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A Man Without Words is a book by Susan Schaller, first published in 1991, with a foreword by author and neurologist Oliver Sacks.
A2 milk is cow's milk that mostly lacks a form of β-casein proteins called A1 and instead has mostly the A2 form.
Aarhus Faculty of Health Sciences, or simply Health, is one of four faculties at Aarhus University in Aarhus, Denmark.
Aarti Gupta (born November 10, 1997) is a model and title holder of Miss Teen India International 2014.
Abandoned vehicles are decrepit cars that have become useless in other ways, which are abandoned and illegally dumped in the environment.
The Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Lab (J-PAL) is a global research center working to reduce poverty by ensuring that policy is informed by scientific evidence.
Abdullah H. Baqui is a public health scientist who confirmed the effectiveness of simple but effective strategies to reduce preventable newborn deaths.
The Abel Salazar Biomedical Sciences Institute (in Portuguese, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas Abel Salazar) is a graduate medical and life sciences school of the University of Porto.
Abha Saxena is the Coordinator of the Global Health Ethics Unit of the World Health Organization in Geneva, Switzerland.
ABMRF/The Foundation for Alcohol Research is a private, non-profit foundation supporting young investigators researching the effects of alcohol on health and behavior.
The Aboriginal Medical Services Alliance Northern Territory (AMSANT) is the peak body for Aboriginal community controlled primary health services in the Northern Territory of Australia.
Abortion in Israel is permitted when determined by a termination committee under various circumstances, with the vast majority of cases being approved.
Abortion in Nicaragua is completely illegal.
Abram Salmon Benenson (1914 – December 15, 2003) was an authority in public health, preventive medicine, military medicine, and "shoe-leather" epidemiology.
Academic regalia in the United States has a history going back to the colonial colleges era.
In general, the academic dress of the University of Nottingham dates from the award of its Royal Charter in 1948.
Academic publishing is the subfield of publishing which distributes academic research and scholarship.
Today in China, there are more than 8,000 academic journals, of which more than 4,600 can be considered scientific.
The Academy of Medicine of Malaysia is a professional and educational society for doctors in Malaysia.
The Academy of Medicine, Singapore (AMS), is a professional and educational organisation for doctors and dentists in Singapore.
The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics is the United States' largest organization of food and nutrition professionals, and represents over 100,000 credentialed practitioners — registered dietitian nutritionists, dietetic technicians, registered, and other dietetics professionals holding undergraduate and advanced degrees in nutrition and dietetics.
Access to medicines refers to the reasonable ability for people to get needed medicines required to achieve health.
The activated sludge process is a type of wastewater treatment process for treating sewage or industrial wastewaters using aeration and a biological floc composed of bacteria and protozoa.
Role of exercise is a way of life that integrates physical activity into your everyday routines, such as walking to the store or biking to work.
Active mobility, active travel, active transport or active transportation, is a form of transport of people and sometimes goods, that only uses the physical activity of the human being for the locomotion.
Ada Estelle Schweitzer (August 29, 1872 – July 2, 1951) Some sources incorrectly list her date of death as June 2, 1951.
Adam Edelen (born November 26, 1974, in Meade County, Kentucky) was the Auditor of Public Accounts for the Commonwealth of Kentucky from January 2, 2012 to January 4, 2016.
The Antibiotic Development to Advance Patient Treatment (ADAPT) Act of 2013 was introduced in the U.S. Congress on 12 December 2013.
Addiction medicine is a medical specialty that deals with the treatment of addiction.
Addis Continental Institute of Public Health (AC-IPH) is an independent center for public health research and training.
Adelabde Dutcher (fl. 1901) was an American physician and public health worker who was the first American to stress the social origins of tuberculosis.
Adil Haider is an American trauma surgeon, public health researcher and the Kessler Director of Center for Surgery and Public Health at the Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School.
Adolf Gottstein (2 November 1857 in Breslau – 3 March 1941) was a German social hygienist and epidemiologist.
Lambert Adolphe Jacques Quetelet FRSFor FRSE (22 February 1796 – 17 February 1874) was a Belgian astronomer, mathematician, statistician and sociologist.
An adoption detective is an individual who researches biological and genetic connections between individuals.
Adultery (from Latin adulterium) is extramarital sex that is considered objectionable on social, religious, moral, or legal grounds.
In medicine, an adverse effect is an undesired harmful effect resulting from a medication or other intervention such as surgery.
An aethalometer is an instrument for measuring the concentration of optically absorbing (‘black’) suspended particulates in a gas colloid stream; commonly visualized as smoke or haze, often seen in ambient air under polluted conditions.
Africa Health Placements (AHP) is a “social-profit” organisation that aims to create equitable access to healthcare in South Africa by reversing the present exodus of health professionals from public healthcare facilities.
African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention is a forum for discussion and debate among scholars, policy-makers and practitioners active in the field of injury prevention and safety promotion.
The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) is a federal public health agency within the United States Department of Health and Human Services.
The aging workforce, controversially referred to as The Silver Tsunami, refers to the rise in the median age of the United States workforce to levels unseen since the passage of the Social Security Act of 1935.
An agrochemical or agrichemical, a contraction of agricultural chemical, is a chemical product used in agriculture.
Professor Aileen Margaret Keel CBE FRCPath FRCPG FRCPE FRCSE FRCGP (born 12 August 1952) is a Scottish medical doctor, academic and former Deputy Chief Medical Officer and Acting Chief Medical Officer for Scotland.
Ain Shams University, Faculty of Medicine or School of Medicine, is a public Egyptian graduate school and one of the faculties of Ain Shams University.
The Air Force Specialty Code (AFSC) is an alphanumeric code used by the United States Air Force to identify a specific job.
Aisha Diori (born 8 Sep, in Lagos, Nigeria) is a community mobiliser, HIV/AIDS preventionist, educator, performer and named "legendary mother" in Ball culture.
The Alabama Department of Public Health is the primary state health agency of the government of the U.S. state of Alabama.
Alain Mucchielli is a French biochemist and public health physician born in Toulon (France) October 3, 1947.
Alan Stuart Coates (born 27 June 1943) is an Australian professor of clinical oncology, medical researcher and administrator.
Alan Edward Guttmacher, M.D. (born 1949 in Baltimore, Maryland) was the director of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), one of the 27 institutes and centers that comprise the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
Alan Donald Lopez (born 1951) is an Australian global and public health scholar and epidemiologist who focuses on the measurement of population health and the global descriptive epidemiologist of tobacco.
Alan Maryon-Davis (born January 1943), is a doctor, writer/broadcaster and member of the humorous cabaret group Instant Sunshine.
Albert Ludwig Sigesmund Neisser (22 January 1855, Schweidnitz – 30 July 1916, Breslau) was a German physician who discovered the causative agent (pathogen) of gonorrhea, a strain of bacteria that was named in his honour (Neisseria gonorrhoeae).
Albert Siu is an internist and geriatrician and the Ellen and Howard C. Katz Chairman and Professor of the Brookdale Department of Geriatrics and Palliative Medicine at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City.
Alcohol Justice is a San Rafael, California-based non-profit advocacy, research and policy organization describing itself as "the industry watchdog." The Marin Institute was renamed and re-branded as Alcohol Justice in 2011; it was originally named The Marin Institute for the Prevention of Alcohol and Other Drug Problems.
An alcoholic drink (or alcoholic beverage) is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar.
Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems.
Alcona County is a county of the U.S. state of Michigan.
Alexander Charles Farquharson (15 March 1864 – 27 May 1951) was a Scottish doctor, barrister, soldier and Liberal Party politician.
Alexander Worthy Clerk (1820 – 1906) was a Jamaican Moravian pioneer missionary, teacher and clergyman who arrived in 1843 in the Danish Protectorate of Christiansborg, now Osu in Accra, Ghana, then known as the Gold Coast.
Alexandra Minna Stern is a professor at the University of Michigan, with appointments in the Departments of American Culture, Obstetrics and Gynecology, History, and Women’s Studies.
Alfred James Lotka (March 2, 1880 – December 5, 1949) was a US mathematician, physical chemist, and statistician, famous for his work in population dynamics and energetics.
Alfred Salter (16 June 1873 – 24 August 1945) was a British medical practitioner and Labour Party politician.
Alger County is a county in the Upper Peninsula of the U.S. state of Michigan.
Alhambra is a city located in the western San Gabriel Valley region of Los Angeles County, California, United States, approximately eight miles from the Downtown Los Angeles civic center.
Ali Montazeri (Ali Montazeri Moghaddam, born September 2, 1958) is an Iranian public health scientist at the Health Metrics Research Center of the Iranian Institute for Health Sciences Research.
Ali Noorani (born 1974) is an American nonprofit leader who has been the Executive Director of the National Immigration Forum, a Washington, D.C.- based immigration policy organization, since 2008.
Rear Admiral Ali S. Khan is a Pakistani-American practicing physician and former Director of the Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (PHPR) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Alice Drew Chenoweth (1903–1998) was a physician who specialized in pediatrics and public health, and served as the Chief of the Division of Health Services in the United States Children's Bureau.
Alice Hamilton (February 27, 1869 – September 22, 1970) was an American physician, research scientist, and author who is best known as a leading expert in the field of occupational health and a pioneer in the field of industrial toxicology.
Alice Ravenhill (1859, Epping Forest, England – 1954, British Columbia) was an educational pioneer, a developer of Women’s Institutes, and one of the first authors to propound aboriginal rights in B.C. She is also the author of numerous articles and books, including her autobiography which she wrote when she was 92.
Alison Bass is an award-winning journalist and author who teaches journalism at West Virginia University.
All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health (AIIH&PH), is a pioneering Indian institute for research and training in public health and allied sciences in Kolkata.
Allan Rosenfield (April 28, 1933 – October 12, 2008) was an advocate for women's health during the worldwide AIDS pandemic as dean of the Columbia Mailman School of Public Health.
Allegan County is a county in the U.S. state of Michigan.
Allen County is a county in the U.S. state of Indiana.
Allen Caruthers Steere is a professor of rheumatology at Harvard University and previously at Tufts University and Yale University.
The Alliance for Healthy Cities (AFHC) is a cooperative international alliance aimed at protecting and enhancing the health and health care of city dwellers.
The Alliance for Natural Health (ANH) is an advocacy group founded in 2002 by Robert Verkerk and based in the United Kingdom.
Alliance for Open Society International, Inc. (AOSI) is a U.S. public charity organized in 2003 under the laws of the State of Delaware.
Allyson Pollock is a doctor who is a consultant in public health medicine and the Director of the Institute of Health and Society, Newcastle University.
The Declaration of Alma-Ata was adopted at the International Conference on Primary Health Care (PHC), Almaty (formerly Alma-Ata), Kazakhstan (formerly Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic), 6–12 September 1978.
Alpena County is a county in the U.S. state of Michigan.
Alternative cancer treatments are alternative or complementary treatments for cancer that have not been approved by the government agencies responsible for the regulation of therapeutic goods.
The alternatives to imprisonment are types of punishment or treatment other than time in prison that can be given to a person who is convicted of committing a crime.
Ameer-ud-Din Medical College (امیرالدین طبی کالج) (abbreviated as AMC; also known as PGMI Medical College), established in 2011, is one of the six public colleges of medicine located in, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.It is established on the initiative of CM Shehbaz Sharif to give quality education in the region Punjab and especially in Lahore.
Amelia Cousins Greenhall is an American feminist tech blogger.
America's Health Rankings started in 1990 and is the longest-running annual assessment of the nation’s health on a state-by-state basis.
The American Academy of Arts and Sciences is one of the oldest learned societies in the United States of America.
The American Academy of Environmental Engineers and Scientists (AAEES) is a society of professional engineers and scientists who have demonstrated special expertise in environmental engineering or science beyond that normally required for professional practice, in a process similar to what is required for medical and other professional specialty certifications.
The American Academy of Ophthalmology (Academy) is a professional medical association of ophthalmologists.
The American Association of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine (AAAOM), founded in 1981 and incorporated in 1983 as a 501(c)(6) organization, is the largest association of acupuncturists and acupuncture students in the United States.
The American Association of Physician Specialists, Inc. (AAPS) is a 501(c)(6) not-for-profit organization founded in 1950, with headquarters in Tampa, Florida.
The American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) is a national voluntary health organization founded in 1958 that represents the nation’s 55 poison centers.
The American Association of Public Health Dentistry (AAPHD), founded in 1937, focuses upon addressing the public health challenges to oral health at the population level.
The American Association of Public Health Physicians (AAPHP), is a professional association of public health physicians.
The American Board of Preventive Medicine (ABPM) is a member of the American Board of Medical Specialties that issues "certificates of special knowledge" in the specialty of preventive medicine.
The American Chamber of Commerce in Taipei (AmCham), founded in 1951 and based in Taipei, is a non-profit, non-partisan business organization dedicated to promoting the interests of international business in Taiwan.
The American College of Osteopathic Family Physicians (ACOFP) is a professional association and a medical specialty college in the United States.
The American College of Physicians (ACP) is a national organization of internal medicineAmerican Board of Medical Specialties -. Retrieved 20 October 2014 physicians (internists)Mercy Cedar Rapids -. Retrieved 20 October 2014—specialists who apply scientific knowledge and clinical expertise to the diagnosis, treatment, and compassionate care of adults across the spectrum from health to complex illness.
The American India Foundation (AIF, founded 2001) is a nonprofit American organization that is devoted to accelerating social and economic change in India.
The American Journal of Epidemiology (AJE) is a peer-reviewed journal for empirical research findings, opinion pieces, and methodological developments in the field of epidemiological research.
The American Journal of Preventive Medicine is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering research in preventive medicine and public health.
The American Journal of Public Health is a monthly peer-reviewed public health journal published by the American Public Health Association covering health policy and public health.
The American Medical Association (AMA), founded in 1847 and incorporated in 1897, is the largest association of physicians—both MDs and DOs—and medical students in the United States.
The American Osteopathic Board of Preventive Medicine (AOBPM) is an organization that provides board certification to qualified Doctors of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.) who specialize in aiding patients in the prevention of injury or disease (preventive medicine physicians).
The American Osteopathic College of Occupational & Preventive Medicine (AOCOPM) is the national osteopathic medical specialty college for preventive medicine physicians, founded in 1979.
An outgrowth of the school hygiene movement, the American School Hygiene Association (ASCHA) was a professional organization of physicians, dentists, administrators, nurses, and other stakeholders in the health and well-being of school children.
is a professional organization that represents pharmacists who serve as patient care providers in acute and ambulatory care settings.
American Water Works Association (AWWA) is an international non-profit, scientific and educational association founded to improve water quality and supply.
Amiya Kumar Bagchi (born 1936) is a distinguished Indian political economist.
Amoud University (Jaamacada Camuud.), abbreviated to AU, is a comprehensive public university, located in the city of, Borama in the northern of Somaliland.
Anaheim Island (also known as Anaheim West, Southwest Anaheim, and Garza Island) consists of several unincorporated neighborhoods located in the northwestern part of Orange County, California, United States.
Anastasie Fătu (originally Năstase Fêtu or Fĕtu, also known as Anastasius Fétul, Anastasie Fĕtul or Anastase Fătul; January 2, 1816 – March 15, 1886) was a Moldavian and Romanian physician, naturalist, philanthropist and political figure, a titular member of the Romanian Academy and founder of Iași's Botanical Garden.
Ancel Benjamin Keys (January 26, 1904 – November 20, 2004) was an American physiologist who studied the influence of diet on health.
Ancoats Hospital was the commonly used name for the large inner-city hospital, located in Ancoats, to the north of the city centre of Manchester, England.
Andong Science College is a small technical college in Seohu-myeon, Andong City, North Gyeongsang province, South Korea.
Sir Andrew Douglas Maclagan PRSE FRCPE FRCSE FCS FRSSA (17 April 1812, in Ayr – 5 April 1900, in Edinburgh) was a Scottish surgeon, toxicologist and scholar of medical jurisprudence.
Andrew Duncan, the younger (1773–1832) was a Scottish physician and professor at Edinburgh University.
Andrew Jeremy Wakefield (born 1957) is a discredited former British doctor who became an anti-vaccine activist.
Angelo Celli (25 March 1857 – 2 November 1914) was an Italian physician, hygienist, parasitologist and philanthropist known for his pioneering works in malarial parasite and control of malaria.
Animal attacks are a cause of human injuries and fatalities worldwide.
The Animal Drug Availability Act 1996 (ADAA) is a United States federal law.
Anita Kaplan Bahn (1920 – July 19, 1980) was an American epidemiologist, biostatistician, and cancer researcher.
Ann John is a Professor in Public Health and Psychiatry at the Swansea University Medical School.
Anna Coutsoudis (born 21 September 1952) is a South African public health scientist and academic who has conducted research on HIV and nutrition, specializing in the benefits of breastfeeding.
Anastasia Katherine "Anna" Donald (née Courtice; 7 April 1966 – 1 February 2009) was an Australian pioneer in the field of evidence-based medicine as well as an epidemiologist and company director.
Annette Jane Dobson (born 1945) is a Professor of Biostatistics in the University of Queensland's Centre for Longitudinal and Life Course Research (CLLR) in the School of Population Health.
Antidegradation is a tool that states use in meeting the Clean Water Act (CWA) requirement that water quality standards protect the public health and welfare, enhance the quality of water, and meet the objective of the Act to “restore and maintain the chemical, physical and biological integrity” of United States' waters.
The Antiguo Casino de Ponce (English: Old Ponce Casino), or simply the Casino de Ponce, is a historic structure, built in 1922 and located in Ponce, Puerto Rico.
Antimalarial medications, also known as antimalarials, are designed to prevent or cure malaria.
Antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) is the systematic effort to educate and persuade prescribers of antimicrobials to follow evidence-based prescribing, in order to stem antibiotic overuse, and thus antimicrobial resistance.
Antoine-Alexis Cadet de Vaux (1743–1828) was a French chemist and pharmacist.
The Anton Breinl Centre for Public Health and Tropical Medicine (Anton Breinl Centre or the ABC) is a constituent discipline of the School of Public Health, Tropical Medicine and Rehabilitation Sciences, James Cook University, and specialises in public health and tropical medicine.
Antonia Coello Novello, M.D., (born August 23, 1944) is a Puerto Rican physician and public health administrator.
The Université Antonine (UA) is a private university in Lebanon, administered by the Antonin Maronite Order.
Antrim County is a county located in the U.S. state of Michigan.
Applied folklore is the branch of folkloristics concerned with the study and use of folklore and traditional cultural materials to address or solve real social problems.
Appropriate technology is a movement (and its manifestations) encompassing technological choice and application that is small-scale, decentralized, labor-intensive, energy-efficient, environmentally sound, and locally autonomous.
Aram V. Chobanian (born August 10, 1929) served as president ad interim of Boston University from 2003 until June 9, 2005, when, in recognition of Chobanian’s work, the Board of Trustees voted to remove “ad interim” from his title and designate him the ninth president of Boston University.
is a Japanese physician and public health expert, who is the former director of the World Health Organization's malaria program.
The areca nut is the fruit of the areca palm (Areca catechu), which grows in much of the tropical Pacific (Melanesia and Micronesia), Southeast and South Asia, and parts of east Africa.
Arenac County is a county located in the U.S. state of Michigan.
Arizona School of Dentistry and Oral Health (ASDOH) is a graduate school of dentistry located in the city of Mesa, Arizona, United States, and is affiliated with A.T. Still University.
Arlington Baths Club is a not-for-profit member-run swimming club in Glasgow, housed in a purpose-built Category A Listed Building opened on 1 August 1871.
The Armed Forces Medical College (AFMC) is a military medical college in Dhaka Cantonment, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Armenian Environmental Network (AEN), a project of Earth Island Institute (EII), is a non-profit organization headquartered in Washington, D.C. United States, with an office in Yerevan, Armenia.
Founded by U.S. Army Brigadier General George Miller Sternberg, MD in 1893, the Army Medical School (AMS) was by some reckonings the world's first school of public health and preventive medicine.
Arthur Hill Hassall (13 December 1817, Teddington – 9 April 1894, San Remo) was a British physician, chemist and microscopist who is primarily known for his work in public health and food safety.
Arthur Kleinman (born March 11, 1941) is an American psychiatrist and a professor of medical anthropology and cross-cultural psychiatry at Harvard University.
Sir Arthur Salusbury MacNalty (20 October 1880 – 11 April 1969) was the 8th Chief Medical Officer (the British office equivalent of the Surgeon General of the United States).
Sir Arthur Newsholme (10 February 1857 – 17 May 1943) was a leading British public health expert during the Victorian era.
Arthur Gould Schatzkin (born February 11, 1948 in New York City, died January 20, 2011 in Chevy Chase, Maryland) was an American nutritional epidemiologist who spent much of his career at the National Cancer Institute.
The Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health is a quarterly peer-reviewed public health journal published by Sage Publications.
The Asmara College of Health Sciences is a public college in Asmara, Eritrea.
Asociación Civil Impacta Salud y Educación is a non-profit organization which promotes public health in the Andean region of Peru.
The Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE) is the principal advisory group to the United States Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) on policy development and provides coordination and support for HHS’s strategic and policy planning, planning and development of legislation, program evaluation, data gathering, policy-related research, and regulatory program.
The Association for Community Health Improvement (ACHI) is a professional organization for community health, community benefit, healthy communities and public health, founded in 2002.
The Association of Alabama Camps has represented the interests of the children and families who attend camps in Alabama, as well as the camps themselves since 1980.
The Association of New Jersey Chiropractors online directory was created to help users make informed decisions about chiropractic care in New Jersey.
The Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL) is a membership organization in the United States representing the laboratories that protect the health and safety of the public.
The Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO) represents the public health agencies of all 50 states in the United States, the District of Columbia, the five U.S. territories, and the three freely associated states.
The Ateneo de Manila University (Filipino: Pamantasang Ateneo de Manila; Spanish: Universidad Ateneo de Manila) is a private research university in Quezon City, Philippines.
An atheroma is a reversible accumulation of degenerative material in the inner layer of an artery wall.
The Attending Physician of the United States Congress is the physician responsible for the medical welfare of the members of the United States Congress (the 435 Representatives, five delegates, Resident Commissioner of Puerto Rico, and 100 Senators) and the nine justices of the Supreme Court of the United States.
Atul Gawande (born November 5, 1965) is an American surgeon, writer, and public health researcher.
Audience segmentation is a process of dividing people into homogeneous subgroups based upon defined criterion such as product usage, demographics, psychographics, communication behaviors and media use.
Auguste Ambroise Tardieu (10 March 1818 – 12 January 1879) was a French medical doctor and the pre-eminent forensic medical scientist of the mid-19th century.
Jean-Baptiste "Auguste" Chauveau ForMemRS (23 November 1827 – 4 January 1917) was a French professor and veterinarian.
Autism Speaks is an autism advocacy organization in the United States that sponsors autism research and conducts awareness and outreach activities aimed at families, governments, and the public.
Auxology, sometimes called auxanology (from Greek αὔξω, auxō, or αὐξάνω, auxanō, "grow"; and -λογία, -logia), is a meta-term covering the study of all aspects of human physical growth.
The Avicenna Directory project was a public database of worldwide medical schools, schools of pharmacy, schools of public health and educational institutions of other academic health professions.
Azad Jammu Kashmir Medical College (Urdu, Kashmiri:, or AJKMC) is a public medical institute located in Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Pakistan.
Ângela Moraes Guadagnin (born Ângela Moraes on April 8, 1948, in Rio de Janeiro) is a Brazilian politician and physician.
The École Spéciale d'Architecture (ÉSA; formerly École Centrale d'Architecture) is a private school for architecture at 254, boulevard Raspail in Paris, France.
Émil August Goeldi (var. Göldi, var. Emílio Augusto Goeldi) (August 28, 1859 – July 5, 1917 in Bern), was a Swiss-Brazilian naturalist and zoologist.
Bernard Timothy Walsh, MD, FAED, is William and Joy Ruane Professor of Pediatric Psychopharmacology in the Department of Psychiatry at Columbia University, and Director of the Division of Clinical Therapeutics at New York State Psychiatric Institute, and the author and editor and co-editor of five books on adolescent health and eating disorders.
The Babcock-Hart Award has been awarded since 1948 by the Institute of Food Technologists.
Baby food is any soft, easily consumed food other than breastmilk or infant formula that is made specifically for human babies between four to six months and two years old.
The Bachelor of Applied Science, often abbreviated as B.AS., BAS, BSAS, BASc, B.ASc., or BAppSc, is an undergraduate degree.
The Bachelor of Public Administration (BPA or B.P.A.) degree is one of several Bachelor's level management degrees that provides training in the public policy field as well as public management.
The Bachelor of Science in Public Health (BSPH) (or Bachelor of Public Health) is an undergraduate degree that prepares students to pursue careers in the public, private, or non-profit sector in areas such as public health, environmental health, health administration, epidemiology, nutrition, biostatistics, or health policy and planning.
The academic undergraduate degree of Bachelor of Social Science (B.Soc.Sc. or B.Soc.Sci.) requires three to four years of study at an institution of higher education, primarily found in the Commonwealth of Nations.
A bachelor's degree (from Middle Latin baccalaureus) or baccalaureate (from Modern Latin baccalaureatus) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded by colleges and universities upon completion of a course of study lasting three to seven years (depending on institution and academic discipline).
Bachi Karkaria is an Indian-Parsi journalist and columnist.
Backwoods Smokes were a brand of cigarettes produced in the United States beginning in 1973.
The Baltimore City Health Department (BCHD) is the public health agency of the city of Baltimore, Maryland.
Bamberg is a town in Upper Franconia, Germany, on the river Regnitz close to its confluence with the river Main.
Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University (BSMRAU) (বঙ্গবন্ধু শেখ মুজিবুর রহমান কৃষি বিশ্ববিদ্যালয় (বশেমুরকৃবি)) is a public agricultural university in Bangladesh, established in 1998.
The Bangkok Charter for Health Promotion in a Globalized World is the name of an international agreement reached among participants of the 6th Global Conference on Health Promotion held in Bangkok, Thailand in August 2005, convened by the World Health Organization.
Banoo Jehangir Coyaji (22 August 1918 – 15 July 2004) was an Indian physician and activist in family planning and population control.
Baraga County is a county in the Upper Peninsula in the U.S. state of Michigan.
Barbara Starfield (Brooklyn - New York City, December 18, 1932 / Menlo Park - California, June 10, 2011) was an American pediatrician.
Barbier v. Connolly,, was a United States Supreme Court in which the Court considered the application of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution to a San Francisco ordinance regulating the establishment of public laundries.
The Barcelona Biomedical Research Park ("PRBB") is an agglomeration of six public research centres and is located alongside the Hospital del Mar de Barcelona.
Bardera Polytechnic (Kuliyada Farsamada Baardheere, كلية لعلوم التطبيقية بارطيرآ) is a non-profit tertiary polytechnic education centre located in Bardera, Somalia.
Baresan University (BSU) (Arabic: جامعة بريسن, Somali: Jaamacada Bare san) is a private higher education institution which is non-political, non-partisan and non-sectarian.
The Barli Development Institute for Rural Women in Indore is a Bahá'í inspired, though independent residential vocational education school providing programs for women in the vicinity of the city of Indore, India in the state of Madhya Pradesh as well as a base for outreach/non-residential training centers.
Barry County is a county in the U.S. state of Michigan.
Barry R. Schaller was an Associate Justice of the Connecticut Supreme Court from 2007-2008.
The Great Lakes Bat Festival is an annual two-day summer event that started in 2002.
Bay County is a county in the U.S. state of Michigan.
The BC Centre for Disease Control is the public health arm for British Columbia's Provincial Health Services Authority. It is located at 655 West 12th Avenue, Vancouver, BC.
BDSM is a variety of often erotic practices or roleplaying involving bondage, discipline, dominance and submission, sadomasochism, and other related interpersonal dynamics.
The relationship between BDSM and the law changes significantly from nation to nation.
Be Best is a public awareness campaign promoted by United States First Lady Melania Trump, focusing on well-being for youth, and advocating against cyberbullying and drug (particularly opioid) use.
Beatrice Rwakimari (born 21 May 1961) is a Ugandan public health leader, public administrator, teacher and politician.
Bec School (often referred to as Bec Grammar School) was a grammar school in Tooting, South London.
Bedford Hills Correctional Facility for Women is a prison in Bedford Hills in the Town of Bedford, Westchester County, New York, United States, at 247 Harris Road.
Behavior change, in the context of public health, refers to efforts to change people's personal habits to prevent disease.
The term behavioral sciences encompasses the various disciplines that explores the cognitive processes within organisms and the behavioural interactions between organisms in the natural world.
Bendiocarb is an acutely toxic carbamate insecticide used in public health and agriculture and is effective against a wide range of nuisance and disease vector insects.
Benjamin D. Cabrera (born March 18, 1920 in Tarlac) is a Filipino physician who has done research on medical parasitology and public health.
Benjamin P. Sachs, MBBS, is a physician with extensive health care management experience at the Harvard Medical School hospitals and the Tulane University Medical Center.
Benzene in soft drinks is of potential concern due to the carcinogenic nature of the benzene molecule.
Benzie County is a county in the U.S. state of Michigan.
Bernard Benjamin (8 March 1910 – 15 May 2002) was a noted British health statistician, actuary and demographer.
Bernard E. Proctor (May 5, 1901 – September 24, 1959) was an American food scientist who was involved in early research on food irradiation.
Bernard Charles Glueck Sr. (December 10, 1884 - October 5, 1972) was a Polish-American forensic psychiatrist and psychoanalyst.
Bernhard Mann (born in Stuttgart, Germany, 3 December 1950) is a Social Scientist and Master of Public Health, Professor emeritus of Health and Social Management at the FHM Bielefeld - University of Applied Sciences, former Professor of Health Management and Vice-President at the University of Applied Sciences Bamberg, Adjunct Professor of Sociology and Public Health at the University of Koblenz-Landau, at the Berlin School of Public Health - Charité, Medical University and at several Universities of Educational Cooperation as well as of Applied Sciences.
Berrien County is a county located in southwest Michigan just north of Indiana.
Berton Roueché (April 16, 1910 – April 28, 1994) was a medical writer who wrote for The New Yorker magazine for almost fifty years.
Elizabeth Margaret Braddock (née Bamber; 24 September 1899 – 13 November 1970) was a British Labour Party politician who served as Member of Parliament (MP) for the Liverpool Exchange division from 1945 to 1970.
Dame Beulah Rosemary Bewley (2 September 1929 – 20 January 2018) was a British public health physician and ex-President of the Medical Women's Federation on the General Medical Council.
Beverly Buchanan (October 8, 1940 – July 4, 2015) was an African-American artist whose works include painting, sculpture, video, and land art.
Białystok Institute of Cosmetology and Healthcare (Wyższa Szkoła Kosmetologii i Ochrony Zdrowia w Białymstoku) is a private trade school in Białystok, Poland.
The Białystok School of Public Administration was founded in 1996 as an initiative of the Foundation in Support of Local Democracy.
Bielefeld University (Universität Bielefeld) is a university in Bielefeld, Germany.
The big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus) is a widespread species of bat found throughout North America, Central America, the Caribbean, and extreme northern South America.
>Biggs is an English surname.
William Jefferson Clinton (born August 19, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.
The Bilqees Sarwar Foundation (BSF) is a registered non-profit organization based in Lahore, Pakistan, which provides public health and education support to the local community as well as around the world.
Binayak Sen (बिनायक सेन, বিনায়ক সেন) is an Indian paediatrician, public health specialist and activist.
Binge drinking, or heavy episodic drinking, is a modern epithet for drinking alcoholic beverages with an intention of becoming intoxicated by heavy consumption of alcohol over a short period of time.
Biodefense refers to measures to restore biosecurity to a group of organisms who are, or may be, subject to biological threats or infectious diseases.
According to the biodiversity hypothesis, reduced contact of people with natural environment and biodiversity may adversely affect the human commensal microbiota and its immunomodulatory capacity.
Bioenvironmental Engineering is a process of using engineering principles to reduce and solve environmental health risks and dangers caused by human activity It may comprise four general areas of work: radiation, industrial hygiene, environmental protection and emergency response.
Biological aspects of fluorine describes the effects of fluorine-containing compounds with life.
Biological hazards, also known as biohazards, refer to biological substances that pose a threat to the health of living organisms, primarily that of humans.
Biomedical sciences are a set of applied sciences applying portions of natural science or formal science, or both, to knowledge, interventions, or technology that are of use in healthcare or public health.
Biosecurity has multiple meanings and is defined differently according to various disciplines.
BioSense is a program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) that tracks health problems as they evolve and provides public health officials with the data, information and tools they need to better prepare for and coordinate responses to safeguard and improve the health of the American people.
Biostatistics is the application of statistics to a wide range of topics in biology.
Bioterrorism is terrorism involving the intentional release or dissemination of biological agents.
The birth control movement in the United States was a social reform campaign beginning in 1914 that aimed to increase the availability of contraception in the U.S. through education and legalization.
Birth spacing, pregnancy spacing, or inter-pregnancy interval refers to how soon after a prior pregnancy a woman becomes pregnant or gives birth again.
A birthday card is a greeting card given or sent to a person to celebrate their birthday.
Bloomberg Philanthropies encompasses all of the charitable giving for founder Michael R. Bloomberg.
A Board of Pharmacy is a regional or national association of pharmacists that aims to ensure public health in a country or state by regulation of the pharmacy industry within their purview.
Bob Hoskins (born April 15, 1936) is an internationally known evangelist based out of Pompano Beach, Florida.
Dr Roberta Anne Jacobson (born 1950), known as Bobbie, is a British public health physician.
Body fluid, bodily fluids, or biofluids are liquids within the bodies of living people.
A boil-water advisory or boil-water order is a public health advisory or directive given by government or health authorities to consumers when a community's drinking water is, or could be, contaminated by pathogens.
Bone density, or bone mineral density (BMD), is the amount of bone mineral in bone tissue.
The Bradford Hill criteria, otherwise known as Hill's criteria for causation, are a group of 9 principles, established in 1965 by the English epidemiologist Sir Austin Bradford Hill.
Branch County is a county in the U.S. state of Michigan.
The branches of science, also referred to as sciences, "scientific fields", or "scientific disciplines" are commonly divided into three major groups.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
The Brazilian Socialist Party (Partido Socialista Brasileiro, PSB) is a political party in Brazil.
Break Through: From the Death of Environmentalism to the Politics of Possibility, first published in October 2007, is a book written by Ted Nordhaus and Michael Shellenberger, both long-time environmental strategists.
Breast Cancer Action (BCAction) is a U.S.-based grassroots education and activist organization driven by and supporting people living with breast cancer.
Breast cancer awareness is an effort to raise awareness and reduce the stigma of breast cancer through education on symptoms and treatment.
Breastfeeding, also known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a woman's breast.
Breastfeeding promotion refers to coordinated activities and policies to promote health among women, newborns and infants through breastfeeding.
Brian MacMahon (23 August 1923 – 5 December 2007) was a British-born United States epidemiologist who chaired the Department of Epidemiology of the Harvard School of Public Health from 1958 until 1988.
The Bridgespan Group is a U.S. nonprofit organization in Boston, Massachusetts that provides management consulting to nonprofits and philanthropists.
The British Doctors' Study was a prospective cohort study which ran from 1951 to 2001, and in 1956 provided convincing statistical proof that tobacco smoking increased the risk of lung cancer.
The British Medical Association (BMA) is the professional association and registered trade union for doctors in the United Kingdom.
British Pest Control Association (BPCA) is a not-for-profit organisation and trade association representing over 750 organisations and more than 3500 individuals with a professional interest in the eradication of public health pests without risk to third parties, non-target species or the environment.
Bronisław Hager (1890–1969) was a Polish activist and public health pioneer.
Bruce G. Charlton is a British medical doctor and Visiting Professor of Theoretical Medicine at the University of Buckingham.
Formerly known as the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), the mission of the Brundtland Commission is to unite countries to pursue sustainable development together.
Bryce Byrum Reeve III (born December 31, 1968) is an American psychometrician, outcomes research scientist, professor of Health Policy and Management at the UNC Gillings School of Global Public Health (with an adjunct appointment in the Department of Psychology and Neuroscience), and faculty expert at the UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center.
Bryn Williams-Jones (born 1972) is a Canadian bioethicist who since 2010 has directed the Bioethics Program at the School of Public Health, Université de Montréal, and is professor in the Department of Social and Preventive Medicine.
A building code (also building control or building regulations) is a set of rules that specify the standards for constructed objects such as buildings and nonbuilding structures.
Building services engineering is a professional engineering discipline that strives to achieve a safe and comfortable indoor environment whilst minimizing the environmental impact of a building.
In social science, the term built environment, or built world, refers to the human-made surroundings that provide the setting for human activity, ranging in scale from buildings to parks.
The Bulletin of the World Health Organization is a monthly public health journal published by the World Health Organization that was established in 1947.
The Bureau of Health Information is an independent, board-governed statutory authority responsible for reporting on the performance of the health system in New South Wales, Australia.
Burial or interment is the ritual act of placing a dead person or animal, sometimes with objects, into the ground.
The Burnet Institute is an Australian medical research institute that combines medical research in the laboratory and the field with public health action to address major health issues affecting disadvantaged communities in Australia and internationally.
Burning Brain Society (BBS) is a non-governmental organisation based in India and United States working on the issues of civil rights and public health.
Buruli ulcer is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans.
Bushehr University of Medical Sciences (BPUMS) (دانشگاه علوم پزشکی بوشهر), is a public medical school in Bushehr Province, Iran.
The Busitema University Faculty of Health Sciences (BUFHS), also known as the Busitema University Medical School (BUMS) and the Busitema University School of Medicine (BUSM), is the school of medicine of Busitema University, one of Uganda's public universities.
Butler Bank is a historic bank building in downtown Hood River, Oregon, United States, built during Hood River's second major phase of urban development.
In the United Kingdom, byelaws are laws of local or limited application made by local councils or other bodies, using powers granted by an Act of Parliament, and so are a form of delegated legislation.
Clarence Daniel Batchelor (April 1, 1888 – September 5, 1977), better known as C. D. Batchelor, was an American editorial cartoonist who was also noted for painting and sculpture.
CAB Direct is a source of references for the applied life sciences It incorporates two bibliographic databases: CAB Abstracts and Global Health.
Cadwallader Colden (7 February 1688 – 28 September 1776) was a physician, natural scientist, a lieutenant governor and acting Governor for the Province of New York.
Calhoun County is a county in the U.S. state of Michigan.
The California Department of Public Health (CDPH) is the state department responsible for public health in California.
The California Department of Resources Recycling and Recovery (also known as CalRecycle) is a branch of the California Environmental Protection Agency that oversees the state's waste management, recycling, and waste reduction programs.
The California Gulch site consists of approximately 18 square miles in Lake County, Colorado.
Proposition 39 is a ballot initiative in the state of California that modifies the way out-of-state corporations calculate their income tax burdens.
Proposition 64 was a proposition in the state of California on the November 4, 1986 ballot.
California Society of Addiction Medicine (CSAM) is the California organization of physicians who specialize in treating addiction.
The Californian Journal of Health Promotion is a peer-reviewed medical journal focusing on health education and health promotion practice, teaching, research, and issues of interest to professionals in California and the surrounding Western United States.
Calorie restriction, or caloric restriction, or energy restriction, is a dietary regimen that reduces calorie intake without incurring malnutrition or a reduction in essential nutrients.
The Campaign for New York's Future is a coalition of civic, business, environmental, labor, community and public health organizations that supports the goals and strategic direction of New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg’s sustainability proposal, PlaNYC 2030.
The Canadian Association for HIV Research (CAHR) is an organization that represents HIV/AIDS research in Canada or by Canadians.
The Canadian Institute of Public Health Inspectors (CIPHI) is the national professional association that represents environmental public health professionals (EPHPs) in Canada.
Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR, Instituts de recherche en santé du Canada) is the major federal agency responsible for funding health and medical research in Canada.
Canadian Journal of Public Health is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of public health published by the Canadian Public Health Association on a bimonthly basis.
The Canadian Public Health Association (CPHA) is a national non-profit organization dedicated to public health.
A canine vector-borne disease (CVBD) is one of "a group of globally distributed and rapidly spreading illnesses that are caused by a range of pathogens transmitted by arthropods including ticks, fleas, mosquitoes and phlebotomine sandflies."Domenico Otranto, Filipe Dantas-Torres & Edward B. Breitschwerdt,, Trends in Parasitology Vol.
A cannabinoid receptor antagonist, also known simply as a cannabinoid antagonist or as an anticannabinoid, is a type of cannabinoidergic drug that binds to cannabinoid receptors (CBR) and prevents their activation by endocannabinoids.
Canning is a method of preserving food in which the food contents are processed and sealed in an airtight container.
A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation.
Carbon monoxide poisoning typically occurs from breathing in too much carbon monoxide (CO).
Cardiovascular Cell Therapy Research Network (CCTRN) is a network of physicians, scientists, and support staff dedicated to studying stem cell therapy for treating heart disease.
The creation of the new Caribbean Public Health Agency (CARPHA) was approved by the Caribbean Heads of Government in March 2010.
Carina Isabel Vance Mafla (born 1977) is a former Minister for Public Health of Ecuador.
Carl Ernest Taylor, MD, DrPH (July 26, 1916 – February 4, 2010) founder of the academic discipline of international health who dedicated his life to the well-being of the world's marginalized people.
Carl Jean Johnson (July 2, 1929 – December 29, 1988), was a public health physician who opposed nuclear testing.
Brigadier General Carl Rogers Darnall (December 25, 1867 in Weston, Texas, USA – January 18, 1941 in Washington, D.C., USA) was a United States Army chemist and surgeon credited with originating the technique of liquid chlorination of drinking water.
Carla Rice is a Canadian educator, project director, consultant, speaker and author on women's body image issues.
Carol Anne Gotway Crawford is an American mathematical statistician and since May 2017 chief of design, methods, and analysis for the U.S. Government Accountability Office.
Carol Davila (1828 – 24 August 1884) was a prestigious Romanian physician of Italian ancestry.
Caroline Bartlett Crane (August 17, 1858 – March 24, 1935) was an American Unitarian minister, suffragist, civic reformer, educator and journalist.
Caroline Louise Flint (born 20 September 1961) is a British Labour Party politician who has been the Member of Parliament (MP) for Don Valley since 1997.
Caroline Walker (1950 – 22 September 1988) was a British nutritionist, writer and campaigner for better food, who died from cancer aged 38.
Carolyn M. Mazure, Ph.D. (born 1949) is the Norma Weinberg Spungen and Joan Lebson Bildner Professor of Psychiatry and Psychology at the Yale School of Medicine.
Carolyn "Carrie" Hessler Radelet is the 19th and former Director of the Peace Corps.
The Carter Center is a nongovernmental, not-for-profit organization founded in 1982 by former U.S. President Jimmy Carter.
Cass County is a county in the U.S. state of Michigan.
Castronovo Chocolate is a micro-batch chocolate maker whose bars have won multiple awards in worldwide competitions organized in Europe and the United States by the International Chocolate Awards and the Academy of Chocolate.
The health of domestic cats is a well studied area in veterinary medicine.
A catastrophic injury is a severe injury to the spine, spinal cord, or brain, and may also include skull or spinal fractures.
In medicine, a cathartic is a substance that accelerates defecation.
The Catholic University of Santos (Universidade Católica de Santos, UNISANTOS) is a private and non-profit Catholic university, located in Santos, the first university in the region of the city.
Cathy Crowe, (born 1952) is a Canadian "street nurse", educator, author, social justice activist and filmmaker, specializing in advocacy for the homeless in Canada.
Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.
Causal inference is the process of drawing a conclusion about a causal connection based on the conditions of the occurrence of an effect.
Cayetano Heredia University (Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, UPCH; or simply Cayetano Heredia) is a private university located in Lima, Peru.
The CD V-700 (often written as "CDV-700") is a Geiger counter employing a probe equipped with a Geiger–Müller tube, manufactured by several companies under contract to United States federal civil defense agencies in the 1950s and 1960s.
Celina de Sola (born November 5, 1976, El Salvador) is a Salvadoran humanitarian worker and public health expert.
France has a long history of governmental censorship, particularly in the 16th to 18th centuries, but today freedom of press is guaranteed by the French Constitution and instances of governmental censorship are limited.
The Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN, pronounced sif'-san) is the branch of the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that regulates food, dietary supplements, and cosmetics.
The Centers for Public Health Preparedness (CPHP) program was established in 2000 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to strengthen bioterrorism and emergency preparedness by linking academic expertise to state and local health agency needs.
The Columbia University Center for Radiological Research (CRR) was founded more than 75 years ago to better understand the human health risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation exposure.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
Central Park Medical College (abbreviated as CPMC) is a private medical school (also called Medical College, in Pakistan) established in 2008 and located on Ferozepur Road, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
The Centre for Health Protection is an agency under the Department of Health in Hong Kong and responsible for health and safety.
The Centre for History in Public Health (CHiPH) is an academic research centre at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine (LSHTM), University of London.
The Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED) is a research unit of the Université catholique de Louvain (UCL).
The Centre for Statistics in Medicine (CSM) in Oxford, United Kingdom was founded and directed by Professor Douglas G. Altman in 1988.
The Centro Ponceño de Autismo (English: Ponce Autism Center), or CEPA, is the only center specialized in the diagnosis and treatment of autism in Puerto Rico.
The Certification Commission for Health Information Technology (CCHIT) was an independent, 501(c)3 nonprofit organization with the public mission of accelerating the adoption of robust, interoperable health information technology.
Certified Unified Program Agencies, or, are local agencies that are certified by the Secretary of the California Environmental Protection Agency (CalEPA) to implement the CalEPA Unified Program elements in the CUPA's jurisdiction.
Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is a tropical parasitic disease caused by the protist Trypanosoma cruzi.
Chandrakant Lahariya is an Indian medical doctor, writer and social innovator.
Change4Life is a public health programme in England which began in January 2009, run by the Department of Health.
Charles Frederick Chandler (December 6, 1836 – August 25, 1925) was an American chemist, best known for his regulatory work in public health, sanitation, and consumer safety in New York City, as well as his work in chemical education—first at Union College and then, for the majority of his career, at Columbia University, where he taught in the Chemical Department, the College of Physicians and Surgeons, and served as the first Dean of Columbia University's School of Mines.
Charles John Colwell Orr Hastings (23 August 1858 in Markham Township, Canada – 17 January 1931 in Toronto) was an obstetrician and public health pioneer.
Charles Kleiber (b. 9 December 1942 in Moutier) is a former Swiss state secretary.
Charles Loomis Dana (March 25, 1852 – December 12, 1935) was an American physician, professor of nervous and mental disease at Cornell Medical College.
Charles Mantoux (May 14, 1877, Paris – 1947) was a French physician and the developer of the eponymous serological test for tuberculosis.
Charles Meymott Tidy (1843–1892) was an English medical man and sanitary chemist, a barrister who wrote also on legal matters.
Charles Nathan Frink (July 20, 1860 - ?) was an American travelling salesman and insurance executive from Milwaukee, Wisconsin who served one term as a Populist member of the Wisconsin State Assembly from Milwaukee.
Charles Robert Drysdale (1829–1907) was an English engineer, physician and public health scientist, and the first President of The Malthusian League.
Charles Sheard, M.D. (February 15, 1857 – February 7, 1929) was a medical doctor, public health official and politician.
Charles Value Chapin, M.D. (January 17, 1856 – January 31, 1941) was an American pioneer in public health research and practice during the Progressive Era.
Charles Vert Willie (born October 8, 1927) is the Charles William Eliot Professor of Education, Emeritus at Harvard University.
Charles-Edward Amory Winslow (February 4, 1877 – January 8, 1957) was an American bacteriologist and public health expert who was, according to the Encyclopedia of Public Health, "a seminal figure in public health, not only in his own country, the United States, but in the wider Western world." Winslow was born in Boston, Massachusetts and attended Massachusetts Institute of Technology (M.I.T.), obtaining a B.S. in 1898 and an M.S. in 1910.
Charlevoix County is a county in the U.S. state of Michigan.
Charlotte Ann Douglas OBE FRCOG (29 December 1894 – 27 August 1979) was a Scottish physician, Senior Medical Officer for Scotland and campaigner for the progressive improvement of maternity services in Scotland.
Cheboygan County is a county in the U.S. state of Michigan.
Chemetco was formerly one of the largest United States refiners of copper from recycled or residual sources.
Chemical safety is the practice of handling chemicals in a safe manner, minimizing the hazard to public and personal health.
Chemical Waste Management, Inc.
The Chicago River is a system of rivers and canals with a combined length of that runs through the city of Chicago, including its center (the Chicago Loop).
Chief Medical Officer (CMO) is the title used in many countries for the senior government official designated head of medical services, sometimes at the national level.
The Chief Medical Officer (CMO) (an Príomh-Oifigeach Míochaine) for Ireland is the most senior government advisor on health related matters.
The Chief Medical Officer (CMO) is the most senior advisor on health matters in a government.
The Chief Public Health Officer (CPHO) is the title of the senior government official on matters related to the health and safety of Canadians.
Child abuse or child maltreatment is physical, sexual, or psychological maltreatment or neglect of a child or children, especially by a parent or other caregiver.
Child mortality, also known as child death, refers to the death of children under the age of 14 and encompasses neonatal mortality, under-5 mortality, and mortality of children aged 5-14.
Nutrition is the intake of food, considered in relation to the body’s dietary needs.
Childhood obesity is a condition where excess body fat negatively affects a child's health or well-being.
CHILDREN AT RISK is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization that drives change for children through research, education, and influencing public policy.
The Chilean Pharmaceutical Policy was an attempt in the 1960s and 1970s to introduce a rational national pharmaceuticals policy.
The China Democratic Socialist Party (CDSP) was founded in Shanghai on 15 August 1946.
The Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CCDC) is an agency of the Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China based in Beijing, China.
The Chinese Library Classification (CLC), also known as Classification for Chinese Libraries (CCL), is effectively the national library classification scheme in China.
The Chinese Peasants' and Workers' Democratic Party is one of the eight non-communist, legally recognised political parties in the People's Republic of China that follow the direction of the Communist Party of China and is a member of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference.
Chippewa County is a county in the Upper Peninsula of the U.S. state of Michigan.
Chirlane Irene McCray (born November 29, 1954) is an American writer, editor, communications professional, and political figure.
Chiropractic is a form of alternative medicine mostly concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of mechanical disorders of the musculoskeletal system, especially the spine.
Chloramination is the treatment of drinking water with a chloramine disinfectant.
Seven cholera pandemics have occurred in the past 200 years, with the seventh pandemic originating in Indonesia in 1961.
Chris Baryomunsi (born 9 December 1969) is a Ugandan physician, public health specialist, demographer, and politician.
Christian Fredrik Borchgrevink (born 1 September 1924) is a Norwegian physician, a pioneer of bringing the subjects of family medicine and public health into an academic discipline in Norway.
Christina Hull Paxson (born February 6, 1960) is an economist, public health expert, and the current President of Brown University.
Christine Joyce Dradidi Ondoa is a physician and medical administrator who as regarded as one of Uganda's finest leaders especially in ensuring that the quality of health service delivery in Uganda is improved, and discipline and ethical code of conduct among health workers is observed.She is a Ugandan paediatrician and Christian Leader.
Christopher Dye FRS, FMedSci is a British biologist, epidemiologist and public health specialist who has held positions at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, the World Health Organization, Gresham College London and the University of Oxford.
Christopher Murray is a researcher in global health and public health at the University of Washington in Seattle and is the institute director of the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME).
A chronic condition is a human health condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects or a disease that comes with time.
The Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Advisory Committee (CFSAC) was formed in response to the use of funds by the United States Center for Disease Control and Prevention in the study of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS).
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a type of kidney disease in which there is gradual loss of kidney function over a period of months or years.
Chukwuedu Nathaniel II Nwokolo (19 April 1921 – 18 May 2014) was an internationally distinguished tropical diseases, nutrition, human, medical, biological and life sciences expert; plus research scientist, scholar, pioneer medical doctor, author, humanitarian and acclaimed professor of medicine.
A cigarette is a narrow cylinder containing tobacco that is rolled into thin paper for smoking.
In the United States cigarettes are taxed at both the federal and state levels, in addition to any state and local sales taxes and local cigarette-specific taxes.
Cilene Victor da Silva (14 June 1968, Canto do Buriti) is a journalist, professor, and a Brazilian TV commentator.
Cincinnati Health Department (CHD) is the Health Department for the City of Cincinnati with health centers, lab services, communicable disease experts, environmental services and other public health programs.
The concept of healthcare knowledge transfer using cinematography recognizes that films with carefully crafted and verified content, using graphics, animations and live-action video, can be one of the most efficient ways of transferring knowledge with clarity and speed, to both lay-people and healthcare professionals.
Circle of Health International, known as COHI for short, is a US based non-governmental organization founded in 2004 with the mission to work with women and their communities with a community based approach in times of crisis.
Ciro Carlos Araujo de Quadros (January 30, 1940 – May 28, 2014) was a Brazilian leader in the field of Public Health, in particular, the area of vaccines and preventable diseases.
Ciro Davis Rodriguez (born December 9, 1946) is the former U.S. Representative for, serving from 2007 until 2011.
A city is a large human settlement.
The City of Fairfield is a local government area in the south-west of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia.
City of Faith Church (Jubilee International Church) is a multi-cultural church in South London situated in the London Borough of Lewisham which has faced local opposition.
The City of Oakland, California, adopted a Zero Waste Strategic Plan in 2006, detailing a road map for the City to follow toward the implementation of a Zero Waste System by 2020.
A civic action program also known as civic action project is a type of operation designed to assist an area by using the capabilities and resources of a military force or civilian organization to conduct long-term programs or short-term projects.
The Civilian Response Corps (sometimes referred to as CRC) is a program of the United States Department of State, Office of the Coordinator for Reconstruction and Stabilization (S/CRS).
Civilization: Is the West History? is a 2011 British TV documentary that tells how Western civilisation, in five centuries, transformed into the dominating civilisation in the world.
Claire Elizabeth Sterk is a Dutch scientist and the President of Emory University.
Clare County is a county in the U.S. state of Michigan.
Clarence Sumner Janifer, Sr. (March 13, 1886 – November 14, 1950) was a physician and the first African American member of the Medical Society of New Jersey.
Clarke International University (CIU), formerly International Health Sciences University, is a private non-residential university in Uganda.
The Classification of Pharmaco-Therapeutic Referrals (CPR) is a taxonomy focused to define and group together situations requiring a referral from pharmacists to physicians (and vice versa) regarding the pharmacotherapy used by the patients.
Claude Fischler (born 1947) is a French social scientist (sociology, anthropology).
In the history of the United States, a clean living movement is a period of time when a surge of health-reform crusades, many with moral overtones, erupts into the popular consciousness.
Cleopatra Miriam Abdou-Kamperveen is a psychologist, author, and professor, best known for her work on reproductive health, human flourishing, and longevity.
The Clerk family is a Ghanaian historic family that produced a number of pioneering scholars and clergymen on the Gold Coast.
Climate of Hope: How Cities, Businesses, and Citizens can Save the Planet is a New York Times Bestselling environmental science book co-authored by environmentalist and former Sierra Club Executive Director Carl Pope and Public Health advocate and former mayor of New York City Michael Bloomberg.
In epidemiology, a clinical case definition, a clinical definition, or simply a case definition lists the clinical criteria by which public health professionals determine whether a person's illness is included as a case in an outbreak investigation—that is, whether a person is considered directly affected by an outbreak.
A clinical coder – also known as clinical coding officer, diagnostic coder, medical coder or medical records technician – is a health information professional whose main duties are to analyse clinical statements and assign standard codes using a classification system.
A clinical officer (CO) is a gazetted officer who provides medical care and treatment.
A clinical pharmaceutical scientist (or pharmacist-scientist) is a licensed, practicing pharmacist who also functions as an independent researcher in the pharmaceutical sciences.
Clinton County is a county in the U.S. state of Michigan.
Coastal Risk Consulting, LLC. (commonly referred to as Coastal Risk or CRC) is an American startup climate adaptation technology and consulting company with headquarters in Plantation, Florida.
The cockchafer, colloquially called May bug or doodlebug, is a European beetle of the genus Melolontha, in the family Scarabaeidae.
Colin David Butler is a co-founder of the non-governmental organization BODHI (Benevolent Organisation for Development, Health and Insight), which has autonomous branches in the United States and Australia.
The College of Community Physicians of Sri Lanka (CCPSL) is the professional association of the Public Health Practitioners in Sri Lanka.
The College of Health Sciences is a publicly run higher education institution in Bahrain.
The College of Idaho (C of I) is a private, residential liberal arts college in the western United States, located in Caldwell, Idaho. Founded in 1891, it is the state's oldest private liberal arts college, with an enrollment of 1,140 students. It is affiliated with the Presbyterian Church (USA). The C of I has produced seven Rhodes Scholars, three governors and four NFL players. Its PEAK Curriculum allows students to study in the four knowledge areas of humanities, natural sciences, social sciences and a professional field, enabling them to earn a major and three minors in four years. For sixteen years, from November 1991 until October 2007, the C of I was known as Albertson College of Idaho.
The Colleges of Medicine of South Africa (CMSA) is the custodian of the quality of medical care in South Africa.
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
The Colombian peace process refers to the peace process between the Colombian government of President Juan Manuel Santos and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC–EP) to bring an end to the Colombian conflict.
The Colombo Municipal Council is the municipal governing body of Colombo, the largest city and financial centre in Sri Lanka.
The Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) is the principal department of the Colorado state government responsible for public health and environmental regulation.
The Colorado Medical Society (CMS) is the largest group of organized physicians in Colorado.
The Colorado School of Public Health is an accredited, collaborative school of public health representing three Colorado public educational and research institutions: the University of Colorado, Colorado State University and the University of Northern Colorado.
Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health, is the public health graduate school of Columbia University.
The School of Nursing is the graduate school of nursing at Columbia University in New York City.
A combined sewer is a sewage collection system of pipes and tunnels designed to also collect surface runoff.
The American Osteopathic Association's (AOA) Commission on Osteopathic College Accreditation (COCA) accredits medical schools granting the Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (DO) degree in the United States.
The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is the agricultural policy of the European Union.
The phrase Common Sense Revolution (CSR) has been used as a political slogan to describe conservative platforms with a main goal of reducing taxes while balancing the budget by reducing the size and role of government.
The Commonwealth Fund is a private U.S. foundation whose stated purpose is to "promote a high performing health care system that achieves better access, improved quality, and greater efficiency, particularly for society's most vulnerable and the elderly." It is active in a number of areas related to health care and health policy.
Luxembourg's 102 Communes (French: communes, Gemengen, Gemeinden) conform to LAU Level 2Statec (2003), p. 9&10 and are the country's lowest administrative divisions.
Communities That Care (CTC) is a program of the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) in the office of the United States Government's Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA).
Community health is a major field of study within the medical and clinical sciences which focuses on the maintenance, protection, and improvement of the health status of population groups and communities.
A healthcare center, health center, or community health center is one of a network of clinics staffed by a group of general practitioners and nurses providing healthcare services to people in a certain area.
Community health clubs (CHCs) also known as community hygiene clubs are voluntary community-based organizations in Africa dedicated to improving public health through the promotion of hygiene.
Community indicators are "measurements that provide information about past and current trends and assist planners and community leaders in making decisions that affect future outcomes".
Community Ophthalmology was described as a new discipline in medicine promoting eye health and blindness prevention through programs utilizing methodologies of public health, community medicine and ophthalmology in 1978.
Community psychology studies the individuals' contexts within communities and the wider society,Jim Orford, Community Psychology: Challenges, Controversies and Emerging Consensus, John Wiley and Sons, 2008 and the relationships of the individual to communities and society.
Comparison of the healthcare systems in Canada and the United States is often made by government, public health and public policy analysts.
Complete streets is a transportation policy and design approach that requires streets to be planned, designed, operated, and maintained to enable safe, convenient and comfortable travel and access for users of all ages and abilities regardless of their mode of transportation.
A composting toilet is a type of toilet that treats human excreta by a biological process called composting.
The compression of morbidity in public health is a hypothesis put forth by James Fries, professor of medicine at Stanford University School of Medicine.
Compulsory sterilization, also known as forced or coerced sterilization, programs are government policies which force people to undergo surgical or other sterilization.
Computational epidemiology is a multidisciplinary field that uses techniques from computer science, mathematics, geographic information science and public health to better understand issues central to epidemiology such as the spread of diseases or the effectiveness of a public health intervention.
Computer Assisted/Aided Qualitative Data Analysis Software (CAQDAS) offers tools that assist with qualitative research such as transcription analysis, coding and text interpretation, recursive abstraction, content analysis, discourse analysis, grounded theory methodology, etc.
A concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO), as defined by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) is an animal feeding operation (AFO)—a farm in which animals are raised in confinement—that has over 1000 "animal units" confined for over 45 days a year.
A condom machine is a vending machine for the sale of condoms.
The Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) is a business association in India.
The emerging field of conflict epidemiology offers a more accurate method to measure deaths caused during violent conflicts or wars that can generate more reliable numbers than before to guide decision-makers.
Congenital iodine deficiency syndrome, previously known as Cretinism, is a condition of severely stunted physical and mental growth owing to untreated congenital deficiency of thyroid hormone (congenital hypothyroidism) usually owing to maternal hypothyroidism.
Connie Yerwood Connor (ca. 1908 - June 11, 1991) was a Texas physician and first black doctor to serve on the Texas Department of Health.
A consolidation bill is a bill introduced into the Parliament of the United Kingdom with the intention of consolidating several Acts of Parliament or Statutory Instruments into a single Act.
Constance Goh (1906–1996) was a Chinese-Singaporean family planning activist.
The Constitution of the State of Alaska was ratified in 1956 and took effect with Alaska's admission to the United States as a U.S. state on January 3, 1959.
Consumer health informatics (CHI) is a sub-branch of health informatics that helps bridge the gap between patients and health resources.
Contagion is a 2011 U.S. medical thriller-disaster film directed by Steven Soderbergh.
Contingent contagionism was a concept in 19th-century medical writing and epidemiology before the germ theory, used as a qualified way of rejecting the application of the term "contagious disease" for a particular infection.
The Control of Communicable Diseases Manual (CCDM) is one of the most widely recognized reference volumes on the topic of infectious diseases.
Controlling Vice is a book by Minnesotan author Joel Best, published in 1998.
Copper has earned a respected place in the related fields of architecture, building construction, and interior design.
Cornelia Elgood, née Amos (1874 – 21 November 1960), was a British physician who helped to build the Egyptian public health system and educate Egyptian girls.
The Cornell International Affairs Review (CIAR) is a biannual peer-reviewed student-run academic journal published by Cornell University.
Corporate Accountability (formerly INFACT, Corporate Accountability International) is a non-profit organization, founded in 1977.
Corporate titles or business titles are given to company and organization officials to show what duties and responsibilities they have in the organization.
Dr Corran McLachlan (1 April 1944 – 9 August 2003) was a New Zealand based research scientist and entrepreneur.
The Council on Education for Public Health (CEPH) is an independent agency recognized by the U.S. Department of Education to accredit schools of public health and public health programs offered in settings other than schools of public health.
In the United States, an administrative or political subdivision of a state is a county, which is a region having specific boundaries and usually some level of governmental authority.
The French Universal Health Coverage (French: Couverture maladie universelle, abbreviated as "CMU") is the French social security program concerning public health, which was implemented in January 2000 (loi no 99-641 du 27 juillet 1999).
Crawford County is a county in the U.S. state of Michigan.
Cristina Possas de Albuquerque (Cristina Possas), PhD (born 5 June 1948), is a Brazilian public health scientist working with infectious diseases and emerging infectious diseases from an eco-social perspective.
Critical infrastructure (or critical national infrastructure (CNI) in the UK) is a term used by governments to describe assets that are essential for the functioning of a society and economy – the infrastructure.
Critical infrastructure protection (CIP) is a concept that relates to the preparedness and response to serious incidents that involve the critical infrastructure of a region or nation.
Critical Path Institute (C-Path) is an independent, non-profit organization committed to transformational improvement of the drug development process.
Critical Public Health is a quarterly peer-reviewed public health journal.
Critical Reviews in Microbiology is an international, peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes comprehensive review articles covering all areas of medical microbiology.
Cross-species transmission, (CST) or spillover, is the ability for a foreign virus, once introduced into an individual of a new host species, to infect that individual and spread throughout a new host population.
Croydon is a large town in south London, England, south of Charing Cross.
Croydon PCT was the Primary Care Trust with responsibility for the London Borough of Croydon, which covered parts of south west London and north Surrey.
CSA (formerly Cambridge Scientific Abstracts) was a division of Cambridge Information Group and provider of online databases, based in Bethesda, Maryland before merging with ProQuest of Ann Arbor, Michigan in 2007.
CSRA Inc. provides information technology services to U.S. government clients in national security, civil government, and health care and public health.
The city of Cuenca — in full, Santa Ana de los Cuatro Ríos de Cuenca — is the capital of the Azuay Province.
Faculty of Medicine of The Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK) was established in 1981 and consists of five schools which offer an array of undergraduate and postgraduate programmes in the field of medicine, nursing, pharmacy and public health.
Cultural competence in healthcare refers to the ability for healthcare professionals to demonstrate cultural competence toward patients with diverse values, beliefs, and feelings.
Curtis Henderson (September 28, 1926 - June 25, 2009) was a pioneer in the practice of cryonics.
Curtis Huttenhower is an Associate Professor of Computational Biology and Bioinformatics in the Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Harvard University.
Dr David James Masterton Mackenzie, CMG, OBE (Traditional Chinese: 麥敬時醫生, 23 July 1905 – 10 March 1994) was a British colonial medical official.
The Dan David Prize grants annually three prizes of US$1 million each for outstanding achievement.
Daniel I. Wikler (born 1946) is an American public health educator, philosopher, and medical ethicist.
Daniel Defert (born 10 September 1937) is a French sociologist and HIV/AIDS activist.
Daniel Barton Oerther (born October 11, 1972) is an American social entrepreneur, diplomat, and Professor of Environmental Health Engineering.
Daniel W. Webster (born 1960) is an American health policy researcher and the director of the Center for Gun Policy and Research at Johns Hopkins University.
Danone is a French multinational food-products corporation based in Paris and founded in Barcelona, Spain.
Darpana Academy of Performing Arts is a school for performing arts in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, established by Mrinalini Sarabhai and Vikram Sarabhai in 1949, it has been directed by their daughter Mallika Sarabhai for the last three decades.
The dasymetric map is a method of thematic mapping, which uses areal symbols to spatially classify volumetric data.
Dave Holmes, RN, Ph.D., is a Canadian professor of nursing, researcher, and author based in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Prof David Boswell Reid MD FRSE FRCPE (1805 – 5 April 1863) was a British physician, chemist and inventor.
David Carl Hilmers (born January 28, 1950) is a former NASA astronaut.
David Critcherson Miller (March 9, 1917 – March 27, 1997) was an American physician and epidemiologist who attended to Albert Schweitzer until the humanitarian's death and later devoted his life to famine and medical relief efforts together with his wife, who was Schweitzer's only child.
David J. Dausey is an American epidemiologist, professor and academic administrator.
David F. Duncan (born in Kansas City, Missouri on June 26, 1947) is president of Duncan & Associates, a firm providing consultation on research design and data collection for behavioral and policy studies.
David Hemenway (born 1945) is Professor of Health Policy at the Harvard School of Public Health.
David U. Himmelstein is an American academic physician specializing in internal medicine.
David Lary (born 7 December 1965) is an atmospheric scientist interested in applying computational and information systems to facilitate discovery and decision support in Earth system science.
Manemolla David Makhura (born 22 February 1968) is a South African politician and the current Premier of Gauteng following his appointment in 2014.
David Michaels is an epidemiologist and Professor in the Department of Environmental and Occupational Health (EOH) at the Milken Institute School of Public Health of the George Washington University.
Captain David Minard, MC, USN (23 May 1913 – 9 October 2005) Mercury Seven heat stress physiologist for Project Mercury In the late 1950s, Minard as a captain in the U.S. Navy and head of the physiology department at the Naval Medical Research Institute, helped to develop the Wet Bulb Globe Temperature Index utilized to measure heat stress in the military and other industrial settings.
David Murray Cowie (November 19, 1872-January 27, 1940) pioneered the salt iodation process in the U.S. He founded the pediatrics department at the University of Michigan and ran a private hospital in Ann Arbor which attracted wealthy patients.
David Rudyard Williams (born June 12, 1954 in Aruba) is the Florence Sprague Norman and Laura Smart Norman Professor of Public Health at the Harvard School of Public Health, as well as a Professor of African and African American Studies and of Sociology at Harvard University.
David Platt Rall (August 3, 1926 – September 28, 1999) was a cancer specialist and a leader in environmental health studies, whose work in environmental health helped turn it into a scientific discipline.
David Rorie, MDCM, DPH (1867 – 18 February 1946) was a doctor, folklorist and poet writing in his native language, Scots.
David S. Barnes is an Associate Professor of History and Sociology of Science and Director of the Health and Societies Program at the University of Pennsylvania.
David Judson Sencer (November 10, 1924 – May 2, 2011) was an American public health official who orchestrated the 1976 immunization program against swine flu.
Professor David M. Serwadda, MBChB, MMed, MSc, MPH, is a Ugandan physician, medical researcher, academic, public health specialist and medical administrator.
Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, commonly known as DDT, is a colorless, tasteless, and almost odorless crystalline chemical compound, an organochlorine, originally developed as an insecticide, and ultimately becoming infamous for its environmental impacts.
De Danske Husmoderforeninger or DDH (The Danish Housewives Associations), later Aktive Kvinder i Danmark (Active Women in Denmark), was established on 15 May 1920 as the central organization covering the many local housewives associations in Denmark.
Dean Winslow (born ca. 1953) is an American physician, academic, and retired United States Air Force colonel.
The phrase death certificate can refer either to a document issued by a medical practitioner certifying the deceased state of a person or, popularly, to a document issued by a person such as a registrar of vital statistics that declares the date, location and cause of a person's death as later entered in an official register of deaths.
Deborah Azrael is an American public health researcher.
The Decade of the Mind Project is an international initiative to advance scientific understanding of how the mind and complex behaviors are related to the activity of human brains.
Decentralized wastewater systems (also referred to as decentralized wastewater treatment systems) convey, treat and dispose or reuse municipal and industrial wastewater from small communities, buildings and dwellings in remote areas, individual public or private properties.
Deductive pragmatism is a research method aiming at helping researchers communicate qualitative assumptions about cause-effect relationships (causality), elucidate the ramifications of such assumptions and drive causal inferences from a combination of assumptions, experiments, observations and case studies.
Social degeneration was a widely influential concept at the interface of the social and biological sciences in the 19th century.
Dame Deirdre Joan Hine DBE FFPH FRCP FLSW (née Curran; born 16 September 1937) is a Welsh medical doctor.
Delta County is a county in the Upper peninsula in the U.S. state of Michigan.
Delta Hospital (originally known as 'Delta Centennial Hospital') is a community hospital, and Level V trauma centre owned and operated by the Fraser Health Authority in the city of Delta, British Columbia.
Delta Omega (ΔΩ) is the honorary society for graduate studies in public health.
In the fields of demographics and public health, a demographic surveillance system (DSS), also called a health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS), gathers longitudinal health and demographic data for a dynamic cohort of the total population in a specified geographic area.
Denmark–Tanzania relations refers to the current and historical relations between Denmark and Tanzania.
The denominación de origen ('designation of origin')In other languages of Spain.
Dental Public Health (DPH) is a non-clinical specialty of dentistry that deals with the prevention of oral disease and promotion of oral health.
Denver Department of Environmental Health The Denver Department of Environmental Health (DEH) is a charter-established department of the City & County of Denver.
The Department of Defense Serum Repository (also referred to as the DoD Serum Repository or simply DoDSR) is a biological repository operated by the United States Department of Defense containing over 50,000,000 human serum specimens, collected primarily from applicants to and members of the United States Uniformed Services.
The Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University is one of six departments at Columbia University’s Mailman School of Public Health, located on the Columbia University Medical Center campus in New York City.
The Philippine Department of Health (abbreviated as DOH; Kagawaran ng Kalusugan) is the executive department of the Philippine government responsible for ensuring access to basic public health services by all Filipinos through the provision of quality health care and the regulation of all health services and products.
The Department of Public Health (Myanmar) is part of the Ministry of Health and Sports (Myanmar). The Department has five main Units.
Derrick B. Jelliffe (b January 20, 1921 d March 18, 1992, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA) and his wife Eleanore.
Derrick Errol Evans (born 15 November 1952), better known as "Mr.
The Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH or GIZ in short (English: German Corporation for International Cooperation GmbH) is a German development agency headquartered in Bonn and Eschborn that provides services in the field of international development cooperation.
Development studies is an interdisciplinary branch of social science.
Dhanpur is a very small village near Nadaun, Himachal Pradesh, northern India, with a population of around 50 people.
Dhulikhel Hospital, a Kathmandu University hospital, is an independent, not for profit, non-government hospital in Dhulikhel, Kavrepalanchok, Nepal.
Diana M. Zuckerman (born 16 June 1950) is an American health policy analyst who focuses on the implications of policies for public health and patients’ health.
Dickinson County is a county in the Upper peninsula of the U.S. state of Michigan.
Dickson D. Despommier (born June 5, 1940) is an emeritus professor of microbiology and Public Health at Columbia University.
Didier Guillemot (born in 1960) is a French Doctor, specializing in infectious disease.
A dietary supplement is a manufactured product intended to supplement the diet when taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid.
A dietitian (or dietician) is an expert in dietetics; that is, human nutrition and the regulation of diet.
Dimitri Venediktov was the Deputy Health Minister of the USSR from 1965 to 1981 under Ministers of Health Boris Petrovsky and Sergei Burenkov.
Dimitrios Trichopoulos (Δημήτριος Τριχόπουλος; December 9, 1938 – December 1, 2014), was a Mediterranean Diet expert and tobacco harms researcher.
A dipper well is a perpetual-flow sink often used in coffeehouses and ice cream shops to rinse utensils.
Dipsalut is the Independent Public Health Body of Girona Provincial Council and a local public administration.
Direct care is the care of an identified patient by an identified clinical professional, used throughout the National Health Service in the United Kingdom.
Direct Relief (formerly known as Direct Relief International) is a nonprofit, nonpartisan organization with a stated mission to “improve the health and lives of people affected by poverty or emergency situations by mobilizing and providing essential medical resources needed for their care." The organization is headed by a 31-member Board of Directors and President and CEO Thomas Tighe.
The Directorate-General for Health and Food Safety (DG SANTE) is a Directorate-General of the European Commission.
The disability-adjusted life year (DALY) is a measure of overall disease burden, expressed as the number of years lost due to ill-health, disability or early death.
Disaster medicine is the area of medical specialization serving the dual areas of providing health care to disaster survivors and providing medically related disaster preparation, disaster planning, disaster response and disaster recovery leadership throughout the disaster life cycle.
A disaster recovery plan (DRP) is a documented process or set of procedures to recover and protect a business IT infrastructure in the event of a disaster.
Disaster social work is the practice of social work during natural disasters.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
Disease burden is the impact of a health problem as measured by financial cost, mortality, morbidity, or other indicators.
A disease cluster is an unusually high incidence of a particular disease or disorder occurring in close proximity in terms of both time and geography.
Surveillance for communicable diseases is the main public health surveillance activity in China.
Diseases of poverty is a term sometimes used to collectively describe diseases, disabilities, and health conditions that are more prevalent among the poor than among wealthier people.
The foundation and development of dispensaries in Manchester, England, was notable during the nineteenth century.
Disposable food packaging comprises disposable items often found in fast food restaurants, takeout restaurants and kiosks, and catering establishments.
Disposal of human corpses is the practice and process of dealing with the remains of a deceased human being.
District Planning Committee (DPC) is the committee created as per article 243ZD of the Constitution of India at the district level for planning at the district and below.
Dmitry Anatolyevich Medvedev (p; born 14 September 1965) is a Russian politician who has served as the Prime Minister of Russia since 2012.
The Doctor of Health Science (D.H.S. or D.H.Sc.) is a post-professional academic degree for those who intend to pursue or advance a professional practice career in Health Arts and Sciences, and Health Care Delivery Systems, to include clinical practice, education, administration, and research.
Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.) is a professional doctoral degree for physicians and surgeons offered by medical schools in the United States.
The Doctor of Public Administration (D.P.A.) is a terminal applied-research doctoral degree in the field of public administration (government), which is a sub-discipline of political science.
The Doctor of Public Health (abbr. DrPH or DPH; Latin Publica Sanitas Doctor) is a doctoral degree awarded in the field of Public Health.
A doctorate (from Latin docere, "to teach") or doctor's degree (from Latin doctor, "teacher") or doctoral degree (from the ancient formalism licentia docendi) is an academic degree awarded by universities that is, in most countries, a research degree that qualifies the holder to teach at the university level in the degree's field, or to work in a specific profession.
The Dodoleglime Festival is celebrated by the chiefs and peoples of the Ve Traditional Area in the Hohoe district of the Volta Region of Ghana.
The health of dogs is a well studied area in veterinary medicine.
Domestic violence in India includes any form of violence suffered by a person from a biological relative, but typically is the violence suffered by a woman by male members of her family or relatives.
Donald R. Hopkins (born September 25, 1941) is a Bahamian American physician, a MacArthur Fellow and is the Vice President and Director of Health Programs at The Carter Center.
Donald L. Weaver is an American physician.
Doris Calloway, née Howes (February 14, 1923 – August 31, 2001) was an American nutritionist noted for her studies of human metabolism, role in public health, and food preservation and safety.
Dorit Rubinstein Reiss is a Professor of Law at UC Hastings College of Law.
Dorothea Cross Leighton (September 2, 1908 – August 15, 1989) was an American social psychiatrist and a founder of the field of medical anthropology.
Dorothy Bannon, CBE (7 June 1885 – 1 February 1940) was a pioneering British nurse who as Chief Matron-in-Charge of the Hospital and School Medical Service of the London County Council was instrumental in shifting nursing from a voluntary service to a profession.
Sir Douglas Andrew Kilgour Black (1913–2002) was a Scottish physician and medical scientist who played a key role in the development of the National Health Service.
Douglas James Wiebe is associate professor of epidemiology at the Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics in the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania.
DPSIR (Drivers, Pressures, State, Impact, Response model of intervention) is a casual framework for describing the interactions between society and the environment: Human impact on the environment and vice versa because of the interdependence of the components.
Drew University is a private university in Madison, New Jersey.
Drinking water, also known as potable water, is water that is safe to drink or to use for food preparation.
Drinking water quality standards describes the quality parameters set for drinking water.
Drona Prakash Rasali (द्रोण प्रकाश रसाली, born in Humin, Palpa) was a Nepalese student who stood "Board last" topping School Leaving Certificate i.e. national board examinations, commonly abbreviated as SLC, held in 1972.
A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.
Drug liberalization is the process of eliminating or reducing drug prohibition laws.
The U.S. state of Oregon has various policies restricting the production, sale, and use of different substances.
Drug policy reform, also known as drug law reform, is any proposed changes to the way governments respond to the socio-cultural influence on perception of psychoactive substance use.
In 1990, the Duke Human Vaccine Institute (DHVI), located in Durham, North Carolina, was formed to support interdisciplinary efforts across Duke University School of Medicine to develop vaccines and therapeutics for HIV and other emerging infections that threaten the health of the United States and the world.
Duncan William Clark, MD (1910 – 5 August 2007) was an American public health expert and preventive medicine specialist.
The Early Warning and Response System (EWRS) for communicable diseases in the European Union was created by the European Commission to "ensure a rapid and effective response by the EU to events (including emergencies) related to communicable diseases.".
Earthjustice (originally Sierra Club Legal Defense Fund) is a non-profit public interest organization based in the United States dedicated to litigating environmental issues.
The Easmon family or the Easmon Medical Dynasty is a Sierra Leone Creole medical dynasty of African American descent originally based in Freetown, Sierra Leone.
The Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal is a healthcare journal published by the Eastern Mediterranean Regional office of World Health Organisation of the World Health Organization.
Eat Smart, Move More, Weigh Less is a 15-week adult weight management program that uses strategies based on evidence for weight loss and/or weight maintenance.
Eaton County is a county in the U.S. state of Michigan.
Eberhard R. Wenzel (2 January 1950 – 20 September 2001) was a public health researcher, a co-founder of the WWW Virtual Library: Public Health, and an advocate of the socio-ecological view of health promotion as described in the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion.
An eco-city is a city built from the principles of living within environment means.
Économiesuisse is a Swiss corporate union, composed of the fusion of the Union suisse du commerce et de l'industrie ("Swiss union of commerce and industry") or Vorort, and of the Société pour le développement de l'économie suisse ("society for development of Swiss economy").
The socialist market economy of the People's Republic of China is the world's second largest economy by nominal GDP and the world's largest economy by purchasing power parity according to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), although China's National Bureau of Statistics denies the latter assessment.
Ecosocial Theory, first proposed by name in 1994 by Nancy Krieger of the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, is a broad and complex theory with the purpose of describing and explaining causal relationships in disease distribution.
Ecosystem ecology is the integrated study of living (biotic) and non-living (abiotic) components of ecosystems and their interactions within an ecosystem framework.
Ecosystem health is a metaphor used to describe the condition of an ecosystem.
Edmund J. Berner (May 17, 1864 - ?) was a trade union activist from Milwaukee, Wisconsin who served four terms as a Socialist member of the Wisconsin State Assembly.
Edna Yost (November 16, 1889, Clearfield County, Pennsylvania - September 10, 1971, New York City) wrote articles, poems, short stories, and books.
Edris Roushan Rice-Wray Simon (January 21, 1904 in New York City, United States – February 19, 1990 in San Andres Cholula, Puebla, Mexico), a pioneer in medical research who helped to prove the worth of the oral contraceptive pill, and worked on the birth-control injection.
Eduardo Liceaga (1839–1920) was a Mexican physician known as the "most distinguished hygienist of late-nineteenth century Mexico".
Edward Headlam Greenhow FRS, FRCP (1814 – 22 April 1888) was an English physician, epidemiologist, sanitarian, statistician, clinician and lecturer.
Edward Henry Lewinski Corwin (1885–1953) was a New York City-based author of historical books, Polish activist and physician who worked in the public health sector of the city and state, publishing several reports and other works.
Edward Livingston Trudeau (5 October 1848 – 15 November 1915) was an American physician who established the Adirondack Cottage Sanitarium at Saranac Lake for treatment of tuberculosis.
Edward Wile Maibach is a professor at George Mason University who works on public health and climate change communication.
Edward McSweegan Ph.D., is an American microbiologist, science writer and fiction author.
Sir Edwin Chadwick KCB (24 January 1800 – 6 July 1890) was an English social reformer who is noted for his leadership in reforming the Poor Laws in England and instituting major reforms in urban sanitation and public health.
Eelke (Eeke) van der Veen (born June 21, 1946 in Wûnseradiel) is a former Dutch politician.
The effects of global warming are the environmental and social changes caused (directly or indirectly) by human emissions of greenhouse gases.
The effects of global warming include its effects on human health.
Climate change has brought about possibly permanent alterations to Earth's geological, biological and ecological systems.
Efficacy is the ability to get a job done satisfactorily.
The Egyptian Pharmaceutical Students' Federation (EPSF) (Arabic|الاتحاد المصري لطلاب الصيدلة) is an independent student organization representing about 85,000 pharmacy students in 31 pharmacy schools all over Egypt.
École des hautes études en santé publique, (known in English as "EHESP French School of Public Health"), with a campus in both Rennes and Paris is designed to form the next generation of French and international professionals in public health.
Escuela Latinoamericana de Medicina (ELAM), formerly Escuela Latinoamericana de Ciencias Médicas (in Spanish; in English: Latin American School of Medicine (LASM), formerly Latin American School of Medical Sciences), is a major international medical school in Cuba and a prominent part of the Cuban healthcare system.
Elbert D. Glover is a researcher and writer in the field of tobacco addiction and smoking cessation.
Electronic cigarette aerosol and liquid (sometimes referred to as E-liquid) is the mixture used in vapor products such as electronic cigarettes.
The Eliot family is the American branch of one of several British families to hold this surname.
Elizabeth Cohen is an American television news journalist for CNN.
Elizabeth A. "Betty" Neilson, EDD (October 13, 1911 – October 4, 2001) was a prominent figure in the field of health education and a leader in promoting the wellness and holistic health perspectives in public health.
Ellen Wright Clayton is an American Rosalind E. Franklin Professor of genetics and chairwoman of the Institute of Medicine Board at the Population Health and Public Health Practice who became a 2013 recipient of the David Rall Medal.
Emanuela Setti Carraro (9 October 1950 in Borgosesia – 3 September 1982 in Palermo) was an Italian nurse, and wife of General Carlo Alberto Dalla Chiesa.
In the United States, emergency medical services (EMS) provide out-of-hospital acute medical care and/or transport to definitive care for those in need.
Emergency sanitation is the management and technical processes required to provide sanitation in emergency situations.
Emmet County is a county located in the U.S. state of Michigan.
Emmy Wasirwa (born 20 December 1972) in Uganda, is a biomedical engineer, public health specialist, entrepreneur and corporate executive, who is the founder and executive chairman of, a clean-energy solutions business, based in Kampala, Uganda's capital and largest city.
Emory Campbell is a community leader among the Gullah people, African Americans who live in the coastal low country region of South Carolina and Georgia.
The Emory University School of Medicine is the Graduate Medical School of Emory University and a component of Emory’s Robert W. Woodruff Health Sciences Center.
The Encyclopedia of Public Health is a reference set of four volumes covering all aspects of public health for the lay reader.
Energy poverty is lack of access to modern energy services.
Entertainment-Education is a communication strategy that aims to alleviate a social issue or educate the public through a custom-tailored piece of entertainment.
The Entomological Society of America (ESA) was founded in 1889 and today has more than 6,000 members, including educators, extension personnel, consultants, students, researchers, and scientists from agricultural departments, health agencies, private industries, colleges and universities, and state and federal governments.
The Environmental and Energy Study Institute (EESI) is an independent, bi-partisan 501(c)(3) non-profit organization that aims to promote environmentally sustainable societies.
Environmental engineering system is the branch of engineering concerned with the application of scientific and engineering principles for protection of human populations from the effects of adverse environmental factors; protection of environments, both local and global, from potentially deleterious effects of natural and human activities; and improvement of environmental quality.
Environmental health is the branch of public health concerned with all aspects of the natural and built environment affecting human health.
Environmental health ethics is a field of study that combines environmental health policies and ethical consideration towards a mutually acceptable goal.
Environmental Health Officers (also known as Public Health Inspectors or Environmental Health Practitioners) are responsible for carrying out measures for protecting public health, including administering and enforcing legislation related to environmental health and providing support to minimize health and safety hazards.
Environmental Health Perspectives (EHP) is a peer-reviewed journal published monthly with support from the U.S. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS).
Environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing in the United States has been an issue of public concern, and includes the potential contamination of ground and surface water, methane emissions, air pollution, migration of gases and hydraulic fracturing chemicals and radionuclides to the surface, the potential mishandling of solid waste, drill cuttings, increased seismicity and associated effects on human and ecosystem health.
Environmental justice and coal mining in Appalachia is the study of environmental justice – the interdisciplinary body of social science literature studying theories of the environment and justice; environmental laws, policies, and their implementations and enforcement; development and sustainability; and political ecology – in relation to Coal mining in Appalachia.
Environmental Media Services (EMS) is a Washington, D.C. based nonprofit organization that is "dedicated to expanding media coverage of critical environmental and public health issues".
An environmental organization is an organization coming out of the conservation or environmental movements that seeks to protect, analyse or monitor the environment against misuse or degradation from human forces.
Environmental science is an interdisciplinary academic field that integrates physical, biological and information sciences (including ecology, biology, physics, chemistry, plant science, zoology, mineralogy, oceanology, limnology, soil science, geology and physical geography (geodesy), and atmospheric science) to the study of the environment, and the solution of environmental problems.
EpiData is a group of applications used in combination for creating documented data structures and analysis of quantitative data.
In demography and medical geography, epidemiological transition is a phase of development witnessed by a sudden and stark increase in population growth rates brought by improved food security and innovations in public health and medicine, followed by a re-leveling of population growth due to subsequent declines in fertility rates.
Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations.
Epidemiology is a bi-monthly, peer-reviewed journal for epidemiologic research, published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Epidemiology in Country Practice is a book by William Pickles (1885–1969), a rural general practitioner (GP) physician in Wensleydale, North Yorkshire, England, first published in 1939.
The epidemiology of cancer is the study of the factors affecting cancer, as a way to infer possible trends and causes.
The epidemiology of herpes simplex is of substantial epidemiologic and public health interest.
Eradication is the reduction of an infectious disease's prevalence in the global host population to zero.
Erethism or erethism mercurialis is a neurological disorder which affects the whole central nervous system, as well as a symptom complex derived from mercury poisoning.
Eric Leroy Adams (born September 1, 1960) is the Borough President of Brooklyn, New York City.
Erin N. Marcus, M.D., M.P.H is an internal medicine doctor who writes on public health and health disparity issues for The Washington Post, The Atlantic, The New York Times and other publications.
Ernst Ludwig Wynder, M.D. (April 30, 1922 – July 14, 1999) was an American epidemiology and public health researcher who studied the health effects of smoking tobacco.
Erwin Chargaff (11 August 1905 – 20 June 2002) was an Austro-Hungarian biochemist who immigrated to the United States during the Nazi era and was a professor of biochemistry at Columbia University medical school.
Escherichia coli O121 is a pathogenic serotype of Escherichia coli, associated with Shiga toxin, intestinal bleeding, and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS).
Emma Eleonora (Esmé) Wiegman-van Meppelen Scheppink (born 24 July 1975 in Haarlem) is a former Dutch politician.
Essential service may refer to.
Esther Pohl Lovejoy (November 16, 1869 – August 31, 1967) was an American physician and public health pioneer, suffrage activist, congressional candidate, and a central figure in early efforts to organize international medical relief work.
Esther Mae Wilkins (December 9, 1916 – December 12, 2016) was an American dental hygienist, dentist and author of the first comprehensive book on dental hygiene, Clinical Practice of the Dental Hygienist.
The Estonian Genome Project is a population-based biological database and biobank which was established in 2000 to improve public health in Estonia.
Eternal University is the second private university of Himachal Pradesh established by an Act of the state legislature of Himachal.
Ethical eating or food ethics refers to the moral consequences of food choices, both those made by humans for themselves and those made for food animals.
Ethnicity & Health is a bimonthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering the relationship between ethnicity and health.
Etienne G. Krug is a Belgian physician and epidemiologist known for his research on injury and violence prevention.
Eugenics (from Greek εὐγενής eugenes 'well-born' from εὖ eu, 'good, well' and γένος genos, 'race, stock, kin') is a set of beliefs and practices that aims at improving the genetic quality of a human population.
Francisco Javier Eugenio de Santa Cruz y Espejo (Royal Audiencia of Quito, 1747–95) was a medical pioneer, writer and lawyer of mestizo origin in colonial Ecuador.
The objective of the European Union Public Health Information and Knowledge system (EUPHIX project) is to develop a sustainable system to integrate and present public health information and knowledge for policy makers, academics and public health specialists at a European, national and regional level.
EuroHealthNet is a non-profit partnership of organisations, agencies and statutory bodies working to contribute to a healthier Europe by promoting health and health equity between and within European countries.
The European Association of Urology (EAU) is a non-profit organisation committed to the representation of urology professionals worldwide.
The European BioSafety Association (EBSA) is a non-profit organization, founded in June 1996, which provides a forum to its members to discuss and debate issues of concern and to represent those working in the field of biosafety and associated activities.
The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) is an independent agency of the European Union (EU) whose mission is to strengthen Europe's defences against infectious diseases.
The Commissioner for the Environment is the member of the European Commission responsible for EU environmental policy.
The European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM) is a Directorate of the Council of Europe that traces its origins and statutes to the Convention on the Elaboration of a European Pharmacopoeia (an international treaty adopted by the Council of Europe in 1964: CETS 50, Protocol).
The European Health Forum Gastein (EHFG) is organised by the International Forum Gastein (IFG), a non-profit and non-partisan association led by Professor Helmut Brand (President) and Dorli Kahr-Gottlieb (Secretary General).
The European Health Management Association (EHMA) was established in 1982 and is a non-profit membership organisation open to all those committed to improving health and healthcare.
The European Journal of Public Health is a bimonthly peer-reviewed public health journal.
The European Parliamentary Technology Assessment (EPTA) is a network of technology assessment (TA) institutions specialising in advising parliamentary bodies in Europe.
The European Patent Convention (EPC), also known as the Convention on the Grant of European Patents of 5 October 1973, is a multilateral treaty instituting the European Patent Organisation and providing an autonomous legal system according to which European patents are granted.
The European Pharmacopoeia (Pharmacopoeia Europaea, Ph. Eur.) is a major regional pharmacopoeia which provides common quality standards throughout the pharmaceutical industry in Europe to control the quality of medicines, and the substances used to manufacture them.
The European Prison Rules were drawn up by the Council of Europe.
The European Programme for Intervention Epidemiology Training (EPIET) Fellowship provides training and practical experience in intervention epidemiology at the national centres for surveillance and control of communicable diseases in the European Union.
The European Public Health Alliance (EPHA) is a European non-profit association registered in Belgium.
The European Public Health Association (EUPHA) is an umbrella organisation for public health associations and institutes in Europe.
European Union wine regulations are common legislation related to wine existing within the European Union (EU), the member states of which account for almost two-thirds of the world's wine production.
Evan Leslie Harris (born 21 October 1965) is a British Liberal Democrat politician.
The Evandro Chagas Institute (Portuguese Instituto Evandro Chagas, or IEC) is a non-profit organization which promotes public health in Brazil named after Evandro Chagas.
Many developing nations have developed national drug policies, a concept that has been actively promoted by the WHO.
Evidence-based policy is a term often applied in multiple fields of public policy to refer to situations whereby policy decisions are informed by rigorously established objective evidence.
Evidence Informed Policy Network (EVIPNet) is a network, sponsored by the World Health Organization (WHO), which attempts to improve public health, especially in developing countries, by coordinating the efforts of policymakers and health researchers.
Worldwide there has been a large shift towards less physically demanding work.
The Dutch city of Amsterdam has had many planned expansions over the past two centuries.
The Exposition internationale urbaine de Lyon was the 1914 World's Fair in the French city of Lyon.
The exposome encompasses the totality of human environmental (i.e. non-genetic) exposures from conception onwards, complementing the genome, first proposed in 2005 by a cancer epidemiologist.
Exposure assessment is a branch of environmental science and occupational hygiene that focuses on the processes that take place at the interface between the environment containing the contaminant(s) of interest and the organism(s) being considered.
In economics, an externality is the cost or benefit that affects a party who did not choose to incur that cost or benefit.
Professor Frederick Roland George Heaf CMG FRCP (21 June 1894 – 4 February 1973), until 1916 Fritz Rudolf Georg Hief, was a British physician.
Fabio Berardi (born May 26, 1959 in Borgo Maggiore, San Marino) is a Sammarinese politician.
The University of Ruhuna has ten faculties: Agriculture, Engineering, Fisheries and Marine Sciences & Technology, Humanities and Social Sciences, Management and Finance, Medicine, Science, Graduate studies, Technology and Allied Health Sciences.
The mission of Faculty of Medicine Al-Azhar University for Girls is to inculcate and acquire the quality standards in preparing the female graduates with medical knowledge, skills, technicalities and professional behavior in medicine based upon legislation sciences and Islamic culture; and also to apply the basics of scientific thinking and research, and to encourage continuous learning for preparing graduates to provide health care and to progress in the fields that serve the community and environment.
The Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lisbon (FFULisboa) is a Portuguese public institution of higher education dedicated to education, research, knowledge transfer and continuing education in the fields of pharmacy, medicine, and pharmaceutical sciences.
The Faculty of Public Health (FPH) is a public health association in the United Kingdom established as a registered charity.
Fairfield Infectious Diseases Hospital, originally known as Queens Memorial Infectious Diseases Hospital, operated from 1904 to its closure in 1996.
Faith Hope Among’in Osier is an award-winning African immunologist.
The Fall Prevention Center of Excellence (FPCE) is a source of fall prevention information for older adults, families, caregivers, professionals, service providers, researchers, and policymakers.
The Falsified Medicines Directive is a legal framework introduced by the European Commission, to improve the protection of public health within the European Union.
An important part of the heritage of family resilience is the concept of individual psychological resilience which originates from work with children focusing on what helped them become resilient in the face of adversity.
A famine is a widespread scarcity of food, caused by several factors including war, inflation, crop failure, population imbalance, or government policies.
Fantome Island Lock Hospital and Lazaret Sites is a heritage-listed former leper colony at Fantome Island, Palm Island, Aboriginal Shire of Palm Island, Queensland, Australia.
In 2014, the National Crime Records Bureau of India reported 5,650 farmer suicides.
Fasciolosis is a parasitic worm infection caused by the common liver fluke Fasciola hepatica as well as by Fasciola gigantica.
Fatiu Ademola Akesode (1940–2001) was a Nigerian professor of paediatrics, educational administrator, and former vice chancellor of Lagos State University Lagos State, Nigeria.
Félix Houphouët-Boigny (18 October 1905 – 7 December 1993), affectionately called Papa Houphouët or Le Vieux (The Old One), was the first President of Ivory Coast (1960 to 1993), serving for more than three decades until his death.
Fe Villanueva del Mundo, OLD ONS OGH, (born Fé Primitiva del Mundo y Villanueva; November 27, 1911 – August 6, 2011) was a Filipino pediatrician.
Fecal sludge management (FSM) (or faecal sludge management in British English) is the collection, transport, and treatment of fecal sludge from pit latrines, septic tanks or other onsite sanitation systems.
The federal administration of Switzerland (Bundesverwaltung, Administration fédérale, Amministrazione federale, Tribunal administrativ federal) is the ensemble of agencies that constitute, together with the Swiss Federal Council, the executive branch of the Swiss federal authorities.
The Federal Biomedical Agency or FMBA (Федеральное медико-биологическое агентство, ФМБА России) is the national public health institute of the Russian Federation.
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is an independent agency of the United States government created by statute (and) to regulate interstate communications by radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable.
The Federal Health Agency (Bundesgesundheitsamt) was a federal government agency and the central research institution for public health in Germany.
The Federal Joint Committee (German: Gemeinsamer Bundesausschuss) refers to a group of German public health agencies that were merged in 2004, under an independent chairman.
The Federal Office of Public Health (FOPH) is the Swiss federal government’s centre for public health and a part of the Swiss Federal Department of Home Affairs.
The FPS Public Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment (FOD Volksgezondheid, Veiligheid van de Voedselketen en Leefmilieu, SPF Santé publique, Sécurité de la Chaîne alimentaire et Environnement, FÖD Volksgesundheit, Sicherheit der Nahrungsmittelkette und Umwelt), more commonly known as the FPS Health, is a Federal Public Service of Belgium.
The Federal University of Rio de Janeiro or University of Brazil (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, UFRJ or Universidade do Brasil) is a public university in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Federalism in the United States is the constitutional relationship between U.S. state governments and the federal government of the United States.
The Federation of European Nutrition Societies (FENS) is a non-profit association, established in 1979 as a roof organization for the national nutrition societies in Europe, with each country represented by its representative Nutrition Society or Association within FENS.
The Federation of Veterinarians of Europe (FVE) is a non-profit umbrella organisation of veterinary organisations from 38 European countries.
Felice Napoleone Canevaro (7 July 1838 – 30 December 1926) was an Italian admiral and politician and a senator of the Kingdom of Italy.
Programs supporting regular feline vaccination have contributed both to the health of cats and to public health.
A feminist stripper is a professional exotic dancer who does not conform to the stereotypes associated with exotic dancers, and instead identifies positively with the identity of stripper.
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are a group of conditions that can occur in a person whose mother drank alcohol during pregnancy.
FHI 360 (formerly Family Health International) is a nonprofit human development organization based in North Carolina.
Field Epidemiology involves the application of epidemiologic methods to unexpected health problems when a rapid, on-site investigation is necessary for timely intervention.
Field research or fieldwork is the collection of information outside a laboratory, library or workplace setting.
Fiji National University (FNU) formed in 2010 as a result of a merger between six institutions in Fiji, namely the Fiji Institute of Technology, Fiji School of Nursing, Fiji College of Advanced Education, Lautoka Teachers College, Fiji School of Medicine and Fiji College of Agriculture.
The Filipino American identity comprises principles from both the Philippines and the United States.
Fiona Juliet Stanley (born 1 August 1946) is an Australian epidemiologist noted for her public health work, and her research into child and maternal health, and birth disorders such as cerebral palsy.
First 5 Los Angeles is a nonprofit child-advocacy organization that is part of the First 5 California Children and Families Act.
Fitness culture is a sociocultural phenomenon which refers to the culture surrounding physical exercises.
The Robert Stempel College of Public Health and Social Work at Florida International University, located in Miami, Florida in the United States is one of the university's 26 schools and colleges, composed of the Robert Stempel School of Public health and the School of Social Work.
The flatworms, flat worms, Platyhelminthes, Plathelminthes, or platyhelminths (from the Greek πλατύ, platy, meaning "flat" and ἕλμινς (root: ἑλμινθ-), helminth-, meaning "worm") are a phylum of relatively simple bilaterian, unsegmented, soft-bodied invertebrates.
Prof Henry Charles Fleeming Jenkin FRS FRSE LLD (25 March 1833 – 12 June 1885) was Regius Professor of Engineering at the University of Edinburgh, remarkable for his versatility.
The Flexner Report is a book-length study of medical education in the United States and Canada, written by Abraham Flexner and published in 1910 under the aegis of the Carnegie Foundation.
A flight surgeon is a military medical officer practicing in the clinical field variously known as aviation medicine, aerospace medicine, or flight medicine.
The Flint water crisis began in 2014 when the drinking water source for the city of Flint, Michigan was changed from Lake Huron and the Detroit River to the cheaper Flint River.
A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land that is usually dry.
Florence Rena Sabin (November 9, 1871 – October 3, 1953) was an American medical scientist.
The Florida Department of Health is responsible for protecting the public health and safety of the residents and visitors of the state of Florida.
The Florida Statutes are the codified, statutory laws of Florida; it currently has 48 titles.
Water fluoridation is the controlled addition of fluoride to a public water supply to reduce tooth decay, and is handled differently by country. Fluoridated water has fluoride at a level that is effective for preventing cavities; this can occur naturally or by adding fluoride.
Fluoride therapy is the use of fluoride for medical purposes.
Folsom Street Fair (FSF) is an annual BDSM and leather subculture street fair held in September, that caps San Francisco's "Leather Pride Week".
A food safety agency or food administration is a kind of agency found in various countries and international organizations with responsibilities related to food, primarily with ensuring the safety of food sold or distributed to the population, and with ensuring that food sellers inform the population of the origins and health qualities and risks associated with food being sold.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
The Food and Nutrition Bulletin is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was founded by Dr.
A food booth (also food stand, temporary food service facility) is generally a temporary structure used to prepare and sell food to the general public, usually where large groups of people are situated outdoors in a park, at a parade, near a stadium or otherwise.
A food desert is an area, especially one with low-income residents, that has limited access to affordable and nutritious food.
Food fortification or enrichment is the process of adding micronutrients (essential trace elements and vitamins) to food.
The Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA), or H.R.1627, was passed unanimously by Congress in 1996 and was signed into law by President Bill Clinton on August 3, 1996.
Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) is an autonomous body established under the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India.
The Food Standards Agency is a non-ministerial government department of the Government of the United Kingdom.
Foodborne illness (also foodborne disease and colloquially referred to as food poisoning) is any illness resulting from the food spoilage of contaminated food, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, or parasites that contaminate food, as well as toxins such as poisonous mushrooms and various species of beans that have not been boiled for at least 10 minutes.
Foreign aid to Iraq has increased to handle reconstruction efforts.
Foreign internal defense (FID) is a term by the militaries of some countries, including the United States, France, and the United Kingdom, to describe an integrated and synchronized, multi-disciplinary (and often joint, interagency, and international as well) approach to combating actual or threatened insurgency in a foreign state.
The foreign policy of Sweden is based on the premise that national security is best served by staying free of alliances in peacetime in order to remain a neutral country in the event of war.
Framtiden i våre hender is an idealistic organization in Norway that advocates green consumption and resource justice.
Frances Mary McConnell-Mills (July 9, 1900 – December 28, 1975) was an American toxicologist.
Francis Edmund Anstie (11 December 1833 – 12 September 1874) was an English doctor, medical author and journalist.
Francis John Blatherwick, CM, OBC, CD, FRCP(C) (born September 11, 1944) was one of Canada's trailblazing leaders in public health and was the longest-serving medical health officer in Canada when he retired in 2007.
Francis Everett Townsend (January 13, 1867 – September 1, 1960) was an American physician who was best known for his revolving old-age pension proposal during the Great Depression.
Franck André Sérusclat (7 July 1921 in Sarras, Ardèche – 2 July 2006) was a French politician.
Françoise Elvina Baylis,, (born 1961) is a Canadian bioethicist whose work is at the intersection of applied ethics, health policy, and practice.
The Frank Batten School of Leadership and Public Policy (also known as the Batten School) is one of the University of Virginia’s graduate schools.
Frank H. Krusen (1898 - September 16, 1973) was an American physiatrist.
Frank B. Metcalfe (December 26, 1874 – after 1912) was a glassblower from Milwaukee, Wisconsin who spent four terms as a Socialist member of the Wisconsin State Assembly and was twice the Socialist nominee for Governor of Wisconsin.
Frank Fairchild Wesbrook (July 12, 1868 – October 20, 1918) was a Canadian physician, bacteriologist, academic, and University president.
The Frankfurt kitchen was a milestone in domestic architecture, considered the forerunner of modern fitted kitchens, for it realised for the first time a kitchen built after a unified concept, designed to enable efficient work and to be built at low cost.
Franklin Marshall Matthews White (born 1946) is a Canadian public health scientist focused on capacity building for international and global education, research and development.
Frederick Torgbor Sai (born 27 June 1924) is a Ghanaian academic and family health physician who co-founded the Planned Parenthood Association of Ghana in 1967.
Frederick Wabwire-Mangen is a Ugandan physician, public health specialist and medical researcher.
Frederick Henry Horatio Akbar Mahomed (c. 1849–1884) was an internationally known British physician from Brighton, England in the late 19th century.
Frederick J. Taussig (1872-1943) was an American gynecologist and professor of clinical obstetrics at Washington University School of Medicine.
Frederick Ludwig Hoffman (1865 Varel, Germany – 1946) was an American statistician who showed great foresight on some public health issues, though his work in some areas was biased by racialist views.
Frederick M. "Skip" Burkle, Jr. (born April 29, 1940) is an American physician known for his work in human rights, international diplomacy and peacemaking, humanitarian assistance, and disaster response.
Frederick Montizambert, (February 3, 1843 – November 2, 1929) was a Canadian physician and civil servant.
Frederick Victor Nanka-Bruce (9 October 1878 – 13 July 1953) was a physician, journalist and politician in the Gold Coast.
Frederick T. van Beuren Jr., M.D. (February 10, 1876 – March 13, 1943) was a physician and surgeon, a medical school administrator and professor, a researcher, and a hospital administrator.
Fredrick 'Fred' J. Love (born in Little Rock, Arkansas) is an American politician and a Democratic member of the Arkansas House of Representatives representing District 29 since January 14, 2013.
Free public transport, often called fare-free public transit or zero-fare public transport, refers to public transport funded in full by means other than by collecting fares from passengers.
Free-ranging dogs have become a public health issue in the state of Kerala in India.
Freedom from Hunger (established in 1946) is an international development organization working in nineteen different countries.
French Cameroons (Cameroun), or Cameroun, was a League of Nations Mandate territory in Central Africa.
The French protectorate of Tunisia (Protectorat français de Tunisie; الحماية الفرنسية في تونس) was established in 1881, during the French colonial Empire era, and lasted until Tunisian independence in 1956.
Friday Okonofua is a Nigerian professor of Gynecology and Obstetrics.
Friedrich von Bodelschwingh, Junior (14 August 1877, Bethel – 4 January 1946) was a German theologian and public health advocate.
Friends of the Earth U.S. is a non-governmental environmental organization headquartered in Washington, D.C. with an office in the David Brower Center in Berkeley, California.
Funk carioca, favela funk, and in other parts in the world, baile funk, is a music genre from Rio de Janeiro, derived from Miami bass and gangsta rap music.
Sir George Archdall O'Brien Reid KBE FRSE (7 April 1860, Roorky, India – 19 November 1929) was a Scottish physician, and a writer on public health and on the subject of evolution.
Gabriel Ricardo Quadri de la Torre (born 4 August 1954), better known as Gabriel Quadri de la Torre, or simply as Gabriel Quadri, is a Mexican politician, free-market environmentalist and former presidential candidate for the New Alliance Party (Spanish: Partido Nueva Alianza, PANAL), although he is not affiliated with the party.
Lilly Gabriela Montaño Viaña (born 2 December 1975) is a Bolivian physician, politician, and former senator.
Gagandeep Kang (Cherry) is a clinician scientist and Professor in the Department of Gastrointestinal Sciences at Christian Medical College, Vellore, South India.
Galea is a surname.
Gambian–American relations are bilateral relations between the Gambia and the United States.
The Gamelan Council – Asia-Pacific Microfinance, Public Health & Development Centre (Gamelan Council) is an international non-governmental, non-profit initiative addressing the microfinance, public health, and international development needs of communities in, on, and around the Pacific Rim.
Gandhara University is a private university located in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Gandhi Medical College (गांधी चिकित्सा महाविद्यालय, भोपाल, GMC) is among the oldest and most prestigious medical colleges in Madhya Pradesh and in India, at Fatehgarh, Royal Market Area, Bhopal.
Gary Michael Null (born 1945) is an American talk radio host and author who advocates for alternative medicine and naturopathy and who produces a line of dietary supplements.
The Gates Millennium Scholars (GMS) Program is an academic scholarship award and program for higher education, available to high-achieving ethnic minority students in the United States.
A gay bathhouse, also known as a gay sauna or a gay steambath, is a commercial space for men to have a sexual activity with men.
Gökhan S. Hotamisligil (born June 24, 1962) is a Turkish-American physician scientist; James Stevens Simmons Professor of Genetics and Metabolism; chair of the Department of Genetics and Complex Diseases at Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health (HSPH); director of the Sabri Ülker Center for Metabolic Research and associate member of Harvard-MIT Broad Institute, Harvard Stem Cell Institute and the Joslin Diabetes Center.
Gbemisola Oke (born Gbemisola Aderemi Aderinokun) is a Nigerian professor of Periodontology and Community Dentistry at University of Ibadan.
Gender inequality in Nepal refers to disparities and inequalities between men and women in Nepal, a landlocked country in South Asia.
Gene Long (born 1957) is a former politician in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.
Gene–environment interaction (or genotype–environment interaction or G×E) is when two different genotypes respond to environmental variation in different ways.
The General Practice Extraction Service (GPES or GP Extraction Service) is a British health service outcomes research computer database that collates statistical aggregated data (demographic cohorts) from individual medical records of GPs in England, for purposes independent of an individual's immediate health, such as public health research.
Generation Scotland is a Biobank, a resource of biological samples and information on health and lifestyle from thousands of volunteer donors in Scotland.
Genesee County is a county in the U.S. state of Michigan.
A geographic information system (GIS) is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present spatial or geographic data.
Geographic mobility is the measure of how populations and goods move over time.
Three European Union schemes of geographical indications and traditional specialties, known as protected designation of origin (PDO), protected geographical indication (PGI), and traditional specialities guaranteed (TSG), promote and protect names of quality agricultural products and foodstuffs.
George Augustus Auden (27 August 1872 – 3 May 1957) was an English physician, professor of public health, school medical officer, and writer on archaeological subjects.
George Lincoln Barker (born August 24, 1951) is an American politician of the Democratic Party from the Commonwealth of Virginia.
George A. Hacker is an American lawyer who has headed the Alcohol Policies Project of the Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) for three decades.
Sir George Newman GBE, KCB (23 October 1870 – 26 May 1948) was an English public health physician, Quaker, the first Chief Medical Officer to the Ministry of Health in England, and wrote a seminal treatise on the social problems causing infant mortality.
George Pratt Shultz (born December 13, 1920) is an American economist, elder statesman, and businessman.
George Rosen (1910–1977) was an American physician, public health administrator, journal editor, and medical historian.
Georgetown University School of Nursing & Health Studies (NHS) is one of the four undergraduate schools of Georgetown University.
Georgia House Bill 87 (official title: Illegal Immigration Reform and Enforcement Act of 2011; abbreviated HB 87) is an anti-illegal immigration act passed by the Georgia General Assembly on April 14, 2011, and signed into law by Georgia governor Nathan Deal on May 13, 2011.
Georgia Southern University–Armstrong Campus, formerly Armstrong State University, is a four-year public university campus of the University System of Georgia.
The Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) is the nonprofit applied research arm of the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta, Georgia, United States.
Geraldine Burton Branch (October 20, 1908 – July 22, 2016) was an African American obstetrician-gynecologist who practiced in New York City, NY and Los Angeles, CA.
Germ theory denialism is the belief that germs do not cause infectious disease, and that the germ theory of disease is wrong.
The Deutsche Gesellschaft für Pneumologie und Beatmungsmedizin (DGP, "German Respiratory Society) is the largest and oldest medical professional organization for respiratory disorders in the German-speaking world and serves as a forum for all medical practitioners and scientists in the field of respiratory medicine.
Gerontology is the study of the social, cultural, psychological, cognitive, and biological aspects of ageing.
The Ghana Standards Authority (GSA) formerly Ghana Standards Board (GSB) is a Government of Ghana agency responsible for the maintenance of acceptable standards for product and services and sound management practices in industries and public institutions in Ghana.
D.G Khan Medical College (Urdu), established in 2010, is a public school of Medicine located in Dera Ghazi Khan, Punjab, Pakistan.
Ghulam Muhammad Mahar Medical College (GMMMC)http://www.gmmmc.edu.pk/ (Urdu غلام محمد مهر میڈیکل کالج) is a constituent College of Shaheed Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto Medical University,http://beta.smbbmu.edu.pk/ located in the center of Sukkur city.
Ghulam Yahya Tarzi (born 1898) was a public servant and diplomat in Afghanistan from 1920 to 1964.
Gilbert S. Omenn, M.D., Ph.D. is the Harold T. Shapiro Distinguished University Professor of Internal Medicine, Human Genetics, and Public Health at the University of Michigan.
Sir Gilbert Blane of Blanefield, 1st Baronet FRSE FRS MRCP (29 August 174926 June 1834) was a Scottish physician who instituted health reform in the Royal Navy.
Gilbert Balibaseka Bukenya is a Ugandan politician and physician who was Vice President of Uganda from 23 May 2003 until 23 May 2011.
Dame Gillian Morgan, DBE (born in Llwynypia, 1953) was Permanent Secretary to the Welsh Assembly Government between 1 May 2008 and August 2012.
Professor Gio Batta Gori is an epidemiologist and fellow with the Health Policy Center in Bethesda, Maryland which he established in 1997 and where he specializes in risk assessment and scientific research.
Giovanni Filippo Ingrassia or Ioannis Philippi Ingrassiae (1510–1580) was an Italian physician, student of Vesalius, professor at the University of Naples, Protomedicus of Sicily and a major figure in the history of medicine and human anatomy.
Geographic information systems (GISs) and geographic information science (GIScience) combine computer-mapping capabilities with additional database management and data analysis tools.
Gita Shahi (Nepali: गीता शाही) (born February 3, 1984) is a Nepalese actress and model.
Gladwin County is a county located in the U.S. state of Michigan.
Glenn E. McGee (1967-) is a professor of management at the University of New Haven, who focuses on health policy.
The Global Competitiveness Report (GCR) is a yearly report published by the World Economic Forum.
Global governance or world governance is a movement towards political cooperation among transnational actors, aimed at negotiating responses to problems that affect more than one state or region.
Global health is the health of populations in the global context; it has been defined as "the area of study, research and practice that places a priority on improving health and achieving equity in health for all people worldwide".
Global Health Promotion is a quarterly peer-reviewed public health journal that covers health promotion and health education.
The Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) is a medical guidelines organisation which works with public health officials and health care professionals globally to reduce asthma prevalence, morbidity, and mortality.
Global Public Health is a peer-reviewed public health journal published by Taylor & Francis and established in 2006.
The Global Public Health Intelligence Network (GPHIN) is an electronic public health early warning system developed by Canada's Public Health Agency, and is part of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network (GOARN).
Global radiology, a subspecialty of diagnostic radiology, comprises the study and practice of improving access to radiology resources in poor and developing countries, and addressing global health inequities through the application of radiology.
GNU Health is a free software hospital information system with strong focus on public health and social medicine.
GNU Solidario is a non-profit organization founded by Luis Falcón on 23 November 2009 to promote the use of Free Software in the areas of Public Health and education.
"God's Plan" is a song by Canadian musician Drake.
Gogebic County is the westernmost county in the Upper Peninsula in the U.S. state of Michigan.
Gomal Medical College (Urdu, Saraiki:, د ګومل طب پوهنځی or GMC) is a public medical institute located in Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan.
Gonorrhea, also spelled gonorrhoea, is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
Gordon Belcourt, or Meekskimeeksskumapi, (1945 – July 15, 2013) was an American Blackfeet and Native American tribal executive and social advocate.
Gordon Kenneth MacLeod, MD (1929–2007) was a physician and professor of health services administration at the University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, who also served as the state of Pennsylvania's secretary of health (1979–1980).
Gordon Thallon Stewart (9 February 1919 – 10 October 2016) was a Scottish epidemiologist and public health physician who served as the Henry Mechan Professor of Public Health at the University of Glasgow from 1972 to 1984.
A government database collects information for various reasons, including climate monitoring, securities law compliance, geological surveys, patent applications and grants, surveillance, national security, border control, law enforcement, public health, voter registration, vehicle registration, social security, and statistics.
Government Medical College, Ernakulam (previously Cochin Medical College) is one of the medical colleges in the state of Kerala situated at Kalamassery, Kochi.
Government Medical College, Haldwani (formerly known as Uttarakhand Forest Hospital Trust Medical College) is a medical college in Haldwani, Uttarakhand, India.
Government Medical College in Shivpuri, Madhya Pradesh is the seventh medical college in the province proposed to be started by the department of medical education, Government of Madhya Pradesh.
The Government of Croatia (Vlada Hrvatske), formally the Government of the Republic of Croatia (Vlada Republike Hrvatske), commonly abbreviated to Croatian Government (Hrvatska Vlada), is the main executive branch of government in Croatia.
In United States politics, a government shutdown occurs when Congress fails to pass or the President fails to sign appropriations: legislation funding federal government operations and agencies.
Government Sivagangai Medical College and Hospital (Tamil: அரசு சிவகங்கை மருத்துவக்கல்லூரி மற்றும் மருத்துவமனை) was started in the year 2012-13 in the Sivagangai District with an annual intake of 100 students for MBBS Course.
Government T D Medical College, Alappuzha is a government medical colleges situated in the suburban area of Vandanam, 9 km south of the Alappuzha (previously Alleppey) town, facing the NH 47, in Alappuzha district of Kerala State, South India.
Grace Eldering (September 5, 1900 – August 31, 1988) was an American public health scientist, known for her involvement in the creation of a vaccine for whooping cough along with Loney Gordon and Pearl Kendrick.
The Grand River Conservation Authority (GRCA) is a conservation authority in Ontario, Canada.
Grand Traverse County is a county located in the U.S. state of Michigan.
Gratiot County is a county in the U.S. state of Michigan.
The Great Plague, lasting from 1665 to 1666, was the last major epidemic of the bubonic plague to occur in England.
Great River, New York is a suburban hamlet and CDP in the Town of Islip, Suffolk, USA situated approximately (55 mi driving) east of NYC on South Shore of L.I., adjoining the Great South Bay, protected from the Atlantic Ocean by Fire Island.
Green Dot Bystander Intervention is an approach to prevent violence with the help of bystanders built on the premise that violence can be measurably and systematically reduced within a community.
Green Infrastructure or blue-green infrastructure is a network providing the “ingredients” for solving urban and climatic challenges by building with nature.
GreenPlumbers is an international training and accreditation program designed to help plumbers and tradesman understand their role in the environment and public health.
Greenway is a residential neighborhood in Southeast Washington, D.C., in the United States.
Gregory J. "Greg" Nickels (born August 7, 1955) was the 51st mayor of Seattle, Washington.
Grigore T. Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy (Universitatea de Medicină și Farmacie „Grigore T. Popa”, or UMF Iași) is a public university-level medical school located in Iași, Romania.
Gro Harlem Brundtland (born Gro Harlem, 20 April 1939) is a Norwegian politician, who served three terms as Prime Minister of Norway (1981, 1986–89, and 1990–96) and as Director-General of the World Health Organization from 1998 to 2003.
Groen (English: Green; Groen), founded as Agalev (see name-section below), is a green political party in Belgium.
Groundwater remediation is the process that is used to treat polluted groundwater by removing the pollutants or converting them into harmless products.
A group A streptococcal infection is an infection with group A streptococcus (GAS).
Gun-related violence is violence committed with the use of a gun (firearm or small arm).
Gustav III of Sweden's coffee experiment was a twin study ordered by the king to study the health effects of coffee.
Habib Medical School (HMS) is the school of medicine of the Islamic University in Uganda (IUIU), one of Uganda's private universities.
Hadassah, the Women's Zionist Organization of America is an American Jewish volunteer women's organization.
Halloween or Hallowe'en (a contraction of All Hallows' Evening), also known as Allhalloween, All Hallows' Eve, or All Saints' Eve, is a celebration observed in a number of countries on 31 October, the eve of the Western Christian feast of All Hallows' Day.
Hamdan Bin Mohammed Smart University (formerly Hamdan Bin Mohammed e-University) the first e-University in the United Arab Emirates, was inaugurated in February, 2009.
The Hammond House is located on Grasslands Road (New York State Route 100C) in the EastviewPer the note below, the house has a Valhalla mailing address.
Hand washing, also known as hand hygiene, is the act of cleaning hands for the purpose of removing soil, dirt, and microorganisms.
Harm reduction, or harm minimization, is a range of public health policies designed to lessen the negative social and/or physical consequences associated with various human behaviors, both legal and illegal.
Harm Reduction International, formerly known as International Harm Reduction Association, describes itself as a non-governmental organisation (NGO) in Special Consultative Status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council, and works within harm reduction model in the field of harm reduction.
The Harold E. Jones Child Study Center is a research and educational institution for young children at the University of California, Berkeley.
Harold Pollack is an American professor at the University of Chicago who has been appointed to two Institute of Medicine committees.
A harp trap is a device used to capture bats without exposing them to disentangling from traps like mist nets and hand nets.
Sir Henry Burns (born 1951), known generally as Harry Burns, is the professor of global public health, University of Strathclyde, having been the Chief Medical Officer for Scotland from September 2005 to April 2014.
Harvansh Singh (November 11, 1949 – May 14, 2013) was an Indian politician.
The Harvard School of Dental Medicine (HSDM) is the dental school of Harvard University.
The Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health (formerly Harvard School of Public Health) is the public health graduate school of Harvard University, located in the Longwood Medical Area of Boston, Massachusetts adjacent Harvard Medical School.
Harvey James Alter (born September 12, 1935) is an American medical researcher, virologist, and physician who is best known for his work that led to the discovery of the hepatitis C virus.
Sheikh Hassan Ahmed Abdel Rahman Muhammed al-Banna (حسن أحمد عبد الرحمن محمد البنا; 14 October 1906 – 12 February 1949), known as Hassan al-Banna, was an Egyptian schoolteacher and imam, best known for founding the Muslim Brotherhood, one of the largest and most influential Islamic revivalist organizations.
Hassan Fathy (March 23, 1900 – November 30, 1989, حسن فتحي) was a noted Egyptian architect who pioneered appropriate technology for building in Egypt, especially by working to reestablish the use of adobe and traditional as opposed to western building designs and lay-outs.
Hazardous waste is waste that has substantial or potential threats to public health or the environment.
Head of the Ministry of Health and Social Affairs (Swedish: Statsråd och chef för Socialdepartmentet) is the chief of the head of the Swedish Ministry of Health and Social Affairs.
Health is the ability of a biological system to acquire, convert, allocate, distribute, and utilize energy with maximum efficiency.
Health & Social Care in the Community is a bimonthly peer-reviewed academic journal covering all aspects community health, health care, and social work.
Health is the level of functional and/or metabolic efficiency of an organism.
"Health 2.0" is a term introduced in the mid-2000s, as the subset of health care technologies mirroring the wider Web 2.0 movement.
Health 21 or Health21 is the name given to the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region policy framework derived from the "health-for-all policy for the twenty-first century" passed by the World Health Assembly in 1998.
Health administration or healthcare administration is the field relating to leadership, management, and administration of public health systems, health care systems, hospitals, and hospital networks.
Health Alliance International (HAI) in a non-profit organization based in Seattle, Washington, USA.
Health and Human Rights is a biannual peer-reviewed public health journal that was established in 1994.
The Health Board system of Ireland was created by the 1970 Health Act.
A health campaign is a type of media campaign which attempts to promote public health by making new health interventions available.
Health Canada (Santé Canada) is the department of the government of Canada with responsibility for national public health.
Health care or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in human beings.
Health care in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan is administered by both private and public health care providers.
Health communication is the study and practice of communicating promotional health information, such as in public health campaigns, health education, and between doctor and patient.
The Health Council of the Netherlands or the Dutch Health Council (Gezondheidsraad) is an independent Dutch scientific advisory body with the task of advising the government and parliament about matters in the areas of public health and medical research.
Health data is any data "related to health conditions, reproductive outcomes, causes of death, and quality of life" for an individual or population.
The Health Datapalooza is an annual conference which exists to promote access to open data in the United States for the purpose of improving public health.
A health department or health ministry is a part of government which focuses on issues related to the general health of the citizenry.
Health economics is a branch of economics concerned with issues related to efficiency, effectiveness, value and behavior in the production and consumption of health and healthcare.
Health education is a profession of educating people about health.
Health Education & Behavior is a bimonthly peer-reviewed healthcare journal covering applied behavioral and social science in public health published by SAGE Publications.
The health effects of salt are the conditions associated with the consumption of either too much or too little salt.
Health equity refers to the study and causes of differences in the quality of health and healthcare across different populations.
A health fair is an educational and interactive event designed for outreach to provide basic preventive medicine and medical screening to people in the community or employees at work in conjunction with workplace wellness.
Health For All is a programming goal of the World Health Organization (WHO), which envisions securing the health and well being of people around the world that has been popularized since the 1970s.
Health impact assessment (HIA) is defined as "a combination of procedures, methods, and tools by which a policy, program, or project may be judged as to its potential effects on the health of a population, and the distribution of those effects within the population.".
Health in All Policies (HiAP) was a term first used in Europe during the Finnish presidency of the European Union (EU), in 2006, with the aim of collaborating across sectors to achieve common goals.
See also Healthcare in China.
The major causes of deaths in Finland are cardiovascular diseases, malignant tumors, dementia and alzheimers disease, respiratory diseases, alcohol related diseases and accidental poisoning by alcohol.
The Constitution of India makes health in India the responsibility of the state governments, rather than the central federal government.
As for many developing countries, health issues in Iran stem from a variety of reasons: namely, water and sanitation, diet and fitness, various addictions, mental fitness, communicable diseases, hygiene and the environment.
The Healthcare system in Kazakhstan is a post-Soviet healthcare system under reform.
Public health in Niger suffers from a chronic lack of resources and a small number of health providers relative to population.
The Republic of South Sudan is the world's youngest nation.
Tunisia has a public health system that provides care, especially tertiary care, for the majority of the population.
Health indicators are quantifiable characteristics of a population which researchers use as supporting evidence for describing the health of a population.
Health informatics (also called health care informatics, healthcare informatics, medical informatics, nursing informatics, clinical informatics, or biomedical informatics) is information engineering applied to the field of health care, essentially the management and use of patient healthcare information.
Health information exchange (HIE) is the mobilization of health care information electronically across organizations within a region, community or hospital system.
Health insurance is insurance that covers the whole or a part of the risk of a person incurring medical expenses, spreading the risk over a large number of persons.
Health insurance in the United States is any program that helps pay for medical expenses, whether through privately purchased insurance, social insurance, or a social welfare program funded by the government.
Health marketing is a new, customer-centered, approach to public health promotion that applies traditional marketing principles and theories alongside science-based strategies to protect and promote the health of diverse populations.It involves creating, communicating, and delivering messages for the public on prevention, health promotion and health protection.
A health minister is the member of a country's government typically responsible for protecting and promoting public health and providing welfare and other social security services.
The Health of Towns Association was formed at a meeting in Exeter on 11 December 1844 and was a key organisation in the development of public health in the United Kingdom.
Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific healthcare goals within a society".
Health policy and management is the field relating to leadership, management, and administration of public health systems, health care systems, hospitals, and hospital networks.
A health professional, health practitioner or healthcare provider (sometimes simply "provider") is an individual who provides preventive, curative, promotional or rehabilitative health care services in a systematic way to people, families or communities.
Health promotion is "any planned combination of educational, political, environmental, regulatory, or organizational mechanisms that support actions and conditions of living conducive to the health of individuals, groups, and communities".
In higher education, health promotion programs work to support student success by creating healthy learning environments.
Health Promotion Practice is a bimonthly peer-reviewed public health journal covering the field of public health, especially the practical application of health promotion and education.
The Health Protection Agency (HPA) was a non-departmental public body in the United Kingdom.
Health psychology is the study of psychological and behavioral processes in health, illness, and healthcare.
The Subject Centre for Health Sciences and Practice is one of 24 Subject Centres funded within the Higher Education Academy to promote high quality learning and teaching in UK Higher Education (HE) by providing subject-based support for sharing innovations and good practices.
DeCS – Health Sciences Descriptors is a structured and trilingual thesaurus created by BIREME – Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences Information – in 1987 for indexing scientific journal articles, books, proceedings of congresses, technical reports and other types of materials, as well as for searching and recovering scientific information in LILACS, MEDLINE and other databases.
Health Sciences Online (HSO) is a non-profit online health information resource that launched in December 2008.
Health services research (HSR), also known as health systems research or health policy and systems research (HPSR), is a multidisciplinary scientific field that examines how people get access to health care practitioners and health care services, how much care costs, and what happens to patients as a result of this care.
A health system, also sometimes referred to as health care system or as healthcare system, is the organization of people, institutions, and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations.
This article provides a brief overview of the health systems of the world, sorted by continent.
Health Systems Engineering or Health Engineering (often known as "Health Care Systems Engineering (HCSE)") is an academic and a pragmatic discipline that approaches the health care industry, and other industries connected with health care delivery, as complex adaptive systems, and identifies and applies engineering design and analysis principles in such areas.
Health visitors are professional individuals engaged in public health work within the domestic setting, predominantly found in countries with state-funded health systems.
The Healthcare Commission was a non-departmental public body sponsored by the Department of Health of the United Kingdom.
In its succinct definition, “Healthcare Engineering is engineering involved in all aspects of healthcare”.
Healthcare in Algeria consists of an established network of hospitals, clinics, and dispensaries.
Healthcare in Brazil is a constitutional right.
Healthcare in China consists of both public and private medical institutions and insurance programs.
Germany has a universal multi-payer health care system paid for by a combination of statutory health insurance (Gesetzliche Krankenversicherung) officially called "sickness funds" (Krankenkassen) and private health insurance (Private Krankenversicherung), colloquially also called "(private) sickness funds".
For health issues in Iran see Health in Iran. Healthcare in Iran is based on three pillars: the public-governmental system, the private sector, and NGOs.
Kenya’s health care system is structured in a step-wise manner so that complicated cases are referred to a higher level.
In the past, Kosovo’s capabilities to develop a modern health care system were limited.
Macau has a universally accessible single-payer system funded by taxes collected by the government from corporations and residents.
Healthcare in Panama is provided through a system through the government and a private sector.
Healthcare in Portugal is provided through three coexisting systems: the National Health Service (Serviço Nacional de Saúde, SNS), special social health insurance schemes for certain professions (health subsystems) and voluntary private health insurance.
Romania offers benefits of a universal healthcare system.
In South Africa, private and public health systems exist in parallel.
Healthcare in Tripura features a universal health care system run by the state government.
Healthcare in West Bengal features a universal health care system run by the state government.
The healthcare reform in China refers to the previous and ongoing healthcare system transition in modern China.
Healthy city is a term used in public health and urban design to stress the impact of policy on human health.
Healthy food describes food that is believed to contribute to personal or public health.
The Healthy Life Years indicator (HLY) is a European structural indicator computed by.
The H. John Heinz III College of Information Systems and Public Policy (Heinz College or HC) at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States is a private graduate college that consists of one of the nation's top-ranked public policy schools—the Network of Schools of Public Policy, Affairs, and Administration-accredited School of Public Policy & Management—and information schools—the School of Information Systems & Management.
Helen Epstein (born 1961) is an American writer, molecular biologist, and independent consultant specializing in public health in developing countries.
Hemant Goswami (born 1971) is an Indian social activist working on social issues like public health, environmental activism, child rights, child labour and many other civil right issues.
Sir Henry Duncan Littlejohn (1826 – 30 September 1914) was a Scottish surgeon, forensic scientist and public health pioneer.
Sir (John) Henry Morris-Jones MC, DL (2 November 1884 – 9 July 1972) was a Welsh doctor, soldier and Liberal, later Liberal National politician.
The Kravis Prize or Henry R. Kravis Prize in Nonprofit Leadership is a philanthropic award for leaders in the nonprofit sector.
Henry Harvey Vivian (20 April 1868 – 30 May 1930) was an English trade unionist, and Liberal Party politician and campaigner for industrial democracy and co-partnership, especially noted for his work in co-partnership housing.
Henry Wechsler is a lecturer at the School of Public Health at Harvard University and was principal investigator of the College Alcohol Study.
Sir Henry Yule KCSI (1 May 1820 – 30 December 1889) was a Scottish Orientalist.
Hepatitis B is endemic in China.
HEPRO (Health and Social Well-being in the Baltic Sea Region) was a public health project running from 2005-2008.
HeRAMS (Health Resources Availability Mapping System) is an electronic system for monitoring medical resources.
Herd immunity (also called herd effect, community immunity, population immunity, or social immunity) is a form of indirect protection from infectious disease that occurs when a large percentage of a population has become immune to an infection, thereby providing a measure of protection for individuals who are not immune.
Herman Kiefer Hospital was a city owned hospital in Detroit Michigan, from 1911 to 2013.
Hermann Michael Biggs (September 29, 1859 – June 28, 1923) was an American physician and pioneer in the field of public health who helped apply the science of bacteriology to the prevention and control of infectious diseases.
Hermann von Fehling (9 June 1812 – 1 July 1885) was a German chemist, famous as the developer of Fehling's solution used for estimation of sugar.
Hermes Juan Binner (born June 5, 1943) is an Argentine physician and a politician.
Hesperian Health Guides, formerly known as Hesperian Foundation, is a nongovernmental non-profit organization publishing health guides for trained and untrained people to care for themselves and others.
Hewitt Public School is a former school building in Hewitt, Minnesota, United States, active 1911 to 1979.
The Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine, often called Hib vaccine, is a vaccine used to prevent Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) infection.
In the United States, a high-deductible health plan (HDHP) is a health insurance plan with lower premiums and higher deductibles than a traditional health plan.
Hilary Mavis Graham, (born 1950) is a British sociologist and social policy academic, who specialises in public health.
Hillsdale County is a county located in the U.S. state of Michigan.
Hiram Raleigh Kennedy (September 30, 1852 – October 7, 1913) was an American physician, farmer and miller from Green Hill, Alabama who served as a Democratic member of the Alabama House of Representatives and the Alabama State Senate.
The history of alternative medicine refers to the history of a group of diverse medical practices that were collectively promoted as "alternative medicine" beginning in the 1970s, to the collection of individual histories of members of that group, or to the history of western medical practices that were labeled "irregular practices" by the western medical establishment.
The history of Belgium predates the founding of the modern state of that name in 1830.
This article continues the history of California in the years 1900 and later;for events through 1899, see History of California before 1900. After 1900, California continued to grow rapidly and soon became an agricultural and industrial power.
The history of cancer describes the development of the field of oncology and its role in the history of medicine.
Throughout the history of criminal justice, evolving forms of punishment, added rights for offenders and victims, and policing reforms have reflected changing customs, political ideals, and economic conditions.
The History of French-era Tunisia commenced in 1881 with the French protectorate and ended in 1956 with Tunisian independence.
The history of malaria stretches from its prehistoric origin as a zoonotic disease in the primates of Africa through to the 21st century.
The history of medicine shows how societies have changed in their approach to illness and disease from ancient times to the present.
For thousands of years, humans have tried to explain and control problematic behavior.
The history of merit badges in the Boy Scouts of America (BSA) has been tracked by categorizing them into a series of merit badge types.
San Bernardino, California, was named in 1810.
For more than a century China's leaders have called for rapid development of science and technology, and science policy has played a greater role in national politics in China than in many other countries.
The History of Tay–Sachs disease started with the development and acceptance of the evolution theory of disease in the 1860s and 1870s, the possibility that science could explain and even prevent or cure illness prompted medical doctors to undertake more precise description and diagnosis of disease.
The formal history of the Church of England is traditionally dated by the Church to the Gregorian mission to Spain by Saint Augustine of Canterbury in AD 597.
The Second Avenue Subway, a New York City Subway line that runs under Second Avenue on the East Side of Manhattan, has been proposed since 1920.
This article delineates the history of urban planning, a technical and political process concerned with the use of land and design of the urban environment, including air, water, and the infrastructure passing into and out of urban areas such as transportation and distribution networks.
The history of Uxbridge, Massachusetts, founded in 1727, may be divided into its prehistory, its colonial history and its modern industrial history.
The history of water filters can be traced to the earliest civilisations with written records.
The history of water supply and sanitation is one of a logistical challenge to provide clean water and sanitation systems since the dawn of civilization.
HIV/AIDS denialism is the belief, contradicted by conclusive medical and scientific evidence, that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) does not cause acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).
The history of HIV/AIDS in Australia is distinctive, as Australian government bodies recognised and responded to the AIDS pandemic relatively swiftly, with the implementation of successful disease prevention and public health programs, such as needle and syringe programs (NSPs).
Much of the current spread of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in China has been through intravenous drug use and prostitution.
The infection rate of HIV/AIDS in Ivory Coast is estimated at 2.70% in adults ages 15–49.
HIV/AIDS in Namibia is a critical public health issue.
Hoa Lac Hi-tech Park is the first and largest hi-tech park in Vietnam with total area of 1586 ha (app. 4000 acres).
The was a Cabinet-level ministry established under the Meiji Constitution that managed the internal affairs of Empire of Japan from 1873 to 1947.
Homer Northup Calver (1892 in New York City–1970 in Memorial Hospital in New York City) was an American health educator.
In the United States, an honor society is a rank organization that recognizes excellence among peers.
A hookup culture is one that accepts and encourages casual sexual encounters, including one-night stands and other related activity, without necessarily including emotional bonding or long-term commitment.
The Hospital de Clínicas "José de San Martín" is a teaching hospital located in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Houghton County is a county in the Upper peninsula in the U.S. state of Michigan.
The Housing of the Working Classes Act 1890 (53 & 54 Vict. c. 70) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Housing of the Working Classes Act 1900 (63 & 64 Vict. c. 59) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
How the Scots Invented the Modern World: The True Story of How Western Europe's Poorest Nation Created Our World & Everything in It (or The Scottish Enlightenment: The Scots invention of the Modern World) is a non-fiction book written by American historian Arthur Herman.
Howard Haym Hiatt is a medical researcher involved with the discovery of messenger RNA, past dean from 1972-1984 of the Harvard School of Public Health, and co-founder and associate chief of the Division of Social Medicine and Health Inequalities at the Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston, where he also he helped to launch and for this past decade has been the Associate Chief of the hospital's Division of Global Health Equity.
Howard Markel (born April 23, 1960) is an American physician, author, editor, professor, and medical historian.
Hugo Pesce (17 June 1900 – 26 July 1969) was a Peruvian physician and left-wing activist.
Human ecology is an interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary study of the relationship between humans and their natural, social, and built environments.
Human Organization is the peer-reviewed research journal of the Society for Applied Anthropology.
Human Resources for Health is a peer-reviewed open-access public health journal publishing original research and case studies on issues of information, planning, production, management, and governance of the health workforce, and their links with health care delivery and health outcomes, particularly as related to global health.
Human rights applied to encryption is an important concept for freedom of expression as encryption is a technical resource of implementation of basic human rights.
Human waste (or human excreta) is a waste type usually used to refer to byproducts of digestion, such as feces and urine.
Humayra Abedin (born 2 March 1976) is a Bangladeshi doctor of medicine who worked for the National Health Service in the United Kingdom and became a cause célèbre after her parents tried to force her into marriage and held her captive until she was freed by court order.
Huron County is a county located in the U.S. state of Michigan.
Hurricane Joan was a powerful hurricane that caused death and destruction in over a dozen countries in the Caribbean and Central America.
Hydraulic fracturing (also fracking, fraccing, frac'ing, hydrofracturing or hydrofracking) is a well stimulation technique in which rock is fractured by a pressurized liquid.
Hydraulic fracturing in the United States began in 1949.
Hydropower policy in the United States includes all the laws, rules, regulations, programs a Federal policies regarding the national water resources, within which hydropower exists, were already well-established long before modern electricity was known to exist; as such, previous uses and decisions, as well as government policies and agencies affected how hydropower was later developed.
Hygiene is a set of practices performed to preserve health.
Hypothyroidism, also called underactive thyroid or low thyroid, is a disorder of the endocrine system in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone.
Ian Clarke, MBChB BAO, DTM&H, MSc, is a physician, missionary, philanthropist, entrepreneur, and politician in Uganda.
Ian David Gust AO, FRCPA, FRACP, MASM, FT (born 15 January 1941) is an Australian medical researcher, virologist, and former science administrator.
Ignazio Cassis (born 13 April 1961) is a Swiss physician and politician.
Ignazio Roberto Maria Marino (born 10 March 1955) is an Italian transplant surgeon who was Mayor of Rome from 2013 to 2015.
Igor G. Ursov (January 21, 1927 – June 20, 2002) (Russian: Игорь Урсов) was a Soviet and Russian tuberculosis specialist and organizer of public health who achieved tuberculosis control breakthroughs in Russia.
The illegal drug trade in China is influenced by factors such as history, location, size, population, and current economic conditions.
Illegal immigration is the illegal entry of a person or a group of persons across a country's border, in a way that violates the immigration laws of the destination country, with the intention to remain in the country, as well as people who remain living in another country when they do not have the legal right to do so.
Illicit drug use in Australia is the recreational use of prohibited drugs in Australia.
IMPACT is an international initiative which focusses on preventive and social health and promote awareness and intervention to prevent avoidable disability.
In scientific writing, IMRaD (Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion) refers to a common organization structure.
An inchoate offense, preliminary crime, inchoate crime or incomplete crime is a crime of preparing for or seeking to commit another crime.
The Incident Command System (ICS) is a standardized approach to the command, control, and coordination of emergency response providing a common hierarchy within which responders from multiple agencies can be effective.
Income and fertility is the association between monetary gain on one hand, and the tendency to produce offspring on the other.
Clinical trials can be promoted and funded by a variety of sponsors, including pharmaceutical companies, government, research charities, foundations, medical organizations, and voluntary groups, such as patients' associations.
Health is the state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and a positive concept emphasizing social and personal resources, as well as physical capacities.
This is an index of sociology articles.
The Indian Health Service (IHS) is an operating division (OPDIV) within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).
Indian Institute of Public Health, Gandhinagar (IIPHG) is a private university located in Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India.
The Indian Journal of Community Medicine is a peer-reviewed open-access medical journal published by Medknow Publications on behalf of the Indian Association of Preventive & Social Medicine.
Indian Public Health Association shortly IPHA is a professional health organization working for the cause of Public Health in India since 1956.
The IU School of Public Health-Bloomington is an undergraduate and graduate school at Indiana University Bloomington.
Indians in the New York City metropolitan region constitute one of the largest and fastest growing ethnicities in the New York City metropolitan area of the United States.
Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.
Inductivism is the traditional model of scientific method attributed to Francis Bacon, who in 1620 vowed to subvert allegedly traditional thinking.
Social epidemiology focuses on the patterns in morbidity and mortality rates that emerge as a result of social characteristics.
An infant (from the Latin word infans, meaning "unable to speak" or "speechless") is the more formal or specialised synonym for "baby", the very young offspring of a human.
Infant formula, or baby formula, is a manufactured food designed and marketed for feeding to babies and infants under 12 months of age, usually prepared for bottle-feeding or cup-feeding from powder (mixed with water) or liquid (with or without additional water).
Infant mortality refers to deaths of young children, typically those less than one year of age.
Infection control is the discipline concerned with preventing nosocomial or healthcare-associated infection, a practical (rather than academic) sub-discipline of epidemiology.
Infection in childcare is the spread of infection during childcare, typically because of contact among children in daycare or school.
Estimates place the worldwide risk of cancers from infectious causes at 16.1%.
H2N3 is a subtype of the influenza A virus.
Infodemiology (and the closely related term infoveillance) is a term coined by Canadian researcher Gunther Eysenbach.
An Informationist (or Information Specialist in Context) provides research and knowledge management services in the context of clinical care or biomedical research.
Ingham County is a county located in the U.S. state of Michigan.
Injury prevention is an effort to prevent or reduce the severity of bodily injuries caused by external mechanisms, such as accidents, before they occur.
Inland Regional Center (IRC), formally Inland Counties Regional Center, Inc., is a government-funded not-for-profit public benefit corporation that provides services and programs to more than 33,000 people with developmental disabilities and their families in California's San Bernardino and Riverside Counties.
Innovations for Poverty Action (IPA) is an American non-profit research and policy organization founded in 2002 by Yale economist Dean Karlan.
Established in 2008 by Nathan Taback, Christina Willie and Robin Coupland, Insecurity Insight is a Geneva-based non-profit organisation that has developed the ”Taback-Coupland model of armed violence”, a model that is used to generate data on the impact of armed violence and insecurity on people's lives and wellbeing with a view to generating preventive policies.
Insomnia, also known as sleeplessness, is a sleep disorder where people have trouble sleeping.
The Institut de veille sanitaire (InVS; English: French Institute for Public Health Surveillance, literally "Institute of Health Surveillance") is a French public establishment of the Health minister.
The Institute for Advanced Study of Human Sexuality (est. 1976) is an unaccredited,U.S. Department of Education.
The Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences (acronym: ICES) is an independent, non-profit corporation that applies the study of health informatics for health services research and population-wide health outcomes research in Ontario, Canada using data collected through the routine administration of Ontario's system of publicly funded health care.
The Institute for Strategy and Reconciliation (aka, The International Strategy and Reconciliation Foundation, Incorporated) is an independent, non-profit 501(c)(3) international institution approved by the US Department of Treasury.
The Institute for Studies in Industrial Development (ISID), formerly Corporate Studies Group (CSG), is a seat of higher learning, formed by under the umbrella of the Indian Council of Social Science Research, by the Government of India with an aim to assist the government in formulating national level policies.
The Institute of Environmental Science and Research (Māori: Te Whare Manaaki Tangata, Taiao hoki) is a New Zealand Crown Research Institute (CRI).
The Institute of Food Technologists (IFT) is an international, non-profit scientific society of professionals engaged in food science, food technology, and related areas in academia, government and industry.
Institute of Medicine (IoM), in the capital city Kathmandu, is the premier medical institution of Nepal.
The Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) was founded in 1969 by the National Coal Board (NCB) as an independent charity in the UK and retains this charitable purpose and status today.
The Integrated Disease Surveillance Program (IDSP) is a disease surveillance scheme under the Ministry of Health and Family Affairs in India, assisted by the World Bank.
The Interamerican Association for Environmental Defense (Spanish: Asociacion Interamericana para la Defensa del Ambiente) (AIDA) is a non-profit international environmental law organization founded in 1996 by a collaboration of five environmental organizations in the Americas including Earthjustice.
Intercultural Relations, sometimes called Intercultural Studies, is a relatively new formal field of social science studies.
Intermittent preventive therapy or intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) is a public health intervention aimed at treating and preventing malaria episodes in infants (IPTi), children (IPTc), schoolchildren (IPTsc) and pregnant women (IPTp).
The International Board of Medicine and Surgery (IBMS) is an international professional association, established in 2001 and headquartered in Palm Harbor, Florida, that serves as the authority for certifying the credentials and the professionalism of physicians, surgeons, and dentists across all territories and jurisdictions of the world.
The International Centre for Infectious Disease (ICID) is a Canadian organisation set up in 2004 to collaborate resources worldwide in the fight against infectious diseases.
International Classification for Standards (ICS) is an international classification system for technical standards.
The International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes (also known as the WHO Code) is an international health policy framework for breastfeeding promotion adopted by the World Health Assembly (WHA) of the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1981.
International Family Medicine physicians are family physicians that specialize in working with under-served populations in resource-poor environments, often in developing nations.
International health, also called geographic medicine, international medicine, or global health, is a field of health care, usually with a public health emphasis, dealing with health across regional or national boundaries.
International Health is a quarterly peer-reviewed public health journal covering all areas of global health.
The International Health Division of the Rockefeller Foundation (also known as the International Health Board (1916-1927) and the International Health Commission (1913-1916)) was an early public health entity which conducted campaigns against malaria, yellow fever, and hookworm in areas throughout Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean including Italy, France, Venezuela, Mexico, and Puerto Rico.
The International Hygiene Exhibition was a world's fair focusing on medicine and public health, held in Dresden, Germany, in 1911.
The International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by MDPI.
The International Journal of Transgenderism is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering research on gender dysphoria, the medical and psychological treatment of transgender individuals, social and legal acceptance of sex reassignment, and professional and public education on transgenderism.
The International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) is a nonprofit science organization founded in 1978 and headquartered in Washington, DC, United States.
International No Diet Day (INDD) is an annual celebration of body acceptance, including fat acceptance and body shape diversity.
International Noise Awareness Day is a global campaign, founded in 1996 by the Center for Hearing and Communication (CHC), aiming to raise awareness of noise on the welfare and health of people.
The International Renaissance Foundation (IRF) (Ukrainian: Міжнародний фонд "Відродження") is a Ukrainian NGO founded by George Soros.
The International Volcanic Health Hazard Network (IVHHN) is an organization that provides research and information on volcanic health hazards.
The International Water Management Institute (IWMI) is a non-profit research organisation with headquarters in Colombo, Sri Lanka, and offices across Africa and Asia.
IntraHealth International is a non-profit organization based in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, U.S.A. dedicated to working with developing countries to improve their public health capabilities.
The inverse benefit law states that the ratio of benefits to harms among patients taking new drugs tends to vary inversely with how extensively a drug is marketed.
The inverse care law is the principle that the availability of good medical or social care tends to vary inversely with the need of the population served.
Investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS) or investment court system (ICS) is a system through which investors can sue countries for alleged discriminatory practices.
INVOLVE (UK National Advisory group) (known as INVOLVE) is a national advisory Group, funded by the Department of Health, that promotes public involvement in health and social care research.
Iodine deficiency is a lack of the trace element iodine, an essential nutrient in the diet.
Ionia County is a county located in the U.S. state of Michigan.
Iosco County is a county in the U.S. state of Michigan; its eastern border is formed by Lake Huron.
Iron County is a county in the Upper Peninsula of the U.S. state of Michigan.
Irvine Park is a neighborhood just west of downtown Saint Paul, Minnesota, United States, that contains a number of historic homes.
Irwin Redlener is an American pediatrician and public health activist who specializes in health care for underserved children, health care reform, and disaster planning, response, and recovery.
Isabel Atkinson (1891–1968) was an English born Canadian women's rights activist, sociologist and philanthropist who became president of the Consumers’ Association of Canada.
Isabella County is a county located in the U.S. state of Michigan.
Isabelle Boutron (born February 14, 1971) is a professor of epidemiology at the Paris Descartes University and a researcher at the INSERM- Sorbonne Paris Cité Epidemiology and Statistics Research Centre.
Isao Arita (born 1926) is a Japanese physician, virologist and vaccination specialist who headed the World Health Organization (WHO) Smallpox Eradication Unit in 1977–85.
Israel Jacob Kligler (24 April 1888 – 23 September 1944) was a microbiologist.
James Michael McGinnis (born 12 July 1944) is a physician, epidemiologist, and long-time contributor to national and international health programs and policy, including continuous policy responsibilities for leadership in disease prevention and health promotion through four Administrations (Carter, Reagan, Bush, Clinton).
Sir Joseph William Bhore (1878 – 15 August 1960) was an Indian civil servant and diwan of the Cochin State.
Jack Chow is an American professor of public health.
A native of Alexandria, Rapides Parish, in the U.S. state of Louisiana, Jacob Casson Geiger (18 November 1885 - 7 November 1981) was a graduate of Tulane University and for many years in San Francisco and Oakland, California, city director of public health and the 1935 president of the San Francisco Medical Society.
Jacquelyn C. Campbell (born August 26, 1946) is an American academic nurse known for her research on domestic violence and violence against women, especially cases of such violence that end in homicide.
Jaglal Choudhary (5 February 1895 - 1975) was an Indian independence activist, dalit leader and politician from Bihar, India.
The Jakarta Declaration on Leading Health Promotion into the 21st Century is the name of an international agreement that was signed at the World Health Organization's 1997 Fourth International Conference on Health Promotion held in Jakarta.
JAMA Psychiatry (until 2013: Archives of General Psychiatry) is a monthly, peer-reviewed medical journal published by the American Medical Association.
James Claude Robinson is a professor of health economics in the School of Public Health at the University of California, Berkeley, where he has the title of the Leonard D. Schaeffer Endowed Chair in Health Economics and Policy.
James (Jim) Chin is a public health epidemiologist.
Sir James Crichton-Browne MD FRS FRSE (29 November 1840 – 31 January 1938) was a leading British psychiatrist, neurologist and medical psychologist.
James F. Brennan (born April 17, 1952) is an American politician.
James H. Price is an American academic who works in the fields of health education and public health.
James Le Fanu (born 1950) is a British retired General Practitioner, journalist and author of several books.
James Matthew (Jim) Jones (born April 3, 1961) is an American global public health expert and consultant.
James Niven (12 August 1851 – 30 September 1925) was a Scottish physician most famous for his work during the Spanish Flu outbreak in 1918 as Manchester's Medical Officer of Health.
Sir James Ranald Martin (12 May 1796 – 27 November 1874) was a surgeon in India who worked in the service of the Honourable East India Company and was instrumental in publicising the effects of deforestation, and finding links between human and environmental health.
James Vance May (1873–1947), an American psychiatrist, was an early proponent for statistical studies and classification of mental diseases.
James "Jim" W. Curran is professor of epidemiology and dean of the Rollins School of Public Health at Emory University.
James Wilson Holsinger Jr., (born May 11, 1939) is an American physician.
Jane Dee Hull (born August 8, 1935) is an American former politician and educator.
Jane Stocks "Jean" Greig (12 June 1872 – 16 September 1939) was a Scottish-Australian medical doctor and public health specialist.
Japanese patent law is based on the first-to-file principle and is mainly given force by the Patent Act (特許法 Tokkyohō) of Japan.
Jay Noren, M.D., is the former President of Wayne State University and former Provost of Khalifa University in Abu Dhabi.
Jean Kilbourne, Ed.D. (born January 4, 1943) is an author, speaker, and filmmaker who is internationally recognized for her work on the image of women in advertising and her critical studies of alcohol and tobacco advertising.
Jean-Charles Chapais, (December 2, 1811 – July 17, 1885) was a Canadian Conservative politician, and considered a Father of Canadian Confederation for his participation in the Quebec Conference to determine the form of Canada's government.
Jeannette Hamby (March 15, 1933 – January 27, 2012) was an American politician and nurse in Oregon.
Jeffrey C. Smith (born December 6, 1949) is a lawyer and a politician currently serving as a Republican member of the Mississippi House of Representatives.
Jeffrey Scott Crane, MBA, MPA, Ph.D., known as "Jeff", (May 24, 1968–Present) is currently the CEO of Dragon Discovery LLC, which includes Dragon Innovates LLC, headquartered in Miami, Florida.
Jeffrey David Sachs (born November 5, 1954) is an American economist and director of the Earth Institute at Columbia University, where he holds the title of University Professor, the highest rank Columbia bestows on its faculty.
Jeffrey T. Parsons is an American psychologist, researcher, and educator; he serves as Distinguished Professor of Psychology at Hunter College and The Graduate Center of the City University of New York (CUNY) and is the Director of Hunter College’s Center for HIV/AIDS Educational Studies & Training, which he founded in 1996.
Yi Lin (born 1959), also known as Jeffrey Forrest and Jeffrey Yi-Lin Forrest, is a professor of mathematics, systems science, economics, and finance at Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education (Slippery Rock campus) (SSHE) and at several major universities in China.
Jenny Hill is an Australian politician, currently serving as the Mayor of Townsville, which is the 18th largest local government area in Australia.
Jeremiah Mutwalante Twa-Twa (born 29 January 1951) is a Ugandan physician, public health specialist, and politician.
Jerome C. Ringo (born March 2, 1955) is an advocate for environmental justice, clean energy and quality jobs.
Gerald (Jerry) C. DeGrieck is a public health manager and policy advisor in Seattle, Washington.
Jeremiah Noah "Jerry" Morris (6 May 1910 – 28 October 2009) was a Scottish epidemiologist who established the importance of physical activity in preventing cardiovascular disease.
Jesse Arthur Clason (October 15, 1860 - April 7, 1918) was an American physician from Neosho, Wisconsin who served a single term as a member of the Wisconsin State Assembly from Dodge County; he was elected as a Gold Democrat.
Jesse Leonard Steinfeld (January 6, 1927 – August 5, 2014) was an American physician and public health official.
The Jessenius Faculty of Medicine (Jesseniova lekarská fakulta) is a co-educational medical school in Martin, Slovakia.
Jesus C. Azurin (December 20, 1916 – February 13, 1990) was a Filipino doctor who was the Philippines’ Minister of Health from July 1981 to February 1986.
The Jewish Council for Public Affairs (JCPA) is an American Jewish non-profit organization that deals with community relations.
Jillian Parry (born January 31, 1982) is a former Miss Teen USA, having held the title for the year 2000, representing her home town of Newtown and state of Pennsylvania.
"Jim" was the name of a former milk wagon horse, who was used to produce serum containing diphtheria antitoxin (antibodies against diphtheria toxin).
Jimma University (JU) is a public research university located in Jimma, Ethiopia.
Joanne Ooi (born December 13, 1967) is an environmentalist, art dealer, marketing expert, founder & CEO of Plukka.
Joseph Robinette Biden Jr. (born November 20, 1942) is an American politician who served as the 47th Vice President of the United States from 2009 to 2017.
Joel D. Kopple is an American professor, physician, and investigator in medicine, nephrology, nutrition, and public health.
Joel Selanikio is an American physician.
John Brownstein is a Canadian epidemiologist and Professor of Medicine at the Harvard Medical School as well as the Chief Innovation Officer at Boston Children’s Hospital.
(Hugh) John Forster Cairns FRS (born 21 November 1922) is a British physician and molecular biologist who made significant contributions to molecular genetics, cancer research, and public health.
John Dix Fisher (March 27, 1797 – March 3, 1850) was a physician and founder of Perkins Institution for the Blind in Boston, Massachusetts.
John Edward Fogarty (March 23, 1913 – January 10, 1967) was a Congressman from Rhode Island for 26 years.
John Frank, MD, CCFP, MSc, FRCPC, FCAHS, FFPH, FRSE, LLD (born 1949) is a Canadian epidemiologist.
John Graunt (24 April 1620 – 18 April 1674) was one of the first demographers, though by profession he was a haberdasher.
Sir John Gray Knt MD JP, sometimes spelled John Grey (13 July 1815 – 9 April 1875) was an Irish physician, surgeon, newspaper proprietor, journalist and politician.
Dr John Greenwood Shipman (1848 – 20 October 1918) was an English barrister and Liberal Party politician.
John Henryism (JH) is a strategy for coping with prolonged exposure to stresses such as social discrimination by expending high levels of effort which results in accumulating physiological costs.
John Laing Leal (May 5, 1858 – March 13, 1914) was a physician and water treatment expert who, in 1908, was responsible for conceiving and implementing the first disinfection of a U.S. drinking water supply using chlorine.
John Murray Last (born 1926) is an Emeritus Professor at the University of Ottawa, is a preeminent Canadian public health scholar, prolific author, scientist and teacher whose reference texts are used by schools of public health as well as community medicine and epidemiology practitioners throughout the world.
Prof John James Rickard Macleod, FRS FRSE LLD (6 September 1876 – 16 March 1935) was a Scottish biochemist and physiologist.
The John Scott Farm is a historic farmstead near the community of Shandon, Ohio, United States.
John Simeon Colebrook Elkington (1871–1955) a leading advocate of public health in Australia.
Sir John Simon KCB, FRS, FRCS (10 October 1816 – 23 July 1904) was an English pathologist, surgeon and public health officer.
John Snow (15 March 1813 – 16 June 1858) was an English physician and a leader in the adoption of anesthesia and medical hygiene.
John Snow, Inc. (JSI) is a public health research and consulting firm in the United States and around the world.
John Yudkin FRSC (8 August 1910 – 12 July 1995) was a British physiologist and nutritionist, and the founding Professor of the Department of Nutrition at Queen Elizabeth College, London.
The Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics in Baltimore, Maryland, United States, is an independent, interdisciplinary center serving the entire Johns Hopkins University and Health System.
The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (JHSPH) is part of Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, United States.
Jonathan Evan Fielding M.D., M.P.H., M.A., M.B.A. (born 1942) is the former director and health officer of the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health.
Jonathan Max Mann (July 30, 1947 – September 2, 1998) was an American physician who was an administrator for the World Health Organization, and spearheaded early AIDS research in the 1980s.
José Esparza is a Venezuelan American virologist who lives in the USA.
José Gomes Temporão (born 20 October 1951) is a Brazilian public health physician and politician, formerly of the Brazilian Democratic Movement Party, who later joined the Brazilian Socialist Party.
Dr.José Luis Gilarranz (1954, Madrid - Feb. 20, 2009) was a key figure in the development of rapid deployment systems for use in medical emergencies.
On Tuesday, September 11, 1973, a military coup was staged against Chilean President Salvador Allende.
Josef F. "Joe" Schmid, M.D., MPH is a NASA flight surgeon and a Major General in the United States Air Force Reserves.
Joseph James Kinyoun MD (November 25, 1860 – February 14, 1919) was founder and first director 1887–1899 of the United States' Hygienic Laboratory, the predecessor of the National Institutes of Health.
Joseph W. Willard (born 1917 in Hamilton, Ontario) was a Canadian politician, economist and civil servant in the public health field.
Josephine Nambooze MBChB, DMCH, MPH, is a Ugandan physician, public health specialist, academic, and medical researcher.
The Journal of Applied Biomedicine is a peer-reviewed medical journal published quarterly by the University of South Bohemia.
The Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health is a peer-reviewed public health journal that covers all aspects of epidemiology and public health.
The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries is a monthly peer-reviewed open-access medical journal that covers the biomedical area related to infectious diseases, especially in developing countries.
The Journal of International Cooperation (JIC), is an open access peer-reviewed scientific journal published biannually by the Taiwan International Cooperation Alliance (TICA), and sponsored by the International Cooperation and Development Fund (Taiwan ICDF).
The Journal of Public Health is a quarterly peer-reviewed public health journal.
The Journal of Public Health Management & Practice (JPHMP) is a bimonthly peer-reviewed public health journal published by Wolters Kluwer, which was established in 1995.
The Journal of Public Health Policy is a peer-reviewed medical journal established in 1980 by Milton Terris.
The Journal of Religion and Health is an interdisciplinary peer-reviewed academic journal published by Springer Science+Business Media.
The Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics is the monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics published by Elsevier.
The Journal of Urban Health is a bimonthly peer-reviewed public health journal covering epidemiology and public health in urban areas.
Joy Louise Johnson is a Canadian nurse and medical researcher.
Minnie Joycelyn Elders (born Minnie Lee Jones; August 13, 1933) is an American pediatrician and public health administrator.
JSS Medical College (JSSMC) is a medical college based in Mysore, Karnataka, India.
Juan Jose Battle (born 1968) is an academic, author, activist, and feminist.
Juan Manuel Galán Pachón (born 29 July 1972) is a Colombian politician, currently serving as Senator of Colombia since 2006.
Judith Andre is a philosophy professor (retired) and virtue theorist.
Judith Mary Lumley had a career as an academic, author, public health advocate and perinatal researcher, retiring as Professor Emerita at La Trobe University in December 2008.
Judith Peixotto Sulzberger (December 27, 1923 – February 21, 2011, nytimes.com, February 22, 2011.) was an American physician and philanthropist.
Judith Walzer Leavitt (born July 22, 1940) is an American historian.
Julian Parkhill (born 1964) FRS is a Head of Pathogen Genomics at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and an Honorary Professor of Microbial Genomics at the University of Cambridge.
Julieta Lanteri (March 22, 1873 — February 25, 1932) was an Italian Argentine physician, leading freethinker, and activist for women's rights in Argentina as well as for social reform generally.
Julius Tandler (February 16, 1869 – August 25, 1936) was an Austrian physician and Social Democratic politician.
The July Monarchy (Monarchie de Juillet) was a liberal constitutional monarchy in France under Louis Philippe I, starting with the July Revolution of 1830 and ending with the Revolution of 1848.
Junk food is a pejorative term for food containing a large number of calories from sugar or fat with little fibre, protein, vitamins or minerals.
The expression junk science is used to describe scientific data, research, or analysis considered by the person using the phrase to be spurious or fraudulent.
K.S. Hegde Medical Academy (KSHEMA) is a medical college in Deralakatte, near the city of Mangalore.
Kalamazoo County is a county located in the U.S. state of Michigan.
Kalkaska County is a county located in the U.S. state of Michigan.
Kalman Jacob Mann (קלמן יעקב מן) (5 July 1912 – 14 March 1997) was an Israeli physician specializing in pulmonology, and the eighth and longest-serving director general of the Hadassah Medical Organization.
Kamala Nehru Memorial Hospital (KNMH) is a not-for-profit hospital in Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Kampala International University School of Health Sciences (KIUSHS), is the school of health sciences of Kampala International University, a private Ugandan university.
Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh (born November 11, 1963) is an American physician doing research in nephrology, nutrition, and epidemiology.
Kandathil Sebastian is the author of two bestselling novels: Dolmens in the Blue Mountain (2013) and Wisdom of the White Mountain (2014).
Karen Patricia Buck (born 30 August 1958) is a British Labour Party politician who has been a Member of Parliament (MP) since 1997, firstly for Regent's Park and Kensington North until 2010, and for Westminster North after that.
Karen Witten is a New Zealand public health academic.
Karl Friedrich Meyer (19 May 1884 – 27 April 1974) was an American scientist of Swiss origin.
Karla Paula Ginteroy Henry (born May 23, 1986 in Limay, Bataan, Philippines) is a Filipino-Canadian beauty pageant titleholder.
Kasturi Rajadhyaksha (1923/1924 – 7 February 2010), often referred to as Dr.
Katharine Bement Davis (January 15, 1860 – December 10, 1935) was an American progressive era social reformer and criminologist who became the first woman to head a major New York City agency when she was appointed Correction Commissioner on January 1, 1914.
Kathleen Gertrud Ferrier (born March 8, 1957) is a former Dutch politician of Surinamese descent and development aid worker.
Kathleen I. Pritchard, is the head of oncology at Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre in Toronto, Canada, specializing in breast cancer therapies, and leading the clinical trials division of the centre.
Kay-Tee Khaw, (born 14 October 1950) is a British physician and academic, specialising in the maintenance of health in later life and the causes and prevention of chronic diseases.
Cornelis Gerrit "Kees" van der Staaij (born 12 September 1968) is a Dutch politician serving as a member of the House of Representatives since 1998 and Leader of the Reformed Political Party (Staatkundig Gereformeerde Partij) since 2010.
Kelli Ward (née Kaznoski; born January 25, 1969) is an American politician and osteopathic physician.
Kelly David Brownell (born October 31, 1951) is a clinical psychologist and scholar known for his work on obesity and food policy.
Kenneth John (Ken) Harvey AM is an Australian public health doctor, currently adjunct Associate Professor at the School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine at Monash University.
Kenneth S. Warren (June 11, 1929 – September 18, 1996) was an American scientist, physician, educator and public health advocate.
Kent County is a county in the U.S. state of Michigan.
The Kent State University College of Public Health was established in 2009.
Kent is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio and the largest city in Portage County.
Kerala is a state in South India on the Malabar Coast.
Professor Kerryn Lyndel Phelps (born 14 December 1957) is an Australian medical practitioner and politician.
Kevin M. De Cock, M.D., F.R.C.P. (UK), D.T.M. & H., is Director of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) country mission in Kenya.
Kevin Andrew Fenton FFPH (born 19 December 1966)"Kevin Fenton." Contemporary Black Biography.
Keweenaw County is a county in the Upper Peninsula of the U.S. state of Michigan, the state's northernmost county.
KH Coder is an open source software for computer assisted qualitative data analysis, particularly quantitative content analysis and text mining.
Khairpur Medical College is a public medical institution located in the city of Khairpur, Sindh, Pakistan.
Khawaja Muhammad Safdar Medical College (Formerly Sialkot Medical College) is a public sector Medical College in Sialkot, Pakistan.
Khulisa Management Services (Pty) Ltd is a smallor medium sized business founded in 1993 in South Africa Khulisa's core business is research, monitoring and evaluation (M&E) with a focus on education, public health and social development sectors.
Khyber Medical College (خیبر طبی کالج, د خیبر طب پوهنځی) is a leading public medical institution located in the city of Peshawar, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
King Edward Medical University (جامعہ طبی کنگ ایڈورڈ) is a medical university located in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
Kingman Island (also known as Burnham Barrier) and Heritage Island are islands in Northeast and Southeast Washington, D.C., in the Anacostia River.
Kingman Lake is a artificial lake located in the Anacostia River in Washington, D.C., in the United States.
Kingman Park is a residential neighborhood in the Northeast quadrant of Washington, D.C., the capital city of the United States.
A kitchen is a room or part of a room used for cooking and food preparation in a dwelling or in a commercial establishment.
Klaus Hurrelmann (born 1944) is Professor of Public Health and Education at the Hertie School of Governance in Berlin, Germany.
A knowledge broker is an intermediary (an organization or a person), that aims to develop relationships and networks with, among, and between producers and users of knowledge by providing linkages, knowledge sources, and in some cases knowledge itself, (e.g. technical know-how, market insights, research evidence) to organizations in its network.
Knowledge Ecology International (KEI) is a non-governmental organization.
Knowledge management (KM) is the process of creating, sharing, using and managing the knowledge and information of an organisation.
Knowledge translation (KT) is the umbrella term for all of the activities involved in moving research from the laboratory, the research journal, and the academic conference into the hands of people and organizations who can put it to practical use.
Kohl (كُحْل) is an ancient eye cosmetic, traditionally made by grinding stibnite (Sb2S3) for similar purposes to charcoal used in mascara.
Korean Oriental Pharmacists (Han-Yak-Sa, Hangul: 한약사, Hanja: 韓藥師) are a licensed healthcare professionals who take charge of various pharmaceutical affairs like the manufacturing, preparation, identification, storage, importation, sales of drugs and other pharmaceutical technologies in the Republic of Korea.
Kristin Shrader-Frechette (born 1944) is O'Neill Family Professor, Department of Biological Sciences and Department of Philosophy, at the University of Notre Dame.
Krystal Lee Muccioli (born 1989) is an American beauty pageant titleholder who was crowned Miss New Hampshire 2010 and was a contestant in the Miss America 2011 pageant.
Lachlan Grant (1871-1945), was a doctor, medical scientist, general practitioner and occupational physician.
Laci Green (born October 18, 1989) is an American YouTuber.
The Lackawanna Steel Company was an American steel manufacturing company that existed as an independent company from 1840 to 1922, and as a subsidiary of the Bethlehem Steel company from 1922 to 1983.
A lactation consultant is a health professional who specializes in the clinical management of breastfeeding.
Ladislav Rakovac (December 6, 1847 – April 14, 1906) was a Croatian physician.
Laetitia Charmaine Rispel is a South African Professor of Public Health at the University of the Witwatersrand.
Lake County is a county located in the U.S. state of Michigan.
The Lalonde Report is a 1974 report produced in Canada formally titled A new perspective on the health of Canadians.
Lancaster University Management School (LUMS) is the business school of Lancaster University in Lancaster, England.
Municipal solid waste (MSW) – more commonly known as trash or garbage – consists of everyday items people use and then throw away, such as product packaging, grass clippings, furniture, clothing, bottles, food scraps and papers.
Lankenau Institute for Medical Research (LIMR) is an independent, nonprofit biomedical research center located in suburban Philadelphia, U.S., on the campus of Lankenau Medical Center.
Lapeer County is a county located in the U.S. state of Michigan.
Laskey, Jaggard and Brown v. United Kingdom is a case that was argued before the European Court of Human Rights, which ruled in February 1997, that no violation of Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights occurred.
Lassa fever, also known as Lassa hemorrhagic fever (LHF), is a type of viral hemorrhagic fever caused by the Lassa virus.
Laurie Monnes Anderson (born December 31, 1945) is an Oregon Democratic politician who currently serves in the Oregon Senate, representing District 25 in eastern Multnomah County, Oregon, including parts of the cities of Fairview, Gresham, Troutdale, and Wood Village.
Law enforcement in Cuba is the responsibility of the National Revolutionary Police Force (Policía Nacional Revolucionaria, PNR) under the administration of the Cuban Ministry of the Interior.
Law enforcement in Japan is provided by the Prefectural Police under the oversight of the National Police Agency or NPA.
Lawrence Peter King (born 20 October 1966) is a professor of economics at the University Of Massachusetts.
Leading University (লিডিং বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়) or LU is a private university of Bangladesh.
The Lebanese University (Université libanaise, الجامعة اللبنانية) is the only public institution for higher learning in Lebanon.
Lee Jong-wook (12 April 1945 – 22 May 2006) was a Korean public health doctor.
Leelanau County is a county located in the U.S. state of Michigan.
Legal drug trade, as with other goods object of commerce, in opposition to smuggling or ''illegal'' drug trade, most psychotropic substances' commerce is under control and taxation by world governments, regardless of the relative perceived danger of the goods that are the object of legislation.
Legionnaires' disease is a form of atypical pneumonia caused by any type of Legionella bacteria.
Leona Baumgartner (August 18, 1902 – January 15, 1991) was an American physician.
Leonard D. White, M.D. was a late 19th-century physician and one of the Health Officers in Massachusetts who was involved with the earliest study of mosquitoes and malaria and efforts for community prevention of malaria.
Leroy Edgar Burney (December 31, 1906 – July 31, 1998) was an American physician and public health official.
Leslie Ramsammy (doctor) is a minister of agriculture in Guyana.
Lester Breslow (March 17, 1915, in Bismarck, ND, United States – April 9, 2012, in Los Angeles) was an American physician who promoted public health.
Let's Move! was a public health campaign in the United States, led by Michelle Obama, wife of then-President Barack Obama.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons in Cyprus may face legal challenges not experienced by non-LGBT residents.
The Philippines is ranked as one of the most gay-friendly nations in Asia.
LGBT rights organizations are civil rights, health, and community organizations created and existing to further the civil and human rights and health of sexual minorities and to improve the LGBT community.
Sir Liam Joseph Donaldson FMedSci (born 3 May 1949, Middlesbrough, England, UK) is a British doctor and the current Chancellor of Newcastle University.
The life course approach, also known as the life course perspective or life course theory, refers to an approach developed in the 1960s for analyzing people's lives within structural, social, and cultural contexts.
Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.
In actuarial science and demography, a life table (also called a mortality table or actuarial table) is a table which shows, for each age, what the probability is that a person of that age will die before his or her next birthday ("probability of death").
The LifeStraw is a water filter designed to be used by one person to filter water for drinking.
Light pollution, also known as photopollution, is the presence of anthropogenic light in the night environment.
Likoma Island is the larger of two inhabited islands in Lake Malawi (also known as Lake Nyasa), in East Africa, the smaller being the nearby Chizumulu.
Lillian Herald South Tye (January 31, 1879 – September 13, 1966) was an American physician from Bowling Green, Kentucky, who specialized in public health.
Lillian J. B. Thomas Fox (November 1854 – August 29, 1917) was an African American journalist, clubwoman, public speaker, and civic activist in Indianapolis, Indiana, who rose to prominence in the 1880s and 1890s as a writer for the Indianapolis Freeman, a leading national black newspaper at the time.
Limor Blockman(born February 10, 1977), also known as Dr.
Lin Chieh-liang (Chinese: 林杰樑, 30 June 1958 – 5 August 2013) was a Taiwanese physician, nephrologist and toxicologist.
Lin Ruey-shiung (born 17 December 1938) is a Taiwanese academic and professor in public health.
Lincoln Hospital is a full service medical center and teaching hospital affiliated with Weill Cornell Medical College, in the South Bronx area of the Bronx, New York City.
Linda Rosenstock is a public health specialist and administrator.
Linda Ellen Saltzman (September 8, 1949 – March 9, 2005) was an American public health researcher who worked at the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) from 1984 until her death in 2005.
Linda Geertruida Johanna Voortman (born 27 June 1979 in Enschede) is a Dutch politician and former trade unionist.
The linear no-threshold model (LNT) is a model used in radiation protection to quantify radiation exposure and set regulatory limits.
Surgeon Rear Admiral Lionel John Jarvis, CBE KStJ QHS MB BS FRCR MRCS LRCP MIET RCDS DL is a British consultant radiologist.
Lira University (LU) is a university in Uganda.
This page contains a representative list of major databases and search engines useful in an academic setting for finding and accessing articles in academic journals, repositories, archives, or other collections of scientific and other articles.
The following outline is provided as an overview of an topical guide to academic disciplines: An academic discipline or field of study is known as a branch of knowledge.
(Main list of acronyms).
The list of Baylor University people includes notable alumni, faculty, and former students of Baylor University.
This is a list of Brazilian scientists, those born in Brazil or who have established citizenship or residency there.
This list contains the names of the centers and institutes at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania in alphabetical order with their external links.
The following is a list of notable people associated with Colorado College, located in the American city of Colorado Springs, Colorado.
This is a partial list of individuals who have attended Columbia Law School.
This list of Cornell University faculty includes notable current and former instructors and administrators of Cornell University, an Ivy League university located in Ithaca, New York.
This is the list of the fields of doctoral studies in the United States used for the annual Survey of Earned Doctorates, conducted by NORC at the University of Chicago for the National Science Foundation and other federal agencies, as used for the 2015 survey.
This list of notable Florida International University alumni includes alumni, faculty, and presidents of Florida International University in Miami, Florida, which includes 26 colleges and schools.
The list of Harvard University people includes notable graduates, professors, and administrators affiliated with Harvard University.
Most executive governments in the world are divided into departments or ministries.
This list of Howard University people, sometimes known as Bison, includes faculty, staff, graduates, honorary graduates, non-graduate former students and current students of the American Howard University, a private, coeducational, nonsectarian historically black university, located in Washington, D.C.
This is a list of notable Latin American people, in alphabetical order within categories.
This is a list of law enforcement agencies in Canada.
The life sciences or biological sciences comprise the branches of science that involve the scientific study of life and organisms – such as microorganisms, plants, and animals including human beings – as well as related considerations like bioethics.
This list refers to specific master's degrees in North America.
There are only four Medical schools in Bahrain, two of which are part of public universities and another two of which are private universities.
In Pakistan, a medical school is more often referred to as a medical college.
This list of medical specialty colleges in the United States includes medical societies that represent board certified specialist physicians.
The following is a list of the codes for MeSH (Medical Subject Headings), a comprehensive controlled vocabulary for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences; it can also serve as a thesaurus that facilitates searching.
The following is a list of the "G" codes for MeSH.
The following is a list of the "G" codes for MeSH.
The following is a list of the "N" codes for MeSH.
This is a list of articles about notable observed periods (days, weeks, months, and years) declared by various governments, groups and organizations to raise awareness of an issue, commemorate a group or event, or celebrate something.
This list of national public health agencies includes national level organizations responsible for public health, infectious disease control, and epidemiology.
The list of National Taiwan University people includes alumni and prominent faculty and staff.
This is a List Old Boys of Sydney Boys High School, them being notable alumni – known as "Old Boys" of the academically selective Sydney Boys High School, which is located in Moore Park, New South Wales, Australia.
The following is a list of software packages and applications licensed under an open-source license or in the public domain for use in the health care industry.
The London Borough of Richmond upon Thames was created in 1965 when, under the London Government Act 1963, the Municipal Borough of Richmond (Surrey), the Municipal Borough of Barnes (also in Surrey) and the Municipal Borough of Twickenham (in Middlesex) were merged to become a new London borough within Greater London.
Primary Care Trusts were abolished on 31 March 2013 as part of the Health and Social Care Act 2012, with their commissioning work taken over by clinical commissioning groups.
The higher education system in India include both private and public universities.
Specialized agencies are autonomous organizations working with the United Nations and each other through the coordinating machinery of the United Nations Economic and Social Council at the intergovernmental level, and through the Chief Executives Board for coordination (CEB) at the inter-secretariat level.
This is an overview of the regular, recurring, and other characters of the TV series The Last Ship.
This is a list of types of medical therapy, including forms of traditional medicine, alternative medicine, and quackery.
This is a list of notable United States politicians who have a research doctorate.
This is a partial list of notable faculty, alumni and scholars of the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, United States.
The following is a list of notable persons affiliated with the University of Toronto, including alumni, chancellors, presidents, and current and former faculty members.
At Columbia University, the title of University Professor is the highest faculty rank reserved for a small number of its faculty who have made important contributions to their field of study.
This is a list of vaccine-related topics.
Lithuanian University of Health Sciences (Lietuvos sveikatos mokslų universitetas, LSMU) is a medical school in Kaunas, Lithuania.
Little Rock is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Arkansas.
LIVERight is the first 5K run/walk to raise awareness about hepatitis B and liver cancer.
The Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (LSTM) is a higher education institution and registered charity located in Liverpool, United Kingdom.
Livingston County is a county located in the U.S. state of Michigan.
Livingston Farrand (June 14, 1867 – November 8, 1939) was an American physician, anthropologist, psychologist, public health advocate and academic administrator.
Lloyd Charles Elam (October 27, 1928 – October 4, 2008) was an American psychiatrist who served as president of Meharry Medical College from 1968 to 1981.
Local food (local food movement or locavore) is a movement of people who prefer to eat foods which are grown or farmed relatively close to the places of sale and preparation.
The Local Government Board for Ireland was an agency of the Dublin Castle administration that liaised with the various local authorities in Ireland.
Local government in Pennsylvania is government below the state level in Pennsylvania.
A local health department is a government agency in the United States on the front lines of public health.
The Loi du 20 décembre 1988 relative à la protection des personnes qui se prêtent à des recherches biomédicales, also known as the Loi Huriet or Loi Huriet-Sérusclat, is a French civil law to establish the regulation of those working in biomedical research, and to formalise the status quo of bioethics.
Loma Linda University (LLU) is a Seventh-day Adventist coeducational health sciences university located in Loma Linda, California, United States.
The London Borough of Croydon is a London borough in south London, England and is part of Outer London.
The London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine (informally the LSHTM) is a public research university on Keppel Street, Bloomsbury, Camden, London, and specialised in public health and tropical medicine and a constituent college of the University of London.
Loney Clinton Gordon (1915–1999) was an African-American chemist and laboratory researcher who assisted doctors Pearl Kendrick and Grace Eldering with bacteriological virulence research leading to the creation of the pertussis vaccine.
Los Angeles County Department of Health Services (abbreviated DHS and LADHS) operates the public hospitals and clinics in Los Angeles County, and is United States' second largest municipal health system, after NYC Health + Hospitals.
The Los Angeles County Department of Public Health (DPH) provides public health services to Los Angeles County residents.
The Los Angeles County Health Agency is Los Angeles County's consolidated health agency, comprising the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services, the United States' second largest municipal hospital system, Mental Health, the United States' largest municipal mental health system, and Public Health.
In mathematical optimization, statistics, econometrics, decision theory, machine learning and computational neuroscience, a loss function or cost function is a function that maps an event or values of one or more variables onto a real number intuitively representing some "cost" associated with the event.
Dorothy Louise McIntosh Slaughter (August 14, 1929 – March 16, 2018) was an American politician who served as a United States Representative from New York from 1987 until her death in 2018.
Louise Stevens Bryant (1885–1956) was an American public health specialist, writer, editor and publicist.
Love Canal is a neighborhood within Niagara Falls, New York.
Love Gantt, née Hirschmann (29 December 1875 – 16 November 1935), was an American physician.
The low-level equilibrium trap is a concept in economics developed by Richard R. Nelson, in which at low levels of per capita income people are too poor to save and invest much, and this low level of investment results in low rate of growth in national income.
Lowell Jacob Reed (January 8, 1886 – April 29, 1966) was 7th president of the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland.
Luce County is a county located in the Upper peninsula in the U.S. state of Michigan.
Lucien Sophie Albert Marie von Römer (1873–1965) was a Dutch physician, botanist and writer.
Lucius Frederick Hubbard (January 26, 1836February 5, 1913) was an American politician.
Luis Falcón Martín is a Spanish computer scientist, physician and Free Software activist.
Luis Stowell, page 69; retrieved December 11, 2016 Kemnitzer (November 13, 1928 in Pasadena, California, by Marianne Costantinou, at the San Francisco Chronicle; published February 22, 2006; retrieved April 30, 2014– February 17, 2006) was an American anthropologist known for his social and political activism.
Luisa Massimo (22 December 1928 – 5 October 2016) was an Italian pediatrician.
Luther Terry (September 15, 1911March 29, 1985) was an American physician and public health official.
Laurens (Luud) Maria Hendrikus Schimmelpennink (born in Amsterdam, 27 May 1935) is a Dutch social inventor, industrial designer, entrepreneur and politician.
Lynn R. Goldman (born April 24, 1951) is the Dean of the Milken Institute School of Public Health at George Washington University.
Macau, officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory on the western side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
The Macau Centre for Disease Control and Prevention was created in 2001 and is under the Health Bureau of Secretariat for Social Affairs and Culture of the Macau Special Administrative Region, People's Republic of China.
Mackinac County is a county in the Upper Peninsula of the U.S. state of Michigan.
Madelon Lubin Finkel is Professor of Healthcare Policy and Research and Director Office of Global Health Education at Weill Cornell Medical College in New York City.
Mahamane Kalil Maiga (born 26 May 1948) is a Malian scientist and politician.
Maharaj Kishan Bhan is an Indian pediatrician and clinical scientist.
The Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences (MGIMS) is India’s first rural medical college, nestled in the karmabhoomi of Mahatma Gandhi, in Sevagram.
Mahidol Adulyadej, Prince of Songkla (สมเด็จเจ้าฟ้ามหิดลอดุลยเดช กรมหลวงสงขลานครินทร์) or Mahidol Adulyadej the Prince Father (สมเด็จพระมหิตลาธิเบศร อดุลยเดชวิกรม พระบรมราชชนก, 1 January 1892 – 24 September 1929) or Mahidol Songkla was the father of King Ananda Mahidol (Rama VIII) and King Bhumibol Adulyadej (Rama IX) of Thailand.
Mahvash and Jahangir Siddiqui Foundation is a charitable, non-partisan, non-profit organization run by several board members and staff, operating as a trust.
The Makerere University School of Medicine (MUSM), also known as the Makerere University Medical School, is the school of medicine of Makerere University, Uganda's oldest and largest public university.
Makram Nasri Kaiser, 1930-1996, was a medical and veterinary acarologist who was the world's leading authority on ticks of the genus Hyalomma.
The Malaria Atlas Project, abbreviated as MAP, is a non-profit project funded primarily by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the Medical Research Council and the Wellcome Trust.
Mamphela Aletta Ramphele (born 28 December 1947) is a South African politician, a former activist against apartheid, a medical doctor, an academic and businesswoman.
MUT Al-Manar University of Tripoli; جامعة المنار في طرابلس), also known as the Rashid Karami Institution for Higher Education, is a private accredited university located in Tripoli, Lebanon. The university was founded on 15 November 1990 by Presidential Decree No. 720.
Manchester Statistical Society is a learned society founded in 1833 in Manchester, England.
Manistee County is a county located in the U.S. state of Michigan.
Manuel A. Pérez (December 2, 1890 - May 7, 1951) was a Puerto Rican teacher and public service that made several contributions to various fields of the Public Administration during his career.
María Julia Muñoz (born February 3, 1950) is a Uruguayan doctor in medicine and politician.
Marc B. Schenker, MD, MPH, is a professor of Public Health Sciences and Medicine at the University of California, Davis and the director of the Migration and Health Research Center (MAHRC).