100 relations: Absence seizure, Alcohol withdrawal syndrome, Allodynia, AMPA receptor, Analgesic, Analgesic adjuvant, Anticonvulsant, Anxiety disorder, Anxiolytic, ATC code N03, Atypical trigeminal neuralgia, Baclofen, Benzodiazepine, Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome, Bob Welch (musician), CACNA2D1, Calcium channel blocker, Central nervous system depression, Controlled Substances Act, COX-2 inhibitor, CYP2A6, Dejerine–Roussy syndrome, Depressant, Dextromethorphan, Diabetic neuropathy, Epilepsy Foundation, Epilepsy in animals, Erythromelalgia, Ethics in pharmaceutical sales, Euphoria, Fibromyalgia, Flupirtine, Frontal lobe epilepsy, GABA analogue, Gabapentin, Gabapentinoid, Gabrika, Gamma-Amino-beta-hydroxybutyric acid, Gamma-Aminobutyric acid, Generalized anxiety disorder, Geniculate ganglionitis, Hyperalgesia, Hypericum perforatum, Hypnotic, Intractable pain, Jeavons syndrome, Kent Holtorf, Knee replacement, List of cytochrome P450 modulators, List of drugs: Ls-Ly, ..., List of drugs: Prb-Prn, List of largest civil only pharmaceutical settlements, List of largest pharmaceutical settlements, List of largest selling pharmaceutical products, List of off-label promotion pharmaceutical settlements, List of psychiatric medications, List of psychiatric medications by condition treated, List of Schedule V drugs (US), May 1946, Migraine, Mirogabalin, N-type calcium channel, Neuralgia, Neuropathic pain, New daily persistent headache, Northwestern University, Opioid, Orexigenic, Orion Corporation, PD-217,014, Peripheral edema, Peripheral neuropathy, Pfizer, Pharmaceutical fraud, Pharmaceutical industry, Pharmaceutical marketing, Phenibut, Physical dependence, Postherpetic neuralgia, Proximal diabetic neuropathy, Psychiatric medication, Ptosis (eyelid), Restless legs syndrome, Richard Bruce Silverman, Scott Reuben, Sedative, Somnolence, Substance dependence, SUNCT syndrome, Syringomyelia, Tarsal tunnel syndrome, Temporal lobe epilepsy, Topical anesthetic, Treatment of bipolar disorder, Trigeminal neuralgia, TROX-1, Unverricht–Lundborg disease, Venlafaxine, Voltage-gated calcium channel, 4-Methylpregabalin. Expand index (50 more) » « Shrink index
Absence seizures are one of several kinds of generalized seizures.
Alcohol withdrawal syndrome is a set of symptoms that can occur following a reduction in alcohol use after a period of excessive use.
Allodynia (Ancient Greek άλλος állos "other" and οδύνη odúnē "pain") refers to central pain sensitization (increased response of neurons) following normally non-painful, often repetitive, stimulation.
The α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (also known as AMPA receptor, AMPAR, or quisqualate receptor) is an ionotropic transmembrane receptor for glutamate that mediates fast synaptic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS).
An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.
An analgesic adjuvant is a medication that is typically used for indications other than pain control but provides control of pain in some painful diseases.
Anticonvulsants (also commonly known as antiepileptic drugs or as antiseizure drugs) are a diverse group of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of epileptic seizures.
Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by significant feelings of anxiety and fear.
An anxiolytic (also antipanic or antianxiety agent) is a medication or other intervention that inhibits anxiety.
Atypical trigeminal neuralgia (ATN), or type 2 trigeminal neuralgia, is a form of trigeminal neuralgia, a disorder of the fifth cranial nerve.
Baclofen, sold under the brand name Lioresal among others, is a medication used to treat spasticity.
Benzodiazepines (BZD, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.
Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome—often abbreviated to benzo withdrawal—is the cluster of symptoms that emerge when a person who has taken benzodiazepines, either medically or recreationally, and has developed a physical dependence undergoes dosage reduction or discontinuation.
Robert Lawrence Welch Jr. (August 31, 1945 – June 7, 2012) was an American musician who was a member of Fleetwood Mac from 1971 to 1974.
Voltage-dependent calcium channel subunit alpha-2/delta-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CACNA2D1 gene.
Calcium channel blockers (CCB), calcium channel antagonists or calcium antagonists are several medications that disrupt the movement of calcium through calcium channels.
Central nervous system depression or CNS depression refers to physiological depression of the central nervous system that can result in decreased rate of breathing, decreased heart rate, and loss of consciousness possibly leading to coma or death.
The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) is the statute establishing federal U.S. drug policy under which the manufacture, importation, possession, use, and distribution of certain substances is regulated.
Selective COX-2 inhibitors are a type of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that directly targets cyclooxygenase-2, COX-2, an enzyme responsible for inflammation and pain.
Cytochrome P450 2A6 (abbreviated CYP2A6) is a member of the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system, which is involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics in the body.
Dejerine–Roussy syndrome or thalamic pain syndrome is a condition developed after a thalamic stroke, a stroke causing damage to the thalamus.
A depressant, or central depressant, is a drug that lowers neurotransmission levels, which is to depress or reduce arousal or stimulation, in various areas of the brain.
Dextromethorphan (DXM or DM) is a drug of the morphinan class with sedative, dissociative, and stimulant properties (at higher doses).
Diabetic neuropathies are nerve damaging disorders associated with diabetes mellitus.
The Epilepsy Foundation, also Epilepsy Foundation of America (EFA), is a non-profit national foundation, headquartered in Landover, Maryland, dedicated to the welfare of people with epilepsy and seizure disorders.
Epilepsy in animals is a group of neurological disorders characterized by seizures, caused by abnormal bursts of electrical activity in the brain.
Erythromelalgia, formerly known as Mitchell's disease (after Silas Weir Mitchell), is a rare vascular peripheral pain disorder in which blood vessels, usually in the lower extremities or hands, are episodically blocked (frequently on and off daily), then become hyperemic and inflamed.
The ethics involved within pharmaceutical sales is built from the organizational ethics, which is a matter of system compliance, accountability and culture (Grace & Cohen, 2005).
Euphoria is an affective state in which a person experiences pleasure or excitement and intense feelings of well-being and happiness.
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a medical condition characterised by chronic widespread pain and a heightened pain response to pressure.
Flupirtine is an aminopyridine that functions as a centrally acting non-opioid analgesic that was originally used as an analgesic for acute and chronic pain but in 2013 due to issues with liver toxicity, the European Medicines Agency restricted its use to acute pain, for no more than two weeks, and only for people who cannot use other painkillers.
Frontal lobe epilepsy, or FLE, is a neurological disorder that is characterized by brief, recurring seizures that arise in the frontal lobes of the brain, often while the patient is sleeping.
A GABA analogue is a compound which is an analogue or derivative of the neurotransmitter gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) (the IUPAC of which is 4-aminobutanoic acid).
Gabapentin, sold under the brand name Neurontin among others, is a medication which is used to treat epilepsy (specifically partial seizures), neuropathic pain, hot flashes, and restless legs syndrome.
Gabapentinoids, also known as α2δ ligands, are a class of drugs that are derivatives of the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) (i.e., GABA analogues) which block α2δ subunit-containing voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs).
γ-Amino-β-hydroxybutyric acid (GABOB), also known as β-hydroxy-γ-aminobutyric acid (β-hydroxy-GABA), and sold under the brand name Gamibetal among others, is an anticonvulsant which is used for the treatment of epilepsy in Europe, Japan, and Mexico.
gamma-Aminobutyric acid, or γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system.
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by excessive, uncontrollable and often irrational worry, that is, apprehensive expectation about events or activities.
Geniculate ganglionitis or geniculate neuralgia (GN), also called nervus intermedius neuralgia, Ramsay Hunt syndrome, or Hunt's neuralgia, is a rare disorder characterized by severe paroxysmal neuralgic pain deep in the ear, that may spread to the ear canal, outer ear, mastoid or eye regions.
Hyperalgesia (or; 'hyper' from Greek ὑπέρ (huper, “over”), '-algesia' from Greek algos, ἄλγος (pain)) is an increased sensitivity to pain, which may be caused by damage to nociceptors or peripheral nerves and can cause hypersensitivity to stimulus, stimuli which would normally not be cause for a pain reaction (ex/ eyes or brain having a painful reaction to daylight).
Hypericum perforatum, known as perforate St John's-wort, common Saint John's wort and St John's wort, is a flowering plant in the family Hypericaceae.
Hypnotic (from Greek Hypnos, sleep) or soporific drugs, commonly known as sleeping pills, are a class of psychoactive drugs whose primary function is to induce sleep and to be used in the treatment of insomnia (sleeplessness), or surgical anesthesia.
Intractable pain, also known as Intractable Pain Disease or IP, is a severe, constant pain that is not curable by any known means and which causes a bed or house-bound state and early death if not adequately treated, usually with opioids and/or interventional procedures.
Jeavons syndrome is a type of epilepsy.
Kent Holtorf (born 1964) is an American physician and entrepreneur practicing in Los Angeles, California.
Knee replacement, also known as knee arthroplasty, is a surgical procedure to replace the weight-bearing surfaces of the knee joint to relieve pain and disability.
This is a list of cytochrome P450 modulators, or inhibitors and inducers of cytochrome P450 enzymes.
The following is a list of the 21 largest civil settlements, reached between the United States Department of Justice and pharmaceutical companies from 2001 to 2017, ordered by the size of the total civil settlement.
The following is a list of the 20 largest settlements reached between the United States Department of Justice and pharmaceutical companies from 1991 to 2012, ordered by the size of the total settlement.
Drugs with sales above $5 billion in 2015 included.
The following are settlements reached with US authorities against pharmaceutical companies to resolve allegations of "off-label" promotion of drugs.
This is an alphabetical list of psychiatric medications used by psychiatrists and other physicians to treat mental illness or distress.
This is a list of psychiatric medications used by psychiatrists and other physicians to treat mental illness or distress.
This is the list of Schedule V drugs as defined by the United States Controlled Substances Act.
The following events occurred in May 1946.
A migraine is a primary headache disorder characterized by recurrent headaches that are moderate to severe.
Mirogabalin (developmental code name DS-5565) is a drug developed by Daiichi Sankyo, a gabapentinoid.
N-type calcium channels are voltage gated calcium channels that are distributed throughout the entire body.
Neuralgia (Greek neuron, "nerve" + algos, "pain") is pain in the distribution of a nerve or nerves, as in intercostal neuralgia, trigeminal neuralgia, and glossopharyngeal neuralgia.
Neuropathic pain is pain caused by damage or disease affecting the somatosensory nervous system.
New daily persistent headache (NDPH) is a primary headache syndrome which can mimic chronic migraine and chronic tension-type headache.
Northwestern University (NU) is a private research university based in Evanston, Illinois, United States, with other campuses located in Chicago and Doha, Qatar, and academic programs and facilities in Miami, Florida, Washington, D.C., and San Francisco, California.
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.
An orexigenic, or appetite stimulant, is a drug, hormone, or compound that increases appetite and may induce hyperphagia.
Orion Corporation, founded in 1917 and headquartered at Espoo, Finland, is a Finnish company, which develops, manufactures and markets pharmaceuticals, active pharmaceutical ingredients and diagnostic tests for global markets.
PD-217,014 is a drug developed by Pfizer and related to gabapentin, which similarly binds to the α2δ calcium channels (1 and 2).
Peripheral edema is edema (accumulation of fluid causing swelling) in tissues perfused by the peripheral vascular system, usually in the lower limbs.
Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is damage to or disease affecting nerves, which may impair sensation, movement, gland or organ function, or other aspects of health, depending on the type of nerve affected.
Pfizer Inc. is an American pharmaceutical conglomerate headquartered in New York City, with its research headquarters in Groton, Connecticut.
Pharmaceutical fraud involves activities that result in false claims to insurers or programs such as Medicare in the United States or equivalent state programs for financial gain to a pharmaceutical company.
The pharmaceutical industry (or medicine industry) is the commercial industry that discovers, develops, produces, and markets drugs or pharmaceutical drugs for use as different types of medicine and medications.
Pharmaceutical marketing, sometimes called medico-marketing or pharma marketing in some countries, is the business of advertising or otherwise promoting the sale of pharmaceutical drugs.
Phenibut, sold under the brand names Anvifen, Fenibut, and Noofen among others, is a central nervous system depressant with anxiolytic and sedative effects which is used in the treatment of anxiety, insomnia, and for a variety of other indications.
Physical dependence is a physical condition caused by chronic use of a tolerance forming drug, in which abrupt or gradual drug withdrawal causes unpleasant physical symptoms.
Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is nerve pain which occurs due to damage to a peripheral nerve caused by the reactivation of the varicella zoster virus (herpes zoster, also known as shingles).
Proximal diabetic neuropathy, more commonly known as diabetic amyotrophy, is a nerve disorder that results as a complication of diabetes mellitus.
A psychiatric medication is a licensed psychoactive drug taken to exert an effect on the chemical makeup of the brain and nervous system.
Ptosis (/ˈtoʊsɪs/) is a drooping or falling of the upper eyelid.
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a disorder that causes a strong urge to move one's legs.
Richard Bruce Silverman (born May 12, 1946) is a chemistry professor at Northwestern University in the United States where he currently holds the title of Patrick G. Ryan/Aon Professor.
Scott S. Reuben (born 1958) is an American anesthesiologist who was Professor of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine at Tufts University in Boston, Massachusetts and chief of acute pain at Baystate Medical Center in Springfield, Massachusetts from February 1991 until 2009 when he was sentenced to prison for healthcare fraud.
A sedative or tranquilliser is a substance that induces sedation by reducing irritability or excitement.
Somnolence (alternatively "sleepiness" or "drowsiness") is a state of strong desire for sleep, or sleeping for unusually long periods (compare hypersomnia).
Substance dependence also known as drug dependence is an adaptive state that develops from repeated drug administration, and which results in withdrawal upon cessation of drug use.
Short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache with conjunctival injection and tearing (SUNCT syndrome), is a rare headache disorder that belongs to the group of headaches called trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia (TACs).
Syringomyelia is a generic term referring to a disorder in which a cyst or cavity forms within the spinal cord.
Tarsal tunnel syndrome (TTS), also known as posterior tibial neuralgia, is a compression neuropathy and painful foot condition in which the tibial nerve is compressed as it travels through the tarsal tunnel.
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a chronic disorder of the nervous system characterized by recurrent, unprovoked focal seizures that originate in the temporal lobe of the brain and last about one or two minutes.
A topical anesthetic is a local anesthetic that is used to numb the surface of a body part.
The emphasis of the treatment of bipolar disorder is on effective management of the long-term course of the illness, which can involve treatment of emergent symptoms.
Trigeminal neuralgia (TN or TGN) is a chronic pain disorder that affects the trigeminal nerve.
TROX-1 is a drug which acts as a potent blocker of the Cav2 type calcium channels.
Unverricht–Lundborg disease (abbreviated ULD or EPM1) is the most common form of an uncommon group of genetic epilepsy disorders called the progressive myoclonus epilepsies.
Venlafaxine, sold under the brand name Effexor among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) class.
Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs), also known as voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs), are a group of voltage-gated ion channels found in the membrane of excitable cells (e.g., muscle, glial cells, neurons, etc.) with a permeability to the calcium ion Ca2+.
4-Methylpregabalin is a drug developed by Pfizer and related to pregabalin, which similarly acts as an analgesic with effectiveness against difficult to treat "atypical" pain syndromes such as neuropathic pain.