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Pomerania

Index Pomerania

Pomerania (Pomorze; German, Low German and North Germanic languages: Pommern; Kashubian: Pòmòrskô) is a historical region on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea in Central Europe, split between Germany and Poland. [1]

1330 relations: Absalon, Adalbert of Pomerania, Adam Nieniewski, Adam, Count of Schwarzenberg, Administrative division of the Kingdom of Poland, Administrative divisions of Poland, Adolf Hitler's rise to power, Adolf von Thadden, Adolph Sigfried von der Osten, Agnes of Babenberg, Agnes of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Ahrenshoop, Airship Italia, Aktion T4, Albert Dominicus Trip van Zoudtlandt, Albert Forster, Albert II, Margrave of Brandenburg, Albierz, Aldona of Lithuania, Aleksander Majkowski, Alexander Danilovich Menshikov, Alexander Guagnini, Alexander Kemurdzhian, Alexander Sadebeck, Alexander von Humboldt, Alexei Petrovich, Tsarevich of Russia, Allied war crimes during World War II, Altes Lager (Menzlin), Althagen, America Line, Amsterdam banking crisis of 1763, Anastasia of Greater Poland, Ancient Estonia, Andreas Hakenberger, Andreas Hillgruber, Andrzej Gąsiorowski, Andrzej Lepper, Angermünde, Anna Jagiellon, Duchess of Pomerania, Antoine Charles Louis de Lasalle, Anton von Krockow, Antoni Olechnowicz, Antonio Possevino, Arka Gdynia, Army Group Vistula, Arno Paulsen, Artur Rother, August Froehlich, August von Kleist, August von Mackensen, ..., Augusto Pestana, Augustyn Träger, Axel Gyntersberg, Étienne Hastrel de Rivedoux, Świdwin, Świebodzin, Świna, Świnoujście, Żarnów, Bałtyk Koszalin, Bad Fallingbostel, Balduin Möllhausen, Balmer See, Balthasar Russow, Baltic culture in Pomerania, Baltic Fleet, Baltic Institute, Baltic maritime trade (c. 1400–1800), Baltic Project, Baltic region, Baltic Sea, Balts, Bar, Vinnytsia Oblast, Barbara Bojarska, Barnim VIII, Duke of Pomerania, Barnim X, Duke of Pomerania, Barnim XI, Duke of Pomerania, Bastarnae, Battle of Berlin, Battle of Bornhöved (1227), Battle of Cedynia, Battle of Chojnice (1656), Battle of Dirschau, Battle of Frisches Haff, Battle of Głogów, Battle of Grudziądz (1659), Battle of Hochkirch, Battle of Kock (1920), Battle of Kunersdorf, Battle of Lund, Battle of Nakło, Battle of Neuensund, Battle of Radzymin (1920), Battle of Schoenfeld, Battle of Svolder, Battle of the Border, Battle of Warsaw (1920), Battles of the Seven Years' War, Bazon Brock, Beheading the Kite, Behnke, Belarusian minority in Poland, Bergen auf Rügen, Berlin Missionary Society, Berlin Nordbahnhof, Berlin–Szczecin railway, Bernd von Brauchitsch, Bernhard Ditlef von Staffeldt, Bertha May Crawford, Bierut Decrees, Birger Martin Hall, Bishop of Wrocław, Bismarckjugend, Blockade of Stralsund, Blumenthal family, Bluth, Bodden, Bogislaw IV, Duke of Pomerania, Bohuslän Regiment, Bolesław I the Brave, Bolesław II the Generous, Bolesław III Wrymouth, Bolesław of Kuyavia, Bolesław the Pious, Border Guard (Poland), Boris Sheremetev, Borne Sulinowo, Brandenburg cuisine, Brandenburg-Prussia, Brandenburg–Pomeranian conflict, Breca the Bronding, Brick Gothic, Brigitte Klump, Bronisław Komorowski (priest), Bronze- and Iron-Age Poland, Bruno of Querfurt, Brześć Kujawski, Bydgoszcz Cathedral, Bytów, Cameralism, Canute VI of Denmark, Capacitor, Capitulation of Franzburg, Carel Frederik Krahmer de Bichin, Cariacica, Carl August Wilhelm Berends, Carl Busacker, Carl Freybe, Carl Gustaf Wrangel, Carl Ritschl, Carl von Brühl, Carl Wilhelm Schmidt, Carlo von Tiedemann, Casimir I the Restorer, Casimir IV Jagiellon, Casimir V, Duke of Pomerania, Casimir VI, Duke of Pomerania, Caspar Brülow, Caspar David Friedrich, Caspar Otto von Glasenapp, Catherine of Pomerania, Countess Palatine of Neumarkt, Catherine the Great, Cecilia (royal mistress), Cedynia, Celle State Stud, Ceslaus, Cham Albanians, Chapel, Charge at Krojanty, Charlene, Princess of Monaco, Charles Adams (Colorado), Charles Arnold-Baker, Charles E. Scharlau, Charles Louis Dieudonné Grandjean, Charles X Gustav of Sweden, Chełmno Land, Chernyakhov culture, Christel Peters, Christiaan Hendrik Persoon, Christian de la Mazière, Christian Nicolaus von Linger, Christianization of Poland, Christianization of Pomerania, Christine Lucyga, Christman Genipperteinga, Christmas traditions, Christoph Bernhard, Christoph Hartknoch, Christoph Wilhelm von Kalckstein, Christopher Polhem, Chronological list of saints and blesseds in the 12th century, Cipher Department of the High Command of the Wehrmacht, Circipania, Civitas Schinesghe, Clan Ostoja, Claude Dallemagne, Clemens Krauss, Cnut the Great, Coal mining in Poland, Coat of arms of Denmark, Coat of arms of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Coat of arms of Norway, Coat of arms of Prussia, Cockchafer, Coffee Hag albums, Collaboration in German-occupied Poland, Collaboration with the Axis Powers, Commission for the Determination of Place Names, Congress of Gniezno, Conrad Mardefelt, Conrad, Margrave of Brandenburg-Stendal, Cosmographia (Sebastian Münster), Council of National Unity, Countess Louise Henriette of Nassau, Counts of Wedel-Jarlsberg, Crooked Forest, Cuirassier Regiment "Queen" (Pomeranian) No. 2, Curzon Line, Cyllene (horse), Czaplinek, Czcibor, Dacian bracelets, Dagome iudex, Dalarna Regiment, Daniel Cramer, Daniel Jonsson, Danish exonyms, Dano-Swedish War (1658–60), Danuta Siedzikówna, Danzig rebellion, Dar Pomorza, Das Bohnenspiel, Dassow, David Hollatz (dogmatician), David Hollatz (writer), Dökkálfar and Ljósálfar, Dörrebach, Dębczyn culture, Demmin, Demographic estimates of the flight and expulsion of Germans, Demographic history of Pomerania, Demographics of Brazil, Demonym, Denmark in World War II, Des Deutschen Vaterland, Desloch, Deutscher Kriegerbund, Deutsches Eck, Deutsches Turn- und Sportfest 1938, Deutschland-class battleship, Dialects of Polish, Die Deutschen Konservativen, Diet of Regensburg (1630), Dieter Stöckmann, Dietrich von Falkenberg, Dita Parlo, Divided regions, Dobieszczyn, Dobrzany, Donas, Dorothea of Denmark, Duchess of Mecklenburg, Dowództwo Okręgu Korpusu, Drangmeister, Drei Chinesen mit dem Kontrabass, Drogoradz, West Pomeranian Voivodeship, Drużno, Duchess Elisabeth of Württemberg, Duchy of Greater Poland, Duchy of Magdeburg, Duchy of Pomerania, Duke, Duke Charles Louis Frederick of Mecklenburg, Dutch exonyms, Działyński, Dziennik Bałtycki, Early history of Pomerania, Early Slavs, East Germanic languages, East Low German, East Pomeranian dialect, East Pomeranian Offensive, East Prussian Offensive, Eastern Front (World War II), Eastern Pomerania, Eastland Company, Eßweiler, Eckernförde, Edgar Puaud, Edict of Restitution, Edmund von Mach, Eduard von Bonin, Edward J. Kuntze, Edward Sapir, Effi Briest, Eilhard Lubinus, Einsatzkommando, Ekkehard Kyrath, Elisabeth of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg, Elizabeth of Doberschütz, Elizabeth von Arnim, Eltz, Emblems of the Kalmar Union, Emil John Raddatz, Emil Seidel, Energy in Poland, Engelbrekt rebellion, English exonyms, Eric of Pomerania, Erich Hoffmann, Erich Honecker, Erik Dahlbergh, Erika Fuchs, Ernest I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Ernst Bader, Ernst Eduard Taubert, Ernst Gustav Zaddach, Ernst Moritz Arndt, Ernst Schlange, Ernst von Hoeppner, Ernst von Rüchel, Erwin Aichele, Ether addiction, Ethnic cleansing of Zamojszczyzna by Nazi Germany, Ethnic minorities in Poland, Eudoxia of Kiev, Eugène Vaulot, Eugen Ferdinand von Homeyer, Eugeniusz Pławski, Euphrosyne of Opole, European wars of religion, Evacuations of children in Germany during World War II, Evangelical Church in Germany, Ewald Friedrich von Hertzberg, Ewald-Heinrich von Kleist-Schmenzin, Fallschirm-Panzergrenadier Division 2 Hermann Göring, Family of Gediminas, Farther Pomerania, Father Eugeniusz Dutkiewicz SAC Hospice, Fürstenau, Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand von Prondzynski, Fischland, Fischland-Darß-Zingst, Flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–50), Flight and expulsion of Germans from Poland during and after World War II, Flockina von Platen, Foot of the Mountain (song), Football Junior Championships of Poland, Forest of Szpęgawsk, Former eastern territories of Germany, Fortress Division Swinemünde, Francis, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Francis, Duke of Pomerania, Franciszek Przysiężniak, Franciszek Stanisław Hutten-Czapski, Franco-Swedish War, Franz Alexander von Kleist, Franz Pieper, Franzburg, Frédéric Chopin, Frederich Christopher Trampe, Count of Trampe, Frederick Augustus, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst, Frederick II, Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg, French exonyms, Friedrich Gilly, Friedrich Gisbert Wilhelm von Romberg, Friedrich Heinrich Albert Wangerin, Friedrich von Canitz, Friedrich Wilhelm Quirin von Forcade de Biaix, Friedrich Wilhelm von Dossow, Friedrich Wilhelm von Forcade de Biaix, Friedrich Wilhelm von Grumbkow, Fritz von Brodowski, Gabriel Gustafsson Oxenstierna, Gabriel Jean Joseph Molitor, Galium × pomeranicum, Gartz, Garz (Rügen), Gasworks building, Bydgoszcz, Günter Schabowski, Günther Marks, Günther von Kluge, Gdańsk, Gdańsk Medical University, Gdańsk University of Technology, Gdańska Street, Bydgoszcz, Gdynia, Genetic history of Europe, Geography of Poland, Georg Detlev von Flemming, Georg Friedrich Schömann, Georg Ludwig von Puttkamer, Georg Michaelis, Georg von Kameke, George Adalbert von Mülverstedt, George Bell (bishop), George I, Duke of Pomerania, George II, Duke of Pomerania, Gerard Antoni Ciołek, Gerhard Roßbach, German art, German Brazilians, German casualties in World War II, German Emperor, German Empire, German evacuation from Central and Eastern Europe, German Instrument of Surrender, German minority in Poland, German National People's Party, German New Guinea, German occupation of Latvia during World War II, Germanisation, Germans, Germans in Chicago, Gertrud von Puttkamer, Gesta Danorum, Getica, Gheorghe Ștefan, Gifhorn Castle, Gisela Stein, Glady (surname), Gneomar, Gniew, Gniew Castle, Gocław, Szczecin, Goleniów, Gollub War, Goplans, Gothic architecture, Gothic architecture in modern Poland, Goths, Gottfried Frölich, Gottfried Lengnich, Gottlieb Heinrich Totleben, Government Delegation for Poland, Grabowa (river), Graded shoreline, Gray Ranks, Great Northern War, Greater Poland uprising (1918–1919), Greek exonyms, Greifenstein, Greifswald, Gries, Bas-Rhin, Griffin, Grigory Spiridov, Großer Jasmunder Bodden, Grodzka Street in Bydgoszcz, Grudziądz, Gryf coat of arms, Gryf Słupsk, Gryfice, Gryfino, Grzegorz Gerwazy Gorczycki, Gustav Anton von Wietersheim, Gustav Bogislav von Münchow, Gustav Pietsch, Gustav Wachtmeister, Gustavo III (Verdi), Gustow group, Hamazasp Babadzhanian, Hanna Foltyn-Kubicka, Hans Beißwenger, Hans Friedrich Gadow, Hans Joachim von Rohr, Hans Philipp, Hans von Freden, Hans von Lehwaldt, Hans von Seeckt, Hans-Georg von der Osten, Hans-Jürgen Schlieker, Hans-Martin Majewski, Hans-Wilhelm Koepcke, Hartmann von Heldrungen, Hartwig (surname), Hauskyjza, Höffern, Hedevig Ulfeldt, Hedwig Jagiellon (1408–1431), Hedwig of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Heidemarie Steiner, Heinrich Bandlow, Heinrich Carl von Schimmelmann, Heinrich George, Heinrich Himmler, Heinrich von Manteuffel, Heinrich von Plauen, Heinrich Wolfgang Ludwig Dohrn, Heinz Giese, Heinz Pollay, Hel, Poland, Hello, Fraulein!, Henning (surname), Henning Alexander von Kleist, Henning Alexander von Kleist (1707–1784), Henning Podebusk, Henri Joseph Fenet, Henry II, Count of Holstein-Rendsburg, Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor, Henry the Bearded, Henry the Lion, Herbert Backe, Heribert von Larisch, Hermann Freese, Hermann Schwartze, Heros von Borcke, Hildebrandt, History of Eastern Germany, History of Franconia, History of German settlement in Central and Eastern Europe, History of Germany, History of Lae, History of Poland, History of Poland (1939–1945), History of Poland during the Jagiellonian dynasty, History of Poland during the Piast dynasty, History of Poland in the Middle Ages, History of Pomerania, History of Pomerania (1806–1933), History of Pomerania (1933–1945), History of Pomerania (1945–present), History of rail transport in Poland, History of Saxony, History of Szczecin, History of the Jews in Belarus, History of the Jews in Lithuania, History of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1648–1764), History of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1764–1795), History of the Royal Castle in Warsaw, Hobe family, Holmen (company), Holocaust trains, Holtzendorff, Holy Roman Empire, Home Army, Homosexuality and Lutheranism, Honor Bound series, Horn family, House of Putbus, Hugo Döblin, Hugo von Kathen, Humorist (horse), Hyacinth Graf Strachwitz, Immigration to Brazil, Institutes of Agriculture of Bydgoszcz, Irena 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Braille special educational centre for blind children in Bydgoszcz, Landflucht, Landgraben (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern), Landkreis Kolberg-Körlin, Landkreis Regenwalde, Lands of Schlawe and Stolp, Latvian Legion, Lauenburg and Bütow Land, Löcknitz Castle, Lechites, Lechitic languages, Leendert Pieter de Neufville, Legion of the Vistula, Lemovii, Leonore Siegele-Wenschkewitz, Leopold Stokowski, Leopold Wilhelm, Margrave of Baden-Baden, Lesser Poland, Leszko III, List of accidents and incidents involving military aircraft (1940–44), List of adjectival and demonymic forms of place names, List of adjectivals and demonyms for former regions, List of adjectivals and demonyms for subcontinental regions, List of ancient Baltic peoples and tribes, List of ancient Slavic peoples and tribes, List of Axis operational codenames in the European Theatre, List of bishops of Szczecin-Kamień, List of Carthusian monasteries, List of derbies in Poland, List of Dolmens, List of Don Cossacks noble families, List of double placenames, List of English exonyms for German toponyms, List of etymologies of country subdivision names, List of European regions with alternative names, List of fictional countries by region, List of floods, List of foods named after places, List of French exonyms for German toponyms, List of griffins as mascots and in heraldry, List of historical regions of Central Europe, List of Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross recipients (G), List of Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross recipients (L), List of Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross recipients of the Waffen-SS, List of languages by time of extinction, List of Latin names of regions, List of longest-reigning monarchs, List of Manning-Sanders tales by region, List of mass evacuations, List of medieval Gaue, List of military headstamps, List of military operations on the Eastern Front of World War II, List of municipalities in the Province of Pomerania, A–Z, List of OECD regions by GDP (PPP) per capita, List of oldest continuously inhabited cities, List of people executed for witchcraft, List of placenames in the Province of Pomerania, List of Polish women writers, List of Pomeranian duchies and dukes, List of Portuguese exonyms, List of pre-modern states, List of rampage killers, List of rampage killers (Europe), List of Russian exonyms, List of shipwrecks in 1816, List of shipwrecks in April 1945, List of shipwrecks in August 1944, List of shipwrecks in December 1944, List of shipwrecks in February 1945, List of shipwrecks in January 1915, List of shipwrecks in January 1945, List of shipwrecks in July 1944, List of shipwrecks in June 1944, List of shipwrecks in March 1945, List of shipwrecks in May 1944, List of shipwrecks in May 1945, List of shipwrecks in November 1941, List of shipwrecks in November 1942, List of shipwrecks in November 1944, List of shipwrecks in October 1944, List of shipwrecks in September 1944, List of state leaders in 1086, List of state leaders in 1112, List of state leaders in 1114, List of Swedish monarchs, List of towns in Western Pomerania, List of treaties, List of Vorpostenboote in World War II, List of wars involving Sweden, Lithuanian Civil War (1432–1438), Lokator, Loop (inlet), Lordship of Parchim-Richenberg, Lordship of Stargard, Lorentz Eichstadt, Lothair II, Holy Roman Emperor, Lothar Bisky, Louis I of Hungary, Louis II, Elector of Brandenburg, Low German, Low German house, Lower Level Football Leagues in Interwar Poland, Lower Moselle, Lubusz Land, Lucia of Rügen, Lucidor, Lucyna Nyka, Ludwig August von Stutterheim, Ludwig Hollonius, Luftschiffhafen Seddin, Lupold von Wedel, Lusatian culture, Lutheran Diocese of Pomerania-Greater Poland, Magdeburg rights, Malbork Castle, Malmö, Manuel Villegas Piñateli, March (territorial entity), Marcus Kalisch, Marek Kamiński, Margaret of Brandenburg, Duchess of Pomerania, Margaret of Masovia, Margrave Albert Frederick of Brandenburg-Schwedt, Margraviate of Brandenburg, Maria Eleonora of 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(1454–66), Thomas Haller Cooper, Thomas McLaughlin (engineer), Timbó, Timber framing, Timeline of ornithology, Tollatsch, Tomasz Tomka, Topographia Germaniae, Tornadoes of 2012, Torquato Conti, Tourism in Poland, Trampe, Trans-European Suture Zone, Treaty of Christburg, Treaty of Prenzlau, Treaty of Stuhmsdorf, Treaty of Tsarskoye Selo, Trebel (river), Treenailed boat, Trevor Corry, Truso, Trzciano, Pomeranian Voivodeship, Trzebież, Trzeciewiec Transmitter, Tuchola, Tugendbund, Turf maze, Tyrawa Wołoska, Tywa, Ueckermünde, Ugotowani, Ulrich II, Duke of Mecklenburg-Stargard, Ulrich von Hutten, Ulrich von Schwerin, Ulrich, Duke of Pomerania, Uniemyśl, West Pomeranian Voivodeship, Union of Poles in Germany, University of Greifswald, Usedom, Ustka, Uwe Johnson, Valdemar I of Denmark, Vellaunus, Veste Landskron, Viking Age, Viktor Lomidze, Vilis Janums, Vincens Budde, Visborg, Vistula–Oder Offensive, Voivodeship road, Volker Vogeler, Volksdeutsche, Von Kantzow, Von Loppenow, Vytenis, Wałcz, Waffen-SS, Waldow family, Walery Cyryl Amrogowicz, Walhalla memorial, Walkenried Abbey, Walloon Legion, Walter Braemer, Walter Bruno Henning, War crimes in occupied Poland during World War II, Warfare in Medieval Poland, Wars and battles involving Prussia, Wars of the Rügen Succession, Wartislaw V, Duke of Pomerania, Wartislaw VIII, Duke of Pomerania, Wawrzyniec Samp, Władysław I Herman, Władysław I the Elbow-high, Władysław III of Poland, Władysław III Spindleshanks, Włocławek, Wda, Well smack, Wenceslaus III of Bohemia, Wendish Crusade, Wendland (disambiguation), Wends, Werner Buchholz (historian), Werner Elert, West Pomeranian Voivodeship, Western betrayal, Western Institute, Western Pomerania, Western Pomerania (disambiguation), Weyher family, White Brazilians, Wiśniewski, Widow conservation, Wielbark culture, Wilfried Strik-Strikfeldt, Wilhelm Kettler, Wilhelm Ludwig Ewald Schmidt, Wilhelm Meinhold, Wilhelm Solf, Wilhelm Stuckart, Willi Veller, William I of Guelders and Jülich, 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territorial exchange, 1st Fallschirm-Panzer Division Hermann Göring, 207th Rifle Division (Soviet Union), 207th Security Division (Wehrmacht), 292nd Infantry Division (Wehrmacht), 2nd Belorussian Front, 2nd Warsaw Infantry Division, 310th Rifle Division (Soviet Union), 33rd Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS Charlemagne (1st French), 3rd Panzer Division (Wehrmacht), 3rd Reserve Division (German Empire), 4 Days in May, 4th SS Polizei Panzergrenadier Division, 56th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht), 65th Anti-Aircraft Artillery Division (Soviet Union), 69th Fortress Brigade (Russia), 70th Rifle Division, 972. Expand index (1280 more) »

Absalon

Absalon or Axel (21 March 1201) was a Danish archbishop and statesman, who was the Bishop of Roskilde from 1158 to 1192 and Archbishop of Lund from 1178 until his death.

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Adalbert of Pomerania

Adalbert of Pomerania (Adalbert or Albert von Pommern, Wojciech I) (born before 1124; died 1162) was the first bishop of the 12th century Pomeranian bishopric, with its see in Wolin (also Jumne, Julin).

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Adam Nieniewski

Colonel Adam Nieniewski (19 May 1886 - 25 April 1947) was a Polish military commander, an officer of the Polish Army and a veteran of World War I, Polish–Soviet War and World War II.

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Adam, Count of Schwarzenberg

Adam Graf von Schwar(t)zenberg (26 August 1583 – 14 March 1641) was a German official who advised George William, Elector of Brandenburg, during the Thirty Years' War and served as the Master of the ''Johanniterorden'', the Bailiwick of Brandenburg of the Order of Saint John (1625−41).

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Administrative division of the Kingdom of Poland

The administrative division of the Kingdom of Poland evolved over the several centuries.

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Administrative divisions of Poland

The administrative division of Poland since 1999 has been based on three levels of subdivision.

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Adolf Hitler's rise to power

Adolf Hitler's rise to power began in Germany in September 1919 when Hitler joined the political party known as the Deutsche Arbeiterpartei – DAP (German Workers' Party).

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Adolf von Thadden

Adolf von Thadden (7 July 1921 – 16 July 1996) was a leading far-right German politician.

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Adolph Sigfried von der Osten

Count Adolph Sigfried von der Osten (21 October 1726, Denmark - 2 January 1797) was a Danish diplomat of German descent.

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Agnes of Babenberg

Not to be confused with Agnes of Brandenburg Agnes of Babenberg (Agnes von Babenberg, Agnieszka Babenberg; b. ca. 1108/13 – d. 24/25 January 1163), was a German noblewoman, a scion of the Franconian House of Babenberg and by marriage High Duchess of Poland and Duchess of Silesia.

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Agnes of Brunswick-Lüneburg

Agnes of Brunswick-Lüneburg (before 1356 - 1430/1434) was a Duchess of Brunswick-Lüneburg by birth and, by marriage, Duchess of Pomerania and later Duchess of Mecklenburg.

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Ahrenshoop

Ahrenshoop is a municipality in the Vorpommern-Rügen district, in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany on the Fischland-Darß-Zingst peninsula of the Baltic Sea.

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Airship Italia

Airship Italia was a semi-rigid airship used by Italian engineer Umberto Nobile in his second series of flights around the North Pole.

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Aktion T4

Aktion T4 (German) was a postwar name for mass murder through involuntary euthanasia in Nazi Germany.

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Albert Dominicus Trip van Zoudtlandt

Jonkheer Albert Dominicus Trip van Zoudtlandt (Groningen, October 13, 1776—The Hague, March 23, 1835) was a Dutch lieutenant-general of cavalry who headed the Dutch-Belgian heavy cavalry brigade at the Battle of Waterloo.

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Albert Forster

Albert Maria Forster (26 July 1902 – 28 February 1952) was a Nazi German politician and war criminal.

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Albert II, Margrave of Brandenburg

Albert II, Margrave of Brandenburg (born: – died: 25 February 1220) was a member of the House of Ascania.

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Albierz

Albierz (Alberus) (died in 1283) was a semi-historic bishop of Włocławek (Kuyavian-Pomeranian).

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Aldona of Lithuania

Aldona (baptized Ona or Anna; her pagan name, Aldona, is known only from the writings of Maciej Stryjkowski; – 26 May 1339) was Queen consort of Poland (1333–1339), and a princess of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

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Aleksander Majkowski

Aleksander Majkowski (Aleksander Majkòwsczi; 17 July 1876 – 10 February 1938) was a Kashubian writer, poet, journalist, editor, activist, and physician.

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Alexander Danilovich Menshikov

Prince Aleksander Danilovich Menshikov (Алекса́ндр Дани́лович Ме́ншиков; –) was a Russian statesman, whose official titles included Generalissimus, Prince of the Russian Empire and Duke of Izhora (Duke of Ingria), Prince of the Holy Roman Empire, Duke of Cosel.

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Alexander Guagnini

Alexander Guagnini (Alexander Gwagnin, Alessandro Guagnini dei Rizzoni; 1538 in Verona, Republic of Venice – 1614 in Kraków, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) was a Polish writer, military officer, chronicler and historian of Italian heritage.

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Alexander Kemurdzhian

Alexander Leonovich Kemurdzhian (Ալեքսանդր Լևոնի Քեմուրջյան, Алекса́ндр Лео́нович Кемурджиа́н; 4 October 1921 – 25 February 2003) Obituary was a pioneering scientist, of Armenian heritage, in the space flight program of the Soviet Union.

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Alexander Sadebeck

Alexander Sadebeck (26 June 1843 in Breslau – 9 December 1879 in Hamburg) was a German geologist and mineralogist.

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Alexander von Humboldt

Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt (14 September 17696 May 1859) was a Prussian polymath, geographer, naturalist, explorer, and influential proponent of Romantic philosophy and science.

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Alexei Petrovich, Tsarevich of Russia

Alexei Petrovich Romanov (28 February 1690 – 7 July 1718) was a Russian Tsarevich.

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Allied war crimes during World War II

Allied war crimes include both alleged and legally proven violations of the laws of war by the Allies of World War II against either civilians or military personnel of the Axis powers.

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Altes Lager (Menzlin)

Altes Lager (German for "Old Camp") is a site south of the village of Menzlin near Anklam, Western Pomerania, Germany.

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Althagen

The village of Althagen on the peninsula of Fischland-Darß-Zingst in the German state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern has been a part of the municipality of Ahrenshoop since 1950.

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America Line

The America Line (German: Amerikalinie) is the unofficial name of a railway line in northern Germany which is mainly of regional importance today.

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Amsterdam banking crisis of 1763

The Amsterdam banking crisis of 1763 in the Netherlands followed the end of the Seven Years' War.

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Anastasia of Greater Poland

Anastasia of Greater Poland (Anastazja Mieszkówna; b. ca. 1164 – d. aft. 31 May 1240), was Duchess of Pomerania by marriage to Bogislaw I, Duke of Pomerania, and regent from 1187 until 1208.

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Ancient Estonia

Ancient Estonia refers to a period covering History of Estonia from the middle of the 8th millennium BC until the conquest and subjugation of the local Finnic tribes in the first quarter of the 13th century during the Danish Northern Crusades.

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Andreas Hakenberger

Andreas Hakenberger (Kremmin, Pomerania, 1574–1627) was a German composer, in Danzig from 1608.

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Andreas Hillgruber

Andreas Fritz Hillgruber (18 January 1925 – 8 May 1989) was a conservative German historian.

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Andrzej Gąsiorowski

Prof. Dr. hab.

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Andrzej Lepper

Andrzej Zbigniew Lepper (13 June 1954 – 5 August 2011) was a Polish politician who was the leader of Samoobrona RP (Self-Defense of the Republic of Poland) political party.

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Angermünde

Angermünde is a town in the district of Uckermark in the state of Brandenburg, Germany.

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Anna Jagiellon, Duchess of Pomerania

Anna Jagiellon (12 March 1476 – 12 August 1503), was a Polish princess member of the Jagiellonian dynasty and by marriage Duchess of Pomerania.

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Antoine Charles Louis de Lasalle

Antoine-Charles-Louis, Comte de Lasalle (10 May 1775, Metz6 July 1809, Wagram) was a French cavalry general during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, often called "The Hussar General".

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Anton von Krockow

Anton Friedrich von Krockow (4 January 1714 in Polzin, Pomerania – 7 September 1778 in Landshut) was a Prussian lieutenant general.

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Antoni Olechnowicz

Antoni Olechnowicz (1905–1951) was a Polish military officer.

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Antonio Possevino

Antonio Possevino (Antonius Possevinus) (10 July 1533 – 26 February 1611) was a Jesuit protagonist of Counter Reformation as a papal diplomat and a Jesuit controversialist, encyclopedist and bibliographer.

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Arka Gdynia

Morski Związkowy Klub Sportowy Arka Gdynia is a Polish professional football club, based in Gdynia, Poland, that plays in the Polish Ekstraklasa.

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Army Group Vistula

Army Group Vistula was an Army Group of the Wehrmacht, formed on 24 January 1945.

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Arno Paulsen

Arno Paulsen (1900–1969) was a German actor who appeared in around sixty films in the post-Second World War years.

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Artur Rother

Artur Martin Rother (12 October 188522 September 1972) was a German conductor who worked mainly in the opera house.

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August Froehlich

August Froehlich (26 January 1891 – 22 June 1942) was a German Roman Catholic priest.

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August von Kleist

August Christoph Viktor von Kleist (February 19, 1818, Perkuiken - May 14, 1890, Potsdam) was a Prussian Major General.

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August von Mackensen

Anton Ludwig August von Mackensen (6 December 1849 – 8 November 1945), born August Mackensen, was a German field marshal.

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Augusto Pestana

Augusto Pestana is a Brazilian municipality in the State of Rio Grande do Sul.

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Augustyn Träger

Augustyn Träger (25 August 1896 – 22 April 1957), codenames Sęk (Knot) and Tragarz (Porter), was a Polish-Austrian soldier during World War I and an intelligence officer in interwar and German-occupied Poland.

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Axel Gyntersberg

Axel Gyntersberg (c. 1525 – 1588) was a Norwegian nobleman and feudal overlord.

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Étienne Hastrel de Rivedoux

Étienne d'Hastrel de Rivedoux was a general of the First French Empire who fought in the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars.

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Świdwin

Świdwin (Schivelbein; Skwilbëno) is a town in West Pomeranian Voivodeship of northwestern Poland.

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Świebodzin

Świebodzin (Schwiebus) is a town in western Poland with 21,757 inhabitants (2004).

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Świna

The Świna (Pomeranian: Swina) is a river in northwest Poland, between 2 to 4 km from the German border.

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Świnoujście

Świnoujście (Swinemünde, both names meaning Świna mouth) is a city and seaport on the Baltic Sea and Szczecin Lagoon, located in the extreme north-west of Poland.

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Żarnów

Żarnów is a historical village in Opoczno County, Łódź Voivodeship, in central Poland.

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Bałtyk Koszalin

Bałtyk Koszalin is a Polish multi-sports club with football, tennis and athletics sections, based in Koszalin, Pomerania.

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Bad Fallingbostel

Bad Fallingbostel is the district town (Kreisstadt) of the Heidekreis district in the German state of Lower Saxony.

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Balduin Möllhausen

H.

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Balmer See

The Balmer See is the southeastern embayment of the Achterwasser on the island of Usedom off Germany's Baltic coast.

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Balthasar Russow

Balthasar Russow (1536–1600) was one of the most important Livonian and Estonian chroniclers.

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Baltic culture in Pomerania

The Balts decorated their pots by creating "deep incisions and ridges around the neck." Baltic graves consisted of huts made out of timber, or stone costs with floors of pavement "encircled by timber posts", According to Marija Gimbutas.

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Baltic Fleet

The Baltic Fleet (Балтийский флот) is the fleet of the Russian Navy in the Baltic Sea.

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Baltic Institute

The Baltic Institute (Instytut Bałtycki) in Gdańsk is a scientific society researching the topics of the Baltic Sea countries, maritime economic issues, and Polish-German and Polish-Scandinavian relations.

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Baltic maritime trade (c. 1400–1800)

Baltic maritime trade began in the late Middle Ages and would continue to develop into the early modern era.

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Baltic Project

The Baltic Project was a plan promoted by the Admiral Lord Fisher to procure a speedy victory during the First World War over Germany.

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Baltic region

The terms Baltic region, Baltic Rim countries (or simply Baltic Rim), and the Baltic Sea countries refer to slightly different combinations of countries in the general area surrounding the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe.

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Baltic Sea

The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.

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Balts

The Balts or Baltic people (baltai, balti) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the Baltic languages, a branch of the Indo-European language family, which was originally spoken by tribes living in the area east of Jutland peninsula in the west and in the Moscow, Oka and Volga rivers basins in the east.

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Bar, Vinnytsia Oblast

Bar (Бар; Bar; Barium; Βάρ; Bar; Бар) is a town located on the Riv River in the Vinnytsia Oblast (province) of central Ukraine.

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Barbara Bojarska

Barbara Bojarska is a Polish historian, prize-winning author, GWE24.pl.

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Barnim VIII, Duke of Pomerania

Barnim VIII, Duke of Pomerania (between 1405 and 1407 – between 15 and 19 December 1451) at www.ruegenwalde.com' was Duke of Pomerania–Wolgast–Barth.

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Barnim X, Duke of Pomerania

Barnim X, or according to another account Barnim XII (15 February 1549, Wolgast – 1 September 1603, Szczecin) was a duke of Pomerania and a member of the House of Griffins.

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Barnim XI, Duke of Pomerania

Barnim XI (1501 – 1573; by some accounts Barnim IX), son of Bogislaw X, Duke of Pomerania, became duke on his father's death in 1523.

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Bastarnae

The Bastarnae (Latin variants: Bastarni, or Basternae; Βαστάρναι or Βαστέρναι) were an ancient people who between 200 BC and 300 AD inhabited the region between the Carpathian mountains and the river Dnieper, to the north and east of ancient Dacia.

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Battle of Berlin

The Battle of Berlin, designated the Berlin Strategic Offensive Operation by the Soviet Union, and also known as the Fall of Berlin, was the final major offensive of the European theatre of World War II.

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Battle of Bornhöved (1227)

The (second) Battle of Bornhöved took place on 22 July 1227 near Bornhöved in Holstein.

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Battle of Cedynia

In the Battle of Cedynia or Zehden, an army of Mieszko I of Poland defeated forces of Hodo or Odo I of Lusatia on 24 June 972, near the Oder river.

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Battle of Chojnice (1656)

The Battle of Chojnice (Battle of Konitz) was a surprise nighttime attack followed by a run-and-chase battle during The Deluge.

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Battle of Dirschau

The Battle of Dirschau (also known as Battle of Tczew) took place in the summer of 1627 (17–18 August) and was one of the battles of the Polish–Swedish War (1626–29).

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Battle of Frisches Haff

The battle of Frisches Haff or battle of Neuwarp was a naval battle between Sweden and Prussia that took place 10 September 1759 as part of the ongoing Seven Years' War.

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Battle of Głogów

The Battle of Głogów or Defense of Głogów (Schlacht bei Glogau, Obrona Głogowa) was fought on 24 August 1109 at the Silesian town of Głogów, between the Kingdom of Poland and the Holy Roman Empire.

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Battle of Grudziądz (1659)

The 1659 Battle of Grudziądz took place in the Polish town of Grudziądz (Graudenz) during the Swedish Deluge (Potop szwedzki), around 29–30 August 1659.

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Battle of Hochkirch

The Battle of Hochkirch took place on 14 October 1758 during the Third Silesian War (part of the Seven Years' War).

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Battle of Kock (1920)

The Battle of Kock was fought between August 14 and 16, 1920 in the vicinity of the town of Kock in east-central Poland.

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Battle of Kunersdorf

The decisive Battle of Kunersdorf occurred on 12 August 1759 near Kunersdorf (Kunowice), immediately east of Frankfurt an der Oder (the second largest city in Prussia).

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Battle of Lund

The Battle of Lund, part of the Scanian War, was fought on December 4, 1676, in an area north of the city of Lund in Scania in southern Sweden, between the invading Danish army and the army of Charles XI of Sweden.

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Battle of Nakło

The Battle of Nakło (1109) was fought between the forces of the Kingdom of Poland and Pomeranian tribes at Nakło nad Notecią.

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Battle of Neuensund

The Battle of Neuensund was a smaller battle at Neuensund of the Seven Years' War between Swedish and Prussian forces fought on September 18, 1761.

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Battle of Radzymin (1920)

The Battle of Radzymin (Bitwa pod Radzyminem) took place during the Polish–Soviet War (1919–21).

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Battle of Schoenfeld

The Battle of Schoenfeld (Szarża pod Borujskiem) took place on March 1, 1945 during World War II and was the scene of the last mounted charge in the history of the Polish cavalry and the last confirmed successful cavalry charge of World War Two.

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Battle of Svolder

The Battle of Svolder (Svold or Swold) was a naval battle fought in September 999 or 1000 in the western Baltic Sea between King Olaf Tryggvason of Norway and an alliance of his enemies.

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Battle of the Border

The Battle of the Border (Bitwa graniczna) refers to the battles that occurred in the first daysThe Battle of the Border began on 1 September, but sources vary with their assignment of an end date for this phase of the campaign.

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Battle of Warsaw (1920)

The Battle of Warsaw refers to the decisive Polish victory in 1920 during the Polish–Soviet War.

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Battles of the Seven Years' War

The Seven Years' War, 1754–1763, spanned five continents, affecting Europe, the Americas, West Africa, India, and the Philippines.

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Bazon Brock

Bazon Brock (born Jürgen Johannes Hermann Brock, 2 June 1936) is a German art theorist and critic, multi-media generalist and artist.

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Beheading the Kite

Beheading the Kite is a Kashubian Midsummer Eve custom of ritually beheading a kite, a bird which in the Kashubian region used to symbolize evil.

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Behnke

Behnke is a surname originating from west Prussia and the western part of Pomerania, which is now modern north west Poland and north east Germany.

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Belarusian minority in Poland

The Belarusian minority in Poland is composed of 47,000 people according to the Polish census of 2011.

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Bergen auf Rügen

Bergen auf Rügen is the capital of the former district of Rügen in the middle of the island of Rügen in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.

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Berlin Missionary Society

The Berlin Missionary Society (BMS) or Society for the Advancement of evangelistic Missions amongst the Heathen (German: Berliner Missionsgesellschaft or Gesellschaft zur Beförderung der evangelischen Missionen unter den Heiden) was a German Protestant (Old Lutheran) Christian missionary society that was constituted on 29 February 1824 by a group of pious laymen from the Prussian nobility.

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Berlin Nordbahnhof

Berlin Nordbahnhof (formerly Stettiner Bahnhof) is a railway station in the Mitte district of Berlin, Germany.

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Berlin–Szczecin railway

The Berlin–Szczecin railway, also known in German as the Stettiner Bahn (Stettin Railway) is a mainline railway built by the Berlin-Stettin Railway Company between the German capital of Berlin and the now Polish city of Szczecin, then part of Prussia and known as Stettin.

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Bernd von Brauchitsch

Bernd von Brauchitsch (30 September 1911 - 19 December 1974) was a German aristocratic Luftwaffe colonel during World War II and adjutant to Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring.

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Bernhard Ditlef von Staffeldt

Bernhard Ditlef von Staffeldt was born on 23 October 1753 in Kenz, Swedish Pomerania as the son of Lieutenant Bernt von Staffeldt, of Pomeranian nobility, and Catherine Eleonore von Platen.

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Bertha May Crawford

Bertha May Crawford (June 20, 1886 - May 26, 1937) was a Canadian opera singer.

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Bierut Decrees

Bierut Decrees is a direct translation of a German-coined political phrase Bierut-Dekrete, used only in Germany by bodies representative of the cross-border interests of the ethnic Germans expelled from Poland in the aftermath of the Second World War.

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Birger Martin Hall

Birger Martin Hall (26 August 1741, in Borås – 10 August 1815, in Västerås), was a Swedish district medical officer and botanist.

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Bishop of Wrocław

Bishops of Wrocław/Breslau Bishopric, Prince-Bishopric (1290–1918), and Archdiocese (since 1930; see Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Wrocław/Breslau for details).

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Bismarckjugend

Bismarckjugend, 'Bismarck Youth', was an anti-Marxist youth movement in Weimar Germany.

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Blockade of Stralsund

The Blockade of Stralsund occurred during the Seven Years' War when a Prussian force invested the Swedish garrison of Stralsund, the capital of Swedish Pomerania.

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Blumenthal family

The von Blumenthal family are Lutheran and Roman Catholic German nobility, originally from Brandenburg-Prussia.

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Bluth

Bluth is a surname of Germanic origin.

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Bodden

Bodden are briny bodies of water often forming lagoons, along the southwestern shores of the Baltic Sea, primarily in Germany's state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.

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Bogislaw IV, Duke of Pomerania

Bogislaw IV (Bogusław IV; died 19 February 1309 or 24 February 1309), of the Griffins dynasty, was Duke of Pomerania for thirty years.

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Bohuslän Regiment

The Bohuslän Regiment (Bohusläns regemente), designation I 17, was a Swedish Army infantry regiment that traces its origins back 1661.

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Bolesław I the Brave

Bolesław I the Brave (Bolesław I Chrobry, Boleslav Chrabrý; 967 – 17 June 1025), less often known as Bolesław I the Great (Bolesław I Wielki), was Duke of Poland from 992 to 1025, and the first King of Poland in 1025.

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Bolesław II the Generous

Bolesław II the Generous, also known as the Bold and the Cruel (Bolesław II Szczodry; Śmiały; Okrutny; c. 1042 – 2 or 3 April 1081 or 1082), was Duke of Poland from 1058 to 1076 and third King of Poland from 1076 to 1079.

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Bolesław III Wrymouth

Bolesław III Wrymouth (also known as Boleslaus III the Wry-mouthed, Bolesław III Krzywousty) (20 August 1086 – 28 October 1138), was a Duke of Lesser Poland, Silesia and Sandomierz between 1102 and 1107 and over the whole Poland between 1107 and 1138.

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Bolesław of Kuyavia

Bolesław of Kuyavia (also known as Mieszkowic) (Bolesław kujawski (Mieszkowic)) (1159 – 13 September 1195) was a Duke of Kuyavia from 1186 until his death.

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Bolesław the Pious

Bolesław the Pious (Bolesław Pobożny) (1224/27 – 14 April 1279) was a Duke of Greater Poland during 1239–1247 (according to some historians during 1239–1241 sole Duke of Ujście), Duke of Kalisz during 1247–1249, Duke of Gniezno during 1249–1250, Duke of Gniezno-Kalisz during 1253–1257, Duke of whole Greater Poland and Poznań during 1257–1273, in 1261 ruler over Ląd, regent of the Duchies of Mazovia, Płock and Czersk during 1262–1264, ruler over Bydgoszcz during 1268–1273, Duke of Inowrocław during 1271–1273, and Duke of Gniezno-Kalisz from 1273 until his death.

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Border Guard (Poland)

The Polish Border Guard (Polish Straż Graniczna, also abbreviated as SG) is a state security agency tasked with patrolling the Polish border.

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Boris Sheremetev

Boris Petrovich Sheremetev (Бори́с Петро́вич Шереме́тев; –) was a Russian diplomat and general field marshal during the Great Northern War.

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Borne Sulinowo

Borne Sulinowo (former German name: Groß Born) is a town in Poland's Western Pomeranian Voivodship, in the Powiat of Szczecinek.

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Brandenburg cuisine

The cuisine of Brandenburg, a region of Germany, is considered rather down-to-earth compared to other cuisines.

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Brandenburg-Prussia

Brandenburg-Prussia (Brandenburg-Preußen) is the historiographic denomination for the Early Modern realm of the Brandenburgian Hohenzollerns between 1618 and 1701.

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Brandenburg–Pomeranian conflict

Starting in the 12th century, the Margraviate, later Electorate, of Brandenburg was in conflict with the neighboring Duchy of Pomerania over frontier territories claimed by them both, and over the status of the Pomeranian duchy, which Brandenburg claimed as a fief, whereas Pomerania claimed Imperial immediacy.

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Breca the Bronding

Breca (sometimes spelled Breoca or Brecca) was a Bronding who, according to the Anglo-Saxon poem Beowulf, was Beowulf’s childhood friend.

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Brick Gothic

Brick Gothic (Backsteingotik, Gotyk ceglany, Baksteengotiek) is a specific style of Gothic architecture common in Northwest and Central Europe especially in the regions in and around the Baltic Sea, which do not have resources of standing rock, but in many places a lot of glacial boulders.

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Brigitte Klump

Brigitte Klump (born 23 January 1935) is a German author and campaigner.

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Bronisław Komorowski (priest)

Father Bronisław Komorowski (May 25, 1889–March 22, 1940) was a Polish Roman Catholic priest, active in the interwar period in the predominantly German Free City of Danzig.

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Bronze- and Iron-Age Poland

The Bronze and Iron Age cultures in Poland are known mainly from archeological research.

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Bruno of Querfurt

Saint Bruno of Querfurt (974 – 14 February 1009 AD), also known as Brun and Boniface, was a missionary bishop and martyr, who was beheaded near the border of Kievan Rus and Lithuania while trying to spread Christianity in Eastern Europe.

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Brześć Kujawski

Brześć Kujawski, often anglicized to Kuyavian Brest, is a town in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship of Poland.

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Bydgoszcz Cathedral

St.

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Bytów

Bytów (Bëtowò; Bütow is a town in the Gdańsk Pomerania region of northern Poland with 16,888 inhabitants (2004). Previously in Słupsk Voivodeship (1975–1998), it is the capital of Bytów County in Pomeranian Voivodeship (since 1999). The origins of Bytów can be traced back to the early Middle Ages when a fortified stronghold once stood near the town. Bytów was later mentioned, under the Latin name castrum nomine Bitom, by notable Gallus Anonymus in his Chronicles describing medieval Poland. In 1346 Bütow got German town law from the Teutonic Order. During the Thirteen Years' War (1454-1466), the town was the sight of heavy fighting and changed hands over time. Eventually, King Casimir IV Jagiellon granted the town to Eric II, Duke of Pomerania, as a perpetual fiefdom. After the Partitions of Poland, Bytów became part of German Prussia and remained in Germany until the end of World War II. At the final stages of the war, Bytów was the center of heavy artillery shelling initiated by the Red Army; as a result over 55% of buildings were destroyed. Throughout its whole history, Bytów was known to be a multicultural town inhabited by Kashubians, Poles, Germans and Jews. Since 2000 a bugle call is played during important events which taking place in the area. Bytów is a popular tourist destination in the region of Pomerania and is famous for its medieval Teutonic Castle built in the late 14th century.

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Cameralism

Cameralism (German: Kameralismus) was a German science and technology of administration in the 18th and early 19th centuries.

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Canute VI of Denmark

Canute VI (1163 – 12 November 1202) was King of Denmark (1182–1202).

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Capacitor

A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores potential energy in an electric field.

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Capitulation of Franzburg

The Capitulation of Franzburg (Franzburger Kapitulation) was a treaty providing for the capitulation of the Duchy of Pomerania to the forces of the Holy Roman Empire during the Thirty Years' War.

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Carel Frederik Krahmer de Bichin

Carel Frederik Krahmer de Bichin (June 28, 1787, Korbach, Waldeck — September 23, 1830, Brussels) was a Dutch artillery officer.

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Cariacica

Cariacica is a municipality in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, part of the Greater Vitória metropolitan area.

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Carl August Wilhelm Berends

Carl August Wilhelm Berends (April 19, 1759 – December 1, 1826) was a German physician born in Anklam, Pomerania.

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Carl Busacker

Carl Busacker was a member of the Wisconsin State Assembly.

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Carl Freybe

Carl Heinrich Max Freybe (September 26, 1886 (Stettin) – September 8, 1982 (Bielefeld)) was a German politician (business party) and official of the Association of Butchers.

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Carl Gustaf Wrangel

Carl Gustaf Wrangel (also Carl Gustav Wrangel; 23 December 1613 – 5 July 1676) was a high-ranking Swedish noble, statesman and military commander in the Thirty Years', Torstenson, Bremen, Second Northern and Scanian Wars.

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Carl Ritschl

Georg Carl Benjamin Ritschl (1 November 1783 – 18 June 1858) was a German evangelist theologian, bishop and composer in Pomerania.

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Carl von Brühl

Carl (or Karl) Friedrich Moritz Paul von Brühl (1772–1837) was a friend of Goethe, who, as the Superintendent general of the Prussian royal theatres, was of some importance in the history of the development of the drama in Germany.

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Carl Wilhelm Schmidt

Reverend Carl Wilhelm Schmidt (died 1864), also known as Karl Schmidt, was a German missionary, and an ordained minister of the Prussian United Church.

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Carlo von Tiedemann

Carlo von Tiedemann (born 20 October 1943, in Stargard, Pommern) is a German television presenter.

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Casimir I the Restorer

Casimir I the Restorer (b. Kraków, 25 July 1016 – d. Poznań, 28 November 1058), was Duke of Poland of the Piast dynasty and the de jure monarch of the entire country from 1034 until his death.

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Casimir IV Jagiellon

Casimir IV KG (Kazimierz IV Andrzej Jagiellończyk; Kazimieras Jogailaitis; 30 November 1427 – 7 June 1492) of the Jagiellonian dynasty was Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1440 and King of Poland from 1447, until his death.

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Casimir V, Duke of Pomerania

Duke Casimir V of Pomerania (or, counting differently, Casimir VI; before 1380 – 13 April 1435) was a member of the House of Griffins and a Duke of Pomerania.

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Casimir VI, Duke of Pomerania

Duke Casimir VI of Pomerania (or, counting differently: Casimir IX; 22 March 1557, Wolgast – 10 May 1605 on Neuhausen Palace, near Rügenwalde (renamed as Darłowo in 1946) was a non-reigning duke of Pomerania from the House of Griffins and a Lutheran Administrator of the Prince-Bishopric of Cammin, named after the former see in Cammin (renamed as Kamień Pomorski in 1945).

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Caspar Brülow

Caspar Brülow (1585-1627) was a Pomeranian scholar and dramatist who wrote in Latin and German.

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Caspar David Friedrich

Caspar David Friedrich (5 September 1774 – 7 May 1840) was a 19th-century German Romantic landscape painter, generally considered the most important German artist of his generation.

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Caspar Otto von Glasenapp

Caspar Otto von Glasenapp (25 June 1664 at Gut Wurchow, Neustettin district–7 August 1747 in Berlin) was a Prussian officer, most recently Generalfeldmarschall.

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Catherine of Pomerania, Countess Palatine of Neumarkt

Catherine of Pomerania (German: Katharina von Pommern; c. 1390 - 4 March 1426), was a Pomeranian princess and Countess Palatine of Neumarkt.

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Catherine the Great

Catherine II (Russian: Екатерина Алексеевна Yekaterina Alekseyevna; –), also known as Catherine the Great (Екатери́на Вели́кая, Yekaterina Velikaya), born Princess Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst, was Empress of Russia from 1762 until 1796, the country's longest-ruling female leader.

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Cecilia (royal mistress)

Cecilia (died after 1459) was a Danish lady-in-waiting at the court of Philippa of England, Queen Consort of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, and later the mistress and morganatic wife of Philippa’s widower King Eric.

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Cedynia

Cedynia (Zehden) is a small town in Poland, the administrative seat of Gmina Cedynia in Gryfino County, West Pomeranian Voivodeship.

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Celle State Stud

Celle State Stud is a state-owned facility for horse breeding in Celle, Germany.

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Ceslaus

Blessed Ceslaus, O.P., (Czesław) (c. 1184 – c. 1242) was born in Kamień Śląski in Silesia, Poland, of the noble family of Odrowąż, and was a relative, possibly the brother, of Saint Hyacinth.

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Cham Albanians

Cham Albanians, or Chams (Çamë, Τσάμηδες Tsámidhes), are a sub-group of Albanians who originally resided in the western part of the region of Epirus in northwestern Greece, an area known among Albanians as Chameria.

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Chapel

The term chapel usually refers to a Christian place of prayer and worship that is attached to a larger, often nonreligious institution or that is considered an extension of a primary religious institution.

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Charge at Krojanty

The charge at Krojanty, battle of Krojanty, the riding of Krojanty or skirmish of Krojanty was a cavalry charge that occurred during the invasion of Poland in the Second World War.

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Charlene, Princess of Monaco

Charlene, Princess of Monaco (née Charlene Lynette Wittstock; French: Charlène;Since her marriage, her name has been Gallicised by adding a grave accent to her name in French documents. born 25 January 1978) is a former Olympic swimmer for South Africa and wife of Prince Albert II.

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Charles Adams (Colorado)

Charles Adams, born Charles Schwanbeck (December 19, 1845 – August 19, 1895), was a United States Army officer, US Indian agent, diplomat and businessman.

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Charles Arnold-Baker

Charles Arnold-Baker, OBE (born Wolfgang Charles Werner von Blumenthal; 25 June 1918 — 6 June 2009) was an English member of MI6, barrister (called 1948) and historian.

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Charles E. Scharlau

Charles E. Scharlau (May 23, 1845 – March 23, 1903) was an American soldier and political leader in the State of Illinois.

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Charles Louis Dieudonné Grandjean

Charles Louis Dieudonné Grandjean (29 December 1768 – 15 September 1828) became a French division commander and saw extensive service during the Napoleonic Wars.

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Charles X Gustav of Sweden

Charles X Gustav, also Carl Gustav (Karl X Gustav; 8 November 1622 – 13 February 1660), was King of Sweden from 1654 until his death.

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Chełmno Land

Chełmno land (ziemia chełmińska,, Old Prussian: Kulma, Kulmo žemė) is a historical region, located in central-northern Poland.

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Chernyakhov culture

The Chernyakhov culture, or Sântana de Mureș culture, is an archaeological culture that flourished between the 2nd and 5th centuries AD in a wide area of Eastern Europe, specifically in what is now Ukraine, Romania, Moldova and parts of Belarus.

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Christel Peters

Christel Peters (15 January 1916 – 11 June 2009) was a German actress.

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Christiaan Hendrik Persoon

Christiaan Hendrik Persoon (1 February 1761 – 16 November 1836) was a mycologist who made additions to Linnaeus' mushroom taxonomy.

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Christian de la Mazière

Christian de la Mazière (August 22, 1922 in Tunis – February 15, 2006) was a journalist and member of the Charlemagne Division of the Waffen-SS.

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Christian Nicolaus von Linger

Christian Nicolaus von Linger, (5 April 1669 in Berlin, died 17 April 1755), was a Prussian general.

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Christianization of Poland

The Christianization of Poland (Polish: chrystianizacja Polski) refers to the introduction and subsequent spread of Christianity in Poland.

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Christianization of Pomerania

Medieval Pomerania was converted from Slavic paganism to Christianity by Otto von Bamberg in 1124 and 1128 (Duchy of Pomerania), and in 1168 by Absalon (Principality of Rügen).

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Christine Lucyga

Christine Lucyga (born 6 April 1944) is a German SPD politician and former member of the East German Volkskammer (March - October 1990) and the Bundestag (1990–2005).

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Christman Genipperteinga

Christman Genipperteinga was a possibly fictitious German bandit and serial killer of the 16th century.

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Christmas traditions

Christmas traditions vary from country to country.

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Christoph Bernhard

Christoph Bernhard (1 January 1628 – 14 November 1692) was born in Kolberg, Pomerania, and died in Dresden.

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Christoph Hartknoch

Christoph Hartknoch (1644–1687) was a Prussian historian and educator.

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Christoph Wilhelm von Kalckstein

Christoph Wilhelm von Kalckstein (17 October 1682 – 2 June 1759) was a Prussian count, field marshal, teacher and educator of King Frederick II of Prussia.

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Christopher Polhem

Christopher Polhammar (18 December 1661 – 30 August 1751), better known as Christopher Polhem, which he took after his ennoblement, was a Swedish scientist, inventor and industrialist.

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Chronological list of saints and blesseds in the 12th century

A list of 12th-century saints.

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Cipher Department of the High Command of the Wehrmacht

The Cipher Department of the High Command of the Wehrmacht (Amtsgruppe Wehrmachtnachrichtenverbindungen, Abteilung Chiffrierwesen) (also Oberkommando der Wehrmacht Chiffrierabteilung or Chiffrierabteilung of the High Command of the Wehrmacht or Chiffrierabteilung of the OKW or OKW/Chi or Chi) was the Signal Intelligence Agency of the Supreme Command of the Armed Forces of the German Armed Forces before and during World War II.

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Circipania

Circipania (Circipanien, Zirzipanien) was a medieval territory in what is now northeastern Germany.

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Civitas Schinesghe

Civitas Schinesghe is the first recorded name related to Poland as a political entity (the name is a Latinization of hrady knezske or grody książęce, "ducal forts/oppidia") first attested in 991/2.

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Clan Ostoja

Clan Ostoja (ancient Polish: Ostoya) was a powerful group of knights and lords in late-medieval Europe.

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Claude Dallemagne

Claude Dallemagne (8 November 1754, Peyrieu, Ain – 12 June 1813) started his career in the French army under the Bourbons, fought in the American Revolutionary War, rose in rank to become a general officer during the French Revolutionary Wars, took part in the 1796 Italian campaign under Napoleon Bonaparte, and held military posts during the Napoleonic Wars.

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Clemens Krauss

Clemens Heinrich Krauss (31 March 189316 May 1954) was an Austrian conductor and opera impresario, particularly associated with the music of Richard Strauss.

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Cnut the Great

Cnut the GreatBolton, The Empire of Cnut the Great: Conquest and the Consolidation of Power in Northern Europe in the Early Eleventh Century (Leiden, 2009) (Cnut se Micela, Knútr inn ríki. Retrieved 21 January 2016. – 12 November 1035), also known as Canute—whose father was Sweyn Forkbeard (which gave him the patronym Sweynsson, Sveinsson)—was King of Denmark, England and Norway; together often referred to as the North Sea Empire.

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Coal mining in Poland

Coal mining in Poland produced 144 million metric tons of coal in 2012, providing 55 percent of that country’s primary energy consumption, and 75 percent of electrical generation.

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Coat of arms of Denmark

The national coat of arms of Denmark consists of three pale blue lions passant wearing crowns, accompanied by nine red lilypads (normally represented as heraldic hearts), all in a golden shield.

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Coat of arms of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern

This article is about the coat of arms of the German state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.

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Coat of arms of Norway

The coat of arms of Norway is a standing golden lion on a red background, bearing a golden crown and axe with silver blade (blazoned Gules, a lion rampant Or, crowned Or, holding an axe Or with a blade argent).

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Coat of arms of Prussia

The state of Prussia developed from the State of the Teutonic Order.

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Cockchafer

The cockchafer, colloquially called May bug or doodlebug, is a European beetle of the genus Melolontha, in the family Scarabaeidae.

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Coffee Hag albums

The Coffee Hag albums were published in the early 20th century by the Kaffee Handelsgesellschaft AG (Kaffee HAG, Coffee Hag) in Bremen, Germany, starting with heraldic stamps and collector's albums.

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Collaboration in German-occupied Poland

Throughout World War II, Poland was a member of the Allied coalition that fought Nazi Germany.

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Collaboration with the Axis Powers

Within nations occupied by the Axis Powers in World War II, some citizens and organizations, prompted by nationalism, ethnic hatred, anti-communism, antisemitism, opportunism, self-defense, or often a combination, knowingly collaborated with the Axis Powers.

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Commission for the Determination of Place Names

The Commission for the Determination of Place Names (Komisja Ustalania Nazw Miejscowości) was a commission of the Polish Department of Public Administration, founded in January 1946.

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Congress of Gniezno

The Congress of Gniezno (Zjazd gnieźnieński, Akt von Gnesen or Gnesener Übereinkunft) was an amical meeting between the Polish Duke Bolesław I the Brave and Emperor Otto III, which took place at Gniezno on March 11, 1000.

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Conrad Mardefelt

Baron Conrad Mardefelt, formally Conrad von Maesberg, friherre Marderfelt (c. 1610-1688) was a Field Marshal of Sweden (1675).

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Conrad, Margrave of Brandenburg-Stendal

Margrave Conrad I of Brandenburg (– 1304) was a member of the House of Ascania and a co-ruler of Brandenburg.

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Cosmographia (Sebastian Münster)

The Cosmographia ("Cosmography") by Sebastian Münster (1488–1552) from 1544 is the earliest German-language description of the world.

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Council of National Unity

Rada Jedności Narodowej (Council of National Unity, RJN) was the quasi-parliament of the Polish Underground State during World War II.

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Countess Louise Henriette of Nassau

Louise Henrietta of Nassau (van Nassau, Luise Henriette von Nassau; 7 December 1627 – 18 June 1667) was a Countess of Nassau, granddaughter of William I, Prince of Orange, "William the Silent", and an Electress of Brandenburg.

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Counts of Wedel-Jarlsberg

The Count of Wedel-Jarlsberg (also Wedel Jarlsberg) is a title of the Norwegian nobility and of the Danish nobility.

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Crooked Forest

The Crooked Forest (Krzywy Las), is a grove of oddly-shaped pine trees located outside Nowe Czarnowo, West Pomerania, Poland.

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Cuirassier Regiment "Queen" (Pomeranian) No. 2

Dragoner-Regiment Nr.5 Bayreuth Dragoner Dragoner-Regiment Nr.5 Königin Dragoner Kürassier-Regiment Königin Nr.

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Curzon Line

The history of the Curzon Line, with minor variations, goes back to the period following World War I. It was drawn for the first time by the Supreme War Council as the demarcation line between the newly emerging states, the Second Polish Republic, and the Soviet Union.

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Cyllene (horse)

Cyllene (1895–1925) was a British Thoroughbred racehorse and sire.

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Czaplinek

Czaplinek (Tempelburg) is a town in Drawsko County, West Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland, with 7,155 inhabitants (2016).

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Czcibor

Czcibor (Cidebur; died after 972), a member of the Piast dynasty, was a Polan prince of the Piast dynasty, a son of Duke Siemomysł and younger brother of the first Christian ruler, Mieszko I of Poland.

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Dacian bracelets

The Dacian bracelets are bracelets associated with the ancient people known as the Dacians, a distinct branch of the Thracians.

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Dagome iudex

Dagome iudex is one of the earliest historical documents relating to Poland.

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Dalarna Regiment

The Dalarna Regiment (Dalregementet), designations I 13 and I 13/Fo 53, was a Swedish Army infantry regiment that traced its origins back to the 16th century.

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Daniel Cramer

Daniel Cramer (Daniel Candidus) (20 January 1568 – 5 October 1637) was a German Lutheran theologian and writer from Reetz (Recz), Brandenburg.

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Daniel Jonsson

Daniel Jonsson (1599–1663) was a soldier and commander of Dalregementet of the Swedish Empire.

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Danish exonyms

Bilingual town sign of Flensburg, Germany Danish language exonyms for non-Danish speaking locations exist, primarily in Europe, but many of these are no longer commonly used, with a few notable exceptions.

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Dano-Swedish War (1658–60)

The Dano-Swedish War of 1658–60 (Anden Karl Gustav-krig, Karl X Gustavs andra danska krig, Zweeds-Nederlandse Oorlog) was a war between Denmark–Norway and Sweden.

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Danuta Siedzikówna

Danuta Siedzikówna (nom de guerre: Inka; underground name: Danuta Obuchowicz) was a Polish national heroine.

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Danzig rebellion

The rebellion of the city of Danzig (Gdańsk) was a revolt from December 1575 to December 1577 of the city against the outcome of the Polish–Lithuanian royal election, 1576.

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Dar Pomorza

The Dar Pomorza (Gift of Pomerania) is a Polish full-rigged sailing ship built in 1909 which is preserved in Gdynia as a museum ship.

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Das Bohnenspiel

Bohnenspiel ("the bean game") is a German mancala game described in the 1937 Deutsche Spielhandbuch.

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Dassow

Dassow is a town in the Nordwestmecklenburg district, in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany.

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David Hollatz (dogmatician)

David Hollatz, Lutheran dogmatician; born at Wulkow, near Stargard (34 km ESE of Stettin), in Pomerania, 1648; died at Jakobshagen (24 km E of Stargard) 17 April 1713.

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David Hollatz (writer)

David Hollatz (died 14 June 1771) (the younger) was a German Lutheran ministerm grandson of the dogmatician David Hollatz.

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Dökkálfar and Ljósálfar

In Norse mythology, Dökkálfar (Old Norse: Døkkálfar "Dark Elves"; singular Døkkálfr) and Ljósálfar (Old Norse for "Light Elves", singular Ljósálfr) are two contrasting types of elves; the former dwell within the earth and are most swarthy, while the latter live in Álfheimr, and are "fairer than the sun to look at".

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Dörrebach

Dörrebach is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Bad Kreuznach district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

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Dębczyn culture

The Dębczyn group (in German also Denziner) is an archeological culture in Pomerania from the 3rd to 6th centuries.

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Demmin

Demmin is a town in the Mecklenburgische Seenplatte district, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany.

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Demographic estimates of the flight and expulsion of Germans

Demographic estimates of the flight and expulsion of Germans have been derived by either the compilation of registered dead and missing persons or by a comparison of pre-war and post-war population data.

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Demographic history of Pomerania

Pomerania has experienced several transitions not only of culture and administration, but also of its population.

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Demographics of Brazil

Brazil's population is very diverse, comprising many races and ethnic groups.

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Demonym

A demonym (δῆμος dẽmos "people, tribe", ὄόνομα ónoma "name") is a word that identifies residents or natives of a particular place, which is derived from the name of that particular place.

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Denmark in World War II

During most of World War II, Denmark was first a protectorate, then an occupied territory under Germany.

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Des Deutschen Vaterland

Was ist des Deutschen Vaterland is a German patriotic song by Ernst Moritz Arndt (1813) which was popular in the 19th century.

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Desloch

Desloch is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Bad Kreuznach district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

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Deutscher Kriegerbund

Deutscher Kriegerbund (German Warrior League) was a War Veterans' and reservists' Association in Germany.

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Deutsches Eck

Deutsches Eck ("German Corner") is the name of a headland in Koblenz, Germany, where the Mosel river joins the Rhine.

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Deutsches Turn- und Sportfest 1938

The Deutsches Turn- und Sportfest (German Gym and Sports Celebration) was the last big sports event organized by the Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen, the Sports governing body of the Third Reich.

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Deutschland-class battleship

The Deutschland class was a group of five pre-dreadnought battleships built for the German Kaiserliche Marine.

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Dialects of Polish

Modern sources on the Slavic languages normally describe the Polish language as consisting of four major dialect groups, each primarily associated with a certain geographical region, and often further subdivided into subdialectal groups (called gwara in Polish):Roland Sussex and Paul Cubberley (2006).

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Die Deutschen Konservativen

Die Deutschen Konservativen (The German Conservatives) is a German conservative anti-communist organisation, which developed out of a conservative campaign to support Franz Josef Strauß in the 1980 federal election.

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Diet of Regensburg (1630)

The Diet of Regensburg was a meeting of the Prince-Electors of the Holy Roman Empire (or Kurfürstentag) which occurred at Regensburg from July to November 1630.

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Dieter Stöckmann

Dieter Stöckmann (born 29 July 1941) is a retired German general of the Bundeswehr.

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Dietrich von Falkenberg

Dietrich von Falkenberg (1580 – 20 May 1631) was a German statesman and officer, who commanded the defence of Magdeburg during the course of the Thirty Years' War.

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Dita Parlo

Dita Parlo (4 September 1908 – 12 December 1971), born either Grethe Gerda Kornstädt or Gerda Olga Justine Kornstädt in Stettin (present-day Szczecin, Poland), was a German film actress.

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Divided regions

Divided regions are transnational regions, islands, etc.

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Dobieszczyn

Dobieszczyn (formerly German Entepöl) is a settlement in the administrative district of Gmina Police, within Police County, West Pomeranian Voivodeship, in north-western Poland, close to the German border.

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Dobrzany

Dobrzany (Jakobshagen, Jacobshagen; Jakùbòwò) is a town in Stargard County, West Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland.

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Donas

The Donas hill is in Poland in the Pomerania region, within the borders of the City of Gdynia, in the Dabrowa district.

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Dorothea of Denmark, Duchess of Mecklenburg

Dorothea of Denmark (1528 – 11 November 1575), was a Danish princess and a Duchess consort of Mecklenburg.

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Dowództwo Okręgu Korpusu

A Dowództwo Okręgu Korpusu (DOK, English: Corps District Command) was a military district of the Ministry of Military Affairs of the Second Polish Republic.

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Drangmeister

Drangmeister is a German surname.

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Drei Chinesen mit dem Kontrabass

"Drei Chinesen mit dem Kontrabass" (Three Chinese or Chinamen With A Double Bass) is a popular nonsensical German children's song.

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Drogoradz, West Pomeranian Voivodeship

Drogoradz (formerly German Hammer, Amt Jasenitz) – is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Police, within Police County, West Pomeranian Voivodeship, in north-western Poland, close to the German border.

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Drużno

Drużno (Jezioro Druzno; Drausensee, Drūsuo) is a body of water historically considered a lake in northern Poland on the east side of the Vistula delta, near the city of Elbląg.

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Duchess Elisabeth of Württemberg

Elisabeth of Württemberg (Elisabeth Wilhelmine Luise; 21 April 1767 – 18 February 1790) was an Archduchess of Austria by marriage to Archduke Francis of Austria.

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Duchy of Greater Poland

The Duchy of Greater Poland was a historical Polish province established in 1138 according to the Testament of Bolesław III Krzywousty.

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Duchy of Magdeburg

The Duchy of Magdeburg (Herzogtum Magdeburg) was a province of Brandenburg-Prussia from 1680 to 1701 and a province of the German Kingdom of Prussia from 1701 to 1807.

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Duchy of Pomerania

The Duchy of Pomerania (Herzogtum Pommern, Księstwo Pomorskie, 12th century – 1637) was a duchy in Pomerania on the southern coast of the Baltic Sea, ruled by dukes of the House of Pomerania (Griffins).

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Duke

A duke (male) or duchess (female) can either be a monarch ruling over a duchy or a member of royalty or nobility, historically of highest rank below the monarch.

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Duke Charles Louis Frederick of Mecklenburg

Duke Charles Louis Frederick of Mecklenburg, Prince of Mirow (Herzog Carl Ludwig Friedrich zu Mecklenburg, Prinz von Mirow; 23 February 1708 – 5 June 1752) was a member of the House of Mecklenburg-Strelitz and the father of Charlotte, Queen of the United Kingdom and Hanover.

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Dutch exonyms

Below is list of Dutch language exonyms for places in non-Dutch-speaking areas of Europe.

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Działyński

Działyński (Dzialin) was a Polish noble family whose name comes from their original place of settlement, Działyń in Dobrzyń Land.

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Dziennik Bałtycki

Dziennik Bałtycki (lit. Baltic Daily) is a local newspaper in Pomerania, Poland, since 1945.

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Early history of Pomerania

After the glaciers of the Ice Age in the Early Stone Age withdrew from the area, which since about 1000 AD is called Pomerania, in what are now northern Germany and Poland, they left a tundra.

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Early Slavs

The early Slavs were a diverse group of tribal societies who lived during the Migration Period and Early Middle Ages (approximately the 5th to the 10th centuries) in Eastern Europe and established the foundations for the Slavic nations through the Slavic states of the High Middle Ages.

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East Germanic languages

The East Germanic languages are a group of extinct Germanic languages of the Indo-European language family spoken by East Germanic peoples.

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East Low German

East Low German (Ostniederdeutsche Dialekte) is a group of Low German dialects spoken in north-eastern Germany as well as by minorities in northern Poland.

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East Pomeranian dialect

East Pomeranian (Ostpommersch) is an East Low German dialect that is either moribund or used to be spoken in what was roughly Pomerania (now Northwestern Poland; previously part of Germany until the end of World War II) and today is also spoken in Brazil.

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East Pomeranian Offensive

The East Pomeranian Strategic Offensive operation (Восточно-Померанская наступательная операция) was an offensive by the Soviet Red Army in its fight against the German Wehrmacht on the Eastern Front.

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East Prussian Offensive

The East Prussian Offensive was a strategic offensive by the Soviet Red Army against the German Wehrmacht on the Eastern Front (World War II).

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Eastern Front (World War II)

The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.

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Eastern Pomerania

Eastern Pomerania can refer to distinct parts of Pomerania.

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Eastland Company

The Eastland Company, or North Sea Company, was an English crown-chartered company, founded in 1579 to foster trade with Scandinavia and Baltic Sea states.

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Eßweiler

Eßweiler (with a short E; also Essweiler) is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Kusel district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

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Eckernförde

Eckernförde (Egernførde, sometimes also Egernfjord, Low German: Eckernför, sometimes also Eckernföör) is a German town in Schleswig-Holstein, Kreis Rendsburg-Eckernförde, on the coast of the Baltic Sea approximately 30 km northwest of Kiel.

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Edgar Puaud

Edgar Joseph Alexandre Puaud (29 October 1889 – March 1945) was a French army officer, who, in 1945, briefly became commander of the Charlemagne Division, a French unit of the Waffen-SS in the service of Nazi Germany.

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Edict of Restitution

The Edict of Restitution, passed eleven years into the Thirty Years' War on March 6, 1629 following Catholic successes at arms, was a belated attempt by Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor to restore the religious and territorial situations reached in the Peace of Augsburg (1555), whose "Ecclesiastical Reservation" had impeded the secularization of Catholic church lands after 1555, so no further Catholic church lands could be converted to Protestant control.

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Edmund von Mach

Edmund von Mach (August 1, 1870 – July 15, 1927) was a German-American art historian and lecturer on art.

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Eduard von Bonin

Eduard von Bonin (7 March 1793 – 13 March 1865) was a Prussian general officer who served as Prussian Minister of War from 1852–54 and 1858-59.

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Edward J. Kuntze

Edward J. Kuntze (b. in Pomerania, Prussia, in 1826; d. in New York City, 10 April 1870) was a sculptor.

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Edward Sapir

Edward Sapir (January 26, 1884 – February 4, 1939) was a German anthropologist-linguist, who is widely considered to be one of the most important figures in the early development of the discipline of linguistics.

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Effi Briest

Effi Briest is a realist novel by Theodor Fontane.

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Eilhard Lubinus

Eilhard Lubinus (23 March 1565 – 2 June 1621) was a German Lutheran theologian and philosopher, also known as a classical scholar, mathematician and cartographer.

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Einsatzkommando

During World War II, the Nazi German Einsatzkommandos were a sub-group of five Einsatzgruppen mobile killing squads (term used by Holocaust historians) – up to 3,000 men total – usually composed of 500–1,000 functionaries of the SS and Gestapo, whose mission was to exterminate Jews, Polish intellectuals, Romani, homosexuals, communists and the NKVD collaborators in the captured territories often far behind the advancing German front.

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Ekkehard Kyrath

Ekkehard Kyrath (1909–1962) was a German cinematographer.

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Elisabeth of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg

Elisabeth of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg (24 September 1580 – 21 December 1653 in Rügenwalde in Pomerania) was a German noblewoman.

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Elizabeth of Doberschütz

Elizabeth of Doberschütz, (or Dobschütz) née von Strantz (died 17 December 1591 in Stettin, Pomerania) (modern Szczecin) was beheaded as a witch on the Hay Market in Stettin and burned on the outskirts of the city.

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Elizabeth von Arnim

Elizabeth von Arnim (31 August 1866 – 9 February 1941), born Mary Annette Beauchamp, was an Australian-born British novelist.

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Eltz

The House of Eltz is a noted German noble family of the Uradel.

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Emblems of the Kalmar Union

The Kalmar Union was the personal union of the kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden during the 15th century.

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Emil John Raddatz

Emil John Raddatz (October 5, 1857 in Stettin, Pomerania, Prussia-November 1, 1933 in Salt Lake City, Utah, United States) was a miner, politician, and businessman who shaped Utah's history and its economy.

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Emil Seidel

Emil Seidel (December 13, 1864 – June 24, 1947) was a prominent German-American politician.

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Energy in Poland

Energy in Poland describes energy and electricity production, consumption and import in Poland.

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Engelbrekt rebellion

The Engelbrekt rebellion was a rebellion in 1434–1436 led by Swedish nobleman Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson against Eric of Pomerania, the king of the Kalmar Union.

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English exonyms

An English exonym is a name in the English language for a place (a toponym), or occasionally other terms, which does not follow the local usage (the endonym).

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Eric of Pomerania

Eric of Pomerania KG (1381 or 1382 – 24 September 1459) was the ruler of the Kalmar Union from 1396 until 1439, succeeding his adoptive mother, Queen Margaret I. He is numbered Eric III as King of Norway (1389–1442), Eric VII as King of Denmark (1396–1439) and Eric XIII as King of Sweden (1396–1434, 1436–39).

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Erich Hoffmann

Erich Hoffmann (April 25, 1868 – May 8, 1959) was a German dermatologist who was a native of Witzmitz, Pomerania.

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Erich Honecker

Erich Honecker (25 August 1912 – 29 May 1994) was a German politician who, as the General Secretary of the Socialist Unity Party, led the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) from 1971 until the weeks preceding the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. From 1976 onward he was also the country's official head of state as chairman of the State Council following Willi Stoph's relinquishment of the post. Honecker's political career began in the 1930s when he became an official of the Communist Party of Germany, a position for which he was imprisoned during the Nazi era. Following World War II, he was freed and soon relaunched his political activities, founding the youth organisation the Free German Youth in 1946 and serving as the group's chairman until 1955. As the Security Secretary of the Party’s Central Committee in the new East German state, he was the prime organiser of the building of the Berlin Wall in 1961 and, in this function, bore responsibility for the "order to fire" along the Inner German border. In 1971, he initiated a political power struggle that led, with Soviet support, to his replacing Walter Ulbricht as First Secretary of the Central Committee and as chairman of the state's National Defense Council. Under his command, the country adopted a programme of "consumer socialism" and moved toward the international community by normalising relations with West Germany and also becoming a full member of the UN, in what is considered one of his greatest political successes. As Cold War tensions eased in the late 1980s under perestroika and glasnost, the liberal reforms of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, Honecker refused all but cosmetic changes to the East German political system, citing the continual hardliner attitudes of Kim Il-sung and Fidel Castro, whose respective regimes of North Korea and Cuba had been critical of reforms, leaders who ruthlessly suppressed opposition. As anticommunist protests grew, Honecker begged the USSR to intervene and suppress the protests to maintain communist rule in East Germany like the Prague Spring of 1968 and the Hungarian Revolution of 1956; Gorbachev refused. Honecker was forced to resign by his party in October 1989 in a bid to improve the government's image before the public. Honecker's eighteen years at the helm of the soon-to-collapse German Democratic Republic came to an end. Following German reunification, he sought asylum in the Chilean embassy in Moscow in 1991 but was extradited back to Germany a year later to stand trial for his role in the human rights abuses committed by the East German government. However, the proceedings were abandoned due to illness and he was freed from custody to travel to join his family in exile in Chile, where he died in May 1994 from liver cancer.

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Erik Dahlbergh

Count Erik Jönsson Dahlbergh (10 October 162516 January 1703) was a Swedish engineer, soldier, and field marshal.

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Erika Fuchs

Erika Fuchs, née Petri (7 December 1906 in Rostock – 22 April 2005 in Munich), was a German translator.

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Ernest I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg

Ernest of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Ernst der Bekenner) (27 June 1497 – 11 January 1546), also frequently called Ernest the Confessor, was duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and a champion of the Protestant cause during the early years of the Protestant Reformation.

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Ernst Bader

Ernst Bader (7 June 1914 in Stettin, Pomerania – 10 August 1999 in Norderstedt) was a German actor, composer and songwriter (lyricist) best known for his hit recordings "Tulips from Amsterdam" and "Milord".

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Ernst Eduard Taubert

Ernst Eduard Taubert (25 September 1838 in Regenwalde – 14 July 1934) was a Pomeranian composer, music critic, and music educator.

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Ernst Gustav Zaddach

Ernst Gustav Zaddach (7 June 1817, Danzig – 5 June 1881, Königsberg) was a German geologist and zoologist, who made contributions in the fields of carcinology and entomology.

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Ernst Moritz Arndt

Ernst Moritz Arndt (26 December 1769 – 29 January 1860) was a German nationalist historian, writer, and poet.

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Ernst Schlange

Ernst Schlange (September 1, 1888 – † 1947) was a Nazi German politician, Gauleiter of Berlin-Brandenburg and a member of the Prussian Landtag.

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Ernst von Hoeppner

Ernst Wilhelm Arnold von Hoeppner (14 January 1860 – 26 September 1922) was a Prussian cavalry officer who served as the Commanding General of the German Air Service (Luftstreitkräfte) during World War I.

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Ernst von Rüchel

Ernst von Rüchel (21 July 1754 – 14 January 1823) was a Prussian general who led an army corps in a crushing defeat by Napoleon at the Battle of Jena on 14 October 1806.

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Erwin Aichele

Erwin Aichele (5 May 1887 – 29 June 1974) was a German painter and animal artist from Baden-Württemberg in Southern Germany.

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Ether addiction

Addiction to ether consumption, or etheromania, is the addiction to the inhalation or drinking of diethyl ether, commonly called "ether".

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Ethnic cleansing of Zamojszczyzna by Nazi Germany

The ethnic cleansing of Zamojszczyzna by Nazi Germany (Aktion Zamosc, also: Operation Himmlerstadt) during World War II was carried out as part of a greater plan of forcible removal of the entire Polish populations from targeted regions of occupied Poland in preparation for the state-sponsored settlement of the ethnic German Volksdeutsche.

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Ethnic minorities in Poland

The population of Post-World War II Poland became nearly completely ethnically homogeneous as a result of the German-Nazi Holocaust, the radically altered borders, and the deportations ordered by the Soviet authorities, who wished to remove the sizeable Polish minorities from the Baltics (Lithuania) and Eastern Europe (western Belarus and western Ukraine).

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Eudoxia of Kiev

Eudoxia Iziaslavna of Kiev (Евдоксия Изяславна, italic; c. 1131 – c. 1187), was a Kievan Rus' princess member of the Rurikid dynasty and by marriage Duchess of Greater Poland and since 1173 High Duchess of Poland.

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Eugène Vaulot

Eugène Vaulot (1 June 1923 – 2 May 1945) was a Frenchman with the rank of Unterscharführer in the Waffen-SS during World War II, who was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross.

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Eugen Ferdinand von Homeyer

Eugen Ferdinand von Homeyer (11 November 1809 in Nerdin - 31 May 1889 in Stolp) was a German ornithologist.

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Eugeniusz Pławski

Eugeniusz Józef Stanisław Pławski (March 26, 1895 – May 23, 1972) was a Polish Navy officer who served in World War I and World War II.

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Euphrosyne of Opole

Euphrosyne of Opole (Eufrozyna opolska, Фрося, Yefrosinia) (1228/30 – 4 November 1292) was a daughter of Casimir I of Opole and his wife Viola, Duchess of Opole.

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European wars of religion

The European wars of religion were a series of religious wars waged mainly in central and western, but also northern Europe (especially Ireland) in the 16th and 17th century.

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Evacuations of children in Germany during World War II

The evacuation of children in Germany during the World War II was designed to save children in Nazi Germany from the risks associated with the aerial bombing of cities, by moving them to areas thought to be less at risk.

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Evangelical Church in Germany

The Evangelical Church in Germany (Evangelische Kirche in Deutschland, abbreviated EKD) is a federation of twenty Lutheran, Reformed (Calvinist) and United (Prussian Union) Protestant regional churches and denominations in Germany, which collectively encompasses the vast majority of Protestants in that country.

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Ewald Friedrich von Hertzberg

Ewald Friedrich Graf von Hertzberg (2 September 1725 – 22 May 1795) was a Prussian statesman.

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Ewald-Heinrich von Kleist-Schmenzin

Ewald-Heinrich von Kleist-Schmenzin (10 July 1922 – 8 March 2013) was a German publisher and convenor of the Munich Conference on Security Policy until 1998.

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Fallschirm-Panzergrenadier Division 2 Hermann Göring

Fallschirm-Panzergrenadier-Division 2 "Hermann Göring" was formed on 24 September 1944 in the area of Radom.

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Family of Gediminas

The family of Gediminas is a group of family members of Gediminas, Grand Duke of Lithuania (ca. 1275–1341), who interacted in the 14th century.

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Farther Pomerania

Farther Pomerania, Further Pomerania, Transpomerania or Eastern Pomerania (Hinterpommern, Ostpommern), is the part of Pomerania which comprised the eastern part of the Duchy and later Province of Pomerania.

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Father Eugeniusz Dutkiewicz SAC Hospice

Father Eugeniusz Dutkiewicz SAC Hospice (formerly: Pallottinum Hospice) in Gdańsk is a charitable organisation founded by the Pallottine priest E. Dutkiewicz in 1983, which provides palliative care for the terminally ill.

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Fürstenau

Fürstenau may refer to.

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Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor

Ferdinand II (9 July 1578 – 15 February 1637), a member of the House of Habsburg, was Holy Roman Emperor (1619–1637), King of Bohemia (1617–1619, 1620–1637), and King of Hungary (1618–1637).

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Ferdinand von Prondzynski

Ferdinand von Prondzynski (born 30 June 1954) is the Principal and Vice-Chancellor of The Robert Gordon University in Aberdeen, Scotland.

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Fischland

Fischland (literally "fish land") is an isthmus on the southern Baltic Sea coast on the Bay of Mecklenburg in northeastern Germany.

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Fischland-Darß-Zingst

Fischland-Darß-Zingst or Fischland-Darss-Zingst is a long peninsula in the coastal district of Vorpommern-Rügen, in the German state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.

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Flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–50)

During the later stages of World War II and the post-war period, German citizens and people of German ancestry fled or were expelled from various Eastern and Central European countries and sent to the remaining territory of Germany and Austria.

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Flight and expulsion of Germans from Poland during and after World War II

The flight and expulsion of Germans from Poland was the largest of a series of flights and expulsions of Germans in Europe during and after World War II.

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Flockina von Platen

Flockina von Platen (14 May 1903 – 26 November 1984) was a German actress.

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Foot of the Mountain (song)

"Foot of the Mountain" is the first single from the A-ha album of the same name.

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Football Junior Championships of Poland

Football Junior Championships of Poland Under-19 (Mistrzostwa Polski juniorow w pilce noznej) is a competition with a long, 71-year history, which started in the summer of 1936.

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Forest of Szpęgawsk

The Forest of Szpęgawsk (Las Szpęgawski) is situated west from Szpęgawsk in the administrative district of Gmina Starogard Gdański, within Starogard County, Pomeranian Voivodeship, in northern Poland.

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Former eastern territories of Germany

The former eastern territories of Germany (Ehemalige deutsche Ostgebiete) are those provinces or regions east of the current eastern border of Germany (the Oder–Neisse line) which were lost by Germany after World War I and then World War II.

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Fortress Division Swinemünde

Fortress Division Swinemünde was an ad-hoc formation under the command of Baron Hermmann Von Pfel, and organized by Seekommandant Pommern (Naval Command Pomerania) in the port of Swinemünde.

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Francis, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg

Francis of Brunswick-Lüneburg (1508–1549) was the youngest son of Henry the Middle.

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Francis, Duke of Pomerania

Francis of Pomerania (in the older literature sometimes referred to as Francis I of Pomerania; Franz von Pommern; 24 March 1577 in Barth – 27 November 1620 in Stettin (Szczecin)) was Duke of Pomerania-Stettin and Bishop of Cammin.

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Franciszek Przysiężniak

Franciszek Przysiężniak (nom de guerre "Ojciec Jan", "Father John") (September 22, 1909 in the village of Krupe, near Krasnystaw – September 30, 1975 in Jarosław) - was a lieutenant in the Polish Army, an officer of anti-communist resistance groups National Military Organization (NOW) and National Military Union (NZW).

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Franciszek Stanisław Hutten-Czapski

Franciszek Stanislaw Kostka Hutten-Czapski, Leliwa coat of arms (b. 1725, d. 9 April 1802 in Warsaw) - Count, Polish Senator, the last Governor of Chelmno (25 June 1766 - 9 April 1802), Member of the Bar Confederation.

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Franco-Swedish War

The Franco-Swedish War or Pomeranian War was the first involvement by Sweden in the Napoleonic Wars.

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Franz Alexander von Kleist

Franz Alexander von Kleist (24 December 1769 – 8 August 1797) was a German poet of the late 18th century.

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Franz Pieper

Franz August Otto Pieper (June 27, 1852 – June 3, 1931) was a Confessional Lutheran theologian.

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Franzburg

Franzburg is a municipality in the Vorpommern-Rügen district of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.

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Frédéric Chopin

Frédéric François Chopin (1 March 181017 October 1849) was a Polish composer and virtuoso pianist of the Romantic era who wrote primarily for solo piano.

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Frederich Christopher Trampe, Count of Trampe

Frederich Christopher, Count of Trampe (19 June 1779 – 18 July 1832) was a Danish-Norwegian count and politician.

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Frederick Augustus, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst

Frederick Augustus, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst (8 August 1734 in Alt Stettin – 3 March 1793 in Luxembourg), was a German prince of the House of Ascania and the last ruler of the Principality of Anhalt-Zerbst.

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Frederick II, Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg

Frederick II of Hesse-Homburg (Friedrich II.), also known as the Prince of Homburg (30 March 1633–24 January 1708) was Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg.

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French exonyms

Below is a list of French language exonyms for places in non-French-speaking areas.

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Friedrich Gilly

Friedrich David Gilly (16 February 1772 – 3 August 1800) was a German architect and the son of the architect David Gilly.

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Friedrich Gisbert Wilhelm von Romberg

Friedrich Gisbert Wilhelm Freiherr von Romberg (17 July 1729, Schloss Brünninghausen, Dortmund - 21 May 1809, Berlin) was a German officer who rose to lieutenant general (Generalleutnant) in the Prussian Army.

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Friedrich Heinrich Albert Wangerin

Friedrich Heinrich Albert Wangerin (November 18, 1844 – October 25, 1933) was a German mathematician.

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Friedrich von Canitz

Friedrich Rudolf Ludwig Freiherr von Canitz (27 November 1654 – 11 August 1699) was a German poet and diplomat.

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Friedrich Wilhelm Quirin von Forcade de Biaix

Friedrich Wilhelm Quirin von Forcade de Biaix,Lange, Page 91 Lehmann, Band 1, Page 34, Nr.

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Friedrich Wilhelm von Dossow

Friedrich Wilhelm von Dossow (17 December 1669 – 28 March 1758) was a Prussian Generalfeldmarschall and Governor of Wesel.

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Friedrich Wilhelm von Forcade de Biaix

Friedrich Wilhelm von Forcade de Biaix,Zedlitz-Neukirch, Band 4, Page 391 Lehmann, Band 1, Page 123, Nr.

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Friedrich Wilhelm von Grumbkow

Friedrich Wilhelm von Grumbkow (4 October 1678 – 18 March 1739) was a Prussian Generalfeldmarschall and statesman.

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Fritz von Brodowski

Friedrich Wilhelm Konrad von Brodowski, known as Fritz, (November 26, 1886 – October 28, 1944) was a German army general, controversially killed while in French custody during World War II.

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Gabriel Gustafsson Oxenstierna

Baron Gabriel Gustafsson Oxenstierna (15 June 1587 – 27 November 1640) was a Swedish statesman.

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Gabriel Jean Joseph Molitor

Gabriel-Jean-Joseph, 1er Comte Molitor (7 March 1770 – 28 July 1849), was a Marshal of France.

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Galium × pomeranicum

Galium × pomeranicum is a species of plants in the family Rubiaceae, named for the region historically called Pomerania, now divided between Germany and Poland.

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Gartz

Gartz is a town in the Uckermark district in Brandenburg, Germany.

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Garz (Rügen)

Garz is a town in the county of Vorpommern-Rügen in the German state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.

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Gasworks building, Bydgoszcz

The Gasworks building in Bydgoszcz, Poland, is a historical edifice built between 1859 and 1860.

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Günter Schabowski

Günter Schabowski (4 January 1929 – 1 November 2015) was an official of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany (Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands abbreviated SED), the ruling party during most of the existence of the German Democratic Republic (GDR).

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Günther Marks

Günther Marks (28 November 1897 – 4 March 1978) was a German church musician, organist and composer.

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Günther von Kluge

Günther von Kluge (30 October 1882 – 19 August 1944) was a German field marshal during World War II.

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Gdańsk

Gdańsk (Danzig) is a Polish city on the Baltic coast.

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Gdańsk Medical University

The Medical University of Gdańsk (formerly Gdańsk Medical Academy) is the largest medical academic institution in northern Poland.

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Gdańsk University of Technology

The Gdańsk University of Technology (GUT; Politechnika Gdańska) is a technical university in Gdańsk-Wrzeszcz, and one of the oldest universities in Poland.

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Gdańska Street, Bydgoszcz

Gdańska Street is one of the main street of downtown Bydgoszcz, Poland.

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Gdynia

Gdynia (Gdingen, Gdiniô) is a city in the Pomeranian Voivodeship of Poland and a seaport of Gdańsk Bay on the south coast of the Baltic Sea.

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Genetic history of Europe

The genetic history of Europe since the Upper Paleolithic is inseparable from that of wider Western Eurasia.

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Geography of Poland

Poland is a country in Central Europe with an area of 312,679 square kilometres (120,726 sq. mi.), and mostly temperate climate.

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Georg Detlev von Flemming

Georg Detlev von Flemming (Polish: Jerzy Detloff Fleming) (1699–1771) was a General in Polish-Saxon service, Grand Treasurer of Lithuania in 1746–1764 and Voivode of Pomerelia in 1766.

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Georg Friedrich Schömann

Georg Friedrich Schömann (28 June 1793 - 25 March 1879), was a German classical scholar of Swedish heritage.

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Georg Ludwig von Puttkamer

Georg Ludwig of Puttkamer (11 April 1715 in Versin – 12 August 1759 at Kunersdorf) was a Prussian major general and squire of Pawonków and Pietrowice in Upper Silesia; he came from the Pomeranian noble family of Puttkamer.

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Georg Michaelis

Georg Michaelis (8 September 1857 – 24 July 1936) was Chancellor of Germany for a few months in 1917.

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Georg von Kameke

Arnold Karl Georg von Kameke (14 April 1817, in Pasewalk – 12 October 1893, in Berlin) was a Prussian General of the Infantry and Minister of War.

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George Adalbert von Mülverstedt

George Adalbert von Mülverstedt (4 July 1825, Danzig – 29 September 1914, Magdeburg) was a German archivist and historian.

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George Bell (bishop)

George Kennedy Allen Bell (4 February 1883 – 3 October 1958) was an Anglican theologian, Dean of Canterbury, Bishop of Chichester, member of the House of Lords and a pioneer of the ecumenical movement.

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George I, Duke of Pomerania

George I of Pomerania (Herzog Georg I. von Pommern; 11 April 1493 – 10 May 1531) was a Duke of Pomerania from the House of Griffins.

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George II, Duke of Pomerania

George II of Pomerania (30 January 1582 in Barth – 27 March 1617 in Seebuckow, Rügenwalde (after 1945 Bukowo Morskie, Darlowo)) was a non-reigning duke of Pomerania.

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Gerard Antoni Ciołek

Gerard Ciołek (24 September 1909 – 15 February 1966) was a Polish architect, as well as a leading historian of parks and gardens.

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Gerhard Roßbach

Gerhard Roßbach (28 February 1893 – 30 August 1967), also spelt Rossbach, was a German Freikorps leader and organizer of nationalist groups after World War I. He is generally credited with inventing the brown uniforms of the Nazi Party after supplying surplus tropical khaki shirts to early troops of the Sturmabteilung (SA).

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German art

German art has a long and distinguished tradition in the visual arts, from the earliest known work of figurative art to its current output of contemporary art.

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German Brazilians

German Brazilians (German: Deutschbrasilianer, Riograndenser Hunsrückisch: Deitschbrasiliooner, teuto-brasileiros) refers to Brazilian people of ethnic German ancestry or origin.

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German casualties in World War II

Statistics for German World War II military casualties are divergent and contradictory.

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German Emperor

The German Emperor (Deutscher Kaiser) was the official title of the head of state and hereditary ruler of the German Empire.

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German Empire

The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.

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German evacuation from Central and Eastern Europe

The German evacuation from Central and Eastern Europe ahead of the Red Army advance in World War II was delayed until the last moment.

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German Instrument of Surrender

The German Instrument of Surrender ended World War II in Europe.

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German minority in Poland

The registered German minority in Poland at the 2011 national census consisted of 148,000 people, of whom 64,000 declared both German and Polish ethnicities and 45,000 solely German ethnicity.

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German National People's Party

The German National People's Party (DNVP) was a national conservative party in Germany during the time of the Weimar Republic.

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German New Guinea

German New Guinea (Deutsch-Neuguinea) was the first part of the German colonial empire.

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German occupation of Latvia during World War II

The occupation of Latvia by Nazi Germany was completed on July 10, 1941 by Germany's armed forces.

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Germanisation

Germanisation (also spelled Germanization) is the spread of the German language, people and culture or policies which introduced these changes.

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Germans

Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.

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Germans in Chicago

Historically Chicago had an ethnic German population.

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Gertrud von Puttkamer

Baroness Gertrud von Puttkamer (Gertrud Freifrau von Puttkamer in German; born Gertrud Günther, 4 April 1881 – 30 September 1944), also known by her nom de plume Marie-Madeleine, was a German writer of lesbian-themed erotic literature and homoerotic poetry.

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Gesta Danorum

Gesta Danorum ("Deeds of the Danes") is a patriotic work of Danish history, by the 13th century author Saxo Grammaticus ("Saxo the Literate", literally "the Grammarian").

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Getica

De origine actibusque Getarum ("The Origin and Deeds of the Getae/Goths"), or the Getica,Jordanes, The Origin and Deeds of the Goths, translated by C. Mierow written in Late Latin by Jordanes (or Iordanes/Jornandes) in or shortly after 551 AD, claims to be a summary of a voluminous account by Cassiodorus of the origin and history of the Gothic people, which is now lost.

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Gheorghe Ștefan

Gheorghe Ştefan (István Görgicze, seldom referred to as Burduja; d. 1668 in Szczecin) was Voivode (Prince) of Moldavia between April 13 and May 8, 1653, and again from July 16, 1653 to March 13, 1658; he was the son of boyar Dumitraşcu Ceaur; Gheorghe Ştefan was Chancellor (logofăt) during the reign of Vasile Lupu.

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Gifhorn Castle

Gifhorn Castle (Schloss Gifhorn) is a castle in Gifhorn, Germany, built between 1525 and 1581 in the Weser Renaissance style.

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Gisela Stein

Gisela Stein (2 October 1935 – 4 May 2009) was a German actress.

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Glady (surname)

Glady is a surname of German origin.

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Gneomar

Gneomar is a German given name, which is of Mecklenburgian origin and derived from slav.

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Gniew

Gniew (Mewe; Gniéw) is a town situated on the left bank of the Vistula River, in the Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland, with 6,870 inhabitants (2016).

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Gniew Castle

Gniew Castle is a former castle of the Teutonic Order, built after 1290.

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Gocław, Szczecin

Gocław (German ′′Gotzlow′′) is a part of the city of Szczecin, Poland.

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Goleniów

Goleniów (Gòłonóg; Gollnow) is a town in Pomerania, northwestern Poland with 22,399 inhabitants (2004).

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Gollub War

The Gollub War was a two-month war of the Teutonic Knights against the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1422.

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Goplans

The Goplans or Goplanes (Glopeani, Goplanie) was an early West Slavic tribe that inhabited the central parts of the Kujawy region, with their probable seat at Kruszwica.

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Gothic architecture

Gothic architecture is an architectural style that flourished in Europe during the High and Late Middle Ages.

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Gothic architecture in modern Poland

The Gothic style arrived in Poland in the first half of the 13th century with the arrival of members of the Dominican and Franciscan orders.

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Goths

The Goths (Gut-þiuda; Gothi) were an East Germanic people, two of whose branches, the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths, played an important role in the fall of the Western Roman Empire through the long series of Gothic Wars and in the emergence of Medieval Europe.

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Gottfried Frölich

Gottfried Frölich (3 June 1894 – 30 July 1959) was a German general in the Wehrmacht during World War II, having served on the Western Front during World War I. A recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross, he briefly commanded the 36th Infantry Division and then later led the 8th Panzer Division.

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Gottfried Lengnich

Gottfried Lengnich (Gotfryd Lengnich) (4 December 1689 – 28 April 1774) was an 18th-century historian, lawyer and politician.

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Gottlieb Heinrich Totleben

Gottlob Curt Heinrich Graf von Tottleben, Herr auf Tottleben, Zeippau und Hausdorf im Saganschen (also Totleben, Todtleben Todleben; Готлиб-Генрих Тотлебен) (December 21, 1715 – March 20, 1773) was a Saxon-born Russian Empire general known for his adventurism and contradictory military career during the Seven Years' War and, then, the Russo-Turkish War (1768–74) as a commander of the first Russian expeditionary force in Georgia.

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Government Delegation for Poland

The Government Delegation for Poland (Delegatura Rządu Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej na Kraj) was an agency of the Polish Government in Exile during World War II.

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Grabowa (river)

Grabowa (Grabow) is a river in the Pomerania region of northern Poland, 75 kilometers long.

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Graded shoreline

A graded shoreline is a stage in the cycle of coastal development characterised by a flat and straight coastline.

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Gray Ranks

"Gray Ranks" (Szare Szeregi) was a codename for the underground paramilitary Polish Scouting Association (Związek Harcerstwa Polskiego) during World War II.

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Great Northern War

The Great Northern War (1700–1721) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe.

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Greater Poland uprising (1918–1919)

The Greater Poland uprising of 1918–1919, or Wielkopolska uprising of 1918–1919 (Polish: powstanie wielkopolskie 1918–19 roku; Großpolnischer Aufstand) or Posnanian War was a military insurrection of Poles in the Greater Poland region (German: Grand Duchy of Poznań or Provinz Posen) against German rule.

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Greek exonyms

Below is a list of modern-day Greek language exonyms for mostly European places outside of Greece and Cyprus.

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Greifenstein

Greifenstein is a community in the Lahn-Dill-Kreis in Hesse, Germany.

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Greifswald

Greifswald, officially the University and Hanseatic City of Greifswald (German: Universitäts- und Hansestadt Greifswald), is a city in northeastern Germany.

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Gries, Bas-Rhin

Gries is a commune in the Bas-Rhin département in Grand Est in north-eastern France, a short distance to the south-southeast of Haguenau.

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Griffin

The griffin, griffon, or gryphon (Greek: γρύφων, grýphōn, or γρύπων, grýpōn, early form γρύψ, grýps; gryphus) is a legendary creature with the body, tail, and back legs of a lion; the head and wings of an eagle; and an eagle's talons as its front feet.

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Grigory Spiridov

Grigory Andreyevich Spiridov (1713, Vyborg -, Moscow) was a leading Russian naval commander and admiral (1769).

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Großer Jasmunder Bodden

The Großer Jasmunder Bodden belongs to the North Rügen Bodden and is a water body on the southern edge of the Baltic Sea in the German state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.

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Grodzka Street in Bydgoszcz

Grodzka Street is a historical street in Old Town of Bydgoszcz, Poland.

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Grudziądz

Grudziądz (Graudenz, Graudentum or Graudentium or Grudentia); the form Grudentia is used by, e.g., A. Lentz, Philologus 23 (1866), p. 175.

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Gryf coat of arms

Gryf (Polish for "Griffin") is a Polish coat of arms that was used by many noble families in medieval Poland and later under the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, branches of the original medieval Gryfita-Świebodzic family as well as families connected with the Clan by adoption at ennoblement or even by error.

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Gryf Słupsk

Gryf Słupsk is a Polish multi-sports club, mostly known for its association football team, from Słupsk, Pomerania.

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Gryfice

Gryfice (Kashubian: Grëfice), formerly known as Greifenberg,".

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Gryfino

Gryfino (Greifenhagen; Kashubian: Gripiewò) is a town in Pomerania, northwestern Poland with 22,500 inhabitants (2004).

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Grzegorz Gerwazy Gorczycki

Grzegorz Gerwazy Gorczycki (ca. 1665 to 1667 – 30 April 1734) was a Polish Baroque composer.

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Gustav Anton von Wietersheim

Gustav Anton von Wietersheim (11 February 1884 – 25 April 1974) was a German general in the Wehrmacht during World War II.

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Gustav Bogislav von Münchow

Gustav Bogislav von Münchow (10 September 1686 in Kosemühl, Pomerania–20 June 1766 in Berlin) was a Prussian general.

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Gustav Pietsch

Gustav Pietsch (1893 – 1975) was a German captain, resistance fighter and Politician of the Free City of Danzig.

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Gustav Wachtmeister

Gustav Wachtmeister (25 July 1757 – 20 July 1826) was a Swedish Army officer made famous at the Battle of Valkeala in Finland in 1789 against Russia where he was wounded by a musket shot to his arm, which had to be amputated.

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Gustavo III (Verdi)

Gustavo III is an opera by Giuseppe Verdi to a libretto begun in early 1857 by the Italian playwright Antonio Somma.

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Gustow group

The Gustow group (Gustow Gruppe or Gustower Gruppe, grupa gustowska) is an archaeological culture of the Roman Iron Age in Western Pomerania.

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Hamazasp Babadzhanian

Hamazasp Khachaturi Babadzhanian (Amazasp Khachaturovich Babadzhanyan; 18 February 1906 – 1 November 1977) was a Soviet military commander, veteran of the Second World War, and Chief marshal of the armored troops of the Soviet Union.

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Hanna Foltyn-Kubicka

Hanna Foltyn-Kubicka (May 23, 1950 in Jelenia Góra, Poland), is a Polish politician and a Member of the European Parliament (MEP).

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Hans Beißwenger

Hans BeißwengerHis name, in German, is spelled with a "sharp S"; see ß. (8 November 1916 – 6 March 1943) was a German Luftwaffe fighter ace and recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves during World War II.

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Hans Friedrich Gadow

Hans Friedrich Gadow (8 March 1855 – 16 May 1928) was a German ornithologist.

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Hans Joachim von Rohr

Hans Joachim von Rohr (1 October 1888 in Demmin, Province of Pomerania – 10 November 1971) was a German politician with the German National People's Party.

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Hans Philipp

Hans Philipp (17 March 1917 – 8 October 1943) was a German Luftwaffe fighter ace during World War II.

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Hans von Freden

Leutnant Hans von Freden was a World War I flying ace credited with 20 aerial victories.

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Hans von Lehwaldt

Hans von Lehwald(t) (24 June 1685 – 16 November 1768), also known as Johann von Lehwald(t), was a Prussian Generalfeldmarschall.

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Hans von Seeckt

Johannes Friedrich "Hans" von Seeckt (22 April 1866 – 27 December 1936) was a German military officer who served as Chief of Staff to August von Mackensen, and was a central figure in planning the victories Mackensen achieved for Germany in the east during the First World War.

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Hans-Georg von der Osten

Leutnant Hans-Georg von der Osten began his career as a World War I flying ace credited with five aerial victories.

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Hans-Jürgen Schlieker

Hans-Jürgen Schlieker (April 8, 1924 – March 12, 2004) was a German abstract painter, grouped in importance with Hans Hartung, Bernard Schultze and Emil Schumacher.

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Hans-Martin Majewski

Hans-Martin Majewski (1911–1997) was a German composer of film scores.

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Hans-Wilhelm Koepcke

Hans-Wilhelm Koepcke (13 June 1914 in Saatzig, German Empire – 21 November 2000 in Hamburg, Germany) was a zoologist, ornithologist, and herpetologist.

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Hartmann von Heldrungen

Hartmann von Heldrungen (died 19 August 1283) was the 11th Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, serving from 1273 to 1283.

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Hartwig (surname)

Hartwig is a surname of Swedish origin, meaning brave in battle.

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Hauskyjza

Hauskyjza (Silesian: home cheese from the German Hauskäse) - a foodstuff made of cottage cheese, carum and other ingredients, which are mixed, put aside for a few days to acquire the characteristic sharp flavor, scent and tacky consistency, and then warmed and fried.

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Höffern

Höffern, von Höffer or von Hoeffer, was a German noblewoman and fortune teller.

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Hedevig Ulfeldt

Hedwig of Schleswig-Holstein (15 July 1626 – 5 October 1678) was the daughter of king Christian IV of Denmark and Kirsten Munk.

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Hedwig Jagiellon (1408–1431)

Hedwig Jagiellon (Jadvyga Jogailaitė, Jadwiga Jagiellonka; 8 April 1408, Kraków – 8 December 1431, Kraków) was a Polish and Lithuanian princess, and a member of the Jagiellon dynasty.

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Hedwig of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel

Hedwig of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (9 February 1595 in Wolfenbüttel – 26 June 1650 in Szczecinek), was a princess of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel by birth and the Duchess of Pomerania by marriage.

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Heidemarie Steiner

Heidemarie Steiner married Walther, (born May 9, 1944 in Kolberg, Province of Pomerania) is a German figure skater and coach.

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Heinrich Bandlow

Heinrich Bandlow (* April 14, 1855 in Tribsees, † August 25, 1933 in Greifswald) was a Pomeranian author, writing in Standard as well as in Low German.

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Heinrich Carl von Schimmelmann

Heinrich Carl von Schimmelmann (13 July 1724 – 16 February 1782) was a German merchant, forgerer and banker during the Seven Years' War, speculating heavily on currency debasement in close association with his business partner Abel Seyler.

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Heinrich George

Georg August Friedrich Hermann Schulz (9 October 1893 – 25 September 1946), better known as Heinrich George, was a German stage and film actor.

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Heinrich Himmler

Heinrich Luitpold Himmler (7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was Reichsführer of the Schutzstaffel (Protection Squadron; SS), and a leading member of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) of Germany.

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Heinrich von Manteuffel

Heinrich von Manteuffel (7 November 1696 – 10 July 1778), was a Prussian lieutenant general.

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Heinrich von Plauen

Heinrich von Plauen (the Elder) (ca. 1370–1429) was the 27th Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, serving from November 1410 to October 1413.

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Heinrich Wolfgang Ludwig Dohrn

Heinrich Wolfgang Ludwig Dohrn (16 June 1838, Braunschweig – 1 October 1913, Florence) was a German zoologist, entomologist and malacologist.

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Heinz Giese

Heinz Giese (1919–2010) was a German film and television actor.

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Heinz Pollay

Heinz Pollay (4 February 1908 in Köslin, Pomerania – 14 May 1979) was a German (later West German) horse rider who competed in dressage from the late 1930s to the early 1950s.

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Hel, Poland

Hel (Kashubian Hél, German Hela) is a town in Puck County, Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland, located on the tip of the Hel Peninsula, some from the Polish mainland.

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Hello, Fraulein!

Hello, Fraulein! (German: Hallo, Fräulein!) is a 1949 German musical film directed by Rudolf Jugert and starring Margot Hielscher, Hans Söhnker and Peter van Eyck.

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Henning (surname)

The name Henning is indigenous to the North German areas Mecklenburg, Hannover, Hamburg, Holstein and Pommern.

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Henning Alexander von Kleist

Henning Alexander von Kleist (1676/77–1749) was an 18th-century Prussian field marshal.

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Henning Alexander von Kleist (1707–1784)

Henning Alexander von Kleist (4 June 1707 in Raddatz–20 January 1784 in Spandau) was a Prussian Lieutenant-General and Chief of Fusiliers.

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Henning Podebusk

Henning Podebusk or Putbus (before 1350 –) was a German-Slavic statesman, the last drost of Denmark.

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Henri Joseph Fenet

Henri Joseph Fenet (11 July 1919 – 14 September 2002) was a French collaborator during World War II who served in the Waffen-SS of Nazi Germany.

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Henry II, Count of Holstein-Rendsburg

Count Henry II of Holstein-Rendsburg (nickname Iron Henry; &ndash) was count of Holstein-Rendsburg and pledge lord of Southern Schleswig.

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Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor

Henry III (28 October 1016 – 5 October 1056), called the Black or the Pious, was a member of the Salian Dynasty of Holy Roman Emperors.

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Henry the Bearded

Henry the Bearded (Henryk Brodaty, Heinrich der Bärtige); c. 1165/70 – 19 March 1238), of the Silesian line of the Piast dynasty, was Duke of Silesia at Wrocław from 1201 and Duke of Kraków and thus High Duke of all Poland — internally divided — from 1232 until his death.

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Henry the Lion

Henry the Lion (Heinrich der Löwe; 1129/1131 – 6 August 1195) was a member of the Welf dynasty and Duke of Saxony, as Henry III, from 1142, and Duke of Bavaria, as Henry XII, from 1156, the duchies of which he held until 1180.

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Herbert Backe

Herbert Friedrich Wilhelm Backe (1 May 1896 – 6 April 1947) was a German politician and SS functionary during the Nazi era.

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Heribert von Larisch

Heribert von Larisch (18 July 1894 – 16 May 1972) was a German general during World War II.

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Hermann Freese

Johann Oskar Hermann Freese was a,Pomeranian artist.

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Hermann Schwartze

Hermann Hugo Rudolf Schwartze (7 September 1837 – 20 August 1910) was a German aurist, born at Neuhof in Pomerania and educated in Berlin and Würzburg.

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Heros von Borcke

Johann August Heinrich Heros von Borcke (23 July 1835 – 10 May 1895) was a Prussian cavalry officer who served in the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia during the American Civil War.

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Hildebrandt

Hildebrandt may refer to: People with the surname Hildebrandt.

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History of Eastern Germany

History of Eastern Germany may refer to.

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History of Franconia

Franconia (Franken) is a region that is not precisely defined, but which lies in the north of the Free State of Bavaria, parts of Baden-Württemberg and South Thuringia and Hesse in Germany.

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History of German settlement in Central and Eastern Europe

The presence of German-speaking populations in Central and Eastern Europe is rooted in centuries of history, with the settling in northeastern Europe of Germanic peoples predating even the founding of the Roman Empire.

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History of Germany

The concept of Germany as a distinct region in central Europe can be traced to Roman commander Julius Caesar, who referred to the unconquered area east of the Rhine as Germania, thus distinguishing it from Gaul (France), which he had conquered.

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History of Lae

As the township of Lae, in Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea is a relatively new entity, the history of the Lae environs is much older.

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History of Poland

The history of Poland has its roots in the migrations of Slavs, who established permanent settlements in the Polish lands during the Early Middle Ages.

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History of Poland (1939–1945)

The history of Poland from 1939 to 1945 encompasses primarily the period from the Invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany to the end of World War II.

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History of Poland during the Jagiellonian dynasty

The rule of the Jagiellonian dynasty in Poland between 1386 and 1572 spans the late Middle Ages and early Modern Era in European history.

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History of Poland during the Piast dynasty

The period of rule by the Piast dynasty between the 10th and 14th centuries is the first major stage of the history of the Polish nation.

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History of Poland in the Middle Ages

In this time period Polish history covering roughly a millennium, from the 5th century, the way through to the 16th century.

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History of Pomerania

The history of Pomerania starts shortly before 1000 AD with ongoing conquests by newly arrived Polans rulers.

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History of Pomerania (1806–1933)

History of Pomerania (1806–1933) covers the history of Pomerania from the early 19th century until the rise of Nazi Germany.

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History of Pomerania (1933–1945)

History of Pomerania between 1933 and 1945 covers the period of one decade of the long history of Pomerania, lasting from the Adolf Hitler's rise to power until the end of World War II in Europe.

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History of Pomerania (1945–present)

History of Pomerania (1945–present) covers the history of Pomerania during World War II aftermath, the Communist and since 1989 Democratic era.

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History of rail transport in Poland

The history of rail transport in Poland dates back to the first half of the 19th century when railways were built under Prussian, Russian, and Austrian rule.

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History of Saxony

The history of Saxony consists of what was originally a small tribe living on the North Sea between the Elbe and Eider River in the present Holstein.

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History of Szczecin

History of Szczecin (Stettin) - in Poland.

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History of the Jews in Belarus

The Jews in Belarus were the third largest ethnic group in the country in the first half of the 20th century.

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History of the Jews in Lithuania

The history of the Jews in Lithuania spans the period from the 8th century to the present day.

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History of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1648–1764)

History of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1648–1764) covers a period in the history of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, from the time their joint state became the theater of wars and invasions fought on a great scale in the middle of the 17th century, to the time just before the election of Stanisław August Poniatowski, the last king of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

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History of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1764–1795)

The History of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1764–1795) is concerned with the final decades of existence of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

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History of the Royal Castle in Warsaw

The Royal Castle in Warsaw was a seat of the Sejm and Senate of the first Rzeczpospolita and also an official residence of the monarchs in Warsaw.

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Hobe family

Hobe (also: von Hobe von Gelting, Baron von Hobe-Gelting, Hobe Freiherr von Gelting or Monforts von Hobe) is the name of an old German noble family from Mecklenburg, which also became influential in Denmark.

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Holmen (company)

Holmen is a Swedish company which bases its business in the forest industry and the pulp and paper industry.

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Holocaust trains

Holocaust trains were railway transports run by the Deutsche Reichsbahn national railway system under the strict supervision of the German Nazis and their allies, for the purpose of forcible deportation of the Jews, as well as other victims of the Holocaust, to the German Nazi concentration, forced labour, and extermination camps.

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Holtzendorff

Holtzendorff or von Holtzendorff can refer to.

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Holy Roman Empire

The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.

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Home Army

The Home Army (Armia Krajowa;, abbreviated AK) was the dominant Polish resistance movement in Poland, occupied by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, during World War II.

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Homosexuality and Lutheranism

Lutheran viewpoints concerning homosexuality are diverse because there is no one worldwide body which represents all Lutherans.

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Honor Bound series

The Honor Bound series is a World War II thriller series by W. E. B. Griffin, with the latest three books co-authored by William E. Butterworth IV (Griffin's son).

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Horn family

The Horn family coat of arms features a black drinking horn on yellow background Horn is a Swedish noble family from Finland, known since the 14th century.

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House of Putbus

Pedebuz or Podebusk or Putbus was a highly noble, ultimately princely house in Pomerania and Rügen, territories in northern Europe on the south Baltic Sea coast.

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Hugo Döblin

Hugo Döblin (29 October 1876 – 4 November 1960) was a German stage and film actor.

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Hugo von Kathen

Hugo Karl Gottlieb von Kathen (27 August 1855 – 2 April 1932) was a German infantry general during World War I.

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Humorist (horse)

Humorist (1918–1921) was a British Thoroughbred racehorse.

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Hyacinth Graf Strachwitz

Hyacinth Graf Strachwitz von Groß-Zauche und Camminetz (30 July 1893 – 25 April 1968) was a German Army officer of aristocratic descent.

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Immigration to Brazil

Immigration to Brazil is the movement to Brazil of foreign persons to reside permanently.

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Institutes of Agriculture of Bydgoszcz

The Institutes of Agriculture of Bydgoszcz are a complex of historic buildings belonging today to city public administration, focused since their erection to teaching and research.

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Irena Iłłakowicz

Irena Morzycka-Iłłakowicz (also as Iłłakowiczowa, July 26, 1906 – October 4, 1943) was a Polish second Lieutenant of the National Armed Forces and intelligence agent.

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Iska Geri

Iska Geri (1920–2002) was a German film and television actress.

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Italian exonyms

Below is list of Italian language exonyms for places in non-Italian-speaking areas of Europe: In recent years, the use of Italian exonyms for lesser known places has significantly decreased, in favour of the foreign toponym.

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Itueta

Itueta is a municipality in the state of Minas Gerais in the Southeast region of Brazil.

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Jacob Paul von Gundling

Jacob Paul Freiherr von Gundling (19 August 1673, Hersbruck – 11 April 1731, Potsdam) was a German historian.

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Jadwiga (wife of Władysław Odonic)

Jadwiga; d. 29 December 1249), was by marriage Duchess consort of Greater Poland. Her parentage is disputed among historians and sources. Among the possible origins for Jadwiga include.

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Jahnke

Jahnke is a German surname meaning "kin of John" or "kin of Johann".

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Jakub Świnka

Jakub Świnka (died 4 March 1314) was a Polish Catholic priest, the Archbishop of Gniezno and a notable politician, supporter of the idea of unification of all Polish lands under the rule of Władysław I the Elbow-high ("the Short").

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Jakub Wejher

Jakub Wejher (or Weyher, German Jakob Weiher) (1609 – 1657), was a member of the Polish line of the Weyher family, a Count of the Holy Roman Empire and member of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth szlachta (nobility).

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Jan Bułhak

Jan Brunon Bułhak (1876–1950) was a pioneer of photography in Poland and present-day Belarus and Lithuania, and one of the best-known Polish photographers of the early 20th century.

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Jan Chryzostom Czapski

Jan Chryzostom Czapski, coat of arms Leliwa, (born 1656, died 18 May 1716) was the Chamberlain of Malbork, Castellan of Kruszwica and later the Castellan of Elbląg.

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Jan Ludwik Popławski

Jan Ludwik Popławski (17 January 1854 in Bystrzejowice Pierwsze – 12 March 1908 in Warsaw) was a Polish journalist, author, politician and one of the first chief activists and ideologues of the right-wing National Democracy political camp.

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Jan Trepczyk

Jan Trepczyk (Kashubian: Jan Trepczik; 22 October 1907 in Strysza Buda, Kartuzy – 3 September 1989, in Wejherowo, Poland) was one of the most accomplished Kashubian poets, and also a songwriter, a Kashubian ideologist, lexicographer, and teacher.

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January 14

In the 20th and 21st centuries the Julian calendar is 13 days behind the Gregorian calendar, thus January 14 is sometimes celebrated as New Year's Day (Old New Year) by religious groups who use the Julian calendar.

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Janusz Szrom

Janusz Szrom (born 16 November 1968 in Grodków) is a Polish jazz vocalist and composer.

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Jaromar (bishop)

Jaromar of Rügen (c. 1267 – c. 1294) was a member of the Rügen princely house and a Roman Catholic priest.

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Jaromar II, Prince of Rügen

Jaromar II, Prince of Rügen (– 20 August 1260) was a Danish nobleman.

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Jasienica, Police

Jasienica (Jasenitz) is a district of Police, Poland, a town in the Pomerania Region.

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Józef Ćwierczakiewicz

Józef Ćwierczakiewicz, Józef Ćwierciakiewicz (1822 – 12 September 1869 in Geneva), also known as Joseph Card, was a Polish journalist, representative of Komitet Centralny Narodowy in West Prussia (Pomerania) in 1861-1863, and agent of Komitet Centralny Narodowy in England in 1862-1863.

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Józef Beck

Józef Beck (4 October 1894 – 5 June 1944) was a Polish statesman who served the Second Republic of Poland as a diplomat and military officer, and was a close associate of Józef Piłsudski.

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Józef Chyliński

Józef Chyliński (2 October 1904 — 9 June 1985) (codenames 'Kamień', 'Grom' and 'Julian') was a Polish soldier and resistance fighter, recipient of the Silver Star of the Virtuti Militari, Cross of Valour (Krzyż Walecznych) and Gold Cross of Merit with Swords (Krzyż Zasługi z Mieczami).

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Józef Dowbor-Muśnicki

Józef Dowbor-Muśnicki (Iosif Romanovich while in the Russian military; sometimes also Dowbór-Muśnicki; 25 October 1867 – 26 October 1937) was a Russian military officer and Polish general, serving with the Imperial Russian and then Polish armies.

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Józef Haller

Józef Haller von Hallenburg (13 August 1873 – 4 June 1960) was a Lieutenant General of the Polish Army, a legionary in the Polish Legions, harcmistrz (the highest Scouting instructor rank in Poland), the President of the Polish Scouting and Guiding Association (ZHP), and a political and social activist.

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Józef Spors

Józef Spors (August 13, 1941 – June 13, 1992) was a Polish historian, specializing in the medieval History of Poland and its northern region - Pomerania.

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Józef Wybicki

Józef Rufin Wybicki (29 September 1747 – 19 March 1822) was a Polish jurist, poet, political and military activist.

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Jörg Schmeisser

Jörg Schmeisser (1942 - 2012) was a noted and award-winning printmaker.

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Jean Grosjean

Jean Grosjean (born in Paris on 21 December 1912, died at Versailles on 10 April 2006) was a French poet, writer and translator.

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Jerichow

Jerichow is a town on the east side of the Elbe River, in the District of Jerichower Land, of the state of Saxony-Anhalt in Germany.

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Jerzy Samp

Jerzy Samp (23 March 1951 in Gdańsk – 16 February 2015) was a Polish writer, publicist and historian of the literature and culture of Pomerania and especially of the Kashubian literature.

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Jerzy Sikorski

Jerzy Sikorski (born July 25, 1935) is a Polish historian, doctorate in history (PhD), Copernicologist, medievalist, museologist, author, publisher, journalist, encyclopedist, and translator, who writes and publishes primarily in Polish.

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Joachim Ernst von Grumbkow

Joachim Ernst von Grumbkow (1637 – 26 December 1690) was a general and statesman of Brandenburg-Prussia.

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Joachim Frederick, Elector of Brandenburg

Joachim Frederick (27 January 1546 – 18 July 1608), of the House of Hohenzollern, was Prince-elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg from 1598 until his death.

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Joachim Nicolas Eggert

Joachim Nicolas Eggert (22 February 1779 – 14 April 1813) was a Swedish composer and musical director.

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Joachim von Blumenthal

Joachim Christian, Count von Blumenthal (6 December 1720 – 17 March 1800) succeeded his uncle Ludwig von Blumenthal as President of the Prussian General War and Finance Directory (effectively Minister War and Finance) of Prussia and remained so until the time of the Napoleonic Wars.

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Johan Christian Dahl

Johan Christian Claussen Dahl (24 February 178814 October 1857), often known as or was a Norwegian artist who is considered the first great romantic painter in Norway, the founder of the "golden age" of Norwegian painting, and one of the greatest European artists of all time.

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Johan Frederik Clemens

Johan Frederik Clemens (November 29, 1749 – November 5, 1831) was a Pomeranian-Danish printmaker in etching.

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Johan Gabriel Oxenstierna

Count Johan Gabriel Oxenstierna (19 July 1750 – 29 July 1818) is considered one of the foremost Swedish poets of the Gustavian period.

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Johann Grasshoff

Johann Grasshoff (or Grasshof, Grasse) (c.1560 – 1623) was a Pomeranian jurist, and alchemical writer.

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Johann Karl Rodbertus

Johann Karl Rodbertus (August 12, 1805, Greifswald, Swedish Pomerania – December 6, 1875, Jagetzow), also known as Karl Rodbertus-Jagetzow, was a German economist and socialist of the scientific or conservative school from Greifswald.

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Johann Philipp Kratz von Scharffenstein

Johann Philipp Kratz von Scharffenstein (1585 – 26 July 1635) was a German nobleman and field marshal, who fought during the course of the Thirty Years' War.

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Johann von Sporck

Johann von Sporck (1595 – 6 August 1679) was a German nobleman and Generalfeldmarschall.

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Johannes Aepinus

Johannes Aepinus (Johann Hoeck) (1499–1553) was a German Lutheran theologian, the first Superintendent of Hamburg from 1532 to 1553, presiding as spiritual leader over the Lutheran state church of Hamburg.

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Johannes Holtfreter

Johannes Holtfreter (January 9, 1901 – November 13, 1992) was a German-American developmental biologist whose primary focus was the “organizer,” a part of the embryo essential for the development of the proper body plan.

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John C. Pritzlaff

John C. Pritzlaff (March 8, 1820 – March 18, 1900) was the founder of the John Pritzlaff Hardware Company, the largest wholesale hardware store in the Midwestern United States until its closure in 1958.

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John Hill (Royal Navy officer)

Sir John Hill (c. 1774 – 20 January 1855) was an officer of the Royal Navy who served during the American War of Independence, and the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars.

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John of Falkenberg

John of Falkenberg or Johannes Falkenberg (born in Falkenberg, Pomerania, date unknown; died about 1418 in Italy — or, according to other accounts, in his native town) was a German Dominican theologian and writer.

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John William Stokes

John William Stokes, also known as Jack Stokes (1 February 1910 – 3 August 1995) was an Australian administrator in the Northern Territory Police, and on the Territories of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands and of Christmas Island.

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Jomsborg

Jomsborg or Jómsborg (Jomsburg) was a semi-legendary Viking stronghold at the southern coast of the Baltic Sea (medieval Wendland, modern Pomerania), that existed between the 960s and 1043.

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Jonas Erikson Sundahl

Jonas Erikson Sundahl (1678-1762) was a Swedish-born architect who spent most of his working life at and around Zweibrücken in the German Palatinate.

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Jonathan Paul

Jonathan Anton Alexander Paul (1853–1931) was a German Pentecostal minister, writer, theologian, and Bible scholar and translator.

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Julius Friedrich Cohnheim

Julius Friedrich Cohnheim (20 July 1839 – 15 August 1884) was a German-Jewish pathologist.

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July 6

No description.

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Jungdeutsche Partei

Jungdeutsche Partei in Polen (JDP), or the Young German Party in Poland (Partia Młodoniemiecka w Polsce), was a Nazi German extreme right-wing political party founded in 1931 by members of the ethnic German minority residing in the Second Polish Republic.

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Junkers Ju 87

The Junkers Ju 87 or Stuka (from Sturzkampfflugzeug, "dive bomber") is a German dive bomber and ground-attack aircraft.

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Kamień Pomorski

Kamień Pomorski (Cammin or Kammin; Kamién) is a town in the West Pomeranian Voivodeship of north-western Poland, on the Baltic coast.

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Kapp Putsch

The Kapp Putsch, also known as the Kapp-Lüttwitz Putsch after its leaders Wolfgang Kapp and Walther von Lüttwitz, was an attempted coup on 13 March 1920 which aimed to undo the German Revolution of 1918–1919, overthrow the Weimar Republic and establish a right-wing autocratic government in its place.

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Karl Decker

Karl Decker (30 November 1897 – 21 April 1945) was a general in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II who committed suicide in the Ruhr Pocket on 21 April 1945.

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Karl Gützlaff

Karl Friedrich August Gützlaff (8 July 1803 – 9 August 1851), anglicised as Charles Gutzlaff, was a German Lutheran missionary to the Far East, notable as one of the first Protestant missionaries in Bangkok, Thailand (1828) and in Korea (1832).

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Karl Gustav Homeyer

Karl Gustav Homeyer (13 August 1795 – 20 October 1874) was a German jurist.

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Karl Heinrich von Boetticher

Karl Heinrich von Boetticher (6 January 1833 – 6 March 1907) was a German conservative statesman.

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Karl Ludwig Fernow

Karl Ludwig Fernow (19 November 1763 – 4 December 1808) was a German art critic and archaeologist.

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Karl Rübel

Karl Rübel (16 August 1895 – 8 March 1945) was a German general during World War II.

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Karla Runkehl

Karla Runkehl (7 November 1930 - 24 December 1986) was an East German actress.

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Karlino oil eruption

The Karlino oil eruption was an oil well blowout that took place on December 9, 1980, near Karlino, a town located in Pomerania in northern Poland, near the Baltic Sea coast.

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Karol Stanisław Radziwiłł (1734–1790)

Prince Karol Stanisław Radziwiłł (Караль Станіслаў Радзівіл II, Karolis Stanislovas Radvila II, Exonym: Charles Stanislaus: 27 February 1734 – 21 November 1790) was a Polish nobleman, politician, diplomat, prince of the Crown Kingdom of Poland and the Commonwealth, statesman of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Voivode of Vilnius, governor of Lwów and Sejm Marshal between 1767 and 1768.

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Karpin, Police County

Karpin (Karpin) is a settlement in the administrative district of Gmina Police, within Police County, West Pomeranian Voivodeship, in north-western Poland, close to the German border.

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Karpinsk

Karpinsk (Карпи́нск) is a town in Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia, located on the Turya River (Ob's basin), north of Yekaterinburg, the administrative center of the oblast.

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Kartuzy

Kartuzy) (Cashubian Kartuzë, Kartëzë, Kartuzé),(Karthaus) is a town in the historic Eastern Pomerania (Pomerelia) region of northwestern Poland. Previously in Gdańsk Voivodeship from 1975 to 1998, Kartuzy since 1999 is the capital of Kartuzy County in Pomeranian Voivodeship since 1999.

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Kashubia

Kashubia or Cassubia (Kaszëbë, Kaszuby, Kaschubei, Kaschubien) is a language area in the historic Eastern Pomerania (Pomerelia) region of northwestern Poland.

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Kashubian language

Kashubian or Cassubian (Kashubian: kaszëbsczi jãzëk, pòmòrsczi jãzëk, kaszëbskò-słowińskô mòwa; język kaszubski, język pomorski, język kaszubsko-słowiński) is a West Slavic language belonging to the Lechitic subgroup along with Polish and Silesian.

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Kashubian-Pomeranian Association

The Kashubian-Pomeranian Association (Kashubian-Pomeranian: Kaszëbskò-Pòmòrsczé Zrzeszenié, Polish: Zrzeszenie Kaszubsko-Pomorskie) is a regional non-governmental organization of Kashubians (Pomeranians), Kociewiacy and other people interested in the regional affairs of Kashubia and Pomerania in northern Poland.

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Kashubians

The Kashubs (Kaszëbi; Kaszubi; Kaschuben; also spelled Kaszubians, Kassubians, Cassubians, Cashubes, and Kashubians, and formerly known as Kashubes) are a West Slavic ethnic group in Pomerelia, north-central Poland.

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Kasimir Wedig von Bonin

Kasimir Wedig von Bonin (1 May 1691 in Karzin–12 September 1752 in Landsberg an der Warthe) also called Casimir Wedigo von Bonin) was a Prussian lieutenant general during the reigns of Frederick William I and his son, Frederick the Great.

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Kaspar Kornelius Mortaigne de Potelles

Kaspar Kornelius Mortaigne de Potelles (1609 – 10 July 1647 Sankt Goar) was a Flemish General-Lieutenant who fought during the course of the Thirty Years' and Hessian Wars.

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Kayanis (musician)

Kayanis is a Polish musician and composer of ambient electronic music, neo-progressive and symphonic rock.

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Kazimierz Orlik-Łukoski

Kazimierz Orlik-Łukoski (13 September 1890 – 1940) was a Polish military commander and one of the Generals of the Polish Army murdered by the Soviet Union in the Katyń massacre of 1940.

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Kazimierz Piechowski

Kazimierz Piechowski (3 October 1919 – 15 December 2017) was a Polish engineer, a Boy Scout during the Second Polish Republic, a political prisoner of the German Nazis at Auschwitz concentration camp, a soldier of the Polish Home Army (Armia Krajowa) then a prisoner for seven years of the post war communist government of Poland.

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Kazimierz Piwarski

Kazimierz Piwarski (b. 19 February 1903, d. 1968) was a Polish historian, professor of Jagiellonian University in Kraków since 1946 and Poznań University in years 1953-1955, member of Polish Academy of Skills (Polska Akademia Umiejętności, PAU) since 1945, and member of Polish Academy of Sciences (Polska Akademia Nauk, PAN) since 1958.

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Kärkna Abbey

Kärkna Abbey (Kärkna klooster; Kloster Falkenau or Valkenau), now ruined, was a former Cistercian monastery in Estonia.

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Kłomino

The village of Kłomino, located in northwestern Poland (West Pomeranian Voivodeship, near Szczecinek) is the only official ghost town in Poland.

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King of the Wends

The title of King of the Wends (Vendes Konung; Rex Vandalorum) denoted sovereignty, lordship, or claims over once-Western Slavic lands of southern coasts of the Baltic Sea, those otherwise called Mecklenburg, Holstein and Pomerania, and was used from the 12th century to 1972 by Kings of Denmark and from ca 1540 to 1973 by the Kings of Sweden.

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King's German Legion

The King's German Legion (KGL) was a British Army unit of mostly expatriate German personnel during the period 1803–16.

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Kingdom of Poland (1025–1385)

The Kingdom of Poland (Polish: Królestwo Polskie; Latin: Regnum Poloniae) was the Polish state from the coronation of the first King Bolesław I the Brave in 1025 to the union with Lithuania and the rule of the Jagiellon dynasty in 1385.

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Kingdom of Prussia

The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.

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Klaus von Bismarck

Klaus von Bismarck (6 March 1912 – 22 May 1997) was the Director General of the Westdeutscher Rundfunk (West German Broadcasting) from 1961 to 1976, and the President of the ARD from 1963 to 1964.

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Kleiner Jasmunder Bodden

The Kleiner Jasmunder Bodden belongs to the North Rügen Bodden and is a water body on the southern edge of the Baltic Sea in the German state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.

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Kleiner Landgraben

The Kleiner Landgraben is a small river of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.

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Kleist family

Kleist is a Pomeranian Prussian noble family.

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Kołbacz

Kołbacz (Kolbatz) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Stare Czarnowo, within Gryfino County, West Pomeranian Voivodeship, in north-western Poland.

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Kołbacz Abbey

The Kołbacz Abbey was a Cistercian monastery located in Kołbacz, Poland.

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Kościelecki

The Kościelecki (or, plural, Kościeleccy) - were a noble family which was part of the political and economic elite in Kujawy and Royal Prussia in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.

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Kościuszko Uprising

The Kościuszko Uprising was an uprising against Imperial Russia and the Kingdom of Prussia led by Tadeusz Kościuszko in the Commonwealth of Poland and the Prussian partition in 1794.

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Kociewie

Kociewie is an ethnocultural region in the eastern part of Tuchola Forest, in northern Poland, Pomerania, south of Gdańsk.

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Kolberg (film)

Kolberg is a 1945 German historical film directed by Veit Harlan.

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Konitz affair

The Konitz affair was an accusation of Jewish ritual murder, based on the unexplained murder of the student Ernst Winter in Konitz, West Prussia.

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Koschneiderisch

Koschneiderisch is a part of East Low German East Pomeranian dialect that is either moribund or used to be spoken in Pomerania (now Northwestern Poland, previously part of Germany).

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Koserow

Koserow is a municipality on Usedom Island, in the Vorpommern-Greifswald district, in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.

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Koszalin

Koszalin ((Köslin, Kòszalëno), is a city in Western Pomerania in north-western Poland. It is located south of the Baltic Sea coast, and intersected by the river Dzierżęcinka. Koszalin is also a county-status city and capital of Koszalin County of West Pomeranian Voivodeship since 1999. Previously, it was a capital of Koszalin Voivodeship (1950–1998). The current mayor of Koszalin is Piotr Jedliński.

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Krajina

Krajina is a Slavic toponym, meaning 'frontier' or 'march'.

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Krajna

Krajna is a forested historical region in Poland, situated in the border area between the Greater Poland, Kuyavian-Pomeranian and Pomeranian Voivodeships.

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Kresy

Kresy Wschodnie or Kresy (Eastern Borderlands, or Borderlands) was the Eastern part of the Second Polish Republic during the interwar period constituting nearly half of the territory of the state.

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Kresy Zachodnie

Kresy Zachodnie (Western Borderlands) is a term used by Poles, mostly in a historical context, to refer to the western parts of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth that in the partitions were annexed by Prussia.

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Kriegsmarine

The Kriegsmarine (literally "War Navy") was the navy of Germany from 1935 to 1945.

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Kruszwica

Kruszwica (Kruschwitz) is a town in central Poland and is situated in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship (since 1999), previously in Bydgoszcz Voivodeship (1975–1998).

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Krzysztof Gliszczyński

Krzysztof Gliszczyński (born in Miastko, northwestern Poland, 16 January 1962) is a Polish painter from Sopot.

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Krzysztof Grodzicki

Krzysztof Grodzicki (died 1659) was a Polish artillery general, serving the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

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Krzysztof Lubieniecki

Krzysztof Lubieniecki or Christoffel Lubienietzky (1659–1729) was a Polish Baroque painter and engraver active in Amsterdam during the Dutch Golden Age.

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Kungälv

Kungälv is a city and the seat of Kungälv Municipality in Västra Götaland County, Sweden.

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Kurt Christoph Graf von Schwerin

Kurt Christoph Graf von Schwerin (26 October 1684 – 6 May 1757) was a Prussian Generalfeldmarschall, one of the leading commanders under Frederick the Great.

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Kurt Polycarp Joachim Sprengel

Kurt Polycarp Joachim Sprengel (3 August 1766 – 15 March 1833) is a man that is known for his contributions and accomplishments as a botanist and physician.

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Kurt Wolff (aviator)

Oberleutnant Kurt Wolff (6 February 1895 – 15 September 1917) was one of Imperial Germany's highest scoring fighter aces during World War I. After claiming 33 victories, he was killed in action at the age of 22.

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Kusowo, West Pomeranian Voivodeship

Kusowo is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Szczecinek, within Szczecinek County, West Pomeranian Voivodeship, in north-western Poland.

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Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship

Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, also known as Cuiavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship or simply Kujawsko-Pomorskie, or Kujawy-Pomerania Province (in Polish, województwo kujawsko-pomorskie.

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Kylfings

The Kylfings (Old Norse Kylfingar; Finnic Kylfingid; Hungarian Kölpények; Old East Slavic Колбяги, Kolbiagi; Byzantine Greek Κουλπίγγοι, Koulpingoi; Arabic al-Kilabiyya) were a people of uncertain origin active in Northern Europe during the Viking Age, roughly from the late ninth century to the early twelfth century.

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L. Braille special educational centre for blind children in Bydgoszcz

L.

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Landflucht

Landflucht ("flight from the land") refers to the mass migration of peasants into the cities that occurred in Germany (and throughout much of Europe) in the late 19th century.

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Landgraben (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern)

Landgraben is a river of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.

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Landkreis Kolberg-Körlin

Kolberg-Körlin (earlier spelling Colberg-Cörlin) was a Landkreis (county) in the Prussian Province of Pomerania between 1872 and 1945.

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Landkreis Regenwalde

The Prussian Landkreis Regenwalde in Pomerania was a rural district that existed between 1818 and 1945.

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Lands of Schlawe and Stolp

The Lands of Schlawe and Stolp (Länder Schlawe und Stolp) or Land of Słupsk-Sławno (Ziemia Słupsko-Sławieńska) are a historical region in Pomerania, centered on the towns of Sławno (Schlawe) and Słupsk (Stolp) in Farther Pomerania, in present-day Poland.

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Latvian Legion

The Latvian Legion (Latviešu leģions) was a formation of the German Waffen-SS during World War II.

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Lauenburg and Bütow Land

Lauenburg and Bütow Land (Länder or italic, Lãbòrskò-bëtowskô Zemia, Ziemia lęborsko-bytowska) formed a historical region in eastern Pomerania.

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Löcknitz Castle

Loecknitz Castle is a castle in the municipality of Loecknitz in southeastern Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, of which today only remnants, such as the octagonal keep are obtained.

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Lechites

Lechites, or Lekhites, is a name given to certain West Slavic peoples, including the ancestors of modern Poles and the historical Pomeranians and Polabians, speakers of the Lechitic languages.

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Lechitic languages

The Lechitic (or Lekhitic) languages are a language subgroup consisting of Polish and several other languages and dialects that originally were spoken in the area.

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Leendert Pieter de Neufville

Leendert Pieter de Neufville (Amsterdam, March 8, 1729Rotterdam, July 28, 1811) was a Dutch merchant and banker trading in silk, linen, grain.

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Legion of the Vistula

The Legion of the Vistula (Legia Nadwiślańska) was a unit of Poles in the service of Napoleonic France, one of the larger Polish legions of the Napoleonic period.

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Lemovii

The Lemovii were a Germanic tribe, only once named by Tacitus in the late 1st century.

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Leonore Siegele-Wenschkewitz

Leonore Siegele-Wenschkewitz (27 June 1944, Belgard/Pommern – 17 December 1999, Frankfurt am Main) was a German church historian and director of the Evangelische Akademie Arnoldshain.

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Leopold Stokowski

Leopold Anthony Stokowski (18 April 188213 September 1977) was an English conductor of Polish and Irish descent.

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Leopold Wilhelm, Margrave of Baden-Baden

Margrave Leopold Wilhelm of Baden-Baden (September 16, 1626 – Baden-Baden, March 1, 1671) was an Imperial Field Marschal.

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Lesser Poland

Lesser Poland (Polish: Małopolska, Latin: Polonia Minor) is a historical region (dzielnica) of Poland; its capital is the city of Kraków.

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Leszko III

Leszko III (or Leszek, Lestek, Lesco) was a legendary ruler of Poland, firstly mentioned by Wincenty Kadłubek.

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List of accidents and incidents involving military aircraft (1940–44)

This is a list of notable accidents and incidents involving military aircraft grouped by the year in which the accident or incident occurred.

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List of adjectival and demonymic forms of place names

The following is a partial list of adjectival forms of place names in English and their demonymic equivalents, which denote the people or the inhabitants of these places.

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List of adjectivals and demonyms for former regions

The following is a list of adjectival forms of former regions in English and their demonymic equivalents, which denote the people or the inhabitants of these former regions.

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List of adjectivals and demonyms for subcontinental regions

The following is a list of adjectival forms of subcontinental regions in English and their demonymic equivalents, which denote the people or the inhabitants of these subcontinental regions.

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List of ancient Baltic peoples and tribes

The following is a list of ancient Baltic peoples and tribes.

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List of ancient Slavic peoples and tribes

This is a list of Slavic tribes reported in the Middle Ages, that is, before the year AD 1500.

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List of Axis operational codenames in the European Theatre

The list of Axis named operations in the European Theatre represents those military operations that received a codename, predominantly from the Wehrmacht commands.

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List of bishops of Szczecin-Kamień

Bishops of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Szczecin-Kamień.

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List of Carthusian monasteries

This is a list of Carthusian monasteries, or charterhouses, containing both extant and dissolved monasteries of the Order of Saint Bruno for monks and nuns, arranged by location under their present countries.

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List of derbies in Poland

This is a list of the main sporting local derbies in Poland.

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List of Dolmens

Korean dolmens exhibit a morphology distinct from the Atlantic European dolmen.

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List of Don Cossacks noble families

Noble families of Don Cossacks in alphabetical order includes the old original Cossack noble families from Free Don, families which titles were granted by the Tsars of Moskovia and Russian Imperators after including of the territories of Free Don in to Russian Imperium.

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List of double placenames

Double placenames prominently feature the placenames of two or more constituent geopolitical entities.

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List of English exonyms for German toponyms

This list is a compilation of German toponyms (i.e., names of cities, regions, rivers, mountains and other geographical features situated in a German-speaking area) that have traditional English exonyms.

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List of etymologies of country subdivision names

This article provides a collection of the etymology of the names of country subdivisions.

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List of European regions with alternative names

Most regions and provinces of Europe have alternative names in different languages.

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List of fictional countries by region

This list of fictional countries groups fictional countries and imagined nations together, by the region of the world in which they are supposed to be located.

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List of floods

This is a list of major floods.

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List of foods named after places

Lists of foods named after places have been compiled by writers, sometimes on travel websites or food-oriented websites, as well as in books.

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List of French exonyms for German toponyms

This list shows the French exonyms for German toponyms.

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List of griffins as mascots and in heraldry

The Griffin (or Gryphon) is a legendary creature with the body of a lion and the head and wings of an eagle.

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List of historical regions of Central Europe

There are many historical regions of Central Europe.

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List of Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross recipients (G)

The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross (Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes) and its variants were the highest awards in the military and paramilitary forces of Nazi Germany during World War II.

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List of Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross recipients (L)

The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross (Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes) and its variants were the highest awards in the military of Nazi Germany during World War II.

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List of Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross recipients of the Waffen-SS

The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross (German: Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes) and its variants were the highest award in the military and paramilitary forces of Nazi Germany.

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List of languages by time of extinction

This is a list of extinct languages sorted by their time of extinction.

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List of Latin names of regions

Here is a list of principalities and regions written in the Latin language and English and other names on the right.

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List of longest-reigning monarchs

This is a list of the longest-reigning monarchs of all time, detailing the 100 monarchs and lifelong leaders who have reigned the longest in world history, sorted by length of reign.

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List of Manning-Sanders tales by region

A region-by-region list of fairy and folk tales collected and retold by Ruth Manning-Sanders (1886–1988).

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List of mass evacuations

This list of mass evacuations includes emergency evacuations of a large number of people in a short period of time.

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List of medieval Gaue

The following is a list of German Gaue which existed during the Middle Ages.

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List of military headstamps

A headstamp is the markings on the bottom of a cartridge case designed for a firearm.

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List of military operations on the Eastern Front of World War II

This is a list of military operations in Europe on the "Eastern Front".

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List of municipalities in the Province of Pomerania, A–Z

This list of municipalities in the Province of Pomerania is based on the information found in Amtliches Gemeindeverzeichnis für das Deutsche Reich auf Grund der Volkszählung 1939 and Ortsnamenverzeichnis der Ortschaften jenseits von Oder und Neiße |.

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List of OECD regions by GDP (PPP) per capita

This is a list of OECD regions by GDP (PPP) per capita, a ranking of subnational entities from members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) by gross domestic product at purchasing power parity prices per capita.

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List of oldest continuously inhabited cities

This is a list of present-day cities by the time period over which they have been continuously inhabited.

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List of people executed for witchcraft

This is a list of people executed for witchcraft, many of whom were executed during organised witch-hunts, particularly from the 15th–18th centuries.

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List of placenames in the Province of Pomerania

The name Pomerania comes from Slavic po more, which means Land at the Sea.

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List of Polish women writers

This is a list of women writers who were born in Poland or whose writings are closely associated with that country.

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List of Pomeranian duchies and dukes

This is a list of the duchies and dukes of Pomerania.

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List of Portuguese exonyms

Below is a list of Portuguese language exonyms for places in non-Portuguese-speaking areas of Europe.

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List of pre-modern states

This article lists the many extinct states, countries, nations, empires or territories from Ancient History to just before the Early Modern period, grouped geographically.

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List of rampage killers

A rampage killer has been defined as follows: This list should contain, for each category, the first fifteen cases with at least one of the following features.

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List of rampage killers (Europe)

This section of the list of rampage killers contains those cases that occurred in Europe.

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List of Russian exonyms

Below is a list of Russian language exonyms for places, mainly in Europe.

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List of shipwrecks in 1816

The list of shipwrecks in 1816 includes some ships sunk, wrecked or otherwise lost during 1816.

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List of shipwrecks in April 1945

The list of shipwrecks in April 1945 includes ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during April 1945.

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List of shipwrecks in August 1944

The list of shipwrecks in August 1944 includes ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during August 1944.

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List of shipwrecks in December 1944

The list of shipwrecks in December 1944 includes ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during December 1944.

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List of shipwrecks in February 1945

The list of shipwrecks in February 1945 includes ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during February 1945.

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List of shipwrecks in January 1915

The list of shipwrecks in January 1915 includes some ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during January 1915.

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List of shipwrecks in January 1945

The list of shipwrecks in January 1945 includes ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during January 1945.

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List of shipwrecks in July 1944

The list of shipwrecks in July 1944 includes ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during July 1944.

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List of shipwrecks in June 1944

The list of shipwrecks in June 1944 includes ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during June 1944.

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List of shipwrecks in March 1945

The list of shipwrecks in March 1945 includes ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during March 1945.

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List of shipwrecks in May 1944

The list of shipwrecks in May 1944 includes ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during May 1944.

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List of shipwrecks in May 1945

The list of shipwrecks in May 1945 includes ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during May 1945.

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List of shipwrecks in November 1941

The list of shipwrecks in November 1941 includes all ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during November 1941.

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List of shipwrecks in November 1942

The list of shipwrecks in November 1942 includes all ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during November 1942.

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List of shipwrecks in November 1944

The list of shipwrecks in November 1944 includes ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during November 1944.

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List of shipwrecks in October 1944

The list of shipwrecks in October 1944 includes ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during October 1944.

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List of shipwrecks in September 1944

The list of shipwrecks in September 1944 includes ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during September 1944.

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List of state leaders in 1086

No description.

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List of state leaders in 1112

No description.

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List of state leaders in 1114

No description.

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List of Swedish monarchs

This is a list of Swedish monarchs, that is, the Kings and ruling Queens of Sweden, including regents and viceroys of the Kalmar Union, up to the present time.

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List of towns in Western Pomerania

The List of towns in Vorpommern includes all towns in present-day German Pomerania, also called Western Pomerania, and thus excludes towns which lie west of the Oder river, but east of the Oder-Neisse line (Stettiner Zipfel area), and thus historically are associated also with Vorpommern.

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List of treaties

This list of treaties contains known historic agreements, pacts, peaces, and major contracts between states, armies, governments, and tribal groups.

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List of Vorpostenboote in World War II

A Vorpostenboot (plural Vorpostenboote) was an auxiliary warship used by Germany in both World Wars.

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List of wars involving Sweden

This is a list of wars involving the Kingdom of Sweden.

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Lithuanian Civil War (1432–1438)

The Lithuanian Civil War of 1432–1438 was a conflict over the succession to the throne of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after Vytautas the Great died in 1430 without leaving an heir.

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Lokator

The lokator (lat. locator: landlord, land allocator, from lat. (col)locare to allocate, rent, establish, settle or locate; also magister incolarum; in Mecklenburg and Pomerania also posessor or cultor, similar to the Reutemeister in South Germany) was a medieval sub-contractor, who was responsible to a territorial lord or landlord for the clearing, survey and apportionment of land that was to be settled.

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Loop (inlet)

The Loop or Darss Canal (Darßer Kanal) was an inlet of the sea between the lagoon known as the Saaler Bodden and the Baltic Sea near Ahrenshoop on the German coast.

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Lordship of Parchim-Richenberg

The Lordship (or Principality) of Parchim-Richenberg ((Fürstentum) Herrschaft Parchim-Richenberg) was a short-lived state of the Holy Roman Empire which existed during the 13th century.

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Lordship of Stargard

The Lordship of Stargard (German: Herrschaft Stargard, Stargarder Land or Land Stargard) was a county first set up in the 13th century as the terra Stargardiensis and first documented in the area of the border between Brandenburg, Pomerania and Mecklenburg.

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Lorentz Eichstadt

Lorentz Eichstadt (10 August 1596 – 8 June 1660) was a German mathematician and astronomer.

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Lothair II, Holy Roman Emperor

Lothair II or Lothair III (before 9 June 1075 – 4 December 1137), known as Lothair of Supplinburg, was Holy Roman Emperor from 1133 until his death.

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Lothar Bisky

Lothar Bisky (17 August 1941 – 13 August 2013) was a German politician.

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Louis I of Hungary

Louis I, also Louis the Great (Nagy Lajos; Ludovik Veliki; Ľudovít Veľký) or Louis the Hungarian (Ludwik Węgierski; 5 March 132610 September 1382), was King of Hungary and Croatia from 1342 and King of Poland from 1370.

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Louis II, Elector of Brandenburg

Louis the Roman (7 May 1328 – 17 May 1365) was the eldest son of Emperor Louis IV the Bavarian by his second wife, Margaret II, Countess of Hainault, and a member of the House of Wittelsbach.

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Low German

Low German or Low Saxon (Plattdütsch, Plattdüütsch, Plattdütsk, Plattduitsk, Nedersaksies; Plattdeutsch, Niederdeutsch; Nederduits) is a West Germanic language spoken mainly in northern Germany and the eastern part of the Netherlands.

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Low German house

The Low German house or Fachhallenhaus is a type of timber-framed farmhouse found in Northern Germany and the Netherlands, which combines living quarters, byre and barn under one roof.

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Lower Level Football Leagues in Interwar Poland

In the Second Polish Republic, there was not a national, Second Division, as we know it today, although the creation of the second division was proposed on several occasions.

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Lower Moselle

The Lower Moselle (Untermosel or Terrassenmosel) is the name given to the lower reaches of the Moselle river - just under 100 kilometres long - in Germany between Pünderich and the Moselle's confluence with the Rhine at Koblenz.

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Lubusz Land

Lubusz Land (Ziemia Lubuska, Lubusz; Land Lebus) is a historical region and cultural landscape in Poland and Germany on both sides of the Oder river.

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Lucia of Rügen

Lucia of Rügen (died February 12 between 1208 and 1231), was the daughter of Jaromar I, Prince of Rügen and his wife Hildegard, daughter of Canute V of Denmark and Helena of Sweden.

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Lucidor

Lars (Lasse) Johansson (1638 – August 13, 1674), usually referred to under his pseudonym Lucidor, was a Swedish baroque poet.

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Lucyna Nyka

Lucyna Nyka is a Polish architect, full professor at Gdańsk University of Technology.

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Ludwig August von Stutterheim

Ludwig August von Stutterheim served Frederick the Great and his successors in the War of Bavarian Succession, the Kościuszko Uprising, and the wars of the Fourth and Sixth coalitions.

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Ludwig Hollonius

Ludwig Hollonius (c. 1570 – 1621) was a German playwright.

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Luftschiffhafen Seddin

Luftschiffhafen Seddin, named after a tiny place in Landkreis Stolp in Pomerania, was a base (Luftschiffhafen) for Schütte-Lanz airships during World War I. The large hangar survived until 1989 when it burned down.

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Lupold von Wedel

Lupold von Wedel (25 January 1544 – 13 June 1612/1615) was a German travel writer, mercenary leader and landowner.

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Lusatian culture

The Lusatian culture existed in the later Bronze Age and early Iron Age (1300 BC – 500 BC) in most of today's Poland and parts of the Czech Republic, Slovakia, eastern Germany, and western Ukraine.

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Lutheran Diocese of Pomerania-Greater Poland

The Diocese of Pomerania-Greater Poland is one of the 6 dioceses from the Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession in Poland.

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Magdeburg rights

Magdeburg rights (Magdeburger Recht; also called Magdeburg Law) were a set of town privileges first developed by Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor (936–973) and based on the Flemish law, which regulated the degree of internal autonomy within cities and villages, granted by the local ruler.

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Malbork Castle

The Castle of the Teutonic Order in Malbork (zamek w Malborku; Ordensburg Marienburg) was built in the 13th century in Prussia and is currently located near the town of Malbork, Poland.

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Malmö

Malmö (Malmø) is the capital and largest city of the Swedish county of Scania.

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Manuel Villegas Piñateli

Manuel Villegas Piñateli was a member of the Royal Spanish Academy from 1714 to 15 October 1752.

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March (territorial entity)

A march or mark was, in broad terms, a medieval European term for any kind of borderland, as opposed to a notional "heartland".

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Marcus Kalisch

Marcus Kalisch (or Moritz) (May 16, 1828 – August 25, 1885) was a Jewish scholar born in Treptow, Pomerania, and died in Derbyshire, England.

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Marek Kamiński

Marek Kamiński (born 24 March 1964 in Gdańsk) – Polish Polar explorer, author, entrepreneur.

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Margaret of Brandenburg, Duchess of Pomerania

Margaret of Brandenburg (1511 – after 3 November 1577) was a Princess of Brandenburg by birth and by marrying first a duke of Pomerania and later a prince of Anhalt.

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Margaret of Masovia

Margaret of Masovia Małgorzata (before 1358 – 14 May 1388/4 April 1396) was Duchess of Pomerania and Brzeg, by her marriages to Casimir IV, Duke of Pomerania and then to Henryk VIII with a Scar.

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Margrave Albert Frederick of Brandenburg-Schwedt

Albert Frederick, Prince of Prussia, Margrave of Brandenburg-Schwedt (24 January 1672 in Berlin – 21 June 1731 at Friedrichsfelde Palace), was a Lieutenant General in the army of the Electorate of Brandenburg-Prussia and Grand Master of the Order of Saint John.

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Margraviate of Brandenburg

The Margraviate of Brandenburg (Markgrafschaft Brandenburg) was a major principality of the Holy Roman Empire from 1157 to 1806 that played a pivotal role in the history of Germany and Central Europe.

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Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg

Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg (11 November 1599 – 28 March 1655) was a German princess and queen consort of Sweden.

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Maria Terwiel

Maria Terwiel (7 June 1910 in Boppard – 5 August 1943 in Berlin-Plötzensee, executed) was a German resistance fighter in the Third Reich.

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Marianne Clausen

Marianne Clausen (25 December 1947 – 17 September 2014) was a Danish musicologist and choir conductor.

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Mark (currency)

The mark was a currency or unit of account in many nations.

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Martin Kosleck

Martin Kosleck (born Nicolaie Yoshkin, March 24, 1904 – January 15, 1994) was a German film actor.

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Mass suicides in 1945 Nazi Germany

During the final weeks of the Third Reich and the war in Europe, many civilians, government officials and military personnel throughout Nazi Germany committed suicide.

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Massacres in Piaśnica

The massacres in Piaśnica were a set of mass executions carried out by Nazi Germany during World War II, between the fall of 1939 and spring of 1940 in Piaśnica Wielka (Groß Piasnitz) in the Darzlubska Wilderness near Wejherowo.

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Masuria

Masuria (Masuren, Masurian: Mazurÿ) is a region in northern Poland famous for its 2,000 lakes.

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Matthias Koops

Matthias Koops (active 1789–1805) was a British paper-maker who invented the first practical processes for manufacturing paper from wood pulp, straw, or recycled waste paper, without the necessity of including expensive linen or cotton rags.

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Maurice de Saxe

Maurice, Count of Saxony (Hermann Moritz Graf von Sachsen, Maurice de Saxe; 28 October 1696 – 20 November 1750) was a German soldier and officer of the Army of the Holy Roman Empire, the Imperial Army, and at last in French service who became a Marshal and later also Marshal General of France.

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Max Bär

Max Bär (21 October 1855, in Groß-Tzschacksdorf – 16 May 1928, in Koblenz) was a German archivist and historian.

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Max Berg

Max Berg (17 April 1870 – 22 January 1947) was a German architect and urban planner.

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Max Pechstein

Hermann Max Pechstein (December 31, 1881 – June 29, 1955) was a German expressionist painter and printmaker, and a member of the Die Brücke group.

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Max von Boehn (general)

Max Ferdinand Karl von Boehn (16 August 1850 − 18 February 1921) was a Prussian officer involved in the Franco-Prussian War and World War I. He held the rank of Generaloberst in World War I.

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Max von Sydow

Max von Sydow (born Carl Adolf von Sydow, 10 April 1929) is a Swedish actor.

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Möllendorf

The noble family von Möllendorf (also: Möllendorff, Moellendorff) has been prominent in the history of Brandenburg and Prussia.

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Mścięcino

Mścięcino - a district of Police, Poland, town in the Pomerania Region.

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Mechanical School N°1, Bydgoszcz

The building of the Mechanical School in Bydgoszcz is a historic public edifice, serving educational purposes, located at Świętej Trójcy Street 37, in downtown.

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Mecklenburg

Mecklenburg (locally, Low German: Mękel(n)borg) is a historical region in northern Germany comprising the western and larger part of the federal-state Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.

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Mecklenburg-Vorpommern

Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (often Mecklenburg-West Pomerania in English and commonly shortened to "Meck-Pomm" or even "McPom" or "M-V" in German) is a federal state in northern Germany.

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Mecklenburgisch-Vorpommersch dialect

Mecklenburgisch-Vorpommersch is a Low German dialect spoken in the German state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.

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Medrow (Nossendorf)

Medrow is a village in the municipality of Nossendorf in the countryside of Mecklenburgische Seenplatte in the northeast of Germany.

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Meinhard Nehmer

Meinhard Nehmer (born 13 January 1941 in Boblin near Pölitz, Pomerania, Germany) is an East German bobsledder who competed from the mid-1970s to the early 1980s.

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Melchior of Doberschütz

Melchior of Doberschütz (also spelled Dobschütz), mentioned from 1572 to 1600, was a member of the Silesian noble family of Doberschütz and was a city captain of Neustettin (Szczecinek) in the Duchy of Pomerania and a landlord holding vast possessions in Pomerania and Brandenburg.

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Mequon, Wisconsin

Mequon is a city in Ozaukee County, Wisconsin, United States.

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Michael Reinecke

Michael Franzevich von Reinecke (Михаил Францевич Рейнеке; 10 November 1801 – 16 April 1859), better known as Mikhail Reyneke, was a Russian vice-admiral and hydrographer.

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Middle Pomerania

The term Middle or Central Pomerania can refer to two distinct areas, depending on whether it is used as a translation of the corresponding German or Polish terms Mittelpommern (also Mittelpommerscher Keil) or Pomorze Środkowe, respectively.

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Mieszko I of Poland

Mieszko I (– 25 May 992) was the ruler of the Polans from about 960 until his death.

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Mieszko III the Old

Mieszko III the Old (Mieszko III Stary) (c. 1126/27 – 13 March 1202), of the royal Piast dynasty, was Duke of Greater Poland from 1138 and High Duke of Poland, with interruptions, from 1173 until his death.

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Mihail Kogălniceanu

Mihail Kogălniceanu (also known as Mihail Cogâlniceanu, Michel de Kogalnitchan; September 6, 1817 – July 1, 1891) was a Moldavian, later Romanian liberal statesman, lawyer, historian and publicist; he became Prime Minister of Romania on October 11, 1863, after the 1859 union of the Danubian Principalities under Domnitor Alexandru Ioan Cuza, and later served as Foreign Minister under Carol I. He was several times Interior Minister under Cuza and Carol.

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Military district (Germany)

During World War II, Germany had a system of military districts (Wehrkreis) to relieve field commanders of as much administrative work as possible and to provide a regular flow of trained recruits and supplies to the Field Army.

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Military history of Latvia during World War II

After the occupation of Latvia by the USSR in June 1940, much of the previous Latvian army was disbanded and many of its soldiers and officers were arrested and imprisoned or executed.

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Monika Dahlberg

Monika Dahlberg (born 1936) is a German singer, film and television actress.

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Moritz Franz Kasimir von Wobersnow

Moritz Franz Kasimir von Wobersnow (5 March 1708 in Kamissow (Kamosowo)–23 July 1759 at Kay) was a Prussian major general of infantry and a general adjutant of Frederick the Great.

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Moriz Seeler

Moriz Seeler (1 March 1896 — after 15 August 1942) was a German poet, writer, film producer, and man of the theatre.

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Morro Redondo

Morro Redondo (English: Rounded Hill) is a Brazilian municipality in the southern part of the state of Rio Grande do Sul.

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Murowana Goślina

Murowana Goślina ((German-nazi 1943-45 Goslin) is a town in Poznań County in western Poland, with 10,336 inhabitants (2009). It lies approximately north of the major city of Poznań, on the main road and railway line to Wągrowiec. The Trojanka stream flows through northern and western parts of the town, reaching the river Warta a few kilometres to the west. The town is divided into two main parts – the older part of the town to the north, centred on the market square and St. James' church, and the modern estate of Zielone Wzgórza to the south, consisting mainly of blocks of flats and houses built since 1983. Murowana Goślina is also the seat of the municipality called Gmina Murowana Goślina, which has a total population of 15,713 (2007) and covers an area of. The area around Murowana Goślina contains many lakes and forest areas, particularly within the protected area called Puszcza Zielonka Landscape Park. The region is popular with holiday-makers and day-trippers.

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Names and titles of Władysław II Jagiełło

Jogaila, later Władysław II JagiełłoFor the sake of simplicity, this article uses the Lithuanian form Jogaila for the early period of his life and the Polish form Władysław for the period following his accession to the Polish throne.

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Napoleonic Wars

The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.

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Narrow-gauge railways in Poland

There are hundreds of kilometres of,,, and narrow-gauge lines in Poland.

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National costumes of Poland

National costumes of Poland (Polish: stroje ludowe) vary by region.

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National Defense (Poland)

National Defense (Obrona Narodowa, ON) was a volunteer military formation of the Second Polish Republic.

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National Museum, Warsaw

The National Museum in Warsaw (Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie), popularly abbreviated as MNW, is a national museum in Warsaw, one of the largest museums in Poland and the largest in the capital.

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National Party (Poland)

The National Party (Stronnictwo Narodowe, SN) was a Polish nationalist political party formed on 7 October 1928 after the transformation of Popular National Union.

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National Register of Historic Places listings in Dodge County, Wisconsin

This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Dodge County, Wisconsin.

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National Socialist League of the Reich for Physical Exercise

The National Socialist League of the Reich for Physical Exercise (Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen, abbreviated NSRL), was the umbrella organization for sports and physical education in Nazi Germany.

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National Workers' Party

The National Workers' Party (Narodowa Partia Robotnicza, NPR) was a political party in Poland.

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Nazi crimes against the Polish nation

Crimes against the Polish nation committed by Nazi Germany and the collaborationist forces during the invasion of Poland, along with auxiliary battalions during the subsequent occupation of Poland in World War II, claimed the lives of 2.77 million Poles and 2.7 to 2.9 million Polish Jews, according to estimates of the Polish government-affiliated Institute of National Remembrance (IPN).

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Nazi Party

The National Socialist German Workers' Party (abbreviated NSDAP), commonly referred to in English as the Nazi Party, was a far-right political party in Germany that was active between 1920 and 1945 and supported the ideology of Nazism.

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Nemesis at Potsdam

Nemesis at Potsdam is a 1977 book whose title is drawn from Greek mythology; Nemesis is the Greek goddess of revenge.

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Nepalis in Poland

Nepalis in Poland are migrants from Nepal to Poland, mainly expatriate workers and international students.

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Netinera

Netinera (formerly Arriva Deutschland), is a railway company operating in Germany.

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Neumark

The Neumark, also known as the New March (Nowa Marchia) or as East Brandenburg, was a region of the Margraviate of Brandenburg and its successors located east of the Oder River in territory which became part of Poland in 1945.

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New Britain

New Britain (Niu Briten) is the largest island in the Bismarck Archipelago (named after Otto von Bismarck) of Papua New Guinea.

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Nicodemus Tessin the Elder

Nicodemus Tessin the Elder (December 7, 1615 in Stralsund – May 24, 1681 in Stockholm) was an important Swedish architect.

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Nicodemus Tessin the Younger

Count Nicodemus Tessin the Younger (May 23, 1654 – April 10, 1728) was a Swedish Baroque architect, city planner, and administrator.

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Nicolaus Copernicus

Nicolaus Copernicus (Mikołaj Kopernik; Nikolaus Kopernikus; Niklas Koppernigk; 19 February 1473 – 24 May 1543) was a Renaissance-era mathematician and astronomer who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the center of the universe, likely independently of Aristarchus of Samos, who had formulated such a model some eighteen centuries earlier.

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Nicolaus von Braun

Nicolaus von Braun (circa 1640 – 1718) was the regimental quartermaster at the Garrison Regiment in Malmö, Sweden.

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Nienover

Nienover is a rural housing estate which is part of Bodenfelde.

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Nils Bielke

Count Nils Bielke (7 February 1644, Stockholm – 26 November 1716) was a member of the High Council of Sweden, military and politician.

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Nine Years' War

The Nine Years' War (1688–97) – often called the War of the Grand Alliance or the War of the League of Augsburg – was a conflict between Louis XIV of France and a European coalition of Austria, the Holy Roman Empire, the Dutch Republic, Spain, England and Savoy.

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No. 301 Polish Bomber Squadron

No.

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Nordic Bronze Age

The Nordic Bronze Age (also Northern Bronze Age, or Scandinavian Bronze Age) is a period of Scandinavian prehistory from c. 1700–500 BC.

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Nordic countries

The Nordic countries or the Nordics are a geographical and cultural region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic, where they are most commonly known as Norden (literally "the North").

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Nordvorpommern

Nordvorpommern ("North Western Pomerania") was a Kreis (district) in the northern part of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.

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Northern Seven Years' War

The Northern Seven Years' War (also known as the Nordic Seven Years' War, the First Northern War or the Seven Years War in Scandinavia) was fought between the Kingdom of Sweden and a coalition of Denmark–Norway, Lübeck and Poland between 1563 and 1570.

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Noteć

Noteć is a river in central Poland with a length of (7th longest) and a basin area of.

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Nowa Jasienica

Nowa Jasienica (formerly German Neu Jasenitz) - is a settlement in the administrative district of Gmina Police, within Police County, West Pomeranian Voivodeship, in north-western Poland, close to the German border.

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Nowe Castle

Nowe Castle (Polish: Zamek w Nowem) - a castle located on the bank of the River Vistula by the Castle Square.

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Nowe Warpno

Nowe Warpno (Neuwarp) is a town in northwestern Poland, in Police County in West Pomeranian Voivodeship.

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NS-Ordensburgen

In Nazi Germany, the NS-Ordensburgen ("National Socialist Order Castles", singular Ordensburg), also called Schulungsburgen, were schools developed for elite Nazi military echelons.

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Oberliga Berlin-Brandenburg

The Oberliga Berlin-Brandenburg was the highest association football competition in the Prussian Province of Brandenburg, including Berlin, from 1923 to 1933.

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October 1939

The following events occurred in October 1939.

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Oder–Neisse line

The Oder–Neisse line (granica na Odrze i Nysie Łużyckiej, Oder-Neiße-Grenze) is the international border between Germany and Poland.

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Odon of Poznań

Odon of Poznań, also known as Odon of Greater Poland and Mieszkowic, (Odon poznański (wielkopolski, Mieszkowic); – 20 April 1194) was a Duke of Greater Poland and Poznań during 1177–1182, and Duke of Kalisz from 1193 to 1194.

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Oeselians

The Oeselians, Osilians, Esths, or Ests were a historical subdivision of Estonians inhabiting Saaremaa (Oesel or Osilia), an Estonian island in the Baltic Sea.

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Oflag 64

Oflag 64 was a World War II German prisoner-of-war camp for officers located at Szubin a few miles south of Bydgoszcz, in Pomorze, Poland, which at that time was occupied by Nazi Germany.

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Oflag XXI-B

Oflag XXI-B and Stalag XXI-B were World War II German prisoner-of-war camps for officers and enlisted men, located at Szubin a few miles south of Bydgoszcz, in Pomorze, Poland, which at that time was occupied by Nazi Germany.

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Oksywie

Oksywie (Oxhöft, Òksëwiô) is a neighbourhood of the city of Gdynia, Pomeranian Voivodeship, northern Poland.

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Oksywie culture

The Oksywie culture (ger. Oxhöft-Kultur) was an archaeological culture that existed in the area of modern-day Eastern Pomerania around the lower Vistula river from the 2nd century BC to the early 1st century AD.

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Oliwa Cathedral

Gdańsk Oliwa Archcathedral is a church located in Gdańsk, Oliwa district; dedicated to The Holy Trinity, Blessed Virgin Mary and St Bernard.

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Olof Skötkonung

Olof Skötkonung (c. 980–1022) was King of Sweden, son of Eric the Victorious and, according to Icelandic sources, Sigrid the Haughty.

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Operation Solstice

Operation Solstice (Unternehmen Sonnenwende), also known as Unternehmen Husarenritt or the "Stargard tank battle", was one of the last German armoured offensive operations on the Eastern Front in World War II.

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Operation Tannenberg

Operation Tannenberg (Unternehmen Tannenberg) was a codename for one of the extermination actions by Nazi Germany that was directed at the Polish nationals during the opening stages of World War II in Europe, part of the Generalplan Ost for the German colonization of the East.

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Ordensburg Krössinsee

Ordensburg Krössinsee (also Crössinsee) was the first of three NS-Ordensburgen, educational centers constructed in Germany in the 1930s for cadres of the Nazi Party.

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Ordensburg Sonthofen

The Ordensburg Sonthofen is one of the NS-Ordensburgen built during the Third Reich in Sonthofen (Oberallgäu).

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Ordensburg Vogelsang

Ordensburg Vogelsang is a former Nazi estate placed at the former military training area in Eifel National Park in North Rhine-Westphalia.

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Order of battle of the Waterloo Campaign

This is the complete order of battle for the four major battles of the Waterloo Campaign.

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ORP Wicher (1928)

ORP Wicher, the lead ship of the, was a Polish Navy destroyer.

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Oskar Kolberg

Henryk Oskar Kolberg (22 February 1814 – 3 June 1890) was a Polish ethnographer, folklorist, and composer active during the foreign Partitions of Poland.

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Oskar von Watter

Oskar Walther Gerhard Julius Freiherr von Watter (born 2 September 1861 in Ludwigsburg; died 23 August 1939 in Berlin) was a German Generalleutnant, and came from an old Pomeranian noble family.

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Ostbahn (General Government)

Ostbahn (for Eastern Railway) in the General Government, were the Nazi German railways in occupied Poland during World War II, subordinated to the General Directorate of Eastern Railways (Generaldirektion der Ostbahn, Gedob) in occupied Kraków; a branch of the Deutsche Reichsbahn National Railway of Germany in the newly-created Generalgouvernement territory under Hans Frank.

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Ostoja coat of arms

Ostoja is a Polish coat of arms that probably origin from Sarmatian Tamga and refer to Royal Sarmatians using Draco standard.

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Ostsiedlung

Ostsiedlung (literally east settling), in English called the German eastward expansion, was the medieval eastward migration and settlement of Germanic-speaking peoples from the Holy Roman Empire, especially its southern and western portions, into less-populated regions of Central Europe, parts of west Eastern Europe, and the Baltics.

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Ostsiedlung in Pomerania

Beginning in the 12th century, on the initiative of monasteries,Piskorski (1999), p.76 as well as the local nobility, German settlers began migrating to Pomerania in a process later termed the Ostsiedlung.

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Oswald Bumke

Oswald Bumke (25 September 1877 – 5 January 1950) was a noted German psychiatrist and neurologist.

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Ottavio Piccolomini

Ottavio Piccolomini (11 November 1599 – 11 August 1656) was an Italian nobleman whose military career included service as a Spanish general and then as a field marshal of the Holy Roman Empire.

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Otto Böckler

Otto Heinrich Böckler (23 June 1867 in Oranienburg – 16 June 1932 in Berlin) was a German politician and writer.

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Otto III, Holy Roman Emperor

Otto III (June/July 980 – 23 January 1002) was Holy Roman Emperor from 996 until his early death in 1002.

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Otto Jaekel

Otto Max Johannes Jaekel (21 February 1863 – 6 March 1929) was a German paleontologist and geologist.

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Otto Livonius

Otto Daniel Livonius (1 April 1829 – 9 February 1917) was a Vizeadmiral (Vice Admiral) of the German Imperial Navy, serving in the predecessor Prussian Navy and the Navy of the North German Confederation.

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Otto Ludwig von Stutterheim

Otto Ludwig von Stutterheim, (1718–1780), also called the Young Stutterheim, was a younger brother of General Joachim Friedrich von Stutterheim.

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Otto of Bamberg

Saint Otto of Bamberg (Otto von Bamberg, Otton z Bambergu; 1060 or 1061 – 30 June 1139) was Bishop of Bamberg and a missionary who, as papal legate, converted much of medieval Pomerania to Christianity.

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Otto Skorzeny

Otto Skorzeny (12 June 19085 July 1975) was an Austrian born SS-Obersturmbannführer (lieutenant colonel) in the Waffen-SS during World War II.

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Otto V, Margrave of Brandenburg-Salzwedel

Margrave Otto V of Brandenburg-Salzwedel (1246 – 1298), nicknamed Otto the Tall, was a son of Margrave Otto III and co-ruler of Brandenburg with his cousin, Margrave Otto IV.

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Otto von Bismarck

Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg (1 April 1815 – 30 July 1898), known as Otto von Bismarck, was a conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs from the 1860s until 1890 and was the first Chancellor of the German Empire between 1871 and 1890.

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Pałuki

Pałuki is a historic and ethnographic region lying in central Poland, part of Greater Poland, among Pomerania and Cuiavia.

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Pacification actions in German-occupied Poland

The pacification actions in German-occupied Poland during World War II were one of many punitive measures designed to inflict terror on the civilian population of local villages and towns with the use of military and police force.

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Padise Abbey

Padise Abbey (Padise klooster) was a former Cistercian monastery in Padise in Harju County, Estonia, settled in 1310 by the dispossessed monks of Dünamünde Abbey in Latvia.

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Pahlen

The Pahlen family (von der Pahlen; Пален, Palen) is a noble Estonian, Russian, Lithuanian and Swedish family of Baltic German origin.

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Pampuchy

Pampuchy (see alternative names) are a type of steamed yeast dumpling (kluski) or doughnut (pączek) in Polish cuisine.

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Panker

Panker is a municipality in Plön county, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany.

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Partitions of Mecklenburg

During its history, the state of Mecklenburg has been repeatedly partitioned into various successor states (lordships, duchies, grand duchies).

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Paul Fritz Wiemann

Paul Fritz Wiemann, Rektor and NSDAP Ortsgruppenamtsleiter (30 September 1888 – 20 September 1964) was an official of the Nazi Party (NSDAP).

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Paul Gerber

Paul Gerber (1854 Berlin, Germany – 13 August 1909 Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany) was a German physics teacher.

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Paul Grawitz

Paul Albert Grawitz (born October 1, 1850 in Zerrin/Sierzno, Kreis Bütow (cf.Bütow/Bytów), Pommern (now Poland) – June 27, 1932 in Greifswald) was a German pathologist.

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Paul Mattick

Paul Mattick, Sr. (March 13, 1904 – February 7, 1981) was a Marxist political writer and social revolutionary, whose thought can be placed within the council communist and left communist traditions.

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Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck

Paul Emil von Lettow-Vorbeck (20 March 1870 – 9 March 1964), nicknamed affectionately as the Lion of Africa (Löwe von Afrika), was a general in the Prussian Army and the commander of its forces in the German East Africa campaign.

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Paul-Werner Hoppe

Paul-Werner Hoppe (28 February 1910 – 15 July 1974) was an SS-Obersturmbannführer (lieutenant colonel) and was the commandant of Stutthof concentration camp from September 1942 until April 1945.

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Paweł Graliński

Paweł Wiktor Graliński (Polish architect, renowned specialist in planning and design of mixed - use developments and commercial and entertainment centres in Poland and Europe.

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Pelotas

Pelotas is a Brazilian city and municipality (município), the third most populous in the southern state of Rio Grande do Sul.

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Pensive Christ

The Pensive Christ or Christus im Elend ("Christ in Distress" in German) or Christus in der Rast or Chrystus Frasobliwy ("Christ Sorrowful" in Polish) is a subject in Christian iconography depicting a contemplating Jesus, sitting with his head supported by his hand with the Crown of Thorns and marks of his flagellation.

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People's Libraries Society

People's Libraries Society (Towarzystwo Czytelni Ludowych, TCL) was an educational society established in 1880 for the Prussian partition of Poland (active in the regions of Greater Poland or the Grand Duchy of Poznan, Pomerania, West Prussia, Kashubia and Silesia).

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Percival Pollard

Joseph Percival Pollard (January 29, 1869 - December 17, 1911) was an American literary critic, novelist and short story writer.

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Permin

The Permin is a bay in the Saaler Bodden lagoon south of Wustrow in northeast Germany.

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Peryt Shou

Peryt Shou (legal name Albert Christian Georg Schultz) (22 April 1873 - 24 October 1953) was a German mysticist and Germanic pagan revivalist.

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Peter III of Russia

Peter III (21 February 1728 –) (Пётр III Фëдорович, Pyotr III Fyodorovich) was Emperor of Russia for six months in 1762.

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Peter van Eyck

Peter van Eyck (born Götz von Eick; 16 July 1911 in Steinwehr, Pomerania, German Empire – 15 July 1969 in Männedorf near Zürich, Switzerland) was a German-born actor perhaps best known (in English-language films) for his roles in the 1960s features The Spy Who Came in from the Cold, Shalako and The Bridge at Remagen.

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Peter von Heydebreck

Hans-Adam Otto von Heydebreck, called Peter von Heydebreck (1 July 1889, in Köslin – 30 June 1934, in Stadelheim Prison) was a German Freikorps- and SA leader, member of the Reichstag and a national socialist.

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Petrus Zwicker

Petrus Zwicker (died 1403, in Vienna) was an East Prussian Inquisitor and cleric of the Roman Catholic Order of the Celestines.

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Peytoia infercambriensis

Peytoia infercambriensis is a species of hurdiid formerly assigned to the genus Cassubia.

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Pfuel

The German ancient noble family of Pfuel (also Pfuhl or Phull) arrived in Brandenburg in the year 926 and later widened their influence to Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Mecklenburg, Pomerania, Württemberg, Westphalia, Eastern Europe and Sweden.

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Philip I, Duke of Pomerania

Philip I of Pomerania (14 May 1515 in Stettin – 14 February 1560 in Wolgast) was Duke of Pomerania-Wolgast.

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Philip II, Duke of Pomerania

Philip II, Duke of Pomerania-Stettin (29 July 1573 – 3 February 1618) was from 1606 to 1618 the reigning duke of Pomerania-Stettin and is considered among the one of the most artistic of the Pomeranian dukes.

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Philipp Julius, Duke of Pomerania

Philipp Julius (27 December 1584, Wolgast – 6 February 1625) was duke of Pomerania in the Teilherzogtum Pomerania-Wolgast from 1592 to 1625.

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Philipp von Mansfeld

Philipp von Mansfeld Philipp von Mansfeld (1589 - 8 April 1657), was Graf von (Count of) Mansfeld, Vorderort and Bornstedt who commanded troops during the Thirty Years' War.

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Piast dynasty

The Piast dynasty was the first historical ruling dynasty of Poland.

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Pierre Seel

Pierre Seel (16 August 1923 in Haguenau, Bas-Rhin – 25 November 2005 in Toulouse, Haute-Garonne) was a gay Holocaust survivor and the only French person to have testified openly about his experience of deportation during World War II due to his homosexuality.

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Pierre Thouvenot

Pierre Thouvenot (9 March 1757 – 21 July 1817) was a French Army officer who served with distinction in the American Revolutionary War.

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Piotr Steinkeller

Piotr Antoni Steinkeller, (English: Peter Steinkeller), born 15 February 1799 in Kraków, died 11 February 1854 in Kraków, was a Polish entrepreneur, banker and pioneering industrialist.

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Piotr Szarek

Piotr Szarek (born 7 May 1908 in Złotniki; d. 9 September 1939 in Bydgoszcz) was a Polish Catholic clergyman, member of the Congregation of the Mission, publicly murdered by the Nazis on the ninth day of the Second World War.

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Piotr Tomicki

Piotr Tomicki (1464 – 19 October 1535) was a Roman Catholic Bishop of Przemyśl and Poznań, Archbishop of Kraków, Vice-Chancellor of the Crown, and Royal Secretary.

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Piotrków Trybunalski

Piotrków Trybunalski (also known by alternative names) is a city in central Poland with 74,694 inhabitants (2016).

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Piotter

The Piotter surname is believed to be a variation on the name Peter, meaning "stone" or "rock".

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Plan West

Plan Zachód (Plan West) was a military plan of the Polish Army of the Second Polish Republic, for defence against invasion from Nazi Germany.

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Platen (Pomeranian family)

von Platen is a feudal noble family originally from Pomerania.

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Pobóg coat of arms

Pobóg is a Polish coat of arms that was used by many noble families in medieval Poland and later under the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

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Poland

Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.

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Poland in antiquity

Poland in antiquity is characterized by peoples belonging to numerous archeological cultures living in and migrating through various parts of the territory that now constitutes Poland in an era that dates from about 400 BC to 450–500 AD.

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Poland in the Early Middle Ages

The most important phenomenon that took place within the lands of Poland in the Early Middle Ages, as well as other parts of Central Europe was the arrival and permanent settlement of the West Slavs.

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Poland's Wedding to the Sea

Poland's Wedding to the Sea was a nationalist ceremony meant to symbolize restored Polish access to the Baltic Sea that was lost in 1793 by the Partitions of Poland.

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Poles in the Wehrmacht

Following the German invasion of Poland in 1939, many former citizens of the Second Polish Republic from across the Polish territories annexed by Nazi Germany were forcibly conscripted into the Wehrmacht army in Upper Silesia and in Pomerania.

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Police Old Town

Police Old Town is the oldest historic district of the town of Police, Poland in the Pomerania Region.

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Polish Academy of Learning

The Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences or Polish Academy of Learning (Polska Akademia Umiejętności), headquartered in Kraków, is one of two institutions in contemporary Poland having the nature of an academy of sciences.

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Polish Air Forces in France and Great Britain

The Polish Air Forces (Polskie Siły Powietrzne) was the name of the Polish Air Forces formed in France and the United Kingdom during World War II.

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Polish army order of battle in 1939

Polish OOB during the invasion of Poland.

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Polish contribution to World War II

The European theatre of World War II opened with the German invasion of Poland on Friday September 1, 1939 and the Soviet invasion of Poland on September 17, 1939.

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Polish Corridor

The Polish Corridor (Polnischer Korridor; Pomorze, Korytarz polski), also known as Danzig Corridor, Corridor to the Sea or Gdańsk Corridor, was a territory located in the region of Pomerelia (Pomeranian Voivodeship, eastern Pomerania, formerly part of West Prussia), which provided the Second Republic of Poland (1920–1939) with access to the Baltic Sea, thus dividing the bulk of Germany from the province of East Prussia.

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Polish cuisine

Polish cuisine is a style of cooking and food preparation originating in or widely popular in Poland.

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Polish diaspora

The Polish diaspora refers to Poles who live outside Poland.

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Polish historical regions

Polish historic regions are regions that were related to a former Polish state, or are within present-day Poland without being identified in its administrative division.

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Polish language

Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.

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Polish Navy order of battle in 1939

This article details the Order of Battle of the Polish Navy prior to the outbreak of World War II and the Polish Defensive War of 1939.

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Polish People's Republic

The Polish People's Republic (Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa, PRL) covers the history of contemporary Poland between 1952 and 1990 under the Soviet-backed socialist government established after the Red Army's release of its territory from German occupation in World War II.

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Polish Rugby Union

Polish Rugby Union (Polish: Polski Związek Rugby), abbreviated to PZR, is the only legal Polish representative of Polish rugby union and rugby sevens for both men and women's rugby and all age groups.

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Polish State Railways

Polskie Koleje Państwowe SA (PKP SA, Polish State Railways, Inc.) is the dominant railway operator in Poland.

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Polish tribes

"Polish tribes" is a term used sometimes to describe the tribes of West Slavs that lived in the territories that became Polish from around the mid-6th century to the creation of Polish state by the Piast dynasty.

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Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.

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Polish–Swedish War (1626–29)

The Polish–Swedish War of 1626–1629 was the fourth stage (after 1600–1611, 1617–1618, and 1620–1625) in a series of conflicts between Sweden and Poland fought in the 17th century.

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Polish–Swedish wars

The Polish–Swedish Wars were a series of wars between the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Sweden.

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Polish–Teutonic War (1431–35)

The Polish–Teutonic War (1431–1435) was an armed conflict between the Kingdom of Poland and the Teutonic Knights.

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Polonia Bydgoszcz

Polonia Bydgoszcz is a Polish sports club based in Bydgoszcz most known for its speedway team ŻKS Polonia Bydgoszcz which currently race in the Speedway Ekstraliga (the top division).

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Pomarine jaeger

The pomarine jaeger (Stercorarius pomarinus), pomarine skua, or pomatorhine skua, is a seabird in the skua family Stercorariidae.

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Pomerania during the Early Middle Ages

Pomerania during the Early Middle Ages covers the History of Pomerania from the 7th to the 11th centuries.

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Pomerania during the Early Modern Age

Pomerania during the Early Modern Age covers the history of Pomerania in the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries.

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Pomerania during the High Middle Ages

Pomerania during the High Middle Ages covers the history of Pomerania in the 12th and 13th centuries.

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Pomerania Euroregion

The Pomerania euroregion or EUROREGION POMERANIA was set up in 1995 as one of the euroregions, thought to connect regions divided between states of the European Union.

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Pomerania proper

Pomerania proper is a term used to distinguish the area of the former Prussian Province of Pomerania from Pomerelia, which not always is considered to be a part of Pomerania because of a somewhat different history.

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Pomerania Province

Pomerania Province may refer to one of several provinces established in Pomerania, a region of Europe.

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Pomeranian

Pomeranian is an adjective referring to Pomerania, an area divided between Poland and Germany.

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Pomeranian (dog)

The Pomeranian (often known as a Pom) is a breed of dog of the Spitz type that is named for the Pomerania region in north-west Poland and north-east Germany in Central Europe.

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Pomeranian Coarsewool

The Pomeranian Coarsewool or simply Pomeranian (Pommersches Rauhwollschaf; Pommernschaf; Rauhwolliges Pommersches Landschaf) is an old domestic sheep breed from the Pomerania region.

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Pomeranian culture

The Pomeranian culture, also Pomeranian or Pomerelian Face Urn culture was an Iron Age culture with origins in parts of the area south of the Baltic Sea (which later became Pomerania, part of northern Germany/Poland), from the 7th century BC to the 3rd century BC, which eventually covered most of today's Poland.

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Pomeranian duck

The Pomeranian or Pommern duck (in German Pommernente) is a breed of domesticated duck.

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Pomeranian goose

The Pomeranian goose (Pommerngans,Der Große Geflügelstandard in Farbe, Bd. 3. Wassergeflügel: Gänse und Enten. Oertel + Spörer. French: L'oie de Poméranie Pomeranian, Toulouse or Emden goose eggs), also known as the Rügener goose, is a breed of domestic goose.

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Pomeranian Griffin

The Pomeranian Griffin secret military organization (Tajna Organizacja Wojskowa Gryf Pomorski) was a Polish anti-Nazi resistance group active in Pomerania and East Prussia during World War II.

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Pomeranian Lakeland

The Pomeranian Lakeland or Pomeranian Lake District (Pojezierze Pomorskie) is a lakeland in Farther Pomerania.

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Pomeranian language

The Pomeranian language (grupa pomorska języków lechickich, pomoranische Sprache) is a group of dialects from the Lechitic cluster of the West Slavic languages.

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Pomeranian Military District

The Pomeranian Military District (Polish acronym POW) was a military district of the Polish Armed Forces from 1945 to 2011.

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Pomeranian State Museum

The Pomeranian State Museum (Pommersches Landesmuseum) in Greifswald, Western Pomerania, is a public museum primarily dedicated to Pomeranian history and arts.

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Pomeranian Voivodeship

Pomeranian Voivodeship, Pomorskie Region, or Pomerania Province (in Polish województwo pomorskie, in Kashubian Pòmòrsczé wòjewództwò), is a voivodeship, or province, in north-western Poland.

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Pomeranian Voivodeship (1466–1772)

The Pomeranian Voivodeship (Województwo pomorskie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Kingdom of Poland and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1454/1466 until the First partition of Poland in 1772.

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Pomeranian Voivodeship (1919–1939)

The Pomeranian Voivodeship or Pomorskie Voivodeship (Województwo Pomorskie) was an administrative unit of interwar Poland (from 1919–1939).

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Pomeranians (German people)

The Pomeranians (Pommern) are a German people living in Pomerania.

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Pomerelia

Pomerelia (Pomerelia; Pomerellen, Pommerellen), also referred to as Eastern Pomerania (Pomorze Wschodnie) or as Gdańsk Pomerania (Pomorze Gdańskie), is a historical region in northern Poland.

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Pommern (disambiguation)

Pommern is the German language name for Pomerania, a historical region divided between Germany and Poland.

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Pommern (ship)

The Pommern, formerly the Mneme (1903–1908), is a windjammer.

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Pommern, Rhineland-Palatinate

Pommern is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Cochem-Zell district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

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Pomor trade

Pomor trade (from p; po «by» and more «ocean»; «area by the ocean», the same word is the basis for Pomerania), is the trade carried out between the Pomors of Northwest Russia and the people along the coast of Northern Norway, as far south as Bodø.

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Pomors

Pomors or Pomory (p, Seasiders) are Russian settlers, primarily from Novgorod, and their descendants living on the White Sea coasts and the territory whose southern border lies on a watershed which separates the White Sea river basin from the basins of rivers that flow south.

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Pomorze (disambiguation)

Pomorze is the Polish name for Pomerania (taken to include Pomerelia).

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Pomorze Army

The Pomeranian Army (Armia Pomorze) was one of the Polish armies to take part in the Invasion of Poland of 1939.

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Popular National Union

Związek Ludowo-Narodowy (ZLN; Popular National Union) was a Polish political party aligned with the National Democracy political movement during the Second Polish Republic, gathering together right-wing politicians with conservative and nationalist opinions.

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Posen-West Prussia

The Frontier March of Posen-West Prussia (Grenzmark Posen-Westpreußen, Marchia Graniczna Poznańsko-Zachodniopruska) was a province of the Free State of Prussia within the German Weimar Republic.

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Potsdam Conference

The Potsdam Conference (Potsdamer Konferenz) was held at Cecilienhof, the home of Crown Prince Wilhelm, in Potsdam, occupied Germany, from 17 July to 2 August 1945.

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Prehistory of Transylvania

The Prehistory of Transylvania describes what can be learned about the region known as Transylvania through archaeology, anthropology, comparative linguistics and other allied sciences.

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President of Poland's Football Cup

President of Poland's Football Cup (Puchar Prezydenta Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej) was an annual football competition, taking place in the Second Polish Republic in the years 1936–1939.

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Pribislav of Mecklenburg

Pribislav (Pribislaw, Przybysław) (died 30 December 1178) was an Obotrite prince and the first Prince of Mecklenburg (1167–1178).

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Pribislaw II

Pribislaw II (died: after 21 June 1316) was a prince from the Parchim-Richenberg line of the House of Mecklenburg.

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Prince Moritz of Anhalt-Dessau

Maurice of Anhalt-Dessau (31 October 1712 in Dessau - 11 April 1760 in Dessau), was a German prince of the House of Ascania from the Anhalt-Dessau branch.

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Prince-Bishopric of Bamberg

The Prince-Bishopric of Bamberg (Hochstift Bamberg) was an ecclesiastical State of the Holy Roman Empire.

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Principality of Rügen

The Principality of Rügen (Fürstentum Rügen) was a Danish principality consisting of the island of Rügen and the adjacent mainland from 1168 until 1325.

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Prisoner-of-war camp

A prisoner-of-war camp is a site for the containment of enemy combatants captured by a belligerent power in time of war.

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Prissani

The Prissani or Pyritzans (Pyrzyczanie) were a medieval tribe in Pomerania.

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Province of Pomerania (1653–1815)

The Province of Pomerania was a province of Brandenburg-Prussia, the later Kingdom of Prussia.

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Provinces of Sweden

The provinces of Sweden (Sveriges landskap) are historical, geographical and cultural regions.

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Prussia (region)

Prussia (Old Prussian: Prūsa, Preußen, Prūsija, Prusy, tr) is a historical region in Europe, stretching from Gdańsk Bay to the end of Curonian Spit on the southeastern coast of the Baltic Sea, and extending inland as far as Masuria.

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Prussian Eastern Railway

The Prussian Eastern Railway (Preußische Ostbahn) was the railway in the eastern Kingdom of Prussia until 1918.

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Prussian nationalism

Prussian nationalism was the nationalism that asserted that Prussians were a nation and promoted the cultural unity of Prussians.

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Przemysł I of Greater Poland

Przemysł I (5 June 1220/4 June 1221 – 4 June 1257), a member of the Piast dynasty, was Duke of Greater Poland from 1239 until his death, from 1241 with his brother Bolesław the Pious as co-ruler.

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Przysposobienie Wojskowe Kobiet

Przysposobienie Wojskowe Kobiet (Female Military Training) was a Polish organization for women, which existed in the interbellum period as well as during World War II.

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Puszcza Darżlubska

Puszcza Darżlubska or Lasy Piaśnickie (Darżlubska Wilderness or Darżlubie / Piaśnica Forest) located in northernmost part of Poland, is a Polish forests complex on the Baltic Sea, within the geographical region of Pobrzeże Kaszubskie; on the south-side bordering the Tricity Landscape Park (Trójmiejski Park Krajobrazowy) from which it is separated by the Reda river.

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Pyotr Aleksandrovich Tolstoy

Count Pyotr Aleksandrovich Tolstoy (Пётр Александрович Толстой) (1769 – 28 September 1844) was a Russian general and statesman.

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Pyrzyce

Pyrzyce (Pyritz, Kashubian: Përzëca), is a town in Pomerania, north-western Poland, with 13,331 inhabitants (2007).

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Race and ethnicity in Brazil

Brazilian society is made up of a confluence of people of several different origins, from the original Native Brazilians, with the influence of Portuguese colonists,Jansen, Roberta.

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Racism in Germany

Racism in German history is inextricably linked to the Herero and Namaqua genocide in colonial times.

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Raimondo Montecuccoli

Raimondo, Count of Montecúccoli or Montecucculi (Raimondo Graf Montecúccoli; 21 February 1609 – 16 October 1680) was an Italian military commander who also served as general for the Habsburg Monarchy, and was also a prince of the Holy Roman Empire and Neapolitan Duke of Melfi.

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Rape during the occupation of Germany

As Allied troops entered and occupied German territory during the later stages of World War II, mass rapes took place both in connection with combat operations and during the subsequent occupation.

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Rape during the Soviet occupation of Poland

The subject of rape during the Soviet occupation of Poland at the end of World War II in Europe was absent from the postwar historiography until the dissolution of the Soviet Union, although the documents of the era show that the problem was serious both during and after the advance of Soviet forces against Nazi Germany in 1944–1945.

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Rügen

Rügen (also lat. Rugia; Ruegen) is Germany's largest island by area.

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Realm of Sweden

The term Svenska väldet ("Swedish dominion", as opposed to the name of Sweden Sverige, lit. "realm of the Swedes") is a term that historically was used to comprise all the territories under the control of the Swedish monarchs.

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Recovered Territories

Recovered Territories (Ziemie Odzyskane, literally "Regained Lands") was an official term used by the People's Republic of Poland to describe the territory of the former Free City of Danzig and the parts of pre-war Germany that became part of Poland after World War II.

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Reda, Poland

Reda Pomeranian: Réda, Rheda) is a town on the river Reda in Kashubia or Eastern Pomerania region, north-western Poland with some 17,000 inhabitants. Situated in the Wejherowo County in Pomeranian Voivodeship since 1999, previously in Gdańsk Voivodeship (1975-1998). It is connected by well developed railway and highway connections to the Tricity, an agglomeration of over 1 million on the coast of Gdańsk Bay.

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Reformation Day

Reformation Day is a Protestant Christian religious holiday celebrated on October 31, alongside All Hallows' Eve (Halloween) during the triduum of Allhallowtide, in remembrance of the onset of the Reformation.

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Refugee

A refugee, generally speaking, is a displaced person who has been forced to cross national boundaries and who cannot return home safely (for more detail see legal definition).

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Regions of Poland

Polish regions are regions located within the present-day Poland without being identified in its administrative division.

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Reichshund

Reichshund ("dog of the Empire"Henry Vizetelly, Berlin under the New Empire: Its Institutions, Inhabitants, Industry, Monuments, Museums, Social Life, Manners, and Amusements, Volume 1 London: Tinsley, 1879,,.Bryce, p. 126.) was an informal term used in Germany for Reichskanzler Otto von Bismarck's dogs and more generally for similar dogs, particularly Great Danes.

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Reinhold Wulle

Reinhold Wulle (in Falkenberg, Pomerania – in Gronau, North Rhine-Westphalia) was a German Völkisch politician and publicist active during the Weimar Republic.

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Renaissance architecture

Renaissance architecture is the European architecture of the period between the early 14th and early 17th centuries in different regions, demonstrating a conscious revival and development of certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman thought and material culture.

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Renaissance architecture in Central and Eastern Europe

Renaissance architecture was that style of architecture which evolved firstly in Florence and then Rome and other parts of Italy as the result of Humanism and a revived interest in Classical architecture.

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Renaissance in Poland

The Renaissance in Poland (Renesans, Odrodzenie; literally: the Rebirth) lasted from the late 15th to the late 16th century and is widely considered to have been the Golden Age of Polish culture.

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Renate von Natzmer

Renate von Natzmer (1898 in Borkow (Kreis Schlawe, Pomerania) – February 18, 1935 in Berlin) was a German noblewoman who worked for the army during the Weimar Republic and Third Reich.

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Resort architecture

Resort architecture or Bäder architecture (Bäderarchitektur) is an architectural style that is especially characteristic of spas and seaside resorts on the German Baltic coast.

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Restatement of Policy on Germany

"Restatement of Policy on Germany" is a speech by James F. Byrnes, the United States Secretary of State, held in Stuttgart on September 6, 1946.

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Ribnitz-Damgarten

Ribnitz-Damgarten is a town in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany, situated on Lake Ribnitz (Ribnitzer See).

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Richard Voss

Richard Voss (September 2, 1851 – June 10, 1918) was a German dramatist and novelist.

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Richeza of Poland, Queen of Hungary

Adelaide/Richeza of Poland (11th century) was Queen Consort of Hungary by marriage to Béla I of Hungary.

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Rinteln

Rinteln is a small town in Lower Saxony, Germany.

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Rita von Gaudecker

Rita von Gaudecker (born Rita von Blittersdorf: 14 April 1879 - 18 March 1968) was a German author who produced many books for children and young people, also contributing on religious topics.

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Robert Atzorn

Robert Atzorn (born 2 February 1945) is a German television actor.

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Robert Lamezan de Salins

Robert Lamezan de Salins (1869–1930), also known as Robert Graf von Lamezan-Salins, was a Polish Jan Rydel, W służbie cesarza i króla: generałowie i admirałowie narodowości polskiej w siłach zbrojnych Austro-Węgier w latach 1868-1918.

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Robert Monro

Robert Monro (died 1680), was a famous Scottish General, from the Clan Munro of Ross-shire, Scotland.

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Robert Schade

Robert Schade (1861 in Tarrytown, New York – 1912 in Tarrytown, New York) was an American painter.

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Roger Judrin

Roger Judrin (born 26 July 1909 – 14 Decembre 2000) was a French writer and literary critic.

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Roman Catholic Diocese of Koszalin-Kołobrzeg

The Roman Catholic Diocese of Koszalin-Kołobrzeg (Coslinen(sis) – Colubregan(us)) is a Latin rite suffragan diocese in the Ecclesiastical province of the Metropolitan Archdiocese of Szczecin-Kamień in northwestern Poland.

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Roman Catholic Diocese of Włocławek

The Roman Catholic Diocese of Włocławek Vladislavien(sis), until the 20th century known as the Roman Catholic Diocese of Kujawy, is a suffragan diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in the Ecclesiastical province of the Metropolitan Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Gniezno in western Poland.

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Roman Dmowski

Roman Stanisław Dmowski (9 August 1864 – 2 January 1939) was a Polish politician, statesman, and co-founder and chief ideologue of the right-wing National Democracy ("ND": in Polish, "Endecja") political movement.

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Roman Rosen

Baron Roman Romanovich Rosen (Роман Романович Розен) (February 24, 1847 – December 31, 1921) was a diplomat in the service of the Russian Empire.

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Romanian exonyms

Below is list of exonyms of Romanian language, or exonym-words for places outside Romania and Republic of Moldova.

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Royal Castle, Warsaw

The Royal Castle in Warsaw (Zamek Królewski w Warszawie) is a castle residency that formerly served throughout the centuries as the official residence of the Polish monarchs.

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Ruda, Wieluń County

Ruda is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Wieluń, within Wieluń County, Łódź Voivodeship, in central Poland.

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Rudolf Tancré

Rudolf Tancré (December 24, 1842 Anklam, Pomerania - 19 September 1934 Anklam) was a German natural history dealer, ornithologist and entomologist whose Tancré Trade Company in Anklam had employed the German collector brothers Rückbeil who had made extensive collections of birds and insects while exploring the Russian Far East and the East and the South of Siberia.The Rückbeil family had contact with Grigory Grumm-Grzhimaylo another source of expedition specimens for Tancré.

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Rudolf Virchow

Rudolf Ludwig Carl Virchow (13 October 1821 – 5 September 1902) was a German physician, anthropologist, pathologist, prehistorian, biologist, writer, editor, and politician, known for his advancement of public health.

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Rudolph von Langen

Rudolph von Langen (1438 or 1439 – December 1519) was a German Catholic divine, who helped introduce Humanistic ideas to the town of Munster, Westphalia.

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Rugii

The Rugii, also Rugians, Rygir, Ulmerugi, or Holmrygir (Rugiere, Rugier) were an East Germanic tribe who migrated from southwest Norway to Pomerania around 100 AD, and from there to the Danube River valley.

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Rugiland

The Kingdom of the Rugii or Rugiland was established by the Germanic Rugii in present-day Austria in the 5th century.

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Rugini

The Rugini were a tribe in Pomerania.

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Ruhr

The Ruhr (Ruhrgebiet), or the Ruhr district, Ruhr region, Ruhr area or Ruhr valley, is a polycentric urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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Ruins of the church in Trzęsacz

The Church in Trzęsacz refers to a series of three churches built in Trzęsacz, Poland.

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Rural flight

Rural flight (or rural exodus) is the migratory pattern of peoples from rural areas into urban areas.

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Russians

Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.

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Ryszard Kotla

Ryszard Kotla (born 30 March 1947, in Szczecin, Poland) is a Polish travel writer, tour guide, activist, journalist, academic teacher and lifeguard instructor at the Polish Life Saving Association.

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Rzucewo Castle

Rzucewo Castle (Schloß Rutzau) is a castle (also known as the Jan III Sobieski Castle) situated in Rzucewo, in the Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland.

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S.S. Sturmbrigade R.O.N.A.

S.S. Sturmbrigade R.O.N.A. (also known as the Kaminski Brigade) was a collaborationist military formation composed of Soviet nationals from the territory of Lokot Autonomy during World War II, the German-occupied areas of Russia.

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Saint Anthony parish, Gdynia

The parish of Saint Anthony of Padua in Gdynia (parafia pw.) is a Roman Catholic religious administrative unit and community, located in the Archdiocese of Gdańsk.

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Salish weaving

The Salish are skilled weavers of the Pacific Northwest.

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Samborides

The Samborides or House of Sobiesław were a ruling dynasty in the historic region of Pomerelia.

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Sassnitz Campaign

The Sassnitz campaign was a military campaign between Swedish and Prussian forces from 1757 to 1762, during the Seven Years' War.

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Sausage

A sausage is a cylindrical meat product usually made from ground meat, often pork, beef, or veal, along with salt, spices and other flavourings, and breadcrumbs, encased by a skin.

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Sławno

Sławno (Kashubian/Pomeranian: Słôwno, Schlawe), is a town on the Wieprza river in Middle Pomerania region, north-western Poland, with 13,322 inhabitants (2006).

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Słupsk

Słupsk (Stolp; also known by several alternative names) is a city in the Pomeranian Voivodeship, in northern Poland, with a population of 98,757.

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Słupsk Castle

Pomeranian Dukes Castle in Słupsk - is a Renaissance castle located in Słupsk, Poland.

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Scania

Scania, also known as Skåne, is the southernmost province (landskap) of Sweden.

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Scanian War

The Scanian War (Skånske krig, Skånska kriget, Schonischer Krieg) was a part of the Northern Wars involving the union of Denmark–Norway, Brandenburg and Sweden.

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Schlieffen

Schlieffen (or Schliefen) is the name of an old German noble family from Pomerania.

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Schwerin

Schwerin (or; Mecklenburgian: Swerin; Polish: Swarzyn or Zwierzyn; Latin: Suerina) is the capital and second-largest city of the northeastern German state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.

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Second Crusade

The Second Crusade (1147–1149) was the second major crusade launched from Europe.

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Second Department of Polish General Staff

The Second Department of Polish General Staff (Polish: Oddział II Sztabu Generalnego Wojska Polskiego, also called Dwojka) was a department of the Polish General Staff in the Second Polish Republic.

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Second Northern War

The Second Northern War (1655–60, also First or Little Northern War) was fought between Sweden and its adversaries the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1655–60), Russia (1656–58), Brandenburg-Prussia (1657–60), the Habsburg Monarchy (1657–60) and Denmark–Norway (1657–58 and 1658–60).

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Selbstschutz

Selbstschutz (Self-protection) is the name given to different iterations of ethnic-German self-protection units formed both after the First World War and in the lead-up to the Second World War.

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Seniorate Province

Seniorate Province, also known as the Senioral Province (Dzielnica senioralna), Duchy of Kraków (Księstwo krakowskie), Duchy of Cracow, Principality of Cracow, Principality of Kraków, was the superior among the five provinces established in 1138 according to the Testament of Bolesław III Krzywousty.

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September 1911

The following events occurred in September 1911.

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Serock

Serock is a town at the north bank of the Zegrze lake in the Legionowo County, Masovian Voivodeship, Poland, around north of Warsaw.

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Seven Years' War

The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763.

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Sibylla Schwarz

Sibylla Schwarz, also known as Sibylle Schwartz (14 February 1621 in Greifswald – 31 July 1638 in Greifswald) was a German poet of the Baroque era.

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Sidonia von Borcke

Sidonia von Borcke (1548–1620) was a Pomeranian noblewoman who was tried and executed for witchcraft.

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Siegfried Kasche

Siegfried Kasche (18 June 1903 – 7 June 1947) was an ambassador of the German Reich to the Independent State of Croatia and Obergruppenführer of the Sturmabteilung (SA), a paramilitary wing of the Nazi Party.

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Siemowit I of Masovia

Siemowit I of Masovia (Siemowit (Ziemowit) I mazowiecki) (c. 1224/28 – 23 June 1262.), was a Polish prince member of the House of Piast, Duke of Czersk during 1247-1248, Duke of Masovia (except Dobrzyń) during 1248-1262, ruler over Sieradz during 1259-1260.

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Sigismund II Augustus

Sigismund II Augustus (Zygmunt II August, Ruthenian: Żygimont II Awgust, Žygimantas II Augustas, Sigismund II.) (1 August 1520 – 7 July 1572) was the King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, the only son of Sigismund I the Old, whom Sigismund II succeeded in 1548.

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Silent Night (opera)

Silent Night is an opera by composer Kevin Puts and librettist Mark Campbell.

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Silesian Wars

The Silesian Wars (Schlesische Kriege) were a series of three wars fought in the mid-18th century between Prussia (under King Frederick the Great) and Austria (under Empress Maria Theresa) for control of Silesia, all three of which ended in Prussian victory.

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Sir Green Hat and the Wizard

Sir Green Hat and the Wizard is a 1974 anthology of 14 fairy tales from around the world that have been collected and retold by Ruth Manning-Sanders.

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Siwki (Easter tradition)

Siwki or Siwek (literally Easter Greys, as in grey horses) is a regional tradition rooted in Polish folklore, in which a procession of dressed up individuals stops passers-by and performs tricks on them.

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Skrzynno, Masovian Voivodeship

Skrzynno is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Wieniawa, within Przysucha County, Masovian Voivodeship, in east-central Poland.

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Slavia

Slavia may refer to.

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Slavinia

Slavinia (Slawien) is a historical region around the Oder River delta and the Szczecin Lagoon in Pomerania.

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Slovincian language

Slovincian is the language formerly spoken by the Slovincians (Słowińcë, Słowińcy, Slowinzen, Lebakaschuben), a West Slavic tribe living between lakes Gardno and Łebsko near Słupsk in Pomerania.

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SMS Brandenburg

SMS Brandenburg was the lead ship of the pre-dreadnought battleships, which included,, and, built for the German Kaiserliche Marine (Imperial Navy) in the early 1890s.

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SMS Kurfürst Friedrich Wilhelm

SMS Kurfürst Friedrich Wilhelm ("His Majesty's Ship Prince-elector Friedrich Wilhelm") was one of the first ocean-going battleships of the Imperial German Navy.

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SMS Pommern

SMS Pommern was one of five pre-dreadnought battleships built for the Kaiserliche Marine between 1904 and 1906.

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SMS Wörth

SMS Wörth ("His Majesty's Ship Wörth") was one of four German pre-dreadnought battleships of the, built in the early 1890s.

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SMS Weissenburg

SMS Weissenburg was one of the first ocean-going battleships of the Imperial German Navy.

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Sobański

The Sobański, plural: Sobańscy, feminine form: Sobańska is a Polish noble family.

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Solar eclipse of November 19, 1816

A total solar eclipse occurred on November 19, 1816.

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Soldau concentration camp

The Soldau concentration camp established by Nazi Germany during World War II was a concentration camp for Polish and Jewish prisoners.

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Sopot

Sopot (Kashubian: Sopòt; German: Zoppot) is a seaside resort city in Eastern Pomerania on the southern coast of the Baltic Sea in northern Poland, with a population of approximately 40,000.

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South Region, Brazil

The South Region of Brazil (Região Sul do Brasil) is one of the five regions of Brazil.

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Soviet war crimes

War crimes perpetrated by the Soviet Union and its armed forces from 1919 to 1991 include acts committed by the Red Army (later called the Soviet Army) as well as the NKVD, including the NKVD's Internal Troops.

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Special Prosecution Book-Poland

Special Prosecution Book-Poland (Sonderfahndungsbuch Polen, Specjalna księga Polaków ściganych listem gończym) was the proscription list prepared by the Germans immediately before the onset of war, that identified more than 61,000 members of Polish elites: activists, intelligentsia, scholars, actors, former officers, and prominent others, who were to be interned or shot on the spot upon their identification following the invasion.

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Spycimierz

Spycimierz is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Uniejów, within Poddębice County, Łódź Voivodeship, in central Poland.

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Spyker Castle

The Spyker Castle (Schloss Spy(c)ker) and estate lie on the territory of the municipality of Glowe in the district of Vorpommern-Rügen in the German state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.

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SS General von Steuben

SS General von Steuben was a German passenger liner and later an protected transport ship in the Kriegsmarine of Nazi Germany which was sunk during World War II.

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Stanisław Koniecpolski

Stanisław Koniecpolski (1591 – 11 March 1646) was a Polish military commander, regarded as one of the most talented and capable in the history of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

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Stanisław Kozierowski

Stanisław Kozierowski (1874 – 1949) was a Polish Catholic priest and historian.

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Stanisław Leszczyński

Stanisław I Leszczyński (also Anglicized and Latinized as Stanislaus I, Stanislovas Leščinskis, Stanislas Leszczynski; 20 October 1677 – 23 February 1766) was King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania, Duke of Lorraine and a count of the Holy Roman Empire.

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Stanislav Poplavsky

Stanislav Gilyarovich Poplavsky (Станислав Гилярович Поплавский, Stanisław Popławski) (22 April 1902 – 10 August 1973) was a general in the Soviet and Polish armies.

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Starczanowo, Poznań County

Starczanowo is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Murowana Goślina, within Poznań County, Greater Poland Voivodeship, in west-central Poland.

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Stare Drawsko

Stare Drawsko (Draheim, old Drahim before 1945) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Czaplinek, within Drawsko County, West Pomeranian Voivodeship, in north-western Poland.

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Starogard Gdański

Starogard Gdański (meaning approximately "the old stronghold"; Kashubian/Pomeranian: Starogarda; Preußisch Stargard) is a town in Eastern Pomerania in northwestern Poland with 48,328 inhabitants (2004).

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State collapse

State collapse, breakdown, or downfall is the complete failure of a mode of government within a sovereign state.

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Stateless nation

A stateless nation is a political term for an ethnic group or nation that does not possess its own stateDictionary Of Public Administration, U.C. Mandal, Sarup & Sons 2007, 505 p. and is not the majority population in any nation state.

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Stefan Wincenty Frelichowski

Blessed Stefan Wincenty Frelichowski (22 January 1913 – 23 February 1945) was a Polish Roman Catholic priest.

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Stoewer

Stoewer was a German automobile manufacturer before World War II whose headquarters were in Stettin (Now Szczecin, Poland).

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Stoislav I

Stoislav I (German: Stoislaw I.) (died after 1193) may have been the progenitor of the aristocratic House of Putbus.

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Stolpe Abbey

Stolpe Abbey (Kloster Stolpe; founded 1153, dissolved 1534) was the first monastery in Pomerania.

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Stralsund

Stralsund, (Swedish: Strålsund) is a Hanseatic town in the Pomeranian part of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.

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Stralsund Highflyer

The Stralsund Highflyer (Stralsunder Hochflieger) is a breed of fancy pigeon developed over many years of selective breeding.

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Straw bear

A straw bear (German: Strohbär, plural Strohbären) is a traditional character that appears in carnival processions or as a separate seasonal custom in parts of Germany, mainly at Shrovetide but sometimes at Candlemas or Christmas Eve.

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Sulisława

Sulisława (died after 25 December 1294) was a daughter of Pomeranian knight.

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Susan Denberg

Susan Denberg (born Dietlinde Zechner; 2 August 1944, Bad Polzin, Germany) is a German-Austrian model and actress.

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Svetovid

Svetovid, Svantovit or Sventovit is a Slavic deity of war, fertility and abundance primarily venerated on the island of Rügen into the 12th century.

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Swantibor III, Duke of Pomerania

Swantibor III, Duke of Pomerania, or, according to a different way of counting, Swantibor I. (born: – died: 21 June 1413) was a member of the House of Griffins, a Duke of Pomerania-Stettin and for a while governor of the Mittelmark.

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Swantibor V, Duke of Pomerania

Swantibor V (1454–1464) was a prince of Pomerania from the House of Griffins.

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Sweden in Union with Norway

The Union between Sweden and Norway is an overriding theme of the history of Sweden in the 19th century.

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Swedish exonyms

Below is list of Swedish language exonyms for places in non-Swedish-speaking areas of the world.

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Swedish invasion of Brandenburg (1674–75)

The Swedish invasion of Brandenburg (1674–75) (Schwedeneinfall 1674/75) involved the occupation of the undefended Margraviate of Brandenburg by a Swedish army launched from Swedish Pomerania during the period 26 December 1674 to the end of June 1675.

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Swedish Pomerania

Swedish Pomerania (Svenska Pommern; Schwedisch-Pommern) was a Dominion under the Swedish Crown from 1630 to 1815, situated on what is now the Baltic coast of Germany and Poland.

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Swedish Wismar

Swedish Wismar (Swedish: Svenska Wismar) was a Dominion under the Swedish Crown from 1648 to 1903 and corresponded roughly to the modern boundaries of the city of Wismar.

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Sweyn Forkbeard

Sweyn Forkbeard (Old Norse: Sveinn Haraldsson tjúguskegg; Danish: Svend Tveskæg; 960 – 3 February 1014) was king of Denmark during 986–1014.

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Swienca family

The Swienca family was a medieval Pomeranian noble family which held high offices under various political powers in the Lands of Schlawe and Stolp (Sławno and Słupsk) and Pomerelia from the mid-13th to the mid-14th centuries.

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Swietopelk II, Duke of Pomerania

Swietopelk II, also Zwantepolc II or Swantopolk II, (1190/1200 – 11 January 1266), sometimes known as the Great (Świętopełk II Wielki; Kashubian: Swiãtopôłk II Wiôldżi), was ruling Duke of Pomerelia-Gdańsk from 1215 until his death.

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Szczecin

Szczecin (German and Swedish Stettin), known also by other alternative names) is the capital and largest city of the West Pomeranian Voivodeship in Poland. Located near the Baltic Sea and the German border, it is a major seaport and Poland's seventh-largest city. As of June 2011, the population was 407,811. Szczecin is located on the Oder, south of the Szczecin Lagoon and the Bay of Pomerania. The city is situated along the southwestern shore of Dąbie Lake, on both sides of the Oder and on several large islands between the western and eastern branches of the river. Szczecin is adjacent to the town of Police and is the urban centre of the Szczecin agglomeration, an extended metropolitan area that includes communities in the German states of Brandenburg and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. The city's recorded history began in the 8th century as a Slavic Pomeranian stronghold, built at the site of the Ducal castle. In the 12th century, when Szczecin had become one of Pomerania's main urban centres, it lost its independence to Piast Poland, the Duchy of Saxony, the Holy Roman Empire and Denmark. At the same time, the House of Griffins established themselves as local rulers and the population was Christianized. After the Treaty of Stettin in 1630, the town came under the control of the Swedish Empire and became in 1648 the Capital of Swedish Pomerania until 1720, when it was acquired by the Kingdom of Prussia and then the German Empire. Following World War II Stettin became part of Poland, resulting in expulsion of the German population. Szczecin is the administrative and industrial centre of West Pomeranian Voivodeship and is the site of the University of Szczecin, Pomeranian Medical University, Maritime University, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin Art Academy, and the see of the Szczecin-Kamień Catholic Archdiocese. From 1999 onwards, Szczecin has served as the site of the headquarters of NATO's Multinational Corps Northeast. Szczecin was a candidate for the European Capital of Culture in 2016.

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Szczecin Cathedral

The Cathedral Basilica of St James the Apostle in Szczecin (Polish: Bazylika archikatedralna św. Jakuba w Szczecinie, German: Jakobskathedrale or also Jakobikirche Stettin) - was built by the citizens of the city and modeled after the Church of St Mary in Lübeck.

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Szczecin Voivodeship

Szczecin Voivodeship (1) was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland in the years 1975–1998, superseded by West Pomeranian Voivodeship.

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Sztafeta

Sztafeta (English: Relay Race) is a 1939 compendium of literary reportage written by Melchior Wańkowicz.

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Tadeusz Szeligowski

Tadeusz Szeligowski (13 September 1896 - 10 January 1963) was a Polish composer, educator, lawyer and music organizer.

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Teewurst

Teewurst is a German sausage made from two parts raw pork (and sometimes beef) and one part bacon; they are minced, seasoned and packed in casings (mostly porous artificial casings) before being smoked over beech wood.

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Territorial changes of Poland immediately after World War II

The territorial changes of Poland immediately after World War II were very extensive, the Oder-Neisse Line became Poland's western border and the Curzon Line its eastern border.

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Territorial evolution of Germany

The territorial changes of Germany include all changes in the borders and territory of Germany from its formation in 1871 to the present.

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Territorial evolution of Poland

Poland (Polska) is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north.

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Testament of Bolesław III Wrymouth

The last will and testament of the Piast duke Bolesław III Wrymouth of Poland, established rules for governance of the Polish kingdom by his four surviving sons after his death.

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Tetzlav

Tetzlav, also known as Tezlaw, Tetzlaw and Tetislaw (before 1163 – between 1170 and 1181) was a Prince of Rügen.

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Teutonic Order

The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem (official names: Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum, Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus der Heiligen Maria in Jerusalem), commonly the Teutonic Order (Deutscher Orden, Deutschherrenorden or Deutschritterorden), is a Catholic religious order founded as a military order c. 1190 in Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem.

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Thadden family

Von Thadden is a German Uradel family with its roots in Eastern Pomerania (Pomerelia).

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The Amber Witch

The Amber Witch is a German novel published by Wilhelm Meinhold (1797–1851) in 1838.

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The Haunted Castle (book)

The Haunted Castle is a 1979 anthology of 12 fairy tales from around the world that have been collected and retold by Ruth Manning-Sanders.

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The Kindly Ones (Littell novel)

The Kindly Ones (Les Bienveillantes) is a historical fiction novel written in French by American-born author Jonathan Littell.

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The March (1945)

"The March" refers to a series of forced marches during the final stages of the Second World War in Europe.

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The Republicans (Poland)

The "Republicans" is a Polish conservative and republican political association, founded in 2013.

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The Three Witch Maidens

The Three Witch Maidens was originally published in the United Kingdom in 1972, by Methuen & Co. Ltd..

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Theodor Marsson

Theodor Friedrich Marsson (8 November 1816 – 5 February 1892) was a German pharmacist and botanist.

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Theodor Vahlen

Karl Theodor Vahlen (30 June 1869 in Vienna, Austria-Hungary – 16 November 1945 in Prague, Czechoslovakia) was an Austrian-born mathematician who was an ardent supporter of the Nazi Party.

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Thirteen Years' War (1454–66)

The Thirteen Years' War (Dreizehnjähriger Krieg; wojna trzynastoletnia), also called the War of the Cities, was a conflict fought in 1454–66 between the Prussian Confederation, allied with the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, and the State of the Teutonic Order.

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Thomas Haller Cooper

Thomas Haller Cooper, (29 August 1919 – 1987), also known as Tom Böttcher, was a member of the German Waffen-SS British Free Corps and former member of the British Union of Fascists.

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Thomas McLaughlin (engineer)

Dr.

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Timbó

Timbó is a municipality in the state of Santa Catarina in the South region of Brazil.

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Timber framing

Timber framing and "post-and-beam" construction are traditional methods of building with heavy timbers, creating structures using squared-off and carefully fitted and joined timbers with joints secured by large wooden pegs.

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Timeline of ornithology

The following is a timeline of ornithology events.

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Tollatsch

Tollatsch is a German dessert from the region of Pomerania.

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Tomasz Tomka

Tomasz Tomka was thirteenth century Bishop of Płock, Poland.

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Topographia Germaniae

Topographia Germaniae (1642 – c. 1660s) is a multi-volume series of books created by engraver Matthäus Merian and writer Martin Zeiler, and published in Frankfurt in 38 parts.

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Tornadoes of 2012

This page documents the tornadoes and tornado outbreaks of 2012.

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Torquato Conti

Torquato Conti (1591–1636) was an Italian military commander who served as a General-Field Marshal of the Holy Roman Empire during the Thirty Years' War.

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Tourism in Poland

Poland is a part of the global tourism market with constantly increasing number of visitors.

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Trampe

Trampe (German: v. Trampe, Danish: af Trampe, Norwegian: av Trampe) is an ancient noble family of German origin.

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Trans-European Suture Zone

The Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ), also known as the Tornquist Zone, is the crustal boundary between the Precambrian East European Craton and the Phanerozoic orogens of South-Western Europe.

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Treaty of Christburg

The Treaty of Christburg (modern Dzierzgoń in Poland) was a peace treaty signed on 2 February 1249 between the pagan Prussian clans, represented by a papal legate, and the Teutonic Knights.

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Treaty of Prenzlau

Treaty of Prenzlau or Peace of Prenzlau (Vertrag von Prenzlau, Frieden vo Prenzlau, Vergleich von Prenzlau) may refer to several treaties during a series of wars between the Margraviate of Brandenburg and the Duchy of Pomerania fought for control of Pomerania-Stettin, and possession of the Uckermark in the 15th century.

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Treaty of Stuhmsdorf

The Treaty of Stuhmsdorf (Stilleståndet i Stuhmsdorf) or Sztumska Wieś (Rozejm w Sztumskiej Wsi) was a treaty signed on 12 September 1635 between the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Sweden in the village of Stuhmsdorf, Royal Prussia (now Sztumska Wieś, Poland), just south of Stuhm (Sztum).

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Treaty of Tsarskoye Selo

The Treaty of Tsarskoye Selo was a territorial and dynastic treaty between the Russian Empire and the Kingdom of Denmark.

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Trebel (river)

The Trebel is a river in Western Pomerania, a region of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, some 75 kilometers long.

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Treenailed boat

The treenailed boat is a boat model used in Northern Europe, usually associated with Vikings but should perhaps be ascribed to Pomeranian groups.

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Trevor Corry

Sir Trevor Corry, Baron of Poland (1724 – 1 September 1780) was an Irish-born merchant and diplomat who spent many years in Danzig (now known as Gdańsk), Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, where he acquired a considerable fortune.

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Truso

Truso, situated on Lake Drużno, was an Old Prussian (Pomesanian) town near the Baltic Sea just east of the Vistula River.

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Trzciano, Pomeranian Voivodeship

Trzciano (German Honigfelde or Königfelde) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Ryjewo, within Kwidzyn County, Pomeranian Voivodeship, in northern Poland.

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Trzebież

Trzebież (formerly German Ziegenort) - is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Police, within Police County, West Pomeranian Voivodeship, in north-western Poland, close to the German border.

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Trzeciewiec Transmitter

Trzeciewiec Transmitter (RTCN Trzeciewiec) - is a 320 metre tall guyed steel mast, located in Trzeciewiec, Bydgoszcz County, Poland.

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Tuchola

Tuchola (Tuchel; Tëchòlô) is a town in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship in northern Poland.

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Tugendbund

Tugendbund, or League of Virtue was a quasi-Masonic secret society founded in June 1808, in order to revive the national spirit of Prussians after their defeat by Napoleon.

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Turf maze

Historically, a turf maze is a labyrinth made by cutting a convoluted path into a level area of short grass, turf or lawn.

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Tyrawa Wołoska

Tyrawa Wołoska (Тирява Волоська, Tyriava Volos’ka; Tyravia minori, Thyrawa Walaska).

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Tywa

Tywa is a river in north-western Poland, a tributary of the East Oder river with a length of 47.9 km and catchment area of 264.5 km².

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Ueckermünde

Ueckermünde is a seaport town in northeast Germany, located in the district of Vorpommern-Greifswald, Western Pomerania, near Germany's border with Poland's Police County.

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Ugotowani

Ugotowani is a TVN television programme shown in Poland.

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Ulrich II, Duke of Mecklenburg-Stargard

Ulrich II, Duke of Mecklenburg-Stargard (probably before 1428 – 13 July 1471) was ruling duke in the portion of the duchy of Mecklenburg designated Mecklenburg-Stargard from 1466 to 1471.

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Ulrich von Hutten

Ulrich von Hutten (21 April 1488 – 29 August 1523) was a German scholar, poet and satirist, who later became a follower of Martin Luther and a Protestant reformer.

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Ulrich von Schwerin

Ulrich von Schwerin, also spelled Huldrych von Schwerin or Huldricus Schwerinus (&ndash) was Hofmeister in the Duchy of Pomerania-Wolgast and one of the most influential men of his time.

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Ulrich, Duke of Pomerania

Duke Ulrich of Pomerania (12 August 1589 in Barth – 31 October 1622 in Przybiernów), was a Lutheran administrator of the Prince-Bishopric of Cammin and non-reigning Duke of Pomerania.

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Uniemyśl, West Pomeranian Voivodeship

Uniemyśl (formerly German Wilhelmsdorf) – is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Police, within Police County, West Pomeranian Voivodeship, in north-western Poland, close to the German border.

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Union of Poles in Germany

Union of Poles in Germany (Związek Polaków w Niemczech, Bund der Polen in Deutschland e.V.) is an organisation of the Polish minority in Germany, founded in 1922.

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University of Greifswald

The University of Greifswald (Universität Greifswald) is a public research university located in Greifswald, Germany, in the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.

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Usedom

Usedom (Usedom, Uznam) is a Baltic Sea island in Pomerania, divided since 1945 between Germany and Poland.

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Ustka

Ustka (Stolpmünde; Kashubian Ùskô) is a town in the Middle Pomerania region of northwestern Poland with 17,100 inhabitants (2001).

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Uwe Johnson

Uwe Johnson (20 July 1934 – 22 February 1984) was a German writer, editor, and scholar.

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Valdemar I of Denmark

Valdemar I of Denmark (14 January 1131 – 12 May 1182), also known as Valdemar the Great (Valdemar den Store), was King of Denmark from 1146 until his death in 1182.

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Vellaunus

Vellaunus is a Celtic god known from only two inscriptions.

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Veste Landskron

Veste Landskron or Lanzkron is a Renaissance water castle in the municipality Neuendorf B, Vorpommern-Greifswald district, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.

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Viking Age

The Viking Age (793–1066 AD) is a period in European history, especially Northern European and Scandinavian history, following the Germanic Iron Age.

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Viktor Lomidze

Viktor Lomidze, also known by his Polish name of Wiktor Łomidze-Wachtang, was a Georgian-Polish military officer.

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Vilis Janums

Vilis Janums (7 January 1894 – 6 August 1981) was a Latvian officer in the First World War and later also in the Second World War.

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Vincens Budde

Vincens Budde (also known as Vincents Budde or Vincent Budde) was a Norwegian officer, born in 1660 in Halden, Norway into a Norwegian military family (his father, Frederick Otto Budde, served under Tønne Huitfeldt at Fredriksten fortress in Halden, which repelled a Swedish attack in 1660).

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Visborg

Visborg (Wisborg) refers to a fortress in the town of Visby on the Swedish island of Gotland.

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Vistula–Oder Offensive

The Vistula–Oder Offensive was a successful Red Army operation on the Eastern Front in the European Theatre of World War II in January 1945.

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Voivodeship road

A voivodeship road (droga wojewódzka) is a category of road in Poland.

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Volker Vogeler

Volker Vogeler (27 June 1930 – 16 April 2005) was a German film director and screenwriter.

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Volksdeutsche

In Nazi German terminology, Volksdeutsche were "Germans in regard to people or race" (Ethnic Germans), regardless of citizenship.

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Von Kantzow

von Kantzow is the name of a noble family from the German part of Pommern, and is sometimes listed without the leading von.

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Von Loppenow

The von Loppenow family was a noble family associated with the village of Loppnow in Prussian Pomerania (today Lopianow in Poland).

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Vytenis

Vytenis (Віцень, Vićien') was the Grand Duke of Lithuania from c. 1295 to c. 1316.

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Wałcz

Wałcz (German: Deutsch Krone) is a county town in Wałcz County of the West Pomeranian Voivodeship in northwestern Poland.

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Waffen-SS

The Waffen-SS (Armed SS) was the armed wing of the Nazi Party's SS organisation.

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Waldow family

Waldow, Waldow or Waldau, is the name of a Bavarian noble family.

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Walery Cyryl Amrogowicz

Walery Cyryl Amrogowicz (1863-1931) was a Polish numismatist, nationalist, philanthropist and collector of cultural artifacts.

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Walhalla memorial

The Walhalla is a hall of fame that honors laudable and distinguished people in German history – "politicians, sovereigns, scientists and artists of the German tongue";Official Guide booklet, 2002, p. 3 thus the celebrities honored are drawn from Greater Germany, a wider area than today's Germany, and even as far away as Britain in the case of several Anglo-Saxons who are honored.

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Walkenried Abbey

Walkenried Abbey (Kloster Walkenried) was a Cistercian abbey located in the village of Walkenried in Lower Saxony, Germany.

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Walloon Legion

The Walloon Legion (28. was a collaborationist volunteer unit recruited from Belgium's French-speaking population in Wallonia and Brussels during the German occupation of World War II. The Walloon Legion served in the Wehrmacht, later in the Waffen-SS, on the Eastern Front on both front line and reserve duties.

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Walter Braemer

Walter Braemer (7 January 1883 13 June 1955) was a general in the Reichswehr and the Wehrmacht and a high-ranking SS commander during the Nazi era.

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Walter Bruno Henning

Walter Bruno Henning (August 26, 1908 – January 8, 1967) was a German scholar of Middle Iranian languages and literature, especially of the corpus discovered by the Turpan expeditions of the early 20th century.

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War crimes in occupied Poland during World War II

It's estimated that over six million Polish citizens,Project in Posterum, Retrieved 20 September 2013.

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Warfare in Medieval Poland

Warfare in Medieval Poland covers the military history of Poland during the Piast and Jagiellon dynasties (10th–16th centuries).

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Wars and battles involving Prussia

Prussia and its predecessor, Brandenburg-Prussia, were involved in numerous conflicts during their existence as nation-states.

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Wars of the Rügen Succession

The Wars of the Rügen Succession were two early 14th century conflicts fought primarily between Mecklenburg and Pomerania for control of the Danish Principality of Rügen on the southern Baltic Sea coast.

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Wartislaw V, Duke of Pomerania

Wartislaw V. (c. 1 November 1326 – 1390) was a duke of Pomerania from the House of Griffins.

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Wartislaw VIII, Duke of Pomerania

Wartislaw VIII (1373 – 20 or 23 August 1415) was a duke of Pomerania from the House of Griffins house.

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Wawrzyniec Samp

Wawrzyniec Samp (born 25 June 1939) is a Polish sculptor and graphic artist.

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Władysław I Herman

Władysław I Herman (1044 – 4 June 1102) was a Duke of Poland from 1079 until his death.

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Władysław I the Elbow-high

Władysław I the Elbow-high or the Short (Władysław I Łokietek; c. 1260 – 2 March 1333) was the King of Poland from 1306 to 1333, and duke of several of the provinces and principalities in the preceding years.

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Władysław III of Poland

Władysław III (31 October 1424 – 10 November 1444), also known as Władysław of Varna, was King of Poland from 1434, and King of Hungary and Croatia from 1440, until his death at the Battle of Varna.

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Władysław III Spindleshanks

Władysław III Spindleshanks (Władysław Laskonogi; b. 1161/67 – 3 November 1231), of the Piast Dynasty, was Duke of Greater Poland (during 1194–1202 over all the land and during 1202–1229 only over the southern part), High Duke of Poland and Duke of Kraków during 1202–1206 and 1228–1231, Duke of Kalisz during 1202–1206, ruler of Lubusz during 1206–1210 and 1218–1225, and ruler over Gniezno during 1216–1217.

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Włocławek

Włocławek (Leslau) is a city located in central Poland along the Vistula (Wisła) River and is bordered by the Gostynińsko-Włocławski Park Krajobrazowy.

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Wda

The Wda is a river in Poland.

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Well smack

A well smack is a type of traditional fishing boat that has a ''well'' amidships.

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Wenceslaus III of Bohemia

Wenceslaus III (Václav III., Vencel, Wacław, Václav; 6 October 12894 August 1306) was King of Hungary between 1301 and 1305, and King of Bohemia and Poland from 1305.

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Wendish Crusade

The Wendish Crusade (Wendenkreuzzug) was a military campaign in 1147, one of the Northern Crusades and a part of the Second Crusade, led primarily by the Kingdom of Germany within the Holy Roman Empire and directed against the Polabian Slavs (or "Wends").

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Wendland (disambiguation)

Wendland is a region in Germany on the borders of the present states of Brandenburg, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Lower Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt.

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Wends

Wends (Winedas, Old Norse: Vindr, Wenden, Winden, vendere, vender, Wendowie) is a historical name for Slavs living near Germanic settlement areas.

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Werner Buchholz (historian)

Werner Buchholz (born 25 January 1948) is a German historian, currently a professor for Pomeranian History at the University of Greifswald.

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Werner Elert

Werner August Friedrich Immanuel Elert (19 August 1885 — 21 November 1954) was a German Lutheran theologian and professor of both church history and systematic theology at the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg.

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West Pomeranian Voivodeship

West Pomeranian Voivodeship or West Pomerania Province (in Polish, województwo zachodniopomorskie.

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Western betrayal

The concept of Western betrayal refers to the view that the United Kingdom and France failed to meet their legal, diplomatic, military and moral obligations with respect to the Czechoslovak and Polish nations during the prelude to and aftermath of World War II.

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Western Institute

The Western Institute in Poznań (Polish: Instytut Zachodni, German West-Institut, French: L'Institut Occidental) is a scientific research society focusing on the Western provinces of Poland - Kresy Zachodnie (including Greater Poland, Silesia, Pomerania), history, economy and politics of Germany, and the Polish-German relations in history and today.

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Western Pomerania

Western Pomerania, also called Cispomerania or Hither Pomerania (Vorpommern), is the western extremity of the historic region of the duchy, later Province of Pomerania, nowadays divided between the German state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and Poland.

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Western Pomerania (disambiguation)

Western Pomerania may be used as.

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Weyher family

Coat of Arms of the Weyher family Weyher family (alternative spellings: Wejher, Weiher, Waier, Weier,sometimes spelled Weiger Weyherowie) was a family of high nobility, most prominent in the 16th and 17th centuries in the Pomerania region and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

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White Brazilians

White Brazilians (brasileiros brancos) refers to Brazilian citizens of European or Levantine descent.

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Wiśniewski

Wiśniewski (feminine: Wiśniewska, plural Wiśniewscy) is the third most common surname in Poland (111,174 people in 2009).

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Widow conservation

Widow conservation was a type of marriage in Protestant Europe in the early modern age, when the widow of a parish vicar was married to her husband's successor to ensure her economic support.

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Wielbark culture

The Wielbark culture (Wielbark-Willenberg-Kultur, Kultura wielbarska, Вельбарська культура/Velbarska kultura) or East Pomeranian-Mazovian is part of an Iron Age archaeological complex that dates from the 1st century AD to the 4th century AD.

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Wilfried Strik-Strikfeldt

Wilfried Karl Strik-Strikfeldt (Вильфрид Карлович Штрик-Штрикфельдт; 23 July 1896 – 7 September 1977) was a Baltic German officer involved with General Andrey Vlasov and the German-sponsored Russian Liberation Army during World War II.

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Wilhelm Kettler

Wilhelm Kettler (20 June 1574 – 7 April 1640) was the Duke of Courland, a region of Latvia.

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Wilhelm Ludwig Ewald Schmidt

Wilhelm Ludwig Ewald Schmidt (4 May 1805 in Nattwerder (near Potsdam) – 5 June 1843 in Stettin) was a German physician, botanist, and entomologist.

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Wilhelm Meinhold

Johannes Wilhelm Meinhold (27 February 1797Bridgwater (2000), p. 213. – 30 November 1851) was a Pomeranian priest and author.

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Wilhelm Solf

Wilhelm Heinrich Solf (5 October 1862 – 6 February 1936) was a German scholar, diplomat, jurist and statesman.

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Wilhelm Stuckart

Wilhelm Stuckart (16 November 1902 – 15 November 1953) was a Nazi Party lawyer, official and a state secretary in the German Interior Ministry during the Nazi era.

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Willi Veller

Wilhelm "Willi" Veller (October 9, 1896, Witten, Province of Westphalia – June 22, 1941) was a German politician and member of the Nazi Party and the SA.

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William I of Guelders and Jülich

William I of Guelders and Jülich KG (5 March 1364 – 16 February 1402, Arnhem) was Duke of Guelders, as William I, from 1377 and Duke of Jülich, as William III, from 1393.

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William Lockhart of Lee

Sir William Lockhart of Lee (1621–1675), after fighting on the side of Charles I in the English Civil War, attached himself to Oliver Cromwell, whose niece he married, and who later appointed Lockhart commissioner for the administration of justice in Scotland in 1652.

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William Pagel

Friedrich Wilhelm August Pagel aka William Pagel (5 February 1878 Plathe, Pomerania, Germany - 13 October 1948 Knysna) was a ‘strong man’ and South African circus proprietor.

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Wisconsin German

The term Wisconsin German refers to both Wisconsin High German and to heritage dialects of German spoken in Wisconsin.

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Wojciech Kasperski

Wojciech Kasperski (born April 25, 1981) is a Polish screenwriter, film director and producer.

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Wojciech Kętrzyński

Wojciech Kętrzyński (11 July 1838 – 15 January 1918), born Adalbert von Winkler was a historian and the director of the Ossolineum Library in Lemberg, the capitol of Galicia, Austrian Empire.

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Wolfgang Birkner

Wolfgang Birkner (27 October 1913 – 24 March 1945) was a German SS functionary with the rank of SS-Hauptsturmführer, and the Holocaust perpetrator in World War II.

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Wolfgang Rosenthal

Wolfgang Rosenthal (8 September 1882 – 10 June 1971) was a German Oral surgeon.

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Wolin

Wolin (Wollin,, Pomeranian Wòlin) is the name both of a Polish island in the Baltic Sea, just off the Polish coast, and a town on that island.

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Wolin (town)

Wolin (Wollin) is a town situated on the southern tip of the Wolin island off the Baltic coast of Poland.

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Wolin Castle

Wolin Castle was a castle in the town Wolin on the island also named Wolin (in Poland), owned by the dukes of Pomerania.

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Wolinians

The Wolinians (Velunzani, Uelunzani, Wolinianie) were a Lechitic tribe in Early Middle Age Pomerania.

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Wolkwitz

Wolkwitz is a family name, or surname, of German/Western-Slavic origins.

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Wool Market square in Bydgoszcz

Wool Market square is located in Bydgoszcz, Poland.

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Worcester, Western Cape

Worcester is a town in the Western Cape, South Africa.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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World War II evacuation and expulsion

Mass evacuation, forced displacement, expulsion, and deportation of millions of people took place across most countries involved in World War II.

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Wrought iron

puddled iron, a form of wrought iron Wrought iron is an iron alloy with a very low carbon (less than 0.08%) content in contrast to cast iron (2.1% to 4%).

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Wyrzysk

Wyrzysk (Wirsitz) is a town in Poland with 5,263 (2004) inhabitants, situated in Piła County, Greater Poland Voivodeship.

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X SS Corps

The X SS Corps (German: Generalkommando X. SS-Armeekorps or Gruppe Krappe) was a short-lived SS corps-level headquarters employed on the Eastern Front in 1945 during World War II.

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XXXIX Panzer Corps

The XXXIX Panzer Corps (XXXIX.Panzerkorps, also previously designated the XXXIX.Armeekorps (mot)) was a German panzer corps which saw action on the Western and Eastern Fronts during World War II.

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Zbigniew Karpus

Zbigniew Klemens Karpus (born 1954) is a Polish historian.

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Zbigniew of Poland

Zbigniew (also known as Zbygniew; ca. 1073 – 8 July 1113?M. Spórna, P. Wierzbicki: Słownik władców Polski i pretendentów do tronu polskiego, p. 501; B. Snoch: Protoplasta książąt śląskich, Katowice, 1985, p. 13,.), was a Prince of Poland (in Greater Poland, Kuyavia and Masovia) during 1102-1107.

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Zechlin

Zechlin is both a geographical and a family name in Germany.

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Zeese

A Zeese (pl. Zeesen) is a traditional type of fishing gear used for bottom trawling in the shallow coastal waters (Bodden) of Pomerania.

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Zeesenboot

A Zeesenboot (plural Zeesenboote), in plattdeutsch Zeesboot (pl: Zeesboote) or Zeeskahn (pl.: Zeeskähne), is a usually 10-metre-long, wide-hulled sailing boat of a type known as a Haffboot.

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Zempin

Zempin is a German municipality and the smallest seaside resort on Usedom island.

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Zingst

Zingst (Polabian Sgoni) is the easternmost portion of the three-part Fischland-Darß-Zingst Peninsula, located in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany, between the cities of Rostock and Stralsund on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea.

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Zinnowitz

Zinnowitz is a spa town in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern on the northern German island of Usedom on the Baltic Sea.

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Zygmunt Milczewski

Zygmunt Milczewski (1 October 1905 – 2 June 2001) was a Polish historian associated with Pomerania, a community leader in the Second Polish Republic, and World War II resistance fighter in the underground Home Army (Armia Krajowa) with the postwar rank of Lieutenant (porucznik).

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Zygmunt Wojciechowski

Zygmunt Wojciechowski (27 April 1900 – 14 October 1955) was a Polish historian and nationalist politician.

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10th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

The 10th Panzer Division was a formation of the German Army during World War II.

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10th SS Panzer Division Frundsberg

The 10th SS Panzer Division "Frundsberg" (10.) was a German Waffen SS armoured division during World War II.

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1184

Year 1184 (MCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1187

Year 1187 (MCLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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12th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

The 12th Infantry Division (German: "12. Infanteriedivision") – later known as the 12th Volksgrenadier Division – was a Wehrmacht military unit of Nazi Germany that fought during World War II.

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1354

Year 1354 (MCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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142nd Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

The 142nd Rifle Division began service in August, 1939 as a standard Red Army rifle division, which participated in the Winter War against Finland.

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1614 Low German Bible

A 1614 Low German Bible (Bibel vun 1614) is a rare, illustrated edition in Low German (Plattdütsch, Plattdüütsch) of Martin Luther's High German translation of the Bible.

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1627

No description.

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1630

No description.

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1630 in Sweden

Events from the year 1630 in Sweden.

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163rd Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

The 163rd Infantry Division (163.) was a German Army infantry division in World War II.

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16th Infantry Division (Poland)

The 16th Pomeranian Infantry Division (16.) is a military unit of the Polish Army.

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1701

In the Swedish calendar it was a common year starting on Tuesday, one day ahead of the Julian and ten days behind the Gregorian calendar.

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1761 in science

The year 1761 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below.

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1810s

The 1810s decade ran from January 1, 1810, to December 31, 1819.

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1814

No description.

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1837 in birding and ornithology

*John Gould formally describes the huia.

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1872 Baltic Sea flood

The 1872 Baltic Sea flood (Ostseesturmhochwasser 1872), often referred to as a storm flood, ravaged the Baltic Sea coast from Denmark to Pomerania, also affecting Sweden, during the night between 12–13 November 1872 and was, until then, the worst storm surge in the Baltic.

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18th-century history of Germany

Germany in the era 1680s to 1789 comprised many small territories enclosed in the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation.

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1912 Wisła Kraków season

The 1912 season was Wisła Kraków 7th year as a club.

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1934 in aviation

This is a list of aviation-related events from 1934.

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1937 peasant strike in Poland

1937 peasant strike in Poland, also known in some Polish sources as the Great Peasant Uprising (Wielki Strajk Chłopski) was a mass strike and demonstration of peasants organized by the People's Party and aimed at the ruling sanacja government.

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1951 Polish–Soviet territorial exchange

The 1951 Polish–Soviet territorial exchange or Polish-Soviet border adjustment treaty of 1951 was a border adjustment signed in Moscow between the People's Republic of Poland and the Soviet Union regarding roughly of land, along their mutual border.

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1st Fallschirm-Panzer Division Hermann Göring

The Fallschirm-Panzer-Division 1.

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207th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

The 207th Rifle Division began its combat path under unusual circumstances.

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207th Security Division (Wehrmacht)

The 207th Infantry Division (207.) was established in August 1939, and acted as a border security unit during the invasion of Poland as part of the Fourth Army under Army Group North.

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292nd Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

The 292nd Infantry Division was an infantry formation of Nazi Germany during World War II.

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2nd Belorussian Front

The 2nd Belorussian Front (2-і Беларускі фронт, alternative spellings are 2nd Byelorussian Front and 2nd Belarusian Front) (2BF) was a military formation of Army group size of the Soviet Army during the Second World War.

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2nd Warsaw Infantry Division

2nd Warsaw Infantry Division of Henryk Dąbrowski (2 Warszawska Dywizja Piechoty im. Henryka Dąbrowskiego) was formed in 1943 as part of the Polish First Army alongside the Red Army of the Soviet Union.

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310th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

The 310th Rifle Division was a standard Red Army rifle division formed on July 15, 1941 in Kazakhstan before being sent to the vicinity of Leningrad, where it spent most of the war, sharing a similar combat path with its "sister", the 311th Rifle Division.

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33rd Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS Charlemagne (1st French)

The 33rd Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS Charlemagne (1st French) (33. and Charlemagne Regiment are collective names used for units of French volunteers in the Wehrmacht and later Waffen-SS during World War II. From estimates of 7,340 to 11,000 at its peak in 1944, the strength of the division fell to just sixty men in May 1945. They were one of the last Axis units to see action during World War II, when they participated in the defence of central Berlin and in the area of the Führerbunker. They were among the last to surrender during the final days of the Battle in Berlin.

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3rd Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

The 3rd Panzer Division (3rd Tank Division) was an armoured division in the German Army, the Wehrmacht, during World War II.

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3rd Reserve Division (German Empire)

The 3rd Reserve Division (3. Reserve-Division) was a reserve infantry division of the Imperial German Army in World War I. It was formed on mobilization in August 1914 from reserve infantry units primarily from Pomerania.

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4 Days in May

4 days in May (Vier Tage im Mai) is a war drama film directed by Achim von Borries and starring Paul Wenzel and Alexei Guskov.

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4th SS Polizei Panzergrenadier Division

The 4th SS Polizei Panzergrenadier Division (4. SS-Polizei-Panzergrenadier-Division) was one of the thirty-eight divisions fielded as part of the Waffen-SS during World War II.

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56th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

The 56th Infantry Division (56.; nicknamed Gekreuzte Säbel, 'crossed sabres', after the divisional symbol) was a German infantry division which fought during World War II.

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65th Anti-Aircraft Artillery Division (Soviet Union)

The 65th Anti-Aircraft Artillery Division was an anti-aircraft artillery division of the Soviet Union's Red Army (later the Soviet Army) during World War II and the early postwar period.

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69th Fortress Brigade (Russia)

The 69th Fortress Brigade is a unique fortifications brigade of the Russian Ground Forces, stationed at Babstovo and part of the 35th Army.

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70th Rifle Division

The 70th Rifle Division was an infantry division of the Red Army and briefly of the Soviet Army, formed twice.

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972

Year 972 (CMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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Redirects here:

Pomerania (Poland and Germany), Pommerania, Pommern, Pomorze.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pomerania

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