagasabai Kunalan (born 23 October 1942) is a retired Singaporean sprinter, relay runner, former footballer and educator, widely regarded as one of Singapore's greatest ever athletes.
Clarence Walton "Walt" Lillehei (October 23, 1918 – July 5, 1999), was an American surgeon who pioneered open-heart surgery, as well as numerous techniques, equipment and prostheses for cardiothoracic surgery.
Sir Cadwaladr Bryner Jones (6 April 1872 – 10 December 1954) was a leading figure in Welsh agricultural education and an eminent civil servant.
Calamiconus is a subgenus of sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the genus Conus, family Conidae, the cone snails and their allies.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Calcium ions (Ca2+) play a vital role in the physiology and biochemistry of organisms and the cell.
A calcium spark is the microscopic release of calcium (Ca2+) from a store known as the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), located within muscle cells.
Caleb Ellicott Finch (born July 4, 1939) is a professor at the University of Southern California's Leonard Davis School of Gerontology who studies aging in humans, with expertise in cell biology and Alzheimer's disease.
Californiconus is a genus of sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks.
Calmodulin (CaM) (an abbreviation for calcium-modulated protein) is a multifunctional intermediate calcium-binding messenger protein expressed in all eukaryotic cells.
In molecular biology, the calponin family repeat is a 26 amino acid protein domain.
Cambridge Antibody Technology (officially Cambridge Antibody Technology Group Plc, informally CAT) was a biotechnology company headquartered in Cambridge, England, United Kingdom.
Gabriel-Madeleine-Camille Dareste de la Chavanne (22 November 1822, Paris – 1899, Paris) was a French zoologist and specialist in experimental embryology.
Camille Delezenne (10 June 1868 – 7 July 1932) was a French physician and biologist born in Genech, a town in the department of Nord.
Camillo Golgi (7 July 1843 – 21 January 1926) was an Italian biologist and pathologist known for his works on the central nervous system.
The Canadian Association for Laboratory Animal Science (CALAS), a not-for-profit membership association was formed in 1962 with a vision to elevate the standards of laboratory animal science and to enhance animal well-being.
The Canadian Athletic Therapists Association (CATA) is a professional body based in Calgary, Alberta, Canada which was established on April 24, 1965 at a meeting at Maple Leaf Gardens in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
The Canadian Journal of Biochemistry and Physiology is a defunct peer-reviewed scientific journal of biochemistry and physiology established in 1954 as the continuation of the Canadian Journal of Medical Sciences and published by NRC Research Press.
The Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology (fr. Revue canadienne de physiologie et pharmacologie) is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1964 after the split of Canadian Journal of Biochemistry and Physiology in two parts, the other one being Canadian Journal of Biochemistry.
The Canberra College (formerly known as the Phillip College) is an Australian Capital Territory public school, which educates students from year 11 to year 12.
Cancer research is research into cancer to identify causes and develop strategies for prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and cure.
A cannabinoid is one of a class of diverse chemical compounds that acts on cannabinoid receptors in cells that alter neurotransmitter release in the brain.
The main concepts of the Cannon–Bard theory are that emotional expression results from the function of hypothalamic structures, and emotional feeling results from stimulations of the dorsal thalamus.
In viticulture, the canopy of a grapevine includes the parts of the vine visible aboveground - the trunk, cordon, stems, leaves, flowers, and fruit.
Captain Marvel (Mar-Vell) is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics.
Carbonic acid is a chemical compound with the chemical formula H2CO3 (equivalently OC(OH)2).
The Cardiff University School of Medicine (Ysgol Feddygaeth Prifysgol Caerdydd) is the medical school of Cardiff University and is located in Cardiff, Wales, UK.
The diagnostic tests in cardiology are methods of identifying heart conditions associated with healthy vs.
Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is a branch of rehabilitation medicine/Physical Therapy dealing with optimizing physical function in patients with cardiac disease or recent cardiac surgeries.
Cardiovascular fitness is the ability of the heart, blood cells and lungs to supply oxygen-rich blood to the working muscle tissues and the ability of the muscles to use oxygen to produce energy for movement.
Cardiovascular physiology is the study of the circulatory system, specifically addressing the physiology of the heart ("cardio") and blood vessels ("vascular").
The Cardiovascular System Dynamics Society (CSDS), founded in 1976, by organ system physiologist and biomedical engineers, was a historic first in its mathematical and quantitative approach to cardiovascular mechanics.
Carl Anton Ewald (30 October 1845 – 20 September 1915) was a German gastroenterologist who was a native of Berlin.
Carl Georg Lucas Christian Bergmann (18 May 1814 – 30 April 1865) was a German anatomist, physiologist and biologist who developed the Bergmann's rule.
Carl Conrad Theodor Litzmann (7 October 1815 – 24 February 1890) was a German obstetrician and gynecologist born in Gadebusch, Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin.
Carl Eduard Cramer (4 March 1831 in Zürich – 24 November 1901 in Zürich) was a Swiss botanist.
Carl Friedrich Haase, name sometimes spelled as Karl Friedrich Haase (13 February 1788, Leipzig – 10 November 1865, Ober-Lössnitz near Dresden) was a German obstetrician.
Carl Gustav Carus (3 January 1789 – 28 July 1869) was a German physiologist and painter, born in Leipzig, who played various roles during the Romantic era.
Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.
Carl Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig (29 December 1816 – 23 April 1895) was a German physician and physiologist.
Carl Ritter (August 7, 1779September 28, 1859) was a German geographer.
Carl Schotten (12 July 1853 – 9 January 1910) was a German chemist who, together with Eugen Baumann, discovered the Schotten-Baumann reaction.
Carl von Voit (31 October 1831 – 31 January 1908) was a German physiologist and dietitian.
Carl William Gottschalk (1922 – October 15, 1997) was the Kenan Professor and Distinguished Research Professor of Medicine at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Carlo Franzinetti (March 31, 1923 in Rome – November 28, 1980 in Llantwit Major) was an Italian experimental physicist.
Carlos Chagas Filho (September 10, 1910 – February 16, 2000) was a Brazilian physician, biologist and scientist active in the field of neuroscience.
Carlos Conca (born November 3, 1954) is a Chilean applied mathematician, engineer and scientist.
The Carlsberg Laboratory in Copenhagen, Denmark, was created in 1875 by J. C. Jacobsen, the founder of the Carlsberg brewery, for the sake of advancing biochemical knowledge, especially relating to brewing.
A carnivore, meaning "meat eater" (Latin, caro, genitive carnis, meaning "meat" or "flesh" and vorare meaning "to devour"), is an organism that derives its energy and nutrient requirements from a diet consisting mainly or exclusively of animal tissue, whether through predation or scavenging.
Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy (Universitatea de Medicină și Farmacie „Carol Davila”, or UMF București) is a public health sciences University in Bucharest, Romania.
Carpentras (Provençal Occitan: Carpentràs in classical norm or Carpentras in Mistralian norm) is a commune in the Vaucluse department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France.
Carrie Elkin (born October 11, 1973 in Cleveland, Ohio), is a folk/country singer and musician based out of Austin, Texas where she lives with fellow musician and singer-songwriter Danny Schmidt; they married in October 2014.
Carsten Schradin is a Swiss researcher of eco-physiology at the CNRS, IPHC, and DEPE.
Caspar David Friedrich (5 September 1774 – 7 May 1840) was a 19th-century German Romantic landscape painter, generally considered the most important German artist of his generation.
Caspar Friedrich Wolff (18 January 1733 – 22 February 1794) was a German physiologist and one of the founders of embryology.
Castanea: Journal of the Southern Appalachian Botanical Society is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Southern Appalachian Botanical Society.
The domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus or Felis catus) is a small, typically furry, carnivorous mammal.
Cat-facing, or catfacing, refers to a type of physiological damage affecting tomatoes and represented by scarring and cavities near the blossom end.
Cataglyphis, or desert ants, is a genus of ant in the subfamily Formicinae.
A catheterization laboratory or cath lab is an examination room in a hospital or clinic with diagnostic imaging equipment used to visualize the arteries of the heart and the chambers of the heart and treat any stenosis or abnormality found.
Cato T. Laurencin (born 1959), a professorhttps://scholar.google.com/scholar?q.
Cecilia Lutwak-Mann (1900(?)-1987) was a Polish-British endocrinologist and physiologist.
Cell is a peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing research papers across a broad range of disciplines within the life sciences.
Cell biology (also called cytology, from the Greek κυτος, kytos, "vessel") is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell, the basic unit of life.
Cell death is the event of a biological cell ceasing to carry out its functions.
Cell Metabolism, launched in January 2005, is one of the newer titles in the Cell Press family.
In the context of human physiology, the term cell physiology often specifically applies to the physiology of membrane transport, neuron transmission, and (less frequently) muscle contraction.
Cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions.
In biology, cell theory is the historic scientific theory, now universally accepted, that living organisms are made up of cells, that they are the basic structural/organizational unit of all organisms, and that all cells come from pre-existing cells.
Cellular neuroscience is the study of neurons at a cellular level.
Cellulite (also known as adiposis edematosa, dermopanniculosis deformans, status protrusus cutis, gynoid lipodystrophy, and orange peel syndrome) is the herniation of subcutaneous fat within fibrous connective tissue that manifests topographically as skin dimpling and nodularity, often on the pelvic region (specifically the buttocks), lower limbs, and abdomen.
The Center for Biofilm Engineering (CBE) is an interdisciplinary research, education, and technology transfer institution located on the central campus of Montana State University in Bozeman, Montana.
The UCD Center for Mind and Brain is a research and training unit at the University of California, Davis dedicated to understanding the nature of the human mind from interdisciplinary perspectives.
The Central Colleges of the Philippines (Kolehiyong Sentral ng Pilipinas) also known as (CCP) is a coeducational educational institution located in Dona Imelda, Quezon City, Metro Manila, Philippines.
Central Cotton Research Institute Multan, established in 1976 in Multan, Pakistan, is one of the renowned research institutes of Pakistan.
Central Park Medical College (abbreviated as CPMC) is a private medical school (also called Medical College, in Pakistan) established in 2008 and located on Ferozepur Road, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
Central place foraging (CPF) theory is an evolutionary ecology model for analyzing how an organism can maximize foraging rates while traveling through a patch (a discreet resource concentration), but maintains the key distinction of a forager traveling from a home base to a distant foraging location rather than simply passing through an area or travelling at random.
The National Rice Research Institute(କେନ୍ଦ୍ରୀୟ ଧାନ ଗବେଷଣା କେନ୍ଦ୍ର)is situated near Bidyadharpur village on the Cuttack-Paradip Road, Odisha, India.
The Centre d’Immunologie de Marseille-Luminy (CIML) was founded in 1976 and has been described by AERES, an independent evaluation agency, as "without doubt one of the best immunology centers of excellence in Europe".
Ceratonia siliqua, known as the carob tree or carob bush, St John's-bread, locust bean (not African locust bean), or simply locust-tree, is a flowering evergreen tree or shrub in the pea family, Fabaceae.
Cerithidea decollata, common name the truncated mangrove snail, is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusc in the family Potamididae.
The Certificat de formation à la sécurité (CFS) (in English Safety training certificate) is the French national degree required to be a flight attendant in France.
The Certification for Aquaculture Professionals (CAP) is an online program developed by the Auburn University Department of Fisheries and Allied Aquaculture, located in Auburn, Alabama, to teach aquaculture techniques and skills to a wide spectrum of professionals from government extension workers and industrial aquaculture to individual fish farmers.
Chadlington Road is a road in North Oxford, England.
The Chandos Chair of Medicine and Anatomy is a Chair in Medicine and Anatomy of the University of St Andrews, Scotland.
A channel blocker is the biological mechanism in which a particular molecule is used to prevent the opening of ion channels in order to produce a physiological response in a cell.
The channelome, sometimes called the "ion channelome", is the complete set of ion channelsDoyle, D. A., Morais-Cabral, J., Pfuetzner, R. A., Kuo, A, Gulbis, JM, Cohen, SL, Chait, BT, MacKinnon, R (1998) The structure of the potassium channel: molecular basis of K+ conduction and selectivity.
Chaos theory is a branch of mathematics focusing on the behavior of dynamical systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions.
Charaka (चरक) (~6th – 2nd century BCE) was one of the principal contributors to Ayurveda, a system of medicine and lifestyle developed in Ancient India.
Charles Augustus Tulk (1786–1849) was an English Swedenborgian and politician.
Sir Charles Bell (12 November 177428 April 1842) was a Scottish surgeon, anatomist, physiologist, neurologist, artist, and philosophical theologian.
Charles Herbert Best (February 27, 1899 – March 31, 1978) was a Canadian medical scientist and one of the co-discoverers of insulin.
Charles Brenton Huggins (September 22, 1901 – January 12, 1997) was a Canadian-American physician, physiologist and cancer researcher at the University of Chicago specializing in prostate cancer.
Charles Claude Guthrie (September 26, 1880 – April 1963) was an American physiologist.
Charles "Nick" Corfield (born 4 May 1959) is a mathematician, computer programmer, and founder of several startup companies in Silicon Valley, most notably Frame Technology Corporation in 1986, which was acquired by Adobe Systems in 1995.
Sir Charles Fred(erick) Hutchinson (23 January 1850 – 15 November 1907) was an English physician and Liberal politician.
Charles J. (“Chuck”) Bowles (28 March 1922 – 30 December 2005) was a professor of physical education and human anatomy at Willamette University for twenty-five years.
Charles Halliley Kellaway, (16 January 1889 – 13 December 1952) was an Australian medical researcher and science administrator.
Ernest-Charles Lasègue (5 September 1816 – 20 March 1883) was a French physician born in Paris.
Charles Loomis Dana (March 25, 1852 – December 12, 1935) was an American physician, professor of nervous and mental disease at Cornell Medical College.
Charles Marie Benjamin Rouget (19 August 1824 – 1904, Paris) was a French physiologist born in Gisors, Eure.
Charles Pérez (19 May 1873 in Bordeaux – 22 September 1952 in Paris) was a French zoologist best known for his research of marine invertebrates and insects.
Charles Richard Taylor (8 September, 1939–10 September, 1995) was an American biologist whose career focused on animal physiology.
Prof Charles Robert Richet (25 August 1850 – 4 December 1935) was a French physiologist at the Collège de France known for his pioneering work in immunology.
Sir Charles Scott Sherrington (27 November 1857 – 4 March 1952) was an English neurophysiologist, histologist, bacteriologist, and a pathologist, Nobel laureate and president of the Royal Society in the early 1920s.
Air Vice Marshal Sir Charles Putnam Symonds, (11 April 1890 – 7 December 1978) was an English neurologist and a senior medical officer in the Royal Air Force.
Charles Wilson Greene (1866–1947) was an American professor of physiology and pharmacology from Indiana.
Charles-Édouard Brown-Séquard FRS (8 April 1817 – 2 April 1894) was a Mauritian physiologist and neurologist who, in 1850, became the first to describe what is now called Brown-Séquard syndrome.
Charles-Émile François-Franck (7 May 1849, Paris – 8 September 1921, Paris) was a French physiologist.
Charles-Prosper Ollivier d'Angers (11 October, 1796 in Angers – 12 March 1845 in Paris) was a French pathologist and clinician, best known for his early investigations of the spinal cord.
Chelyconus is a subgenus of sea snails, cone snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the genus Conus, family Conidae, the cone snails and their allies.
Merriam-Webster defines chemotaxonomy as the method of biological classification based on similarities in the structure of certain compounds among the organisms being classified.
is a fictional character in the manga series Chobits and its anime adaptation.
is a Japanese doctor and JAXA astronaut.
Childhood amnesia, also called infantile amnesia, is the inability of adults to retrieve episodic memories (memories of situations or events) before the age of 2–4 years, as well as the period before age 10 of which adults retain fewer memories than might otherwise be expected given the passage of time.
The Chinese Immersion School at De Avila is the latest incarnation of the historic Dudley Stone School, founded in San Francisco, California, in 1896 and surviving the San Francisco Earthquake and Fire of 1906.
The Chinese Library Classification (CLC), also known as Classification for Chinese Libraries (CCL), is effectively the national library classification scheme in China.
Chirality is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering chiral chemistry in relation with physiology.
Chiropractic is a form of alternative medicine mostly concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of mechanical disorders of the musculoskeletal system, especially the spine.
Chiropractic in Canada is licensed at the provincial and territorial level.
Chlamydia is a genus of pathogenic bacteria that are obligate intracellular parasites.
Chocolate is a typically sweet, usually brown food preparation of Theobroma cacao seeds, roasted and ground.
Cholecystokinin (CCK or CCK-PZ; from Greek chole, "bile"; cysto, "sac"; kinin, "move"; hence, move the bile-sac (gallbladder)) is a peptide hormone of the gastrointestinal system responsible for stimulating the digestion of fat and protein.
Christiaan Eijkman (11 August 1858 – 5 November 1930) was a Dutch physician and professor of physiology whose demonstration that beriberi is caused by poor diet led to the discovery of antineuritic vitamins (thiamine).
Christian Harald Lauritz Peter Emil Bohr (1855–1911) was a Danish physician, father of the physicist and Nobel laureate Niels Bohr, as well as the mathematician and football player Harald Bohr and grandfather of another physicist and nobel laureate Aage Bohr.
Christian Dominique Borle (born October 1, 1973) is an American actor in theatre, television, and film.
Christian Friedrich Nasse (18 April 1778 – 18 April 1851) was a German physician and psychiatrist born in Bielefeld.
Christian Gottlieb Kratzenstein (30 January 1723, Wernigerode – 6 July 1795, Copenhagen) was a German-born doctor, physicist and engineer.
Christian James Lambertsen (May 15, 1917 – February 11, 2011) was an American environmental medicine and diving medicine specialist who was principally responsible for developing the United States Navy frogmen's rebreathers in the early 1940s for underwater warfare.
Christian Peder Bianco Boeck (September 5, 1798 – July 11, 1877) was a Norwegian doctor, zoologist, botanist and mountaineer.
Christian Wilhelm Braune (17 July 1831 Leipzig – 29 April 1892) was a German anatomist.
Christian Wolff (less correctly Wolf,; also known as Wolfius; ennobled as Christian Freiherr von Wolff; 24 January 1679 – 9 April 1754) was a German philosopher.
Christoph Handschin is a Swiss cell biologist at the Biozentrum University of Basel.
Christopher E. Gerty (born October 19, 1975) is an American aerospace engineer who worked on NASA's Constellation Program.
Christopher L.-H. Huang FRSB is professor of cell physiology at the University of Cambridge.
Chromatophores are pigment-containing and light-reflecting cells, or groups of cells, found in a wide range of animals including amphibians, fish, reptiles, crustaceans and cephalopods.
Chronobiology is a field of biology that examines periodic (cyclic) phenomena in living organisms and their adaptation to solar- and lunar-related rhythms.
Chukwuedu Nathaniel II Nwokolo (19 April 1921 – 18 May 2014) was an internationally distinguished tropical diseases, nutrition, human, medical, biological and life sciences expert; plus research scientist, scholar, pioneer medical doctor, author, humanitarian and acclaimed professor of medicine.
Cigarette smoking for weight loss is a practice dating to early knowledge of nicotine as an appetite suppressant.
A ciliopathy is a genetic disorder of the cellular cilia or the cilia anchoring structures, the basal bodies, or of ciliary function.
The Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute (in Spanish: Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional or simply as CINVESTAV-IPN) is a Mexican non-governmental scientific research institution affiliated with the National Polytechnic Institute and founded by president Adolfo López Mateos on 17 April 1961, initially planned as a postgraduate department of the National Polytechnic Institute; this was later modified by President José López Portillo, on 17 September 1982.
In chronobiology, a circasemidian rhythm is a physiological arousal cycle that peaks twice in a 24-hour day.
Clarence Preston Gillette (7 April 1859, Maple Corners, Ionia County, Michigan–4 January 1941, Fort Collins, Colorado) was an American entomologist.
Claude Bernard (12 July 1813 – 10 February 1878) was a French physiologist.
The Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 (Université Claude-Bernard Lyon 1, UCBL), is one of the three public universities of Lyon, France.
Claude Fortier, (June 11, 1921 – April 22, 1986) was a Canadian physiologist and expert on the pituitary gland.
Claude Franceschi (born October 12, 1942) is an angiologist French MD.
Claudie (André-Deshays) Haigneré (born 13 May 1957) is a French doctor, politician, and former astronaut with the Centre National d'Études Spatiales (1985–1999) and the European Space Agency (1999–2002).
In pharmacology, the clearance is a pharmacokinetic measurement of the volume of plasma from which a substance is completely removed per unit time; the usual units are mL/min.
Clemence Sophia Harned Lozier (December 11, 1813 — April 26, 1888) was an American physician who founded the New York Medical College and Hospital for Women.
Clifford Brewer TD, FRCS, PR, FICS, (29 April 1913 – 30 April 2017http://www.legacy.com/obituaries/thetimes-uk/obituary.aspx?pid.
Climate change and agriculture are interrelated processes, both of which take place on a global scale.
Climate change in the US state of Washington is a subject of study and projection today.
A climbing specialist or climber, also known as a grimpeur, is a road bicycle racer who can ride especially well on highly inclined roads, such as those found among hills or mountains.
Clinical Anatomy is a peer-reviewed medical journal that covers anatomy in all its aspects—gross, histologic, developmental, and neurologic—as applied to medical practice.
Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that publishes articles relating to pharmacology and physiology.
A clinical coder – also known as clinical coding officer, diagnostic coder, medical coder or medical records technician – is a health information professional whose main duties are to analyse clinical statements and assign standard codes using a classification system.
The clinical descriptions of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) vary.
A clinical officer (CO) is a gazetted officer who provides medical care and treatment.
Clitoral erection is a physiological phenomenon where the clitoris becomes enlarged and firm.
Clonazepam, sold under the brand name Klonopin among others, is a medication used to prevent and treat seizures, panic disorder, and for the movement disorder known as akathisia.
Clostridium difficile toxin B is a toxin produced by the bacteria Clostridium difficile.
The cloudy catshark (Scyliorhinus torazame) is a common species of catshark, belonging to the family Scyliorhinidae.
Club is the brand name for a series of Irish carbonated soft drinks produced in Ireland by Britvic Ireland and previously by Cantrell & Cochrane (C&C).
Clube Atlético Mineiro, commonly known as Atlético Mineiro or Atlético, and colloquially as Galo ("Rooster"), is a professional football club based in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
Cluster roots, also known as proteoid roots, are plant roots that form clusters of closely spaced short lateral rootlets.
Coastal Christian School is a private, non-denominational Christian school from Kindergarten through 12th grade.
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.
Coca paste (paco, basuco, oxi) is a crude extract of the coca leaf which contains 40% to 91% cocaine sulfate along with companion coca alkaloids and varying quantities of benzoic acid, methanol, and kerosene.
Coffee preparation is the process of turning coffee beans into a beverage.
Cognitive hearing science is an interdisciplinary science field concerned with the physiological and cognitive basis of hearing and its interplay with signal processing in hearing aids.
In psychology, cognitivism is a theoretical framework for understanding the mind that gained credence in the 1950s.
Cold is the presence of low temperature, especially in the atmosphere.
Cold hardening is the physiological and biochemical process by which an organism prepares for cold weather.
Cold shock response is the physiological response of organisms to sudden cold, especially cold water.
Colin Louis Avern Leakey (born in Cambridge, in England, 13 December 1933, died 29 Jan. 2018, Lincoln, England) was a leading plant scientist in the United Kingdom, a Fellow of King's College, Cambridge and of the Institute of Biology, and a world authority on beans.
Colin G. Nichols FRS is the Carl Cori Endowed Professor, and Director of the Center for Investigation of Membrane Excitability Diseases at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri.
Colleen Cavanaugh is an American academic microbiologist best known for her studies of hydrothermal vent ecosystems.
The College of Health Sciences of the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology comprises the Faculties of Allied Health Sciences, Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Medical Sciences, School of Dentistry, School of Veterinary Medicine and the Kumasi Centre for Collaborative Research in tropical medicine (KCCR).
The Collingwood Cup is an association football cup competition featuring university teams from the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland.
The School of Nursing is the graduate school of nursing at Columbia University in New York City.
A combat medical technician (CMT) is a soldier with a specialist military trade within the Royal Army Medical Corps of the British Army and the Royal Air Force.
The combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP), often referred to as the birth control pill or colloquially as "the pill", is a type of birth control that is designed to be taken orally by women.
The Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination of the United States (COMLEX-USA) is a series of three osteopathic medical licensing examinations administered by the National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners (NBOME) similar to the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE).
The common raven (Corvus corax), also known as the northern raven, is a large, all-black passerine bird.
Communication noise refers to influences on effective communication that influence the interpretation of conversations.
Communicology is the scholarly and academic study of how we create and use messages to affect our social environment.
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology is a series of three journals published by Elsevier with coverage of three aspects of biochemistry and physiology.
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part B: Biochemistry & Molecular Biology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that covers research in biochemistry, physiology, and molecular biology.
Comparative biology uses natural variation and disparity to understand the patterns of life at all levels—from genes to communities—and the critical role of organisms in ecosystems.
Comparative medicine is a distinct discipline of experimental medicine that uses animal models of human and animal disease in translational and biomedical research.
Comparative physiology is a subdiscipline of physiology that studies and exploits the diversity of functional characteristics of various kinds of organisms.
Competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs, also refer as miRNA sponges) hypothesis: ceRNAs regulate other RNA transcripts (e.g., PTEN) by competing for shared microRNAs.
The Complementary and Alternative Medicine Program was created in 2003 by Georgetown University Medical Center in response to a nationwide NIH-funded educational initiative to incorporate CAM into medical and graduate school curricula.
A complete protein (or whole protein) is a source of protein that contains an adequate proportion of all nine of the essential amino acids necessary for the dietary needs of an organism.
Complex post-traumatic stress disorder (C-PTSD; also known as complex trauma disorder) is a psychological disorder thought to occur as a result of repetitive, prolonged trauma involving sustained abuse or abandonment by a caregiver or other interpersonal relationships with an uneven power dynamic.
Comprehensive Physiology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by John Wiley & Sons on behalf of the American Physiological Society.
Computational criminology is an interdisciplinary field which uses computing science methods to formally define criminology concepts, improve our understanding of complex phenomena, and generate solutions for related problems.
Computational science (also scientific computing or scientific computation (SC)) is a rapidly growing multidisciplinary field that uses advanced computing capabilities to understand and solve complex problems.
Computer facial animation is primarily an area of computer graphics that encapsulates methods and techniques for generating and animating images or models of a character face.
Conasprella is a genus of sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the family Conidae, the cone snails and their allies.
Conasprelloides is a subgenus of sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the family Conidae, the cone snails and their allies.
Cone snails, cone shells, or cones are common names for a large group of small to large-sized extremely venomous predatory sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs.
Conilithidae is a proposed taxonomic family of small to medium-sized sea snails, specifically cone snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the superfamily Conoidea, the cone snails and their allies.
Coninae, or as it is more recently (February 2015) represented as a family, Conidae, common names the cone snails, cone shells or cones, is a taxonomic group of small to large predatory sea snails with cone-shaped shells, marine gastropod mollusks in the superfamily Conoidea.
Connections is a 10-episode documentary television series and 1978 book (Connections, based on the series) created, written, and presented by science historian James Burke.
Conrad Eckhard (1 March 1822 - 28 April 1905) was a German physiologist born in Homberg (Efze), Electorate of Hesse.
Conscience is an aptitude, faculty, intuition or judgment that assists in distinguishing right from wrong.
Conservation behavior is the interdisciplinary field about how animal behavior can assist in the conservation of biodiversity.
Conservation Physiology is an online only, fully open access journal published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.
Constance Spry (5 December 1886 – 3 January 1960) was a British educator, florist and author in the mid-20th century.
Constantin Rădulescu-Motru (born Constantin Rădulescu, he added the surname Motru in 1892; February 15, 1868 – March 6, 1957) was a Romanian philosopher, psychologist, sociologist, logician, academic, dramatist, as well as centre-left nationalist politician with a noted anti-fascist discourse.
Contemporary Herpetology is a non-profit, electronic, peer-reviewed journal for articles of a herpetological interest, including biology, ecology, physiology, conservation of reptiles and amphibians.
The control of ventilation refers to the physiological mechanisms involved in the control of breathing, which is the movement of air into and out of the lungs.
Control theory in control systems engineering deals with the control of continuously operating dynamical systems in engineered processes and machines.
Copepods (meaning "oar-feet") are a group of small crustaceans found in the sea and nearly every freshwater habitat.
Corneille Jean François Heymans (28 March 1892 – 18 July 1968) was a Belgian physiologist.
Cornelia "Nina" Channing (1938–1985) was an American professor of physiology at the University of Maryland School of Medicine.
Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones.
A cough is a sudden and often repetitively occurring, protective reflex, which helps to clear the large breathing passages from fluids, irritants, foreign particles and microbes.
Crab meat or crabmeat is the meat found within a crab.
Horace Craig Heller is a physiologist and biologist, currently a professor at Stanford University.
John Craig Venter (born October 14, 1946) is an American biotechnologist, biochemist, geneticist, and businessman.
Cranioscopy is a term created by Franz Joseph Gall (1758–1828), a German neuroanatomist and physiologist who was a pioneer in the study of the localization of mental functions in the brain, to name his technique to infer localization of function in the brain on the basis of the external anatomy of the skull or cranium.
"Crank" is a pejorative term used for a person who holds an unshakable belief that most of his or her contemporaries consider to be false.
Crash Course (sometimes stylized as CrashCourse) is an educational YouTube channel started by the Green brothers, Hank Green and John Green, who are notable for their VlogBrothers channel.
Creative visualization is the cognitive process of purposefully generating visual mental imagery, with eyes open or closed, simulating or recreating visual perception, in order to maintain, inspect, and transform those images, consequently modifying their associated emotions or feelings, with intent to experience a subsequent beneficial physiological, psychological, or social effect, such as expediting the healing of wounds to the body, minimizing physical pain, alleviating psychological pain including anxiety, sadness, and low mood, improving self-esteem or self-confidence, and enhancing the capacity to cope when interacting with others.
The concept of a link between creativity and mental illness has been extensively discussed and studied by psychologists and other researchers for centuries.
Crest factor is a parameter of a waveform, such as alternating current or sound, showing the ratio of peak values to the effective value.
Crick Road is a road in North Oxford, England, an area characterised by large Victorian Gothic villas.
Critical thermal maximum, in zoology, is the temperature for a given species above which most individuals respond with unorganized locomotion, subjecting the animal to likely death.
Evolutionary psychology has generated substantial controversy and criticism.
Crown-to-root-ratio is the ratio of the length of the part of a tooth that appears above the alveolar bone versus what lies below it.
The crucifixion of Jesus occurred in 1st-century Judea, most likely between AD 30 and 33.
Crystal Sound is a sound in Antarctica between the southern part of the Biscoe Islands and the coast of Graham Land, with northern limit Cape Evensen to Cape Leblond and southern limit Holdfast Point, Roux Island, Liard Island and the Sillard Islands.
A curcuminoid is a linear diarylheptanoid, with molecules such as curcumin or derivatives of curcumin with different chemical groups that have been formed to increase solubility of curcumins and make them suitable for drug formulation.
A cyborg (short for "'''cyb'''ernetic '''org'''anism") is a being with both organic and biomechatronic body parts.
Cycadales is an order of seed plants that includes all the extant cycads.
Cyclic nucleotide–gated ion channels or CNG channels are ion channels that function in response to the binding of cyclic nucleotides.
In organic chemistry, a cycloalkyne is the cyclic analog of an alkyne.
Cyrille Guimard (born 20 January 1947 in Bouguenais, Loire-Atlantique) is a French former professional road racing cyclist who became a directeur sportif and then a television commentator.
Cytomics is the study of cell biology (cytology) and biochemistry in cellular systems at the single cell level.
Sir D'Arcy Power, (11 November 1855 in Pimlico, London - 18 May 1941) was a British surgeon, medical historian, and contributor of some 200 articles on famous surgeons and other related figures to the Dictionary of National Biography.
David Fraser Fraser-Harris (24 February 1867 - 3 January 1937), best known as D. F. Fraser-Harris, was a Scottish Professor of physiology and a writer.
Dactyloidae are a family of lizards commonly known as anoles and native to warmer parts of the Americas, ranging from southeastern United States to Paraguay.
DADiSP (Data Analysis and Display, pronounced day-disp) is a numerical computing environment developed by DSP Development Corporation which allows one to display and manipulate data series, matrices and images with an interface similar to a spreadsheet.
Dafydd Rhys "Dave" Williams OC (born May 16, 1954) is a Canadian physician, public speaker and a retired CSA astronaut.
Georgina Dagmar Berne (16 November 1866 – 22 August 1900) was an Australian medical doctor and the first female student to study medicine in Australia.
Dagmar Cronstedt (1919–2006) was a Swedish countess who during the Second World War worked at Radio Königsberg, broadcasting German propaganda to neutral Sweden.
Dale Schoeller is an American biomedical physiologist based at the University of Wisconsin in Madison.
Dalliconus is a subgenus of sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the genus Conasprella, family Conidae, the cone snails and their allies.
Dance science is the scientific study of dance and dancers, as well as the practical application of scientific principles to dance.
Daniel Danielopolu (12 April 1884 – 29 April 1955) was a Romanian physiologist, clinician and pharmacologist.
Daniel Mazia (December 18, 1912 in Scranton, Pennsylvania – June 9, 1996 in Monterey, California) was an American cell biologist, best known for his 1951 research with Katsuma Dan that isolated the cell structures responsible for mitosis.
Daniel Mark Wolpert FRS FMedSci (born 8 September 1963) is a British medical doctor, neuroscientist and engineer, who has made important contributions in computational biology.
28S ribosomal protein S29, mitochondrial, also known as death-associated protein 3 (DAP3), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DAP3 gene on chromosome 1.
Daphnia lumholtzi is a species of small, invasive water fleas that originates in the tropical and subtropical lakes of Africa, Asia, and Australia.
Dario Maestrini (23 March 1886 – 28 October 1975) was a 20th-century Italian physiologist and scientist.
A Darrow Yannet diagram is a schematic used in physiology to identify how the volumes of extracellular fluid and intracellular fluid alter in response to conditions such as adrenal insufficiency and SIADH.
The Darwin Medal is awarded by the Royal Society every alternate year for "work of acknowledged distinction in the broad area of biology in which Charles Darwin worked, notably in evolution, population biology, organismal biology and biological diversity".
Darwin Prockop (born August 31, 1929) is an American biochemist and progenitor cell researcher.
The Darwin–Wedgwood family is composed of two interrelated English families, descending from prominent 18th-century doctor Erasmus Darwin, and Josiah Wedgwood, founder of the pottery company, Josiah Wedgwood and Sons.
David A. Bright (June 29, 1957 – July 8, 2006) was a professional wreck diver.
David Anthony Brown is Professor of Pharmacology at University College London, having joined the department in April 1987 and served as Head of Department from October 1987 to April 2002.
David Bruce Dill (1891 - 1986) was an American physiologist specializing in exercise science and environmental physiology.
David C Bradley (born 1961) is a former professor of psychology and neuroscientist at the University of Chicago.
Sir David Drummond CBE (December 1852 – 28 April 1932) was an Irish/British physician and president of the British Medical Association.
Dr David Duncan Main (1856-1934) was a British doctor, best known for his medical missionary work in Hangzhou, the capital of the south-eastern Chinese Province Zhejiang, during the late 1800s and early 1900s.
David Christopher Gadsby FRS is a British physiologist, and Patrick A. Gerschel Family Professor, at Rockefeller University.
David William St.
David J. Julius (born November 4, 1955) is an American physiologist.
David Lefkowitz (April 11, 1875 – June 5, 1955), a rabbi, led Temple Emanu-El in Dallas, Texas from 1920 to 1949, after having worked at Temple Israel in Dayton, Ohio.
David Lodge FRS is a Research Fellow in the Department of Physiology and Pharmacology at the University of Bristol.
David Israel Macht (February 14, 1882 – October 14, 1961) was a pharmacologist and Doctor of Hebrew Literature, responsible for many contributions to pharmacology during the first half of the 20th century.
David Courtnay Marr (19 January 1945 – 17 November 1980) was a British neuroscientist and physiologist.
Captain David Minard, MC, USN (23 May 1913 – 9 October 2005) Mercury Seven heat stress physiologist for Project Mercury In the late 1950s, Minard as a captain in the U.S. Navy and head of the physiology department at the Naval Medical Research Institute, helped to develop the Wet Bulb Globe Temperature Index utilized to measure heat stress in the military and other industrial settings.
David R. Nalin (born April 21, 1941) is an American physiologist, and Pollin Prize for Pediatric Research and Prince Mahidol Award, a.k.a. Mahidol Medal winner.
Davida Young Teller (July 25, 1938 – October 11, 2011) was a professor in the Departments of Psychology and Physiology/Biophysics at the University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.
Davros is a character from the long-running British science fiction television series Doctor Who.
In physiology, dead space is the volume of air which is inhaled that does not take part in the gas exchange, either because it (1) remains in the conducting airways, or (2) reaches alveoli that are not perfused or poorly perfused.
Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.
The practice of decompression by divers comprises the planning and monitoring of the profile indicated by the algorithms or tables of the chosen decompression model, to allow asymptomatic and harmless release of excess inert gases dissolved in the tissues as a result of breathing at ambient pressures greater than surface atmospheric pressure, the equipment available and appropriate to the circumstances of the dive, and the procedures authorized for the equipment and profile to be used.
The Defence Services Medical Academy (DSMA) (တပ်မတော် ဆေး တက္ကသိုလ်), located in Mingaladon, Yangon, is the University of Medicine of the Myanmar Armed Forces.
Defense physiology is a term used to refer to the symphony of body function (physiology) changes which occur in response to a stress or threat.
Defibrillation is a treatment for life-threatening cardiac dysrhythmias, specifically ventricular fibrillation (VF) and non-perfusing ventricular tachycardia (VT).
The system of academic degrees at the University of Oxford can be confusing to those not familiar with it.
Denaturation is a process in which proteins or nucleic acids lose the quaternary structure, tertiary structure, and secondary structure which is present in their native state, by application of some external stress or compound such as a strong acid or base, a concentrated inorganic salt, an organic solvent (e.g., alcohol or chloroform), radiation or heat.
Denis Jourdanet (1 May 1815 – 6 May 1892) was a French physician and physiologist born in Juillan, Hautes-Pyrénées.
Denis Anthony "Denny" Mitchison CMG (born 6 September 1919) is a British bacteriologist.
Denis Noble CBE FRS FRCP FMedSci (born 16 November 1936) is a British biologist who held the Burdon Sanderson Chair of Cardiovascular Physiology at the University of Oxford from 1984 to 2004 and was appointed Professor Emeritus and co-Director of Computational Physiology.
Denis L. Rousseau (signing papers as D. L. Rousseau) is an American scientist.
Denise Kandel (née Bystryn; born February 27, 1933) is an American medical sociologist and epidemiologist.
Denise P. Barlow (31 January 1950 – 21 October 2017) was a British geneticist who worked in the field of epigenomics.
There are a number of professional degrees in dentistry offered by dental schools in various countries around the world.
Dentistry is a branch of medicine that consists of the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders, and conditions of the oral cavity, commonly in the dentition but also the oral mucosa, and of adjacent and related structures and tissues, particularly in the maxillofacial (jaw and facial) area.
The Department of Plant & Microbial Biology is an academic department in the College of Natural Resources at the University of California, Berkeley.
Deployment cost–benefit selection in physiology concerns the costs and benefits of physiological process that can be deployed and selected in regard to whether they will increase or not an animal’s survival and biological fitness.
Depression in physiology and medicine refers to a lowering, in particular a reduction in a specific biological variable or the function of an organ.
Derrick de Kerckhove (born 1944) is the author of The Skin of Culture and Connected Intelligence and Professor in the Department of French at the University of Toronto, Canada.
A desmosine cross-link is formed from three allysyl side chains plus one unaltered lysyl side chain from the same or neighbouring polypeptides.
Detoxification or detoxication (detox for short) is the physiological or medicinal removal of toxic substances from a living organism, including the human body, which is mainly carried out by the liver.
Dhaka Medical College and Hospital (DMCH) is a medical college and hospital located in Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh.
Diabetes is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal published since 1952 by the American Diabetes Association.
Diabetic neuropathies are nerve damaging disorders associated with diabetes mellitus.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) and offers a common language and standard criteria for the classification of mental disorders.
Dianetics (from Greek dia, meaning "through", and nous, meaning "mind") is a set of ideas and practices regarding the metaphysical relationship between the mind and body created by science fiction writer L. Ron Hubbard.
Diapause, when referencing animal dormancy, is the delay in development in response to regularly and recurring periods of adverse environmental conditions.
In physiology, diastasis is the middle stage of diastole during the cycle of a heartbeat, where the initial passive filling of the heart's ventricles has slowed down, but before the atria contract to complete the active filling.
The diathesis–stress model is a psychological theory that attempts to explain a disorder as the result of an interaction between a predispositional vulnerability and a stress caused by life experiences.
Dick Frans Swaab (born 17 December 1944) is a Dutch physician and neurobiologist (brain researcher).
Dickinson Woodruff Richards, Jr. (October 30, 1895 – February 23, 1973) was an American physician and physiologist.
A diener is a morgue worker responsible for handling, moving, and cleaning the corpse (though, at some institutions, dieners perform the entire dissection at autopsy).
A dietitian (or dietician) is an expert in dietetics; that is, human nutrition and the regulation of diet.
Dietrich Tiedemann (3 April 1748, Bremervörde – 24 May 1803, Marburg) was a German philosopher and historian of philosophy born in Bremervörde.
Diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB) is an inflammatory lung disease of unknown cause.
Dimiter Orahovats (1892—1992) was a prominent Lesbian physiologist.
The dinosaur renaissance was a small-scale scientific revolution that started in the late 1960s, and led to renewed academic and popular interest in dinosaurs.
The angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), also called angiotensin (AT1) receptor antagonists or sartans, are a group of antihypertensive drugs that act by blocking the effects of the hormone angiotensin II (Ang II) in the body, thereby lowering blood pressure.
Dispositional affect, similar to mood, is a personality trait or overall tendency to respond to situations in stable, predictable ways.
Diva Diniz Corrêa (10 May 1918 – 28 April 1993) was a Brazilian marine zoologist.
A dive computer, personal decompression computer or decompression meter is a device used by an underwater diver to measure the time and depth of a dive so that a safe ascent profile can be calculated and displayed so that the diver can avoid decompression sickness.
Dive planning is the process of planning an underwater diving operation.
DDRC Healthcare (previously known as the Diving Diseases Research Centre) is a British hyperbaric medical organisation located near Derriford Hospital in Plymouth, Devon.
Diving disorders, or diving related medical conditions, are conditions associated with underwater diving, and include both conditions unique to underwater diving, and those that also occur during other activities.
Diving medicine, also called undersea and hyperbaric medicine (UHB), is the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of conditions caused by humans entering the undersea environment.
The diving reflex, also known as the diving response and mammalian diving reflex, is a set of physiological responses to immersion that overrides the basic homeostatic reflexes, and is found in all air-breathing vertebrates studied to date.
Djan Garrido Madruga (born December 7, 1958 in Rio de Janeiro) is a former international freestyle swimmer and former South American record-holder from Brazil.
DnaJ homolog subfamily C member 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DNAJC3 gene.
In the United States a Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT) degree is a post-baccalaureate degree that takes 3 years to complete following completion of a Bachelor's degree.
A doctor's visit, also known as "physician office visit" or "ward round", is a meeting between a patient with a physician to get health advice or treatment for a symptom or condition.
Dog training is the application of behavior analysis which uses the environmental events of antecedents and consequences to modify the behavior of a dog, either for it to assist in specific activities or undertake particular tasks, or for it to participate effectively in contemporary domestic life.
The domesticated red fox, domesticated silver fox or just simply domesticated fox (Vulpes vulpes forma amicus) is a form of the wild red fox (Vulpes vulpes) which has been domesticated to an extent, under laboratory conditions.
A Dominance signal is used in a dominance hierarchy or pecking order to indicate an animal's dominance.
Donald "Don" Buchla (April 17, 1937 – September 14, 2016) was an American pioneer in the field of sound synthesizers, releasing his first units shortly after Robert Moog's first synthesizers.
Donald Roland Trahan (born November 13, 1949) is an American PGA Master Professional golf instructor.
Donald Benjamin Lindsley (December 23, 1907 – June 19, 2003) was a physiological psychologist most known as a pioneer in the field of brain function study.
Donald Lee Holmquest (born April 7, 1939) is an American lawyer, as well as a physician, electrical engineer and former NASA astronaut.
Professor Donald Longmore OBE, FRCSEd, FRCR (born 1928) is a British consultant surgeon and clinical physiologist.
Doris Isaac Grumbach (born July 12, 1918) is an American novelist, memoirist, biographer, literary critic, and essayist.
Dormancy is a period in an organism's life cycle when growth, development, and (in animals) physical activity are temporarily stopped.
Dorothy Marie "Dottie" Metcalf-Lindenburger (born May 2, 1975 in Colorado Springs, Colorado) is a former American astronaut.
Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a form of congenital heart disease where both of the great arteries connect (in whole or in part) to the right ventricle (RV).
Dr Douglas Moray Cooper Lamb Argyll Robertson FRSE, FRCSEd LLD (1837 – 3 January 1909) was a Scottish ophthalmologist and surgeon.
Douglas G. Stuart (born October 5, 1931) is a Regents' professor emeritus of Physiology at the University of Arizona.
A dream is a succession of images, ideas, emotions, and sensations that usually occur involuntarily in the mind during certain stages of sleep.
Drosophila melanogaster is a species of fly (the taxonomic order Diptera) in the family Drosophilidae.
The Drosophilidae are a diverse, cosmopolitan family of flies, which includes fruit flies.
A drought refuge is a site that provides permanent fresh water or moist conditions for plants and animals, acting as a refuge habitat when surrounding areas are affected by drought and allowing ecosystems and core species populations to survive until the drought breaks.
Drug tolerance is a pharmacological concept describing subjects' reduced reaction to a drug following its repeated use.
There are several classes of drugs for acid-related disorders, such as dyspepsia, peptic ulcer disease (PUD), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GORD/GERD), or laryngopharyngeal reflux.
Drummond Rennie is an American nephrologist and high altitude physiologist who is a contributing deputy editor of The Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) and an adjunct professor of medicine at the University of California, San Francisco.
In anatomy and physiology, a duct is a circumscribed channel leading from an exocrine gland or organ.
The Duhem–Quine thesis, also called the Duhem–Quine problem, after Pierre Duhem and Willard Van Orman Quine, is that it is impossible to test a scientific hypothesis in isolation, because an empirical test of the hypothesis requires one or more background assumptions (also called auxiliary assumptions or auxiliary hypotheses).
Duncan Bernardo Leitch is a neurobiologist working at University of California San Francisco in San Francisco, CA.
Durham University School of Medicine, Pharmacy and Health was founded on Teesside in 2001 as a partner with the Newcastle University Medical School to educate medical students in the first phase of their medical education (Years 1 and 2).
The Dvorak Simplified Keyboard is a keyboard layout patented during 1936 by Dr.
Dwayne Douglas Johnson (born May 2, 1972), also known by his ring name The Rock, is an American actor, producer, and semi-retired professional wrestler.
Dysphoric milk ejection reflex (D-MER) is an anomaly of the milk release mechanism in lactating women.
Edward Joseph Conway FRS (3 July 1894 – 29 December 1968) was an Irish biochemist known for works pertaining to electrolyte physiology and analytical chemistry.
Elvin Morton "Bunky" Jellinek (15 August 1890 – 22 October 1963), E. Morton Jellinek, or most often, E. M. Jellinek, was a biostatistician, physiologist, and an alcoholism researcher, fluent in nine languages and able to communicate in four others.
Edmund Newton Harvey (November 25, 1887 – July 21, 1959) was an American zoologist.
The ear is the organ of hearing and, in mammals, balance.
The Eastern Dallmann Bay Antarctic Specially Protected Area is a marine Antarctic Specially Protected Area (ASPA 153) lying at the eastern end of Dallmann Bay, adjacent to the north-western and northern coasts of Brabant Island in the Palmer Archipelago of Antarctica.
Ebbe Curtis Hoff (born August 12, 1906 in Rexford, Kansas died February 17, 1985 in Richmond, Virginia) was chairman of the Department of Neurological Science at the Medical College of Virginia, founding Dean, School of Graduate Studies and founding director of the Virginia Division of Substance Abuse.
Eber Landau (November 8, 1878 – October 30, 1959) was a Baltic German-Swiss anatomist and histologist, born in Rēzekne, Latvia.
The ecdysone receptor is a nuclear receptor found in arthropods, where it controls development and contributes to other processes such as reproduction.
Ecoimmunology is an interdisciplinary field combining aspects of immunology with ecology, biology, physiology, and evolution.
Ecological death is the inability of an organism to function in an ecological context, leading to death.
Ecological stoichiometry considers how the balance of energy and elements affects and is affected by organisms and their interactions in ecosystems.
Ecology (from οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of") is the branch of biology which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment.
Ecology is a broad biological science and can be divided into many sub-disciplines using various criteria.
Ecophysiology (from Greek οἶκος, oikos, "house(hold)"; φύσις, physis, "nature, origin"; and -λογία, -logia), environmental physiology or physiological ecology is a biological discipline that studies the adaptation of an organism's physiology to environmental conditions.
In evolutionary ecology, an ecotype,Greek: οίκος.
Edgar Allen (May 2, 1892 – February 3, 1943) was an American anatomist and physiologist.
Edith Bülbring, FRS (27 December 1903 – 5 July 1990) was a British scientist in the field of smooth muscle physiology, one of the first women accepted to the Royal Society as a fellow (FRS).
Edith Jane Claypole (January 1, 1870 – March 27, 1915) was an English American physiologist and pathologist.
Edith Emily Dornwell BSc (31 August 1865 – 18 November 1945) (later Raymond) was the first woman in Australia to graduate with a Science degree, the first woman to graduate from the University of Adelaide and the first person, male or female, to graduate with a science degree at the University of Adelaide.
Edmontosaurus (meaning "lizard from Edmonton") is a genus of hadrosaurid (duck-billed) dinosaur.
Edmund O'Meara (or Meara) (1614–1681) Irish physiologist and one of the last prominent champions of the medical ideas of Galen.
Prof Eduard Friedrich Wilhelm Pflüger FRSFor HFRSE (7 June 1829 – 16 March 1910) was a 19th-century German physiologist.
Eduard Friedrich Weber (6 March 1806, Wittenberg – 18 May 1871) was a German anatomist and physiologist.
Eduardo Braun-Menéndez (January 16, 1903 – January 16, 1959) was a noted Argentine physiologist.
Eduardo Cruz-Coke Lassabe (April 22, 1899 – March 18, 1974) was a Chilean political figure, the conservative candidate in Chile's 1946 presidential election and the principal creator of the Chilean health system.
Eduardo Moacyr Krieger (born June 27, 1928, Cerro Largo, Rio Grande do Sul) is a Brazilian physician, physiologist and scientific leader, current president of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences.
The education system in Lahore is formulated along specific modern, religious, cultural, social, psychological and scientific injunctions.
Congo is a 342,000-square-kilometer country in Equatorial Africa.
Edward Alexander Sellers (born Canada - died 28 August 1985, Medonte Township, Ontario) was the founding director of The Banting and Best Diabetes Centre.
Sir Edward Albert Sharpey-Schafer FRS FRSE FRCP LLD (2 June 1850 – 29 March 1935) was an English physiologist.
Edward Bullough (28 March 1880 – 17 September 1934) was an English aesthetician and scholar of modern languages, who worked at the University of Cambridge.
Sir Edward Henry Sieveking (24 August 1816 – 24 February 1904) was an English physician.
Edwin Bennett Astwood (December 19, 1909 – February 17, 1976) was a Bermudian-American physiologist and endocrinologist, his research on endocrine system led to treatments for hyperthyroidism.
Edwin Bret Hart (December 25, 1874 – March 12, 1953) was an American biochemist long associated with the University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Humans venturing into the environment of space can have negative effects on the body.
The effects of cannabis are caused by the chemical compounds in the plant, including cannabinoids, such as tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is only one of more than 100 different cannabinoids present in the plant.
The effects of global warming include its effects on human health.
Effort justification is an idea and paradigm in social psychology stemming from Leon Festinger's theory of cognitive dissonance.
Egg fossils are the fossilized remains of eggs laid by ancient animals.
Eight Cousins, or The Aunt-Hill was published in 1875 by American novelist Louisa May Alcott.
Electrical elastance is the inverse of capacitance.
The electrical conduction system of the heart transmits signals generated usually by the sinoatrial node to cause contraction of the heart muscle.
Electrodiagnosis (EDX) is a method of medical diagnosis that obtains information about diseases by passively recording the electrical activity of body parts (that is, their natural electrophysiology) or by measuring their response to external electrical stimuli (evoked potentials).
An electroglottographic wavegram (short: EGG wavegram) is a tool for analyzing the voice source in speech and singing, based on electroglottographic (EGG) signals (and their first derivative, DEGG).
An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.
Eliane Le Breton (1897–1977) was a French physiologist known for her studies of cellular nutrition and the development of cancer cells.
Elias von Cyon, also known as Elie de Cyon, born Ilya Fadeyevich Tsion (Russian- Илья Фаддеевич Цион); (March 25, 1843 – 1912) was a Russian-French physiologist born to Jewish parents in Telšiai, Russian Empire (today Lithuania).
Dr Elisabet Helsing DrMedSci (born 1940) is a Norwegian nutritional physiologist.
Elise Käer-Kingisepp (née Käer; 3 October 1901 – 10 February 1989) was an Estonian physician, pharmacologist, physiologist and sports medicine specialist.
Elixir (Joshua "Josh" Foley) is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics.
Eliza McCartney (born 11 December 1996) is a New Zealand track and field athlete who competes in the pole vault and won the bronze medal in this event at the 2016 Summer Olympics.
Elizabeta Nemeth is an American physiologist who has made many contributions to the understanding of inflammatory disorders, thalassemias, and iron overload diseases.
Elizabeth M. Bright (25 September 1893 – 20 October 1975) early investigator, researcher and physiologist from Harvard and Woods Hole that collaborated with noted oceanographer Alfred C. Redfield to study the effects of radiation on various animal models.
Elizabeth Mantell (24 June 1941 – 27 January 1998) was a Scottish midwife and nurse who was born in Africa and spent much of her life as a medical missionary in Malawi, Africa.
Antipredatory behaviors are actions an animal performs to reduce or rid themselves of the risk of being prey.
Elk Lake is located in Antrim and Grand Traverse counties in Northern Michigan.
Ellsworth Scientific Station (Estación Científica Ellsworth, or simply Estación Ellsworth or Base Ellsworth) was a permanent, all year-round originally American, then Argentine Antarctic scientific research station named after American polar explorer Lincoln Ellsworth.
Elmer R. Gates (1859 – 1923), the son of Jacob and Phoebe Goetz, American scientist and inventor; born near Dayton, Ohio, died in Washington, D.C. Gates’s inventions include the foam fire extinguisher, an improved electric iron, an aseptic brewing and fermenting process, electric loom mechanisms, diamagnetic and magnetic separators for extracting gold from sand, an incandescent gas mantle furnace, the educational toy “Box and Block,” and numerous other mechanical, scientific, psychological, and educational devices.
Emanuel Edward Klein FRS (31 October 1844 at Osijek – 9 February 1925 at Hove) was a bacteriologist who was born in Croatia and educated in Austria before settling in Britain.
Emanuel Swedenborg ((born Emanuel Swedberg; 29 January 1688 – 29 March 1772) was a Swedish Lutheran theologian, scientist, philosopher, revelator and mystic who inspired Swedenborgianism. He is best known for his book on the afterlife, Heaven and Hell (1758). Swedenborg had a prolific career as an inventor and scientist. In 1741, at 53, he entered into a spiritual phase in which he began to experience dreams and visions, beginning on Easter Weekend, on 6 April 1744. It culminated in a 'spiritual awakening' in which he received a revelation that he was appointed by the Lord Jesus Christ to write The Heavenly Doctrine to reform Christianity. According to The Heavenly Doctrine, the Lord had opened Swedenborg's spiritual eyes so that from then on, he could freely visit heaven and hell and talk with angels, demons and other spirits and the Last Judgment had already occurred the year before, in 1757. For the last 28 years of his life, Swedenborg wrote 18 published theological works—and several more that were unpublished. He termed himself a "Servant of the Lord Jesus Christ" in True Christian Religion, which he published himself. Some followers of The Heavenly Doctrine believe that of his theological works, only those that were published by Swedenborg himself are fully divinely inspired.
Emeran Anton Mayer (born July 26, 1950 in Traunstein, Germany) is a gastroenterologist, lecturer, author, editor, neuroscientist, documentary filmmaker and a professor in the Departments of Medicine, Physiology and Psychiatry at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA He is a pioneer of medical research into brain gut interactions.
An emergency medical dispatcher is a professional telecommunicator, tasked with the gathering of information related to medical emergencies, the provision of assistance and instructions by voice, prior to the arrival of emergency medical services (EMS), and the dispatching and support of EMS resources responding to an emergency call.
The Emergency Medical Services for Children (EMSC) program is a US federal government health initiative.
The Emergency Medical Services for Children Reauthorization Act of 2014 is a bill that would amend the Public Health Service Act to reauthorize the Emergency Medical Services for Children Program through FY2019.
Emergency medical services in South Africa are a public/private system aimed at the provision of emergency ambulance service, including emergency care and transportation to hospital.
Emergency medical technician (EMT) and ambulance technician are terms used in some countries to denote a health care provider of emergency medical services.
Emil Abderhalden (March 9, 1877 – August 5, 1950) was a Swiss biochemist and physiologist.
Emil Johann Lambert Heinricher (November 14, 1856 – July 13, 1934) was an Austrian botanist from Laibach (Ljubljana).
Emil Osann (May 25, 1787 – January 11, 1842) was a German physician and physiologist from Weimar.
Emil Ponfick (3 November 1844 – 3 November 1913) was a German pathologist born in Frankfurt am Main.
Emil von Behring (Emil Adolf von Behring), born as Emil Adolf Behring (15 March 1854 – 31 March 1917), was a German physiologist who received the 1901 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, the first one awarded, for his discovery of a diphtheria antitoxin.
Emile Waxweiler (1867–1916) was a Belgian engineer and sociologist.
Emily Bovell (21 February 1841–April 1885) was a physician and credited as one of the original members of the Edinburgh Seven.
Emotion is any conscious experience characterized by intense mental activity and a certain degree of pleasure or displeasure.
Emotion can have a powerful effect on humans and animals.
Charles Darwin was one of the first scientists to write about the existence and nature of emotions in animals.
Emotion perception refers to the capacities and abilities of recognizing and identifying emotions in others, in addition to biological and physiological processes involved.
Emotional expressions in psychology are.
Emotional self-regulation or regulation of emotion is the ability to respond to the ongoing demands of experience with the range of emotions in a manner that is socially tolerable and sufficiently flexible to permit spontaneous reactions as well as the ability to delay spontaneous reactions as needed.
Emotionality is the observable behavioral and physiological component of emotion.
Empedocles (Ἐμπεδοκλῆς, Empedoklēs) was a Greek pre-Socratic philosopher and a citizen of Akragas, a Greek city in Sicily.
The emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri) is the tallest and heaviest of all living penguin species and is endemic to Antarctica.
Emptiness as a human condition is a sense of generalized boredom, social alienation and apathy.
The Encyclopédie méthodique par ordre des matières ("Methodical Encyclopedia by Order of Subject Matter") was published between 1782 and 1832 by the French publisher Charles Joseph Panckoucke, his son-in-law Henri Agasse, and the latter´s wife, Thérèse-Charlotte Agasse.
The Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) is an encyclopedia on the science of sustainable development and conservation of life support systems on earth.
Endemoconus is subgenus of sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the genus Conasprella, family Conidae, the cone snails and their allies.
In chemical thermodynamics, an endergonic reaction (also called a heat absorb nonspontaneous reaction or an unfavorable reaction) is a chemical reaction in which the standard change in free energy is positive, and energy is absorbed.
The Endocrine Society is a professional, international medical organization in the field of endocrinology and metabolism, founded in 1916 as The Association for the Study of Internal Secretions.
The endocrine system is a chemical messenger system consisting of hormones, the group of glands of an organism that carry those hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs, and the feedback loops of homeostasis that the hormones drive.
Endocrinology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by The Endocrine Society.
Endonuclease G, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ENDOG gene.
Endoluminal capsule monitoring is a non-invasive medical diagnostic procedure which uses a miniaturized wireless radio transmitter embedded into an ingestible water-tight capsule.
The endomembrane system is composed of the different membranes that are suspended in the cytoplasm within a eukaryotic cell.
Endometrial hyperplasia is a condition of excessive proliferation of the cells of the endometrium, or inner lining of the uterus.
Endre Grastyán (b. Oriszentpeter, February 25, 1924, d. Pécs, June 17, 1988) was a Hungarian doctor, physiologist, professor, and member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
Energy field disturbance is a pseudoscientific concept rooted in alternative medicine.
The ENI Award is a prize awarded by the Italian oil and gas company ENI with the aim of encouraging better use of energy sources and increased environmental research.
Enid Charles (29 December 1894 – 26 March 1972) was a socialist, feminist and statistician who was a pioneer in the fields of demography and population statistics.
Enrico Ferri (25 February 1856 – 12 April 1929) was an Italian criminologist, socialist and student of Cesare Lombroso, the founder of the Italian school of criminology.
Enrico Sertoli (June 6, 1842 – January 28, 1910) was an Italian physiologist and histologist who was a native of Sondrio.
The Entomological Society of America (ESA) was founded in 1889 and today has more than 6,000 members, including educators, extension personnel, consultants, students, researchers, and scientists from agricultural departments, health agencies, private industries, colleges and universities, and state and federal governments.
Entomology is the scientific study of insects, a branch of zoology.
Research concerning the relationship between the thermodynamic quantity entropy and the evolution of life began around the turn of the 20th century.
Environment and intelligence research investigates the impact of environment on intelligence.
Environmental resource management is the management of the interaction and impact of human societies on the environment.
Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene function that do not involve changes in the DNA sequence.
Equine massage is the practice of massage on horses.
Equitation science is defined as "the application of scientific methods to assess objectively the welfare of horses undergoing training." It promotes an evidence-based understanding of horse-rider interactions.
Erasistratus (Ἐρασίστρατος; c. 304 – c. 250 BC) was a Greek anatomist and royal physician under Seleucus I Nicator of Syria.
Erasmus Darwin (12 December 173118 April 1802) was an English physician.
Erasmus Darwin Barlow, FRCPsych, FZS (15 April 1915 – 2 August 2005) was a British psychiatrist, physiologist and businessman.
An erection (clinically: penile erection or penile tumescence) is a physiological phenomenon in which the penis becomes firm, engorged, and enlarged.
Eric Richard Kandel (born November 7, 1929) is an Austrian-American neuroscientist and a University Professor of biochemistry and biophysics at the College of Physicians and Surgeons at Columbia University.
Erich Rutschke (26 May 1926-12 February 1999) was a German ornithologist and conservationist who specialized in wetland birds and their biology.
Erich Walther von Holst (28 November 1908 – 26 May 1962) was a German behavioral physiologist who was a Baltic German native of Riga, Livonia and was related to historian Hermann Eduard von Holst (1841–1904).
Erik Adolf von Willebrand (1 February 1870 – 12 September 1949) was a Finnish physician who made major contributions to hematology.
Erik Lindberg (1873 in Stockholm, Sweden – 28 September 1966) was a sculptor and engraver.
Erika Sutter (1917-2015) was a Swiss ophthalmologist and a medical missionary in South Africa.
Ernest Earl Lockhart (September 10, 1912 – July 26, 2006) was a chemist and explorer.
Ernest Lyman Scott (1877-1966) was an American physiologist and diabetes researcher who spent much of his career on the faculty at Columbia University.
Ernest Macalpine "Mac" Armstrong (born 3 June 1945) is a former Chief Medical Officer for Scotland.
Ernest Masoin (23 July 1844, Virton – 21 April 1915, Ixelles) was a Belgian physician and physiologist.
Ernest Henry Starling (17 April 1866 – 2 May 1927) was a British physiologist who contributed many fundamental ideas to this subject.
Ernst Anton Nicolai (7 September 1722, Sondershausen – 28 August 1802, Jena) was a German physician and chemist.
Ernst Friedrich Gurlt (October 13, 1794 – August 13, 1882) was a German veterinarian and anatomist born in Drentkau near Grünberg, Silesia.
Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel (16 February 1834 – 9 August 1919) was a German biologist, naturalist, philosopher, physician, professor, marine biologist, and artist who discovered, described and named thousands of new species, mapped a genealogical tree relating all life forms, and coined many terms in biology, including anthropogeny, ecology, phylum, phylogeny, and Protista. Haeckel promoted and popularised Charles Darwin's work in Germany and developed the influential but no longer widely held recapitulation theory ("ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny") claiming that an individual organism's biological development, or ontogeny, parallels and summarises its species' evolutionary development, or phylogeny.
Ernst Hermann Riesenfeld (25 October 1877 – 19 May 1957) was a German/Swedish chemist.
Ernst Julius Richard Ewald (14 February 1855 – 22 July 1921) was a German physiologist born in Berlin.
Ernst Philip Boas (February 4, 1891 – March 9, 1955) was an American physician.
Ernst Platner (11 June 1744 – 27 December 1818) was a German anthropologist, physician and RationalistFrederick Beiser, The Fate of Reason: German Philosophy from Kant to Fichte, Harvard University Press, 2009, p. 214.
Ernst von Fleischl-Marxow, also Ernst Fleischl von Marxow (5 August 1846, Vienna – 22 October 1891, Vienna), son of Karl Fleischl Edlem von Marxow and his wife Ida (née Marx) was an Austrian physiologist and physician who became known for his important investigations on the electrical activity of nerves and the brain.
Ernst Weinland (9 March 1869, Hohenwittlingen – 17 October 1932, Urach) was a German physiologist and parasitologist.
Ernst Wilhelm Ritter von Brücke (6 July 1819 – 7 January 1892) was a German physician and physiologist.
Erwin Stresemann (22 November 1889, Dresden – 20 November 1972, East Berlin) was a German naturalist and ornithologist.
Essilor International S.A. is a French company that produces ophthalmic lenses along with ophthalmic optical equipment.
Estelle Rosemary Ramey (August 23, 1917 – September 8, 2006) was an American endocrinologist, physiologist and feminist who became internationally known for refuting surgeon and Democratic Party leader Edgar Berman, who stated that women were unfit to hold high public office because of "raging hormonal imbalances." Ramey's balanced approach to life was embodied in a later quote, "I have loved.
Esther M. Greisheimer (October 31, 1891 – 1982) was an American academic and medical researcher.
Estriol triacetate is an estrogen medication and an estrogen ester – specifically, the triacetate ester of estriol – which was never marketed.
Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), also known as NR3A1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group A, member 1), is one of two main types of estrogen receptor, a nuclear receptor that is activated by the sex hormone estrogen.
Ethel Ronzoni Bishop (b. August 21, 1890-1975) was an American biochemist and physiologist.
Ethology is the scientific and objective study of animal behaviour, usually with a focus on behaviour under natural conditions, and viewing behaviour as an evolutionarily adaptive trait.
Marcel Eugène Émile Gley (18 January 1857 – 24 October 1930) was a French physiologist and endocrinologist born in Épinal, Vosges.
Eugen Enderlen (21 January 1863 – 7 June 1940) was a German physician and surgeon born in Salzburg, Austria.
Eugen Korschelt (28 September 1858, in Zittau – 28 December 1946, in Marburg) was a German zoologist.
Eugen Rehfisch (6 March 1862 – 7 October 1937) was a German physician of Jewish descent born in Kempen (today- Kępno, Poland).
Eugen Steinach (January 28, 1861 – May 14, 1944) was an Austrian physiologist and pioneer in endocrinology.
Johannes Eugenius Bülow Warming (3 November 1841 – 2 April 1924), known as Eugen Warming, was a Danish botanist and a main founding figure of the scientific discipline of ecology.
The Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra), also known as the European otter, Eurasian river otter, common otter, and Old World otter, is a semiaquatic mammal native to Eurasia.
The European Association for Vision and Eye Research is a multidisciplinary scientific society that aims to encourage research and the dissemination of knowledge concerning the eye and vision by means of meetings, publications and exchange of information.
The European College of Sport Science (ECSS) is a sport scientific society founded in 1995 in Nice, France, dedicated to the collection, generation and dissemination of scientific knowledge.
The European Physiology Module (EPM) is an International Standard Payload Rack for the Columbus Laboratory on board the International Space Station.
ELIPS - European Programme for Life and Physical Sciences in Space and applications utilising the International Space Station started in 2001 and was intended to cover the activities for the following 5 years.
The European Virtual Institute for Malaria Research (EVIMalaR) was an international collaborative malaria research network established in October 2009.
Eusebio Oehl (December 5, 1827 – April 10, 1903) was an Italian histologist and physiologist who was a native of Lodi.
Evan Leslie Harris (born 21 October 1965) is a British Liberal Democrat politician.
T-1824 or Evans blue, often incorrectly rendered as Evan's blue, is an azo dye that has a very high affinity for serum albumin.
Evelyn M. Anderson (March 20, 1899 – June 8, 1985) was an American physiologist and biochemist, most known for her co-discovery of Adrenocorticotropic hormone (adreno-cortical thyroid hormone or ACTH) in 1934.
An event-related potential (ERP) is the measured brain response that is the direct result of a specific sensory, cognitive, or motor event.
Evgeni Babsky (Бабский, Евгений Борисович; 1902–1973) was a Soviet physiologist, D.Sc., Member of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences.
Evidence of common descent of living organisms has been discovered by scientists researching in a variety of disciplines over many decades, demonstrating that all life on Earth comes from a single ancestor.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
The evolution of fish began about 530 million years ago during the Cambrian explosion.
Odor molecules are detected by the olfactory receptors (hereafter OR) in the olfactory epithelium of the nasal cavity.
The evolution of photosynthesis refers to the origin and subsequent evolution of photosynthesis, the process by which light energy synthesizes sugars from carbon dioxide, releasing oxygen as a waste product.
Evolutionary anthropology is the interdisciplinary study of the evolution of human physiology and human behaviour and the relation between hominids and non-hominid primates.
In alpha taxonomy, a grade is a taxon united by a level of morphological or physiological complexity.
The evolution of plants has resulted in a wide range of complexity, from the earliest algal mats, through multicellular marine and freshwater green algae, terrestrial bryophytes, lycopods and ferns, to the complex gymnosperms and angiosperms of today.
Evolutionary physiology is the study of physiological evolution, which is to say, the manner in which the functional characteristics of individuals in a population of organisms have responded to selection across multiple generations during the history of the population.
Evolutionary psychology is a theoretical approach in the social and natural sciences that examines psychological structure from a modern evolutionary perspective.
Karl Ewald Konstantin Hering (5 August 1834 – 26 January 1918) was a German physiologist who did much research into color vision, binocular perception and eye movements.
The interplay of exercise and music have been long-discussed, crossing the disciplines of biomechanics, neurology, physiology, and sport psychology.
Exercise physiology is the physiology of physical exercise.
Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus (Latin for "An Anatomical Exercise on the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Living Beings"), commonly called De Motu Cordis, is the best-known work of the physician William Harvey.
Experimental aesthetics is a field of psychology founded by Gustav Theodor Fechner in the 19th century.
Experimental Parasitology is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering the field of parasitology.
Experimental Physiology is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of The Physiological Society.
Physical or chemical injuries of the eye can be a serious threat to vision if not treated appropriately and in a timely fashion.
Eye movement in reading involves the visual processing of written text.
In psychology, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) is a questionnaire to assess the personality traits of a person, this is not the same questionnaire as the Eysenck's personality Inventory or EPI which was an earlier instrument also produced by Hans Eysenck.
Francis Eugene Yates (February 26, 1927 – January 20, 2015) was an American physiologist and a professor of medicine and medical engineering at University of California Los Angeles.
Frederick Matthias Alexander (20 January 1869 – 10 October 1955) was an Australian actor who developed the Alexander Technique, an educational process applied to recognize and overcome reactive, habitual limitations in movement and thinking.
Fabiola Leon-Velarde Servetto (June 18, 1956) is a Peruvian physiologist who has devoted her research to the biology and physiology of high altitude adaptation.
Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto (Ribeirão Preto Medical School in Portuguese) is a medical school of the University of São Paulo (USP) located in the city of Ribeirão Preto, state of São Paulo, Brazil, founded 1952.
The University of Ruhuna has ten faculties: Agriculture, Engineering, Fisheries and Marine Sciences & Technology, Humanities and Social Sciences, Management and Finance, Medicine, Science, Graduate studies, Technology and Allied Health Sciences.
The Faculty of Dental Medicine of Monastir (FMDM) (Arabic: كلية طب الأسنان بالمنستير) is a dental school in Monastir, Tunisia.
The mission of Faculty of Medicine Al-Azhar University for Girls is to inculcate and acquire the quality standards in preparing the female graduates with medical knowledge, skills, technicalities and professional behavior in medicine based upon legislation sciences and Islamic culture; and also to apply the basics of scientific thinking and research, and to encourage continuous learning for preparing graduates to provide health care and to progress in the fields that serve the community and environment.
The Faculty of Science was founded as a Premedical School in 1958 by Prof.
Fall Creek Falls State Resort Park is a state park in Van Buren and Bledsoe counties, in the U.S. state of Tennessee.
Falster is an island in south-eastern Denmark with an area of and 43,398 inhabitants as of 1 January 2010.
Human growth and transformation-dependent protein (HGTD-P), also called E2-induced gene 5 protein (E2IG5), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FAM162A gene on chromosome 3.
Fartlek, which means "speed play" in Swedish, is a training method that blends continuous training with interval training.
Fasting is the willing abstinence or reduction from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time.
FAST kinase domain-containing protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FASTKD1 gene on chromosome 2.
FAST kinase domain-containing protein 2 (FASTKD2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FASTKD2 gene on chromosome 2.
Fatty acid metabolism consists of catabolic processes that generate energy, and anabolic processes that create biologically important molecules (triglycerides, phospholipids, second messengers, local hormones and ketone bodies).
The Fåhræus–Lindqvist effect is an effect where the viscosity of a fluid, in this case blood, changes with the diameter of the tube it travels through; in particular there's a decrease of viscosity as the tube's diameter decreases (only if the vessel diameter is between 10 and 300 micrometers).
Félix Étienne Pierre Mesnil (Omonville-la-Petite, La Manche department, 12 December 1868 – 15 February 1938, Paris) was a French zoologist, biologist, botanist, mycologist and algologist.
Fırat University Faculty of Veterinary Medicine is among the few faculties that have achieved full accreditation by EAEVE in Turkey.
Fear appeal is a term used in psychology, sociology and marketing.
The Federação das Sociedades de Biologia Experimental (Federation of Experimental Biology Societies, abbreviated FeSBE) is a Brazilian scientific association which runs a number of the mainstream specialized societies in experimental biology and medicine.
Feed-forward, sometimes written feedforward, is a term describing an element or pathway within a control system that passes a controlling signal from a source in its external environment, often a command signal from an external operator, to a load elsewhere in its external environment.
Felice Fontana (15 April 1730 – 10 March 1805) was an Italian physicist who discovered the water gas shift reaction in 1780.
Felidae Conservation Fund (FCF) is a California-based non-profit organization dedicated to preserving wild cats and their habitats.
Felinology is the study of cats.
Ernst Felix Immanuel Hoppe-Seyler (26 December 1825 – 10 August 1895), né Felix Hoppe, was a German physiologist and chemist, and the principal founder of the disciplines of biochemistry and molecular biology.
Felix von Niemeyer (31 December 1820 – 14 March 1871) was a German internist born in Magdeburg.
Fellowship of the Royal Society (FRS, ForMemRS and HonFRS) is an award granted to individuals that the Royal Society judges to have made a "substantial contribution to the improvement of natural knowledge, including mathematics, engineering science and medical science".
Feng Depei or Te-Pei Feng (1907–1995) was a Chinese neuroscientist, physiologist, and educator.
Ferdinand Adolf Kehrer (February 16, 1837 – June 16, 1914) was a German gynecologist who was a native of Guntersblum in Rhenish Hesse.
Ferdinand Victor Alphons Prosch (November 25, 1820 in Copenhagen – July 29, 1885) was a Danish doctor, veterinarian and biologist.
Fergus Ian Muirden Craik FRS (born 17 April 1935, Edinburgh, Scotland) is a cognitive psychologist known for his research on levels of processing in memory.
Fernando Altamirano (Fernando Altamirano-Carbajal) (July 7, 1848 – October 7, 1908) was a Mexican physician, botanist and naturalist.
Fernando Ocaranza Carmona (Mexico City, 1876 – Mexico City, 1965) was a Mexican surgeon, rector of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), and military in the rank of a Coronel (MC).
Ferritin is a universal intracellular protein that stores iron and releases it in a controlled fashion.
Fetal pigs are unborn pigs used in elementary as well as advanced biology classes as objects for dissection.
Not to be confused with fibrinolytic via fibrinolysis or the breakdown of fibrin. Fibrolytic Bacteria constitute a group of microorganisms that are able to process complex plant polysaccharides thanks to their capacity to synthesize cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes.
The "figurative system of human knowledge", sometimes known as the tree of Diderot and d'Alembert, was a tree developed to represent the structure of knowledge itself, produced for the Encyclopédie by Jean le Rond d'Alembert and Denis Diderot.
Fikri Alican (2 April 1929 – 19 August 2015) was a Turkish scientist and physician with various contributions to medical science, ranging from organ transplantation to physiology.
Filippo Parlatore (Palermo, 8 August 1816 – Florence, 9 September 1877) was an Italian botanist.
Fish anatomy is the study of the form or morphology of fishes.
In mathematics, Fisher's equation (named after statistician and biologist Ronald Fisher; also known as Kolmogorov–Petrovsky–Piskunov equation—named after Andrey Kolmogorov, Ivan Petrovsky, and N. Piskunov—or KPP equation or Fisher–KPP equation) is the partial differential equation.
Fitzsimons Army Hospital — known as Fitzsimons Army Medical Center (FAMC) from 1974 — was a U.S. Army facility located on in Aurora, Colorado, USA.
Fitzwilliam College (often abbreviated "Fitz") is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Cambridge, England.
Five temperaments is a theory in psychology, that expands upon the four temperaments proposed in ancient medical theory.
The Flexner Report is a book-length study of medical education in the United States and Canada, written by Abraham Flexner and published in 1910 under the aegis of the Carnegie Foundation.
Flirting or coquetry is a social and sexual behavior involving verbal or written communication, as well as body language, by one person to another, either to suggest interest in a deeper relationship with the other person, or if done playfully, for amusement.
Florence Elizabeth, Lady Barrett, (1867 - 7 August 1945) was a consultant surgeon at the Mothers' Hospital in Clapton and the Royal Free Hospital in London.
Flourishing is "a state where people experience positive emotions, positive psychological functioning and positive social functioning, most of the time," living "within an optimal range of human functioning." It is a descriptor and measure of positive mental health and overall life well-being, and includes multiple components and concepts, such as cultivating strengths, subjective well-being, "goodness, generativity, growth, and resilience." Flourishing is the opposite of both pathology and languishing, which are described as living a life that feels hollow and empty.
The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species.
Fluoroscopy is an imaging technique that uses X-rays to obtain real-time moving images of the interior of an object.
For a person to flush is to become markedly red in the face and often other areas of the skin, from various physiological conditions.
True flies are insects of the order Diptera, the name being derived from the Greek δι- di- "two", and πτερόν pteron "wings".
Food chemistry is the study of chemical processes and interactions of all biological and non-biological components of foods.
The Four temperament theory is a proto-psychological theory that suggests that there are four fundamental personality types: sanguine, choleric, melancholic, and phlegmatic.
Fowler & Wells Company was a 19th-century American publishing house, based in New York City.
The fragment crystallizable region (Fc region) is the tail region of an antibody that interacts with cell surface receptors called Fc receptors and some proteins of the complement system.
François Achille Longet (25 May 1811 – 20 April 1871) was a French anatomist and physiologist who was a native of Saint Germain-en-Laye, Yvelines.
François Boissier de Sauvages de Lacroix (May 12, 1706 – February 19, 1767) was a French physician and botanist who was a native of Alès.
François Chopart (20 October 1743 – 9 June 1795) was a French surgeon born in Paris.
François Magendie (6 October 1783 – 7 October 1855) was a French physiologist, considered a pioneer of experimental physiology.
François Pourfour du Petit (June 24, 1664 – June 18, 1741) was a French anatomist, ophthalmologist and surgeon who was a native of Paris.
François-Vincent Raspail, L.L.D., M.D. (25 January 1794 – 7 January 1878) was a French chemist, naturalist, physician, physiologist, attorney, and socialist politician.
Dame Frances Mary Ashcroft, (born 1952) is a British ion channel physiologist.
Francesco Antonio Canaveri (1753-1836) was an Italian Physician and Professor of Anatomy.
Francis Arthur Bainbridge FRS FRCP (29 July 1874 – 27 October 1921) was an English physiologist.
Francis Gano Benedict (October 3, 1870 – April 14, 1957) was an American chemist, physiologist, and nutritionist who developed a calorimeter and a spirometer used to determine oxygen consumption and measure metabolic rate.
Francis Gotch (13 July 1853 – 15 July 1913) was a British neurophysiologist who was professor of physiology at University College Liverpool and Oxford University.
Francis Kiernan FRS (2 October 1800 – 31 December 1874) was an anatomist and physician.
Francis Hugh Adam Marshall CBE FRS FRSE (11 July 1878, High Wycombe – 5 February 1949, Cambridge) was a British physiologist who did pioneering early research into the physiology and endocrinology of biological reproduction.
Francis Xavier Dercum (August 10, 1856 – April 24, 1931) was an American physician who first described the disease Adiposis dolorosa (also known as Dercum's disease).
Francisco Antonio De Venanzi (12 March 1917 – 12 September 1987) was a Venezuelan doctor, scientist and academic.
Franciscus (Franz) Cornelius Donders FRS FRSE (27 May 1818 – 24 March 1889) was a Dutch ophthalmologist.
Franciscus Sylvius (15 March 1614 – 19 November 1672), born Franz de le Boë, was a Dutch physician and scientist (chemist, physiologist and anatomist) who was an early champion of Descartes', Van Helmont's and William Harvey's work and theories.
Franco Romano Calaresu (1931 – July 26, 1996) was initially a medical doctor and later became a reputed Canadian scholar and professor of neurophysiology of the Department of Physiology at the University of Western Ontario in Canada.
Frank Bradke (* 16 October 1969 in Berlin) is a German neurobiologist who works on the physiological regeneration of nerve cells in the central nervous system.
Frank Cook FRCS FRCOG (6 November 1888 – 25 February 1972) was a Beit Memorial Research Fellow, an obstetric and gynaecological surgeon at Guy’s Hospital, Hunterian Professor of the Royal College of Surgeons in London (1917 and 1924), consulting surgeon at the Chelsea Hospital for Women and a Freeman of the Worshipful Society of Apothecaries.
Frank Stanley Cotton (30 April 1890 – 23 August 1955) was an Australian lecturer in physiology, specialising in the study of the effects of physical strain on the human body.
Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet, (3 September 1899 – 31 August 1985), usually known as Macfarlane or Mac Burnet, was an Australian virologist best known for his contributions to immunology.
Frank Saldo (10 July 1882 – 1 June 1939) (born as Frank Harold Woollaston) was an early bodybuilder, and with his brothers Monte Saldo and Edwin Woollaston was a member of the strongman act The Montague Brothers in the early twentieth century.
Frankfurt (Oder) (also Frankfurt an der Oder, abbreviated Frankfurt a. d. Oder, Frankfurt a. d. O., Frankf., 'Frankfurt on the Oder') is a town in Brandenburg, Germany, located on the Oder River, on the German-Polish border directly opposite the town of Słubice, which was part of Frankfurt until 1945.
František Mareš (October 20, 1857 – February 6, 1942) was a Czechoslovak professor of physiology and philosophy, and nationalist politician.
Franz Christian Boll (17 October 1805, Neubrandenburg – 20 March 1875) was a Lutheran theologian and historian.
Franz Bruno Hofmann (24 November 1869, Skalka – 6 June 1926, Marburg) was an Austrian-German physiologist.
Franz Boll (February 26, 1849, Neubrandenburg – December 19, 1879, Rome) was a German physiologist and histologist.
Franz Ernst Christian Neumann (30 January 1834 – 6 March 1918) was a German pathologist who was a native of Königsberg.
Franz Ignaz Pruner (8 March 1808 - 29 September 1882); known as Pruner Bey during his stay in Egypt, was a German physician, ophthalmologist and anthropologist who was a native of Pfreimd, Oberpfalz.
Franz Josef Gall (9 March 175822 August 1828) was a neuroanatomist, physiologist, and pioneer in the study of the localization of mental functions in the brain.
Franz von Leydig, also Franz Leydig (May 21, 1821 – April 13, 1908), was a German zoologist and comparative anatomist.
Baron Franz Nopcsa von Felső-Szilvás (also Baron Nopcsa von Felső-Szilvás, Baron Nopcsa, Ferenc Nopcsa, báró felsőszilvási Nopcsa Ferenc, Baron Franz Nopcsa, and Franz Baron Nopcsa) (May 3, 1877 – April 25, 1933) was a Hungarian-born aristocrat, adventurer, scholar, and paleontologist.
Franz Schweigger-Seidel (September 24, 1834 – August 23, 1871) was a German physiologist born in Halle an der Saale.
Franz Tangl (Budapest, January 26, 1866 – Budapest, December 19, 1917), was a Hungarian physiologist and pathologist, member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
Franz von Rinecker (3 January 1811 – 21 February 1883) was a German pharmacologist and physician, born in Schesslitz near Bamberg.
Franz Wilhelm Schweigger-Seidel (16 October 1795 – 5 June 1838); born as Franz Wilhelm Seidel was a German physician and chemist born in Weißenfels.
Franz von Baader (27 March 1765 – 23 May 1841), born Benedikt Franz Xaver Baader, was a German Catholic philosopher, theologian, and mining engineer.
Frederic Bertley is a Canadian scientist, science educator and immunologist.
Frederic Schiller Lee (1859-1939) was an American physiologist who spent most of his research career at Columbia University's College of Physicians and Surgeons.
Frederick C. Neidhardt (1931-2016) was an American microbiologist who was on the faculty at Purdue University and the University of Michigan.
Frederick "Camp" Campion Steward FRS (16 June 1904 – 13 September 1993) was a British botanist and plant physiologist.Detailed practical applications of the totipotency was shown by Steward(1932) who developed a complete carrot plant from a root cell.
Frederick Griffith was a British bacteriologist whose focus was the epidemiology and pathology of bacterial pneumonia.
Frederick William Pavy (29 May 1829 – 19 September 1911) was a British physician and physiologist and the discoverer of Pavy's disease, a cyclic or recurrent physiologic albuminuria.
Freeman–Sheldon syndrome (FSS), also termed distal arthrogryposis type 2A (DA2A), craniocarpotarsal dysplasia (or dystrophy), Cranio-carpo-tarsal syndrome, Windmill-Vane-Hand syndrome, or Whistling-face syndrome, was originally described by Freeman and Sheldon in 1938.
Freshwater fish are those that spend some or all of their lives in fresh water, such as rivers and lakes, with a salinity of less than 0.05%.
Friedrich Arnold (8 January 1803 – 5 July 1890) was professor emeritus of anatomy and physiology at Heidelberg.
Georg Friedrich Karl Heinrich von Bidder (9 November 1810 – 22 August 1894) was a Baltic German physiologist and anatomist from what was then the Governorate of Livonia in the Russian Empire.
Friedrich Christian Rosenthal (June 3, 1780 – December 5, 1829) was a German anatomist who was a native of Greifswald.
Friedrich Daniel von Recklinghausen (2 December 1833 – 26 August 1910) was a German pathologist born in Gütersloh, Westphalia.
Friedrich Eduard Beneke (17 February 1798 – c. 1 March 1854) was a German psychologist and post-Kantian philosopher.
Friedrich Huldreich Erismann, or Fyodor Fyodorovich Erismann (14 November 1842 - 13 November 1915) was a Swiss ophthalmologist and hygienist born in Gontenschwil, canton of Aargau.
Friedrich Leopold Goltz (14 August 1834 in Posen (Poznań), Grand Duchy of Posen – 5 May 1902 in Straßburg (Strasbourg)) was a German physiologist and nephew of the writer Bogumil Goltz.
Friedrich Gustav Jakob Henle (9 July 1809 – 13 May 1885) was a German physician, pathologist, and anatomist.
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist and a Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history.
Friedrich Tiedemann FRS (23 August 178122 January 1861) was a German anatomist and physiologist.
Fritz Reuter Leiber Jr. (December 24, 1910 – September 5, 1992) was an American writer of fantasy, horror, and science fiction.
Fritz Pregl (in Slovene also Friderik Pregl; 3 September 1869 – 13 December 1930), was a Slovenian and Austrian chemist and physician from a mixed Slovene-German-speaking background.
Fruit and fruitcake, as well as many variations, are slang or even sexual slang terms which have various origins but modern usage tend to primarily refer to gay men and sometimes other LGBT people.
In biology, function has been defined in many ways.
Functional constipation, known as chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC), is constipation that does not have a physical (anatomical) or physiological (hormonal or other body chemistry) cause.
Functional imaging (or physiological imaging), is a medical imaging technique of detecting or measuring changes in metabolism, blood flow, regional chemical composition, and absorption.
Fungivory or mycophagy is the process of organisms consuming fungi.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
Fusiconus is a subgenus of sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the genus Conasprella, family Conidae, the cone snails and their allies.
Guanine nucleotide binding proteins (G proteins) are membrane-associated, heterotrimeric proteins composed of three subunits: alpha, beta, and gamma.
The ''g'' factor, or general factor, of intelligence is a psychometric construct that summarizes observed correlations between an individual’s scores on various measures of cognitive abilities.
G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), also known as seven-(pass)-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein–linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses.
The G-spot, also called the Gräfenberg spot (for German gynecologist Ernst Gräfenberg), is characterized as an erogenous area of the vagina that, when stimulated, may lead to strong sexual arousal, powerful orgasms and potential female ejaculation.
A G-spot vibrator is a sex toy with female and male varieties.
A g-suit, or the more accurately named anti-g suit, is a flight suit worn by aviators and astronauts who are subject to high levels of acceleration force (g).
German E. Berrios FMedSci is a Professor of Psychiatry at Cambridge University in the UK.
A GABA reuptake inhibitor (GRI) is a type of drug which acts as a reuptake inhibitor for the neurotransmitter gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) by blocking the action of the gamma-Aminobutyric acid transporters (GATs).
Gabriel François Venel (23 August 1723, Tourbes – 29 October 1775, Pézenas) was a French chemist, physician and a contributor to the Encyclopédie, (673 items; Louis Dulieu, Gabriel-François Venel.: Bulletin de l'Académie des Sciences et Lettres de Montpellier, nouvelle série, III, 1972, p. 123-135. articles on chemistry, pharmacy, physiology and medicine).
Gabriel Gustav Valentin (July, 1810 - May 24, 1883), also Gabriel Valentin, was a German physiologist and professor of physiology at the University of Bern.
The Galactic Milieu Series of science fiction novels by Julian May is the sequel (and prequel) to her Saga of Pliocene Exile.
Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – /), often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.
Gamaliel Bailey (December 3, 1807 – June 5, 1859) was an American journalist, editor and publisher, working primarily in Cincinnati, and Washington, D.C. An abolitionist, he supported journalism that promoted the cause, persisting despite violent mob attacks on his offices in both cities during the 1840s.
Computer animation physics or game physics involves the introduction of the laws of physics into a simulation or game engine, particularly in 3D computer graphics, for the purpose of making the effects appear more realistic to the observer.
Gandhi Medical College (गांधी चिकित्सा महाविद्यालय, भोपाल, GMC) is among the oldest and most prestigious medical colleges in Madhya Pradesh and in India, at Fatehgarh, Royal Market Area, Bhopal.
Gaseous signaling molecules are gaseous molecules that are either synthesised internally (endogenously) in the organism, tissue or cell or are received by the organism, tissue or cell from outside (say, from the atmosphere or hydrosphere, as in the case of oxygen) and that are used to transmit chemical signals which induce certain physiological or biochemical changes in the organism, tissue or cell.
Gastão Rosenfeld (born Budapest, July 26, 1912; died São Paulo, July 15, 1990), was a Brazilian physician and biomedical scientist, one of the co-discoverers of bradykinin, together with Maurício Rocha e Silva and Wilson Teixeira Beraldo, in 1949.
Gastric dilatation volvulus (GDV), also known as gastric dilation, twisted stomach, or gastric torsion, is a medical condition that affects dogs in which the stomach becomes overstretched and rotated by excessive gas content.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract.
GATA3 is a transcription factor that in humans is encoded by the GATA3 gene.
Gateway drug theory (alternatively, stepping-stone theory, escalation hypothesis, or progression hypothesis) is a comprehensive catchphrase for the medical theory that the use of a psychoactive drug can be coupled to an increased probability of the use of further drugs.
The Gatty Marine Laboratory is a science facility located in the coastal town of St Andrews in Fife, Scotland.
The term gaze is frequently used in physiology to describe coordinated motion of the eyes and neck.
Göran Liljestrand (16 April 1886 – 16 January 1968), Swedish pharmacologist, known for the discovery of the Euler-Liljestrand mechanism.
Gustaf "Gösta" Richard Mikael Holmér (23 September 1891 – 22 April 1983) was a Swedish athlete who competed in the 1912 and 1920 Olympics.
Growth differentiation factor 2 (GDF2) also known as bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-9 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GDF2 gene.
Gelotology (from the Greek γέλως gelos "laughter") is the study of laughter and its effects on the body, from a psychological and physiological perspective.
The gemsbok, gemsbuck or South African oryx (Oryx gazella) is a large antelope in the genus Oryx.
A gender bender (LGBT slang: one who genderfucks) is a person who disrupts, or "bends", expected gender roles.
General anaesthesia or general anesthesia (see spelling differences) is a medically induced coma with loss of protective reflexes, resulting from the administration of one or more general anaesthetic agents.
In the medical profession, a general practitioner (GP) is a medical doctor who treats acute and chronic illnesses and provides preventive care and health education to patients.
Genetic divergence is the process in which two or more populations of an ancestral species accumulate independent genetic changes (mutations) through time, often after the populations have become reproductively isolated for some period of time.
In biology, a genetic program of a cell is a physiological change brought about by a temporal pattern of activation of a particular subset of genes.
Genome evolution is the process by which a genome changes in structure (sequence) or size over time.
G.D. Hale Carpenter MBE (26 October 1882 in Eton, Berkshire – 30 January 1953 in Oxford) was a British entomologist and medical doctor.
Geoffrey Sharman Dawes BA Oxon, BM BCh, DM, CBE, FRS, FRCOG, FRCP, FACOG(Hon), FAAP(Hon) (21 January 1918 – 6 May 1996) was an English physiologist and was considered to be the foremost international authority on fetal and neonatal physiology.
Georg Erhard Hamberger (21 December 1697 – 22 July 1755) was a German professor of medicine, surgery, and botany.
Georg Friedrich Nicolai (born Lewinstein; 6 February 1874 – 8 October 1964) was a German physiologist.
Georg Joachimsthal (May 8, 1863 – February 28, 1914) was a German orthopedist who was native of Stargard in Pommern.
Georg Kelling (7 July 1866 in Dresden – 14 February 1945) was a German internist and surgeon who was a laparoscopy pioneer and in 1901 performed the first laparoscopic surgery on a dog.
Georg Meissner (November 19, 1829 – March 30, 1905) was a German anatomist and physiologist born in Hanover.
Georg Prochaska (April 10, 1749 in Blížkovice near Mahrisch Budwitz – July 17, 1820 in Vienna) (first name sometimes referred to as Juri, Jiří or Georgius) (Jiří Procháska) was a leading Czech-Austrian anatomist, ophthalmologist, physiologist, writer and university professor.
George Edward Billman (born July 23, 1954) is an American physiologist and professor at Ohio State University.
George Britton Halford (26 November 1824 – 27 May 1910) was an English-born anatomist and physiologist, founder of the first medical school in Australia, University of Melbourne School of Medicine.
George Busk RN FRS (12 August 1807 – 10 August 1886) was a British naval surgeon, zoologist and palaeontologist.
George Croom Robertson (10 March 1842 – 20 September 1892) was a Scottish philosopher.
George B. Delahunty (born May 5, 1952) is an American physiologist and endocrinologist.
George Edward Fell (July 10, 1849 – July 29, 1918) was an American surgeon and inventor.
George Gulliver (4 June 1804 – 17 November 1882), was an English anatomist and physiologist.
George Henry Lewes (18 April 1817 – 30 November 1878) was an English philosopher and critic of literature and theatre.
George Howard Parker (December 23, 1864 – March 26, 1955) was an American zoologist.
Sir George Lindor Brown (9 February 1903, Liverpool – 22 February 1971) was an English physiologist and secretary of the Royal Society, of which he was elected a Fellow in 1946.
George William Louis Marshall-Hall (28 March 1862, London 18 July 1915, Fitzroy, Victoria) was an English-born musician, composer, conductor, poet and controversialist who lived and worked in Australia from 1891 till his death in 1915.
George Neil Jenkins (October 23, 1914 – October 14, 2007), more commonly known as "Neil Jenkins", was Professor of Oral Physiology at the Dental School of the University of Newcastle upon Tyne for most of his distinguished career.
George Owen Mackie (born October 20, 1929) is a British–Canadian professor emeritus of zoology at the University of Victoria.
George Palmer (18 January 1818 – 19 August 1897) was a proprietor of the Huntley & Palmers biscuit manufacturers of Reading in England.
George Rolleston MA MD FRCP FRS (30 July 1829 – 16 June 1881) was an English physician and zoologist.
George John Romanes FRS (20 May 1848 – 23 May 1894) was a Canadian-English evolutionary biologist and physiologist who laid the foundation of what he called comparative psychology, postulating a similarity of cognitive processes and mechanisms between humans and other animals.
George Stuart Gordon (1881–1942) was a British literary scholar.
George Washington Carey (1845–1924) was an American physician known for a number of 1910s ‘chemistry of life’ publications, a subject which he referred to as biochemistry, particularly his 1919 The Chemistry of Human Life, all generally using a mixture of religion, astrology, physiology, anatomy, and chemistry, themed particularly with a mineral-based theory of human disease.
The George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences (abbreviated as GW Medicine or GW SMHS) is the professional medical school of the George Washington University, in Washington, D.C..
George Hoyt Whipple (August 28, 1878 – February 1, 1976) was an American physician, pathologist, biomedical researcher, and medical school educator and administrator.
Georges Henri Roger (4 June 1860 – 19 April 1946) was a French physiologist born in Paris.
Charles Henri Georges Pouchet (26 February 1833 – 29 March 1894) was a French naturalist and anatomist.
Georgetown University Medical Center (GUMC) is the medical campus at Georgetown University.
Georgetown University School of Medicine, a medical school opened in 1851, is one of Georgetown University's five graduate schools.
Georgia Faye Jones (née Horsley; born 6 December 1986) won the Miss England 2007 title and the opportunity to represent England in the Miss World 2007 pageant which was held in Sanya, China on 1 December that year.
The College of Sciences at the Georgia Institute of Technology is one of the six colleges in the institute.
Georgii Pavlovich Zeliony (Гео́ргий Па́влович Зелёный; 1878 in Odessa – 1951) was a Russian physiologist who contributed to the understanding of conditional and unconditional reflexes.
Gerald Allan Kerkut (or G. A. Kerkut) (19 August 1927 – 6 March 2004) was a noted British zoologist and physiologist.
Gerald Schatten (born 1949) is an American stem cell researcher with interests in cell, developmental, and reproductive biology.
Gerhard Meisenberg (born 1953) is a German biochemist and author.
Geriatric anesthesia (or geriatric anaesthesia) is the branch of medicine that studies anesthesia approach in elderly.
Geriatric sexology is the systematic study of sexuality in the elderly.
Germain Célestin Édouard Fournié (March 4, 1833 - March 24, 1886) was a French surgeon, physician, anatomist and physiologist, and a prominent specialist in the field of the voice and speech physiology, as well as fields of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology.
The German School of Guayaquil (Colegio Alemán Humboldt Guayaquil, Deutsche Schule Guayaquil) is a multilingual school in Guayaquil, Ecuador.
The German Society for Social-Scientific Sexuality Research (German: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Sozialwissenschaftliche Sexualforschung, DGSS) is a sexuality research and counselling organization (cf. sexology) based in Düsseldorf.
Germination is the process by which an organism grows from a seed or similar structure.
Gero Andreas Miesenböck (born 1965) FRS is Waynflete Professor of Physiology and Director of the Centre for Neural Circuits and Behaviour (CNCB) at the University of Oxford and a Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford.
Gerrit Grijns (May 28, 1865 – November 11, 1944), was a Dutch researcher and co-discoverer of vitamin B1 (thiamine) as the successor to the later Nobel Prize winner Christiaan Eijkman.
Gertrud Theiler (11 September 1897 – 2 May 1986) was a South African parasitologist and teacher most noted for her work with nematodes and ticks.
Gertrude Teixeira Hunter (1926 – March 12, 2006) was an American doctor and professor of medicine.
Gestalt psychology or gestaltism (from Gestalt "shape, form") is a philosophy of mind of the Berlin School of experimental psychology.
D.G Khan Medical College (Urdu), established in 2010, is a public school of Medicine located in Dera Ghazi Khan, Punjab, Pakistan.
Ghulam Muhammad Mahar Medical College (GMMMC)http://www.gmmmc.edu.pk/ (Urdu غلام محمد مهر میڈیکل کالج) is a constituent College of Shaheed Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto Medical University,http://beta.smbbmu.edu.pk/ located in the center of Sukkur city.
Gilbert Ning Ling (born December 26, 1919) is a cell physiologist, biochemist and scientific investigator.
Giles Skey Brindley, MD FRS (born April 30, 1926), is a British physiologist, musicologist and composer, known for his contributions to the physiology of the retina and colour vision, treatment of erectile dysfunction, and is perhaps best known for an unusual scientific presentation at the 1983 Las Vegas meeting of the American Urological Association, where he removed his pants to show the audience his chemically induced erection and invited them to inspect it closely.
Gioacchino Failla (19 July 1891 – 15 December 1961) was an Italian-born American physicist.
Giovanna Mallucci is a professor in the Department of Clinical Neurosciences at the University of Cambridge.
Giovanni Alfonso Borelli (28 January 1608 – 31 December 1679) was a Renaissance Italian physiologist, physicist, and mathematician.
Giovanni Vacca is an Italian physiologist.
Giuseppe Bastianelli (25 October 1862 – 30 March 1959) was an Italian physician and zoologist who worked on malaria and was the personal physician of Pope Benedict XV.
Giuseppe Oronzo Giannuzzi (March 16, 1838, Altamura, Italy – March 8, 1876, Siena, Italy) was an Italian physiologist.
Giuseppe Vincenzo Ciaccio (15 October 1824 in Catanzaro – 15 June 1901 in Bologna) was an Italian anatomist and histologist.
The term choice theory is the work of William Glasser, MD, author of the book so named, and is the culmination of some 50 years of theory and practice in psychology and counselling.
Glenn Allan Millikan (May 23, 1906 – May 25, 1947), American physiologist, was an inventor and mountaineer.
Global Leadership is the interdisciplinary study of the key elements that future leaders in all realms of the personal experience should acquire to effectively familiarize themselves with the psychological, physiological, geographical, geopolitical, anthropological and sociological effects of globalization.
Globiconus is a subgenus of sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the genus Conasprella, family Conidae, the cone snails and their allies.
Glomalin is a glycoprotein produced abundantly on hyphae and spores of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in soil and in roots.
Most of the terms listed in Wikipedia glossaries are already defined and explained within Wikipedia itself.
This glossary of ecology is a list of definitions of terms and topics in ecology and related fields.
This glossary of medical terms is a list of definitions about medicine, its sub-disciplines, and related fields.
This glossary of viticultural terms list some of terms and definitions involved in growing grapes for use in winemaking.
A glucagonoma is a rare tumor of the alpha cells of the pancreas that results in the overproduction of the hormone glucagon.
Glucokinase is an enzyme that facilitates phosphorylation of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate.
GM1 (monosialotetrahexosylganglioside) the "prototype" ganglioside, is a member of the ganglio series of gangliosides which contain one sialic acid residue.
Gnathology is the study of the masticatory system, including its physiology, functional disturbances, and treatment.
The Goldman–Hodgkin–Katz voltage equation, more commonly known as the Goldman equation, is used in cell membrane physiology to determine the reversal potential across a cell's membrane, taking into account all of the ions that are permeant through that membrane.
Gomal Medical College (Urdu, Saraiki:, د ګومل طب پوهنځی or GMC) is a public medical institute located in Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan.
Gordon Enoch Gates (11 January 1897 – 11 June 1987) was an American zoologist.
Gordon Grant Giesbrecht is a Canadian physiologist who operates the Laboratory for Exercise and Environmental Medicine at the University of Manitoba in Manitoba, Canada.
Gordon Gunter (August 18, 1909 – December 19, 1998) was an American marine biologist and fisheries scientist.
Gordon Ferguson McPhate (born 1 June 1950) is an Anglican priest and former Dean of Chester; he retired on 30 September 2017.
Gordon Stein (April 30, 1941 – August 27, 1996) was an American author, physiologist, and activist for atheism and religious skepticism.
Gottfried Welsch (November 12, 1618 – September 5, 1690) was a German physician born in Leipzig.
The Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize is a program of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (the German Research Foundation) which awards prizes “to exceptional scientists and academics for their outstanding achievements in the field of research.” It was established in 1985 and up to ten prizes are awarded annually to individuals or research groups working at a research institution in Germany or at a German research institution abroad.
Gottlieb (Théophile) Gluge (June 18, 1812, Brakel, Germany – December 22, 1898, Nice, France) pioneer medical researcher and personal physician to the King of the Belgians.
Government Medical College, Ernakulam (previously Cochin Medical College) is one of the medical colleges in the state of Kerala situated at Kalamassery, Kochi.
Government Medical College, Haldwani (formerly known as Uttarakhand Forest Hospital Trust Medical College) is a medical college in Haldwani, Uttarakhand, India.
Government Medical College in Shivpuri, Madhya Pradesh is the seventh medical college in the province proposed to be started by the department of medical education, Government of Madhya Pradesh.
Government Sivagangai Medical College and Hospital (Tamil: அரசு சிவகங்கை மருத்துவக்கல்லூரி மற்றும் மருத்துவமனை) was started in the year 2012-13 in the Sivagangai District with an annual intake of 100 students for MBBS Course.
Government T D Medical College, Alappuzha is a government medical colleges situated in the suburban area of Vandanam, 9 km south of the Alappuzha (previously Alleppey) town, facing the NH 47, in Alappuzha district of Kerala State, South India.
Gradiconus is a synonym of a subgenus of sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the genus Conus, family Conidae, the cone snails and their allies.
Graham John Dockray FMedSci, FRS (born 1946) is a British physiologist, and Professor of Physiology at University of Liverpool.
Prof Graham Lusk FRS(For) FRSE (15 February 1866 - 18 July 1932) was an American physiologist, and nutritionist.
The Grand Prix Charles-Léopold Mayer (Charles-Léopold Mayer Prize) is awarded annually by the Académie des Sciences (French Academy of Sciences) de l'Institut de France (the French Institute) to researchers who have performed outstanding work in the biological sciences; especially in the areas of cell or molecular biology.
Gravida: National Centre for Growth and Development is a New Zealand government-funded Centre of Research Excellence (CoRE).
Gravitational biology is the study of the effects gravity has on living organisms.
Green Lantern: Rebirth was a six-issue monthly American comic book limited series written by Geoff Johns and illustrated by Ethan Van Sciver.
Grenaa (or Grenå) is a Danish town and seaport on the east coast of the Jutlandic peninsula.
Grey aliens, also referred to as "Alien Greys", "Greys", "Grays" and "Roswell Greys", allegedly are extraterrestrial beings whose existence is discussed in ufological, paranormal, and New Age communities, and who are named for their unique skin color.
Grigore T. Popa (sometimes Anglicized to Gregor T. Popa; May 1, 1892 – July 18, 1948) was a Romanian physician and public intellectual.
A growth curve is an empirical model of the evolution of a quantity over time.
Grunting in tennis is the very loud noise, sometimes described as "shrieking" or "screaming", made by some players while hitting their shots.
Guichard Joseph Duverney or Joseph-Guichard Du Verney (5 August 1648 – 10 September 1730) was a French anatomist.
Guided imagery (also known as Guided Affective Imagery, or KIP, Katathym-imaginative Psychotherapy) is a mind-body intervention by which a trained practitioner or teacher helps a participant or patient to evoke and generate mental images that simulate or re-create the sensory perception of sights, sounds, tastes, smells, movements, and images associated with touch, such as texture, temperature, and pressure, as well as imaginative or mental content that the participant or patient experiences as defying conventional sensory categories, and that may precipitate strong emotions or feelings in the absence of the stimuli to which correlating sensory receptors are receptive.
Guillaume Bigot (June 2, 1502 - c. 1550) was a writer, a doctor, a humanist and a poet in French and Latin.
Gunnar Svaetichin (1915–1981) was a Swedish-Finnish-Venezuelan physiologist who, in 1956, showed by examining the external layers of fish retinas that electroretinograms display particular sensitivity to three different groups of wavelengths in the areas of blue, green and red.
Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies (also titled Guns, Germs and Steel: A short history of everybody for the last 13,000 years) is a 1997 transdisciplinary non-fiction book by Jared Diamond, professor of geography and physiology at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA).
Gustav Theodor Fritsch (5 March 1838 – 12 June 1927) was a German anatomist, anthropologist, traveller and physiologist from Cottbus.
Gustav von Bunge (19 January 1844, Dorpat – 5 November 1920, Basel) was a German physiologist known for work in the field of nutrition physiology.
Gustave Flourens (4 August 1838 in Paris – 3 April 1871) was a French Revolutionary leader and writer, son of the physiologist Jean Pierre Flourens (who was Professor at the Collège de France and deputy in 1838-1839).
Charles-Marie Gustave Le Bon (7 May 1841 – 13 December 1931) was a French polymath whose areas of interest included anthropology, psychology, sociology, medicine, invention, and physics.
Guy Azouri (גיא עזורי; born 2 June 1963) is an Israeli football manager.
Guy Goodwin is a senior research fellow and until recently was the W.A. Handley Professor of Psychiatry at the University of Oxford (2014).
Henry Newell Martin, FRS (1 July 1848 – 27 October 1896) was a British physiologist.
Habib Medical School (HMS) is the school of medicine of the Islamic University in Uganda (IUIU), one of Uganda's private universities.
Habit is equivalent to habitus in some applications in biology; the term refers variously to aspects of behaviour or structure, as follows.
Haematologica (Pavia, Italy) is a monthly, open access, peer reviewed, scientific journal, published by the Ferrata Storti Foundation.
In nonideal fluid dynamics, the Hagen–Poiseuille equation, also known as the Hagen–Poiseuille law, Poiseuille law or Poiseuille equation, is a physical law that gives the pressure drop in an incompressible and Newtonian fluid in laminar flow flowing through a long cylindrical pipe of constant cross section.
Haladaptatus paucihalophilus is a halophilic archaeal species, originally isolated from a spring in Oklahoma.
Haldan Keffer Hartline (December 22, 1903 – March 17, 1983) was an American physiologist who was a co-recipient (with George Wald and Ragnar Granit) of the 1967 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work in analyzing the neurophysiological mechanisms of vision.
Haldane's decompression model is a decompression table for diving at sea level that was proposed in 1908 by the eminent Scottish physiologist, John Scott Haldane (2 May 1860 – 14/15 March 1936), who was famous for intrepid self-experimentation.
The Halliwick Concept focuses on biophysical principles of motor control in water, in particular developing sense of balance (equilibrioception) and core stability.
Hallowell Davis (August 31, 1896 – August 22, 1992) was an American physiologist and otolaryngologist and researcher who did pioneering work on the physiology of hearing and the inner ear.
Halotolerance is the adaptation of living organisms to conditions of high salinity.
Hamilton Hartridge (7 May 1886 – 13 January 1976) was a British eye physiologist and medical writer.
A hangover is the experience of various unpleasant physiological and psychological effects following the consumption of alcohol, such as wine, beer and distilled spirits.
Hans Benndorf (December 13, 1870 – February 11, 1953) was an Austrian physicist born in Zurich, and died in Graz.
Hans Fischer (27 July 1881 – 31 March 1945) was a German organic chemist and the recipient of the 1930 Nobel Prize for Chemistry "for his researches into the constitution of haemin and chlorophyll and especially for his synthesis of haemin.".
János Hugo Bruno "Hans" Selye (Selye János; January 26, 1907 – October 16, 1982), was a pioneering Hungarian-Canadian endocrinologist of Hungarian origin.
Harland Goff Wood (September 2, 1907 – September 12, 1991) was an American biochemist notable for proving in 1935 that animals, humans and bacteria utilized carbon dioxide.
Harm Kuipers (born 22 November 1947) is a former speed skater from the Netherlands.
Harold Francis Blum (1899 - 1980) was a physiologist who explored the interaction of light and chemicals on cells, especially sunlight-induced skin cancer.
Harold Hillman (16 August 1930 – 5 August 2016) was a British scientist and expert in the neurobiology of execution methods.
Harrison Allen (1841–1897) was an American physician and anatomist, born in Philadelphia.
Sir Harry Brookes Allen (13 June 1854 – 28 March 1926) was a noted Australian pathologist.
The Harry Oppenheimer Fellowship Award is awarded annually by the Oppenheimer Memorial Trust.
Hartog Jakob or Hartog Jacob Hamburger (9 March 1859 – 4 January 1924) was a Dutch physiologist, born in Alkmaar.
The Harvard School of Dental Medicine (HSDM) is the dental school of Harvard University.
The Harvey Society is a learned society based in New York City, Named after the British scientist William Harvey (1578–1657), its scope is "the diffusion of knowledge of the medical sciences".
Håkon Robak (10 November 1905 – 1982) was a Norwegian forester.
Hélio de Oliveira Santos (born September 7, 1950, Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul) is a physician, graduated in the Medical School of the State University of Campinas and specialized in pediatrics, federal representative, and was the mayor of the municipality of Campinas, state of São Paulo, Brazil, from January 2005 to September 2011, when he was impeached.
To have a head for heights means that one has no acrophobia, an irrational fear of heights, and is not particularly prone to fear of falling or suffering from vertigo, the spinning sensation that can be triggered, for example, by looking down from a high place.
Healing (literally meaning to make whole) is the process of the restoration of health from an unbalanced, diseased or damaged organism.
Apical periodontitis is typically the body’s defense response to the threat of microbial invasion from the root canal.
The health effects of wine are mainly determined by its active ingredient alcohol.
The health management system (HMS) is an evolutionary medicine regulative process proposed by Nicholas Humphrey reprinted from in which actuarial assessment of fitness and economic-type cost–benefit analysis determines the body’s regulation of its physiology and health.
In the past, Kosovo’s capabilities to develop a modern health care system were limited.
Heart murmurs are heart sounds produced when blood flows across one of the heart valves that are loud enough to be heard with a stethoscope.
Heat stroke, also known as sun stroke, is a type of severe heat illness that results in a body temperature greater than and confusion.
Hedley Ralph Marston FRS FAA (26 August 1900 – 25 August 1965) was an Australian biochemist who worked for the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO).
Hee-sup Shin (born 1950) is a South Korean neuroscientist.
Heilpraktiker ("healing practitioner") is a naturopathic profession in Germany.
Heinrich Johann Nepomuk von Crantz (Roodt-sur-Eisch, Luxembourg, 25 November 1722 – 18 January 1799, Judenburg, Austria) was a botanist and a physician.
Heinrich Klüver (May 25, 1897 – February 8, 1979) was a German and American psychologist born in Holstein.
Heinrich Müller (17 December 1820 – 10 May 1864) was a German anatomist and professor at the University of Würzburg.
Heinrich Irenaeus Quincke (26 August 1842 – 19 May 1922) was a German internist and surgeon.
Heinrich Rudolf Schinz (March 30, 1777 – March 8, 1861) was a Swiss physician and naturalist.
Heinrich von Ranke (8 May 1830, Rückersdorf – 13 May 1909, Munich) was a German physiologist and pediatrician.
Heinrich Wilhelm Gottfried von Waldeyer-Hartz (6 October 1836 – 23 January 1921) was a German anatomist, famous for consolidating the neuron theory of organization of the nervous system and for naming the chromosome.
Heinz Siegfried Wolff, (29 April 1928 – 15 December 2017) was a German-born British scientist as well as a television and radio presenter.
Helen Dean King (1869-1955) was an American biologist.
Helen M. Dyer (May 26, 1895 – September 20, 1998) was an American biochemist and cancer researcher.
Helen Riaboff Whiteley (1921-1990) was a microbiologist who spent most of her research career at the University of Washington.
Helge Stormorken (born 8 October 1922 in Kvam, Gudbrandsdal, Norway) is a Norwegian veterinarian and physician.
Helicoverpa zea, commonly known as the corn earworm, is a species (formerly in the genus Heliothis) in the family Noctuidae.
Helmut G. Hinghofer-Szalkay (* January 22, 1948 in Graz) is an Austrian physiologist.
Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.
Hemolysis or haemolysis, also known by several other names, is the rupturing (lysis) of red blood cells (erythrocytes) and the release of their contents (cytoplasm) into surrounding fluid (e.g. blood plasma).
Hendrik Zwaardemaker (in Haarlem – in Utrecht) was a Dutch scientist who invented the olfactometer in 1888.
Henri Coutard (27 April 1876 – 16 March 1950) was a French pioneer in radiation oncology and is credited with establishing radiotherapy as a clinical discipline.
René Joachim Henri Dutrochet (November 14, 1776 – February 4, 1847) was a French physician, botanist and physiologist.
Henri Gadeau de Kerville (17 December 1858 in Rouen – 26 July 1940 in Bagnères-de-Luchon) was a French zoologist, entomologist, botanist and archeologist best known for his photographs of these subjects and especially for his work "Les Insectes phosphorescents: notes complémentaires et bibliographie générale (anatomie physiologie et biologie): avec quatre planches chromolithographiées", Rouen, L. Deshays, 1881.
Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville (12 September 1777 – 1 May 1850) was a French zoologist and anatomist.
Henri-Étienne Beaunis (2 August 1830, Amboise – 20 July 1921, Le Cannet) was a French physiologist and psychologist.
Henri-Louis Duhamel du Monceau (20 July 1700, Paris13 August 1782, Paris), was a French physician, naval engineer and botanist.
Henrik Dam (Full name Carl Peter Henrik Dam) (21 February 1895 – 17 April 1976) was a Danish biochemist and physiologist.
Henry Charlton Bastian (26 April 1837 in Truro, Cornwall, England – 17 November 1915 in Chesham Bois, Buckinghamshire) was an English physiologist and neurologist.
Sir Henry Hallett Dale (9 June 1875 – 23 July 1968) was an English pharmacologist and physiologist.
Sir Henry Head, FRS (4 August 1861 – 8 October 1940) was an English neurologist who conducted pioneering work into the somatosensory system and sensory nerves.
Henry John Webb (1846–1893) was an English scholar, who became a trained botanist before moving into medicine.
Henry Jay Forman is Research Professor of Gerontology at the USC Leonard Davis School of Gerontology.
Henry Gwyn Jeffreys Moseley (23 November 1887 – 10 August 1915) was an English physicist, whose contribution to the science of physics was the justification from physical laws of the previous empirical and chemical concept of the atomic number.
Henry Pickering Bowditch (April 4, 1840 – March 13, 1911) was an American soldier, physician, physiologist, and dean of the Harvard Medical School.
Henry Rutgers Marshall (22 July 1852 – 3 May 1927) was an American architect and psychologist.
Henry Thompson (MRCVS) (Member of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, 1836–1920) was a founder member of the Aspatria Agricultural Society, the Aspatria Agricultural Cooperative Society and the Aspatria Agricultural College.
Herbert Benson (born 1935), is an American medical doctor, cardiologist, and founder of the Mind/Body Medical Institute at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) in Boston.
Herbert Henri Jasper, (July 27, 1906 – March 11, 1999) was a Canadian psychologist, physiologist, neurologist, and epileptologist.
Herbert Spencer Gasser (July 5, 1888 – May 11, 1963) was an American physiologist, and recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1944 for his work with action potentials in nerve fibers while on the faculty of Washington University in St. Louis, awarded jointly with Joseph Erlanger.
Hereward Leighton Kesteven (16 January 1881 – 18 May 1964) was an Australian medical scientist.
Herman Maximilien de Burlet (Rotterdam, 6 November 1883 – Königswinter, 1957), was a Dutch anatomist, embryologist, physiologist and pathologist.
Herman Jan Phaff (May 30, 1913 – August 24, 2001) was a scientist who specialised in yeast ecology.
Hermann Friedrich Stannius (15 March 1808, Hamburg – 15 January 1883, Sachsenberg near Schwerin) was a German anatomist, physiologist and entomologist.
(22 April 1819 – 26 October 1891) was a German botanist and mycologist born in Rödelheim.
Hermann Landois (19 April 1835, Münster – 29 January 1905) was a German zoologist.
Hermann Munk (3 February 1839 – 1 October 1912) was a Jewish German physiologist.
Hermann Oppenheim (1 January 1858 – 5 May 1919) was one of the leading neurologists in Germany.
Hermann Rudolph Aubert (November 23, 1826 – February 2, 1892) was a German physiologist born in Frankfurt.
Hermann Sahli (May 23, 1856 – April 28, 1933) was a Swiss internist who was a native of Bern.
Hermann Philipp Rudolf Stieve (22 May 1886 – 5 September 1952) was a German physician, anatomist and histologist.
Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (August 31, 1821 – September 8, 1894) was a German physician and physicist who made significant contributions in several scientific fields.
Anton Hermann Victor Thomas Schrötter, name sometimes referred to as Hermann Schrötter von Kristelli (5 August 1870 – 6 January 1928) was an Austrian physiologist and physician who was a native of Vienna.
Hermann von Tappeiner (18 November 1847 in Meran – 12 January 1927 in Munich) was a German pharmacologist.
Hermann Wilbrand (22 May 1851 – 17 September 1935) was a German ophthalmologist born in Giessen.
A hernia is the abnormal exit of tissue or an organ, such as the bowel, through the wall of the cavity in which it normally resides.
Herpetology (from Greek "herpein" meaning "to creep") is the branch of zoology concerned with the study of amphibians (including frogs, toads, salamanders, newts, and caecilians (gymnophiona)) and reptiles (including snakes, lizards, amphisbaenids, turtles, terrapins, tortoises, crocodilians, and the tuataras).
Heterocysts are specialized nitrogen-fixing cells formed during nitrogen starvation by some filamentous cyanobacteria, such as Nostoc punctiforme, Cylindrospermum, and Anabaena sphaerica.
Hidayat al-Muta`allemin Fi al-Tibb (A Guide to Medical Learners) is a medical guide written in Persian.
Hideyuki Okano (岡野栄之) (born 26 January 1959 in Tokyo, Japan) is a Japanese physiology professor and the current dean of Keio University School of Medicine.
Hiep Thi Le (Lê Thị Hiệp; February 18, 1971 – December 19, 2017) was a Vietnamese-American actress and restaurateur.
There are a wide range of potential applications for research at high altitude, including medical, physiological, and cosmic physics research.
High-pressure nervous syndrome (HPNS – also known as high-pressure neurological syndrome) is a neurological and physiological diving disorder that results when a diver descends below about using a breathing gas containing helium.
High-Rise is a 2015 British dystopian drama directed by Ben Wheatley, starring Tom Hiddleston, Jeremy Irons, Sienna Miller, Luke Evans, and Elisabeth Moss.
Professor Hilary Octavia Dawn Critchley FRSE FRSB FMedSci FFSRH FRCOG FRANZCOG is Professor of Reproductive Medicine and an Honorary Consultant in Obstetrics and Gynaecology at the University of Edinburgh.
Hilda Margaret Bruce (5 April 1903 – 2 November 1974) was a British zoologist, best known for her discovery of the Bruce effect, a pheromonal behaviour observed in many rodent species.
In biomechanics, Hill's muscle model refers to either Hill's equations for tetanized muscle contraction or to the 3-element model.
Hillel Oppenheimer (הלל אופנהיימר, born 'Heinz Reinhard Oppenheimer' 4 April 1899 – 15 June 1971), was an Israeli professor of botany.
A hinny is a domestic equine hybrid that is the offspring of a male horse, a stallion, and a female donkey, a jenny.
Histidine triad nucleotide binding protein 2 (HINT2) is a mitochondrial protein that in humans is encoded by the HINT2 gene on chromosome 9.
Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.
Hippopotamuses are stout, naked-skinned, and amphibious artiodactyl mammals, possessing three-chambered stomachs and walking on four toes on each foot.
The history of alternative medicine refers to the history of a group of diverse medical practices that were collectively promoted as "alternative medicine" beginning in the 1970s, to the collection of individual histories of members of that group, or to the history of western medical practices that were labeled "irregular practices" by the western medical establishment.
The history of anatomy in the 19th century saw anatomists largely finalise and systematise the descriptive human anatomy of the previous century.
The history of biology traces the study of the living world from ancient to modern times.
The history of botany examines the human effort to understand life on Earth by tracing the historical development of the discipline of botany—that part of natural science dealing with organisms traditionally treated as plants.
The catecholamines comprise the endogenous substances dopamine, noradrenaline (norepinephrine) and adrenaline (epinephrine) as well as numerous artificially synthesized compounds such as isoprenaline.
Cell theory has its origins in seventeenth century microscopy observations, but it would be nearly two hundred years before a complete cell membrane theory be developed to explain what separates cells from the outside world.
Attempts at producing a state of general anesthesia can be traced throughout recorded history in the writings of the ancient Sumerians, Babylonians, Assyrians, Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, Indians, and Chinese.
The development of concepts, beliefs and practices related to hypnosis and hypnotherapy have been documented since prehistoric to modern times.
The history of medicine shows how societies have changed in their approach to illness and disease from ancient times to the present.
From the ancient Egyptian mummifications to 18th century scientific research on "globules" and neurons, there is evidence of neuroscience practice throughout the early periods of history.
Physics (from the Ancient Greek φύσις physis meaning "nature") is the fundamental branch of science.
Plant breeding started with sedentary agriculture, particularly the domestication of the first agricultural plants, a practice which is estimated to date back 9,000 to 11,000 years.
Today, psychology is defined as "the scientific study of behavior and mental processes." Philosophical interest in the mind and behavior dates back to the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Persia, Greece, China, and India.
The history of science is the study of the development of science and scientific knowledge, including both the natural and social sciences.
The history of science in classical antiquity encompasses both those inquiries into the workings of the universe aimed at such practical goals as establishing a reliable calendar or determining how to cure a variety of illnesses and those abstract investigations known as natural philosophy.
The Encyclopædia Britannica has been published continuously since 1768, appearing in fifteen official editions.
The history of thermodynamics is a fundamental strand in the history of physics, the history of chemistry, and the history of science in general.
Tracheal intubation (usually simply referred to as intubation), an invasive medical procedure, is the placement of a flexible plastic catheter into the trachea.
The history of underwater diving starts with freediving as a widespread means of hunting and gathering, both for food and other valuable resources such as pearls and coral, By classical Greek and Roman times commercial applications such as sponge diving and marine salvage were established, Military diving also has a long history, going back at least as far as the Peloponnesian War, with recreational and sporting applications being a recent development.
This article considers the history of zoology since the theory of evolution by natural selection proposed by Charles Darwin in 1859.
Hitoshi Okamura (born December 2, 1952) is a Japanese scientist who specializes in chronobiology.
University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Ho Chi Minh City is one of the most highly ranked universities of medicine and pharmacy in Vietnam.
In membrane biology, the Hodgkin cycle is a key component of membrane physiology that describes bioelectrical impulses.
Sir Holburt Jacob Waring, 1st Baronet, CBE, FRCS (3 October 1866 – 10 February 1953) was a surgeon at St Bartholomew's Hospital, London and was vice-chancellor of the University of London from 1922 to 1924.
Holme Pierrepont Country Park, home of The National Water Sports Centre is located in the hamlet of Holme Pierrepont near Nottingham, England and on the River Trent.
Homer William Smith (January 2, 1895 – March 25, 1962), best known as Homer W. Smith was an American physiologist and science writer.
Homosexual behavior in animals is sexual behavior among non-human species that is interpreted as homosexual or bisexual.
Dr Dame Honor Bridget Fell, DBE, PhD, DSc, FRS (22 May 1900 – 22 April 1986) was a British scientist and zoologist.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
Horse behavior is best understood from the view that horses are prey animals with a well-developed fight-or-flight response.
A hospital corpsman (HM) (or corpsman for short) is an enlisted medical specialist of the United States Navy, who may also serve in a U.S. Marine Corps unit.
The Hospital de Clínicas "José de San Martín" is a teaching hospital located in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Houssay is a lunar impact crater located on the lunar far side near the northern pole.
Houston Stewart Chamberlain (9 September 1855 – 9 January 1927) was a British-born German philosopher who wrote works about political philosophy and natural science; he is described by Michael D. Biddiss, a contributor to the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, as a "racialist writer".
Howard Griffiths is Professor of Plant Ecology in the Department of Plant Sciences at the University of Cambridge and a Fellow of Clare College, Cambridge.
Howard Hamlet George McKern (23 March 1917 - 8 June 2009) was an Australian analytical and organic chemist, museum administrator who was Deputy Director of the Museum of Applied Arts and Sciences and President of the Royal Society of New South Wales.
The Howard University College of Medicine (HUCM) is an academic division of Howard University, and grants the Doctor of Medicine (MD), Ph.D., MS, and the MPH.
Howard Wilcox Haggard (July 19, 1891 - April 22, 1959) was an American physician, physiologist and writer.
Hsiang-Tung Chang or Zhang Xiangtong (November 27, 1907 – November 4, 2007) was a renowned neurophysiologist of China and an academician of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS).
In molecular biology, the Hsp17 thermometer is an RNA element (RNA thermometer) found in the 5' UTR of Hsp17 mRNA.
Heat shock 70 kDa protein 1, also termed Hsp72, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HSPA1A gene.
Heat shock 70 kDa protein 1L is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HSPA1L gene on chromosome 6.
Heat shock 70 kDa protein 8 also known as heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein or Hsc70 or Hsp73 is a heat shock protein that in humans is encoded by the HSPA8 gene on chromosome 11.
Hubert Simon Markl (17 August 1938 – 8 January 2015) was a German biologist who also served as President of the Max Planck Society from 1996 to 2002.
Hugo Kükelhaus (March 24, 1900 – October 5, 1984) was a German carpenter, writer, pedagogue, philosopher and artist.
Karl Hugo Kronecker (27 January 1839 – 6 June 1914) was a German physiologist from Liegnitz, Prussian Silesia.
Hugo Paul Friedrich Schulz (August 6, 1853 – July 13, 1932) was a German pharmacologist from Wesel, Rhenish Prussia.
Hugo Ernst Heinrich Rühle (12 September 1824 – 11 July 1888) was a German physician born in Liegnitz (today Legnica, Poland).
Hulda Regehr Clark (18 October 1928 in Rosthern, Saskatchewan – 3 September 2009 in Chula Vista, California), domain registered by Clark's publisher, New Century Press: "On the evening of September 3rd 2009, Dr.
Human behavioral ecology (HBE) or human evolutionary ecology applies the principles of evolutionary theory and optimization to the study of human behavioral and cultural diversity.
The human body is the entire structure of a human being.
Human factors and ergonomics (commonly referred to as Human Factors), is the application of psychological and physiological principles to the (engineering and) design of products, processes, and systems.
Human female sexuality encompasses a broad range of behaviors and processes, including female sexual identity and sexual behavior, the physiological, psychological, social, cultural, political, and spiritual or religious aspects of sexual activity.
Human image synthesis can be applied to make believable and even photorealistic renditions of human-likenesses, moving or still.
Human male sexuality covers physiological, psychological, social, cultural, and political aspects of the human male sexual response and related phenomena.
Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are the viruses that cause human parainfluenza.
Human Reproduction is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering all aspects of human reproduction, including reproductive physiology and pathology, endocrinology, andrology, gonad function, gametogenesis, fertilization, embryo development, implantation, pregnancy, genetics, preimplantation genetic diagnosis, oncology, infectious disease, surgery, contraception, infertility treatment, psychology, ethics, and social issues.
The was created in October 2005 at Johnson Space Center (JSC) in response to NASA's desire to move human research project management away from headquarters to JSC and to focus its research investment on investigating and mitigating the highest risks to astronaut health and performance in support of exploration missions.
Human Science studies the philosophical, biological, social, and cultural aspects of human life.
Human sexual activity, human sexual practice or human sexual behaviour is the manner in which humans experience and express their sexuality.
The Huxley family is a British family of which several members have excelled in science, medicine, arts, and literature.
Hydrobiology is the science of life and life processes in water.
Hydrogenobacter thermophilus is an extremely thermophilic, straight rod (bacillus) bacterium.
Hyperdynamic circulation is abnormally increased circulatory volume.
Hyperhydricity (previously known as vitrification) is a physiological malformation that results in excessive hydration, low lignification, impaired stomatal function and reduced mechanical strength of tissue culture-generated plants.
Hypermetabolism is the physiological state of increased rate of metabolic activity and is characterized by an abnormal increase in the body’s basal metabolic rate.
Hyperplasia (from ancient Greek ὑπέρ huper, "over" + πλάσις plasis, "formation"), or hypergenesis, is an increase in the amount of organic tissue that results from cell proliferation.
Hyperpnea or hyperpnoea is increased depth and rate of breathing.
Hypertryptophanemia, also called familial hypertryptophanemia, is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder that results in a massive buildup of the amino acid tryptophan in the blood, with associated symptoms and tryptophanuria (-uria denotes "in the urine").
Hypnagogia, also referred to as "hypnagogic hallucinations", is the experience of the transitional state from wakefulness to sleep: the hypnagogic state of consciousness, during the onset of sleep.
Hypnosis is a state of human consciousness involving focused attention and reduced peripheral awareness and an enhanced capacity to respond to suggestion.
Hypotension is low blood pressure, especially in the arteries of the systemic circulation.
The hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis (HPG axis) refers to the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and gonadal glands as if these individual endocrine glands were a single entity.
Fish are exposed to large oxygen fluctuations in their aquatic environment since the inherent properties of water can result in marked spatial and temporal differences in the concentration of oxygen (see oxygenation and underwater).
Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV), also known as the Euler-Liljestrand mechanism, is a physiological phenomenon in which small pulmonary arteries constrict in the presence of alveolar hypoxia (low oxygen levels).
"I Can't Stay Away" is a song by Australian recording duo The Veronicas for their second studio album Hook Me Up (2007).
Iatrophysics or iatromechanics (fr. Greek) is the medical application of physics.
The Group 4: Experimental sciences subjects of the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme comprise the main scientific emphasis of this internationally recognized high school programme.
Ala-al-din abu Al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi (Arabic: علاء الدين أبو الحسن عليّ بن أبي حزم القرشي الدمشقي), known as Ibn al-Nafis (Arabic: ابن النفيس), was an Arab physician mostly famous for being the first to describe the pulmonary circulation of the blood.
Ida Henrietta Hyde (September 8, 1857 – August 22, 1945) was an American physiologist known for developing a micro-electrode powerful enough to stimulate tissue chemically or electronically, yet small enough to inject or remove tissue from a cell.
Ida Stephens Owens is an American scientist known for her work with drug-detoxifying enzymes.
Ignaz Döllinger (27 May 1770 – 14 January 1841) was a German doctor, anatomist and physiologist and one of the first professors to understand and treat medicine as a natural science.
The Latin maxim ignoramus et ignorabimus, meaning "we do not know and will not know", represents the idea that scientific knowledge is limited.
Ilya Gruzinov was professor of anatomy and physiology at Imperial Moscow University.
Immanuel Munk (30 May 1852, Posen – 1 August 1903, Berlin) was a German physiologist.
Immunology is a branch of biology that covers the study of immune systems in all organisms.
In vitro muscle testing is a method used to characterize properties of living muscle tissue after having removed the tissue from an organism.
The term incapacitating agent is defined by the U.S. Department of Defense as: Lethal agents are primarily intended to kill, but incapacitating agents can also kill if administered in a potent enough dose, or in certain scenarios.
Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms.
Biology is the study of life and its processes.
Science (from Latin scientia, meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.
Human sexuality covers a broad range of topics, including the physiological, psychological, social, cultural, political, philosophical, ethical, moral, theological, legal and spiritual or religious aspects of sex and human sexual behavior.
Indian Institute of Chemical Biology (IICB) is a biomedical research centre in Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
Indian Science Congress Association (ISCA) is a premier scientific organisation of India with headquarters at Kolkata, West Bengal.
Ingeborg Reichelt (born 11 May 1928 in Frankfurt an der Oder) is a German soprano singer known for her interpretation of works by Johann Sebastian Bach.
Ingrith Johnson Deyrup-Olsen (1919 – July 25, 2004) was an American zoologist, an expert on slugs, and a science professor interested in improving science education.
An inguinal hernia is a protrusion of abdominal-cavity contents through the inguinal canal.
Insect physiology includes the physiology and biochemistry of insect organ systems.
The Institute of Arctic Biology or IAB of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, is located in Fairbanks, Alaska, USA.
The Institute of Food Technologists (IFT) is an international, non-profit scientific society of professionals engaged in food science, food technology, and related areas in academia, government and industry.
The Institute of Microbial Technology (IMTECH), based in Chandigarh, India, is one of the constituent establishments of the Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR).
The Institutes of Agriculture of Bydgoszcz are a complex of historic buildings belonging today to city public administration, focused since their erection to teaching and research.
The Experimental Medicine and Biology Institute (Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental, IByME) is a research and development centre affiliated to the University of Buenos Aires, in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are proteins with high sequence similarity to insulin.
IBIS-2 is the version 2 of the land-surface model Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS), which includes several major improvements and additions to the prototype model developed by Foley et al.
Integrative learning is a learning theory describing a movement toward integrated lessons helping students make connections across curricula.
Intensive care unit An intensive care unit (ICU), also known as an intensive therapy unit or intensive treatment unit (ITU) or critical care unit (CCU), is a special department of a hospital or health care facility that provides intensive treatment medicine.
Interaction design, often abbreviated as IxD, is "the practice of designing interactive digital products, environments, systems, and services." Beyond the digital aspect, interaction design is also useful when creating physical (non-digital) products, exploring how a user might interact with it.
The International Catalogue of Scientific Literature was an annual index covering scientific literature from all major areas of science.
The International Council for Science (ICSU, after its former name, International Council of Scientific Unions) is an international organization devoted to international cooperation in the advancement of science.
The International Institute of Rehabilitation Sciences and Research (IIRS, Bhubaneswar) is managed by ASTHA Trust, founded by Mrs.Bishnupriya Mishra.
The International Journal of Acarology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of agricultural, aquatic, general, medical, and veterinary acarology.
The International Journal of Biometeorology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal which publishes original research papers, review articles, and short communications on studies examining the interactions between living organisms and factors of the natural and artificial physical environment.
The International Journal of Obesity (abbreviated as IJO) is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by the Nature Publishing Group.
The International Journal of Plant Sciences covers botanical research including genetics and genomics, developmental and cell biology, biochemistry and physiology, morphology and structure, systematics, plant-microbe interactions, paleobotany, evolution, and ecology.
The International Max Planck Research School for Organismal Biology is a structured doctoral program of the Max Planck Institute for Ornithology in Seewiesen (Pöcking) and Radolfzell and the department of Biology of the University of Konstanz.
The International Pole Dance Fitness Association (IPDFA) promotes pole dancing as a form of fitness exercise.
The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit.
The Internationaler Sozialistischer Kampfbund ("International Socialist Militant League") or ISK was a socialist split-off from the SPD during the Weimar Republic and was active in the German Resistance against Nazism.
Interoception is contemporarily defined as the sense of the internal state of the body.
Intestine transplantation, intestinal transplantation, or small bowel transplantation is the surgical replacement of the small intestine for chronic and acute cases of intestinal failure.
In physiology, intrapleural pressure (also called intrathoracic pressure) refers to the pressure within the pleural cavity.
Introspection is the examination of one's own conscious thoughts and feelings.
Inventing Iron Man: The Possibility of a Human Machine is a popular science book published in 2011 by neuroscience professor, martial arts master, and long-time comic-book reader E. Paul Zehr.
Ion Luca Caragiale (commonly referred to as I. L. Caragiale; According to his birth certificate, published and discussed by Constantin Popescu-Cadem in Manuscriptum, Vol. VIII, Nr. 2, 1977, p.179-184 – 9 June 1912) was a Wallachian, later Romanian playwright, short story writer, poet, theater manager, political commentator and journalist.
Ionomics is the measurement of the total elemental composition of an organism to address biological problems.
The Institute of Post-Graduate Medical Education and Research and Seth Sukhlal Karnani Memorial Hospital, colloquially known as P G Hospital (Presidency General Hospital) or SSKM Hospital is a tertiary referral government hospital for the state of West Bengal, India and is a national research institute.
The Iranian Anti-Vivisection Association (IAVA) is a nonprofit nongovernmental science-based organization.
Irrigation in viticulture is the process of applying extra water in the cultivation of grapevines.
Irritability is the excitatory ability that living organisms have to respond to changes in their environment.
Irritation, in biology and physiology, is a state of inflammation or painful reaction to allergy or cell-lining damage.
Irvine Heinly Page (January 7, 1901 – June 10, 1991) was born in Indianapolis, Indiana and was an American physiologist who played an important part in the field of hypertension for almost 60 years while working at the Cleveland Clinic as the first Chair of Research.
Irving Island is a small island at the northeastern end of the Barcroft Islands, in the Biscoe Islands, Antarctica.
Isaak Abelin (6 February 1883, Bern – 1965) was a Swiss physiologist known for describing the Abelin reaction.