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Division, 4th Ukrainian Front, 4th World Scout Jamboree, 5/42 Evzone Regiment, 502nd Heavy Panzer Battalion, 509th Heavy Panzer Battalion, 50th Army (Soviet Union), 50th Rifle Corps, 50th Rifle Division (Soviet Union), 51st (Highland) Division, 51st Army (Russia), 51st Rifle Corps (Soviet Union), 52nd Army (Soviet Union), 52nd Rifle Corps, 52nd Rifle Division, 52nd Rocket Division, 53rd Army (Soviet Union), 53rd Rifle Corps, 53rd Rifle Division (Soviet Union), 54th Army (Soviet Union), 54th Guards Rifle Division, 54th Rifle Division (Soviet Union), 55th Army (Soviet Union), 55th Fighter Squadron, 55th Guards Rifle Division, 55th Rifle Division (Soviet Union), 561st Volksgrenadier Division (Wehrmacht), 562nd Grenadier Division (Wehrmacht), 56th Army (Soviet Union), 56th Guards District Training Center, 56th Rifle Division (Soviet Union), 57 mm anti-tank gun M1943 (ZiS-2), 57th Army (Soviet Union), 57th Cavalry Division (Soviet Union), 57th Rifle Division (RSFSR), 57th Rifle Division (Soviet Union), 58th Army (Russia), 59th Army (Soviet Union), 59th Guards Motor Rifle Division, 59th Rifle Division (Soviet Union), 5th Alpini Regiment, 5th Anti-Aircraft Artillery Division (Soviet Union), 5th Cavalry Corps (Soviet Union), 5th Guards Anti-Aircraft Artillery Division, 5th Guards Army, 5th Guards Motor Rifle Division, 5th Guards Rifle Division, 5th Guards Tank Army, 5th Infantry Division (Poland), 5th Jäger Division (Wehrmacht), 5th Legions' Infantry Regiment, 5th Mechanised Corps (Soviet Union), 5th Parachute Brigade (United Kingdom), 5th Red Banner Army, 5th Rifle Corps, 5th Rifle Division (Poland), 5th Rifle Division (Soviet Union), 5th Shock Army, 5th Tank Army, 6-inch siege gun M1904, 60th Army (Soviet Union), 60th Infantry Division (Poland), 61st Army (Soviet Union), 61st Cavalry Division (Soviet Union), 61st Rifle Corps, 62nd Army (Soviet Union), 62nd Rifle Corps, 62nd Rifle Division (Soviet Union), 63rd Army (Soviet Union), 63rd Rifle Corps, 64th Anti-Aircraft Artillery Division (Soviet Union), 64th Guards Rifle Division, 65th Anti-Aircraft Artillery Division (Soviet Union), 65th Rifle Division, 66th Army (Soviet Union), 66th Division, 66th Rifle Corps, 67th Anti-Aircraft Artillery Division (Soviet Union), 67th Army (Soviet Union), 67th Guards Rifle Division, 67th Rifle Corps, 67th Rifle Division, 68th Army (Soviet Union), 69th Anti-Aircraft Artillery Division (Soviet Union), 69th Army (Soviet Union), 69th Fortress Brigade (Russia), 69th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht), 69th Rifle Corps, 69th Rifle Division (Soviet Union), 6th Airlanding Brigade (United Kingdom), 6th Alpini Regiment, 6th Armored Division (United States), 6th Army (RSFSR), 6th Army (Soviet Union), 6th Army (Wehrmacht), 6th Cavalry Corps (Soviet Union), 6th Cavalry Division (Soviet Union), 6th Guards Airborne Division, 6th Guards Army, 6th Guards Tank Army, 6th Guards Tank Brigade, 6th Rifle Corps, 6th Rifle Division (Soviet Union), 6th SS Police Regiment, 7.5 cm Pak 40, 7.62 cm Pak 36(r), 70r Red Army Soldier error, 70th Anti-Aircraft Artillery Division (Soviet Union), 70th Army (Soviet Union), 70th Guards Rifle Division, 70th Rifle Division, 711th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht), 71st Anti-Aircraft Artillery Division (Soviet Union), 72nd Anti-Aircraft Artillery Division (Soviet Union), 73rd Anti-Aircraft Artillery Division (Soviet Union), 73rd Infantry Division (Wehrmacht), 74th Anti-Aircraft Artillery Division (Soviet Union), 74th Guards Rifle Division, 75th Cavalry Division (Soviet Union), 75th Guards Rifle Division, 76 mm air defense gun M1938, 76 mm divisional gun M1902, 76 mm divisional gun M1902/30, 76 mm divisional gun M1933, 76 mm divisional gun M1936 (F-22), 76 mm divisional gun M1939 (USV), 76 mm divisional gun M1942 (ZiS-3), 76 mm gun M1900, 761st Tank Battalion (United States), 76th Anti-Aircraft Artillery Division (Soviet Union), 76th Rifle Division (Soviet Union), 77th Guards Rifle Division, 78th Infantry Division (United Kingdom), 78th Rifle Division (Soviet Union), 798 Art Zone, 79th Guards Rifle Division, 79th Rifle Corps, 7th Armored Division (United States), 7th Army (RSFSR), 7th Army (Soviet Union), 7th Guards Army (Soviet Union), 7th Guards Cavalry Corps, 7th Guards Mountain Air Assault Division, 7th Guards Tank Division, 7th Lublin Uhlan Regiment, 7th Mechanized Corps (Soviet Union), 7th Rifle Corps, 7th Rifle Division (Soviet Union), 7th SS Volunteer Mountain Division Prinz Eugen, 80th Rifle Division (Soviet Union), 81st Cavalry Division (Soviet Union), 81st Guards Rifle Division, 81st Rifle Division, 82nd Guards Rifle Division, 84th Division (United States), 84th Punjabis, 85th Motor Rifle Division, 85th Rifle Corps, 86th Rifle Corps, 86th Rifle Division (Soviet Union), 87th Guards Rifle Division, 87th Rifle Corps, 87th Rifle Division (Soviet Union), 88th Division (Imperial Japanese Army), 89th Rifle Division (Soviet Union), 8th Army (RSFSR), 8th Army (Soviet Union), 8th Estonian Rifle Corps, 8th Guards Airborne Division, 8th Guards Army (Russia), 8th Guards Motor Rifle Division, 8th Jäger Division (Wehrmacht), 8th Mechanized Corps (Soviet Union), 8th Rifle Division, 8th Siberian Rifle Division (Russian Empire), 8th Tank Army, 90th Anniversary of the Estonian Republic, 90th Guards Lvov Tank Division (1985–1997), 90th Guards Rifle Division, 91st Division (Imperial Japanese Army), 91st Motor Rifle Division, 91st Rifle Division, 93rd Infantry Division (Wehrmacht), 93rd Mechanized Brigade (Ukraine), 95th Rifle Division, 96th Rifle Division, 97th Cavalry Division (Soviet Union), 97th Guards Mechanized Brigade (Ukraine), 97th Jäger Division (Wehrmacht), 99th Guards Rifle Division, 99th Rifle Division (Soviet Union), 9K34 Strela-3, 9th Army (RSFSR), 9th Army (Soviet Union), 9th Guards Army, 9th Infantry Division (Poland), 9th Lesser Poland Uhlan Regiment, 9th Mechanized Corps (Soviet Union), 9th Mountain Division (Wehrmacht), 9th Tank Division (Soviet Union). 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A Cloud in Pants (Облако в штанах, Oblako v shtanakh) is a poem by Vladimir Mayakovsky written in 1914 and first published in 1915 by Osip Brik.
A Driver for Vera (Водитель для Веры, Voditel dlya Very) is a Ukrainian-Russian co-produced psychological drama film from 2004, set in 1962 Sevastopol, Ukraine, directed and written by Russian Pavel Chukhrai.
A German Requiem is a historical detective novel and the last in the Berlin Noir trilogy of Bernhard Günther novels written by Philip Kerr.
A Woman in Berlin (Eine Frau in Berlin) (1959/2003) is an anonymous memoir by a German woman, revealed in 2003 to be journalist Marta Hillers.
A Woman in Berlin (Anonyma - Eine Frau in Berlin), known as The Downfall of Berlin Anonyma in the UK, is a 2008 German film directed by Max Färberböck, starring Nina Hoss and Eugeny Sidikhin.
The Arkhangelsk-Astrakhan line, or A-A line for short, was the military goal of Operation Barbarossa.
A-IX-2 (or hexal) is a Russian explosive used in modern Russian military shells.
Alan John Percivale Taylor (25 March 1906 – 7 September 1990) was an English historian who specialised in 19th- and 20th-century European diplomacy.
The AAC-1937, which means Auto Ametralladora blindado medio Chevrolet-1937, also known as Chevrolet 1937, was an armored car developed and built in Catalonia.
Aaron Davidovich Katz (Аарон Давидович Кац; 1901 – 1971) was a Major General in the Red Army and a member of the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee (JAC).
Aşağı Ağcakənd (also known as Ashagi Agchakand, Ashagy Agdzhakend, Nerkishen, Nizhniy Agdzhakend, Novo Agdzhakend, Shahoumian, Shahumyan, Shaumyan (Շահումյան), and Shaumyanovsk) is a village in the Goranboy Rayon of Azerbaijan.
Abbas Shahbaz oglu Guliyev (15 September 1916 – 30 December 1998) was an Azerbaijani Red Army captain and Hero of the Soviet Union.
The Abbots' Palace in Oliwa (Pałac Opatów w Oliwie) is a rococo palace in Oliwa, a quarter of Gdańsk (Danzig).
Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicated as German Emperor and King of Prussia in November 1918.
Abdul Ali Mazari (عبدلعلی مزاری) (1947 – March 1995) was the political leader of the Hizb-i-Wahdat party during and following the Soviet-Afghan War.
Abdulhamid Bey Sharif Bey oglu Gaytabashi (Əbdülhəmid bəy Şərif bəy oğlu Qaytabaşı; 1884 - June, 1920) was the last Chief of General Staff of Azerbaijani Armed Forces of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic before its occupation by the Red Army in April 1920.
Abdulkhakim Ismailov (1 July 1916 – 17 February 2010) was a Soviet soldier within the Soviet Union's Red Army during World War II.
Alişev Ğabdullacan Ğäbdelbari ulı (pronounced; Tatar Cyrillic: Алишев Габдуллаҗан Габделбари улы; Алишев Габдуллазян Габдулбариевич, Alishev Gabdullazyan Gabdulbarievich), best known as Abdulla Aliş (Cyrillic: Абдулла Алиш, also anglicized as Abdulla Alish) was a Soviet Tatar poet, playwright, writer and resistance fighter.
Abdullah Yousef el-Tell (عبدالله التل, 17 July 1918–1973) served in the Transjordanian Arab Legion during the 1948 war in Palestine rising from the rank of company commander to become Military Governor of the Old City of Jerusalem.
Abdullahi Ahmed Irro (Cabdullaahi Axmed Cirro, عبد الله أحمد إرو), also known as Abdullahi Ahmad Yousef Irro,ARR: Arab report and record, (Economic Features, ltd.: 1978), p.602.
Abdurauf Fitrat (sometimes spelled Abdulrauf Fitrat or Abdurrauf Fitrat) (Abdurauf Fitrat / Абдурауф Фитрат) (1886 – 4 October 1938) was an author, journalist and politician in Central Asia under Russian and Soviet rule.
Abdurrahman Fatalibeyli (birth surname Dudanginski, (Абдулрахман Фаталибейли-Дудангинский, Ədrürrəhman bəy Fətəlibəyli-Düdənginski) or Abo Alioglu Fatalibeyli-Dudanginsky Або Алиевич Дудангинский / Əbo Əliyeviç Düdənginski), born Abo Dudanginski (June 12, 1908, Dudanga – November 1954, Munich) was a Soviet army major who defected to the German forces during World War II.
Abram A. Slutskin (1881–1950) was a Russian scientist and professor who had a major role in shaping radio science in the Soviet Union.
Abram Aronovich Slutsky (Абра́м Аро́нович Слу́цкий) (July 1898 - 17 February 1938, Moscow) headed the Soviet foreign intelligence service (INO), then part of the NKVD, from May 1935 to February 1938.
The Abwehr was the German military intelligence service for the Reichswehr and Wehrmacht from 1920 to 1945.
The Academic Gymnasium Danzig (Akademisches Gymnasium Danzig, Gdańskie Gimnazjum Akademickie), was a school founded in Danzig (formerly in Royal Prussia and now Gdańsk, Poland) It was founded in 1558 by Johann Hoppe (1512–1565), who had previously worked at schools in Culm (Chełmno) and Elbing (Elbląg) until Catholic Prince-Bishop Stanislaus Hosius closed them.
Adam Hjalmar Egede-Nissen (b. 29 June 1868 in Levanger, d. 4 April 1953 in Bærum, Akershus), a Norwegian postmaster and politician, began his political career in the Liberal Party and was first elected to the Storting (parliament) in 1900.
Major Adam Lazarowicz (noms de guerre "Klamra", "Pomorski", "Zygmunt", "Jadzik", "Aleksander", 1902 – March 1, 1951) was a Polish military officer who played a prominent role in the Polish resistance movement in the German-occupied Poland in the Second World War.
Adam Solski (born January 4, 1895) was a soldier of Polish Legions in World War I, participant in the Polish–Soviet War, and major of the Polish Army in the interwar period.
Adil Guseyn oglu Guliyev (22 November 192216 December 1992) was an Azerbaijani Soviet Air Force colonel and a Hero of the Soviet Union.
Adlerhorst (Eagle's eyrie) was a World War II bunker complex in Germany, located in the rural area of Langenhain-Ziegenberg, Wiesental Wetterau and Kransberg in the Taunus mountains in the state of Hesse.
Adlertag ("Eagle Day") was the first day of Unternehmen Adlerangriff ("Operation Eagle Attack"), which was the codename of a military operation by Nazi Germany's Luftwaffe (German air force) to destroy the British Royal Air Force (RAF).
During its existence from 1919 to 1991, the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic consisted of many administrative divisions.
The Admiral Makarov National University of Shipbuilding in Mykolaiv is a higher education institution which trains specialists for the shipbuilding and allied industries of Ukraine.
Adolf Cardinal Bertram (14 March 1859 – 6 July 1945) was archbishop of Breslau (now Wrocław, Poland) and a cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church.
Adolf "Adi" Dassler (3 November 1900 – 6 September 1978) was a German cobbler and entrepreneur who founded the German sportswear company Adidas, and the younger brother of Rudolf Dassler, founder of Puma.
Otto Adolf Eichmann (19 March 1906 – 1 June 1962) was a German Nazi SS-Obersturmbannführer (lieutenant colonel) and one of the major organizers of the Holocaust.
Adolf Hamann (3 September 1885 – 30 December 1945) was a German general.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Adolf Eduard Trowitz (24 September 1893 – 3 January 1978) was a German general (Generalmajor) in the Wehrmacht during World War II who commanded several divisions.
Adolfas Ramanauskas codename Vanagas (March 6, 1918 – November 29, 1957) was one of the prominent leaders of the Lithuanian partisans.
Adolfas Urbšas (born Kirdonys, Rokiškis municipality, Lithuania 18 August 1900; died 19 May 1973) was an officer in the army of the Independent State of Lithuania and then the Red Army, rising eventually to the rank of Major General.
Adolphe Kégresse (1879, Héricourt, Haute-Saône - 1943) was a French military engineer, inventor of the half-track and dual clutch transmission.
Lieutenant General Sir Adrian Paul Ghislain Carton de Wiart (5 May 1880 – 5 June 1963) was a British Army officer born of Belgian and Irish parents.
Baron Adrian von Fölkersam (20 December 1914 – 21 January 1945) was a German Brandenburger and Waffen-SS officer in World War II.
The Adrianov compass (Компас Адрианова) is a military compass designed by Russian Imperial Army topographist Vladimir Adrianov in 1907.
An aerosani (aerosani, literally 'aerosled') is a type of propeller-driven snowmobile, running on skis, used for communications, mail deliveries, medical aid, emergency recovery and border patrolling in northern Russia, as well as for recreation.
Afanasij Poliszczuk (born 28 April 1903, date of death unknown) was a Ukrainian Soviet military officer, Brigadier General of the Polish Army and a veterinarian.
Afanasy Pavlantyevich Beloborodov (Афанасий Павлантьевич Белобородов; 31 January 1903 – 1 September 1990) was a military commander of the Soviet Army during the Second World War, twice Hero of the Soviet Union and recipient of several other awards.
This article covers the Afghan history between the Taliban's conquest of Kabul and their establishing of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan on 27 September 1996, and the U.S. and U.K. invasion of Afghanistan on 7 October 2001: a period that was part of the Afghan civil war that had started in 1989, and also part of the war (in wider sense) in Afghanistan that had started in 1978.
Aftermath of the Bronze Night refers to the reactions and consequences of the Bronze Night, the controversy and riots in Estonia surrounding the 2007 relocation of the Bronze Soldier of Tallinn, the Soviet World War II memorial in Tallinn.
The Aftermath of World War II was the beginning of an era defined by the decline of all great powers except for the Soviet Union and the United States, and the simultaneous rise of two superpowers: the Soviet Union (USSR) and the United States of America (USA).
Agaponovough (Агапо́ново) is a rural locality (a village) in Smolensky District of Smolensk Oblast, Russia, located north-west of Smolensk.
Ageeda Paavel (sometimes cited as Ageeda-Andrea Paavel) (born 15 August 1930) is an Estonian woman who, as a schoolgirl, on the night of 8 May 1946, together with her school friend Aili Jürgenson, blew up a Soviet war monument (a wooden memorial topped with a star): the preceding monument to the Bronze Soldier in Tallinn.
Aghashirin Agamamed oglu Jafarov (10 July 1906–3 May 1984) was an Azerbaijani Red Army Starshina and a Hero of the Soviet Union.
An agit-train (Russian: агитпоезд) was a locomotive engine with special auxiliary cars outfitted for propaganda purposes by the Bolshevik government of Soviet Russia during the time of the Russian Civil War, War Communism, and the New Economic Policy.
Agitprop (from r, portmanteau of "agitation" and "propaganda") is political propaganda, especially the communist propaganda used in Soviet Russia, that is spread to the general public through popular media such as literature, plays, pamphlets, films, and other art forms with an explicitly political message.
Agnes Miegel (9 March 1879 in Königsberg, East Prussia – 26 October 1964 in Bad Salzuflen, West Germany) was a German author, journalist, and poet.
AGO Flugzeugwerke was a German aircraft manufacturing company from 1911 until 1945.
Aharon Appelfeld (אהרן אפלפלד; born Ervin Appelfeld; February 16, 1932 – January 4, 2018) was an Israeli novelist and Holocaust survivor.
Aharon Meskin (אהרן מסקין, 1898–1974) was an Israeli stage actor.
Ahrensfelde is a municipality in the district of Barnim, in Brandenburg, Germany.
Aiboland (also known as Swedish Estonia and Egeland) is the Estonian Swedish name for the historically Swedish-speaking areas and towns of northern and western Estonia.
Aili Jõgi (née Aili Jürgenson, born 25 May 1931 in Tallinn) is an Estonian schoolgirl who on the night of 8 May 1946, together with her school friend Ageeda Paavel, blew up a Soviet War reburial monument (a wooden memorial topped with a star): the preceding monument to the Bronze Soldier in Tallinn.
An air army was a type of formation of the Soviet Air Forces from 1936 until the dissolution of the USSR in 1991.
The air battle over Niš occurred on 7 November 1944 over Niš, in Serbia, between the Air Forces of the United States and the Soviet Union in World War II due to both countries mistaking the other for Germans.
The Air Defence Battalion (Õhutõrjepataljon; formerly known as the Air Defence Division, Õhutõrjedivisjon) is the Estonian Defence Forces air-defence artillery force which has a supportive military formation role among the Estonian Ground Forces.
The Air Force of the Polish Army (Lotnictwo Wojska Polskiego), unofficially known as the People's Polish Air Force was the name of the Soviet-controlled Polish Air Force in the USSR between 1943 and 1947 created alongside the Polish People's Army (Ludowe Wojsko Polskie), a subordinate to the Red Army.
Allied forces conducted many air raids on Japan during World War II, causing extensive destruction to the country's cities and killing between 241,000 and 900,000 people.
An airlift is the organized delivery of supplies or personnel primarily via military transport aircraft.
Aivar Kuusmaa (born 12 June 1967) is a former Estonian professional basketball player who played mostly at the shooting guard position.
Ajaloo ilu (History of Beauty) is a 1991 novel by Estonian author Viivi Luik, re-issued in 2002 and revised in 2011.
Akhsarbek Magometovich Abaev (Ossetian: Æбати Мæхæмæти фурт Æхсарбег, Russian: Ахсарбек Магометович Абаев; 14 December 1923 – 13 May 1982) was an Ossetian Red Army Sergeant and Hero of the Soviet Union.
Akim Dmitriyevich Samar (Аким Дмитриевич Самар, 1916–1943) was a Soviet poet and novelist regarded as the first Nanai-language writer.
Akseli Anttila (А́ксель Моисее́вич А́нтилла, March 26, 1897 – March 11, 1953) was a Finnish-born Soviet major general of the Red Army.
Aktobe (Ақтөбе, Aqtóbe) is a city on the Ilek River in Kazakhstan.
Al-Qaeda (القاعدة,, translation: "The Base", "The Foundation" or "The Fundament" and alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qæda and sometimes al-Qa'ida) is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national organization founded in 1988.
Alain de Benoist (born 11 December 1943) is a French academic, philosopher, a founder of the Nouvelle Droite (New Right), and head of the French think tank GRECE.
Alapayevsk (Алапа́евск) is a town in Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia, located at the confluence of the Neyva and Alapaikha Rivers.
Harold Alaric Jacob (8 June 1909 – 26 January 1995) was an English writer and journalist.
Albanian–Russian relations are foreign relations between the Republic of Albania and the Russian Federation.
Alberich Rabensteiner, born January 28, 1875, in Villanders, South Tyrol, was a Cistercian monk who practiced at Heiligenkreuz Abbey.
Colonel General Albert Mikhailovich Makashov (Альберт Михайлович Макашóв; born 12 June 1938) is a Russian officer and a nationalist-communist politician.
Albrecht Georg Haushofer (7 January 1903 – 23 April 1945) was a German geographer, diplomat, author and member of the German Resistance to Nazism.
Albrecht von Thaer (2 June 1868 - 23 June 1957) was a German General Staff Officer and authorised representative (''"Generalbevollmächtigter"'') of the last King of Saxony.
Prince Albrecht of Urach (Fürst Albrecht von Urach, Graf von Württemberg; or Albrecht Fürst von Urach.) (18 October 1903 – 11 December 1969) was a German nobleman, artist and wartime author, journalist, linguist and diplomat.
Albrechtsberg Palace or Albrechtsberg Castle (Schloss Albrechtsberg) is a Neoclassical stately home above the Elbe river in the Loschwitz district of Dresden.
Aldershot Military Cemetery is a burial ground for military personnel, or ex-military personnel.
Alexander Geddes (born 1878) was Scottish communist activist.
Aleksander Hendrikson (23 November 1895 – 4 October 1977) was an Estonian Bolshevik and Communist politician who was the chairman of the Executive Committee of Tallinn from September 1945 to March 1961.
Aleksander Konstantin von der Bellen (Александр Фон дер Беллен; born 5 July 1859 in Pskov, died 11 February 1924 in Tallinn; Александр фон дер Беллен), later known as Alexander van der Bellen, and called Sascha by family and friends, was a Russian liberal politician and nobleman.
Major General Aleksander Waszkiewicz (Александр Вашкевич, often transliterated as Vashkevich; 1901–1945) was a Soviet military officer of Polish descent.
Aleksandr Ivanovich Cherepanov (– 6 July 1984) was a Soviet military leader. A peasant's son, Cherepanov served as a junior officer in the Russian Army in World War I and took part in the Russian Civil War and Polish-Soviet War with the Red Army. A 1923 graduate of the Red Army Military Academy, Cherepanov first came to China as a military adviser to Sun Yat-sen's National Revolutionary Army in 1923–1927. He returned as chief military adviser to Chiang Kai-shek's Kuomintang China during the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1938–1939. Appointed a senior instructor at the General Staff Academy after returning from China, he was named commander of the 23rd Army in 1941 and promoted to lieutenant-general in 1943. A member of the Allied Control Commission in Bulgaria in 1944–1947 and the commission's chairman in 1947, he returned to the Soviet Union to become deputy chief in the Department of Military Colleges of the USSR Ministry of Defense in 1948–1955.
Aleksandr Konstantinovich Grave (September 8, 1920 – March 5, 2010) was a Russian actor with a long and distinguished career who played over 150 roles at the Vakhtangov Theatre in Moscow.
Aleksandr Kuzmich Ivanov-Sukharevsky (Александр Кузьмич Иванов-Сухаревский; born 26 July 1950 in Rostov-on-Don, Russian SFSR) is a far right politician in Russia who is the leader of the Peoples National Party (NNP).
Aleksandr Anatolyevich Kosmodemyansky (Алекса́ндр Анато́льевич Космодемья́нский; July 27, 1925 – April 13, 1945) was a first lieutenant and a hero of the Soviet Union, who was bestowed this title posthumously after having been killed during World War II during the capture of the settlement of Vierbrüderkrug, in the Kaporner Heath near Metgethen, just west of Königsberg, East Prussia, Germany.
Alexander Matveev (1878–1960) was one of the leading Russian sculptors of his generation, working in a simple, vigorous, modern classical style similar to Aristide Maillol of France.
Aleksandr Nikolayev (Usto Mumin) was a Soviet painter of Russian origin, who lived and worked in Uzbek SSR.
Aleksandr Petrovich Chumakov (born on 26 November 1941) is a retired Belarusian Army colonel general and former Minister of Defence of Belarus.
Praporshik Aleksandr Mikhailovich Pishvanov was a World War I flying ace credited with five aerial victories.
Aleksandr Michael Sakharovsky (3 September 1909 – 12 November 1983) was a Soviet General who was head of the First Chief Directorate (foreign intelligence) of the KGB from 1955 until 1970.
Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn (11 December 1918 – 3 August 2008) was a Russian novelist, historian, and short story writer.
Aleksandr Mikhaylovich Vasilevsky (September 30 1895 – December 5, 1977) was a Russian career officer in the Red Army who was promoted to the rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union in 1943.
Aleksandr Petrovich Yunev (Russian: Александр Петрович Юнёв; 28 September 1924 – 18 February 1952) was a Red Army senior lieutenant and Hero of the Soviet Union.Yunev was awarded the title for his actions in Operation Spring Awakening for his part in repulsing numerous German attacks.
Aleksandra Grigoryevna Samusenko (Александра Григорьевна Самусенко, Олександра Григорівна Самусенко; 1922 – 3 March 1945) was a Soviet commander of the T-34 tank and a liaison officer during World War II.
Aleksandrs Čaks (October 27, 1901 – February 8, 1950), born Aleksandrs Čadarainis, was a Latvian poet and writer.
Aleksandrs Grīns (1895–1941) was a Latvian writer, translator and army officer.
Aleksei Aleksandrovich Grechkin (Алексей Александрович Гречкин, 26 March 1893 – 30 August 1964) was a Soviet army commander.
Aleksei Innokentievich Antonov (Алексе́й Инноке́нтьевич Анто́нов) (9 September 1896 – 16 June 1962) was a General of the Soviet Army, awarded the Order of Victory for his efforts in World War II.
Aleksei Baiov (February 8, 1871 – May 8, 1935) was an Imperial Russian division, corps and army commander.
Aleksei Alekseevich Brusilov (Алексе́й Алексе́евич Бруси́лов; – 17 March 1926) was a Russian general most noted for the development of new offensive tactics used in the 1916 Brusilov Offensive, which was his greatest achievement.
Aleksei Fedorovich Filippov (Алексей Фёдорович Филиппов; 29 September 1923 – 10 October 2006) was a Russian mathematician, who worked on differential equations, differential inclusions, diffraction theory, and numerical methods.
Aleksei Yevguenievich Gutor (30 August 1868 - 13 August 1938) was a Russian lieutenant-general and Front commander during the First World War.
Aleksey Vasilyevich Alelyukhin (Алексей Васильевич Алелюхин; 30 March 1920– 29 October 1990) was a Soviet Air Force major general, World War II flying ace and double Hero of the Soviet Union.
Aleksey Yefimovich Kleshchev (Алексе́й Ефи́мович Клещёв, 25 February 1905 – 13 December 1968) was a Belarusian general and politician.
Aleksey Semenovich Zhadov (Алексе́й Семёнович Жа́дов), born with the surname "Zhidov" (Жи́дов), was a Soviet military officer in the Red Army, who during World War II commanded the 66th Army, later renamed the 5th Guards Army, from the Battle of Stalingrad up till the end of the war.
Aleksej Vladimirovich Vysotsky (Алексе́й Владимирович Высоцкий) (18 July 1919 in Kiev – 28 October 1977 in Moscow) was a Soviet Union journalist and author, as well as a hero of World War II who attained the rank of Colonel.
Aleksi Inauri (ალექსი ინაური; Алексей Николаевич Инаури, Aleksey Nikolayevich Inauri) (April 29 or May 12, 1908 – June 23, 1993) was a Soviet Colonel General and Georgian commander who headed the Georgian KGB (Committee for State Security) for over 30 years (1954–1986) and made it one of the most effective of the KGB's regional Soviet branches.
Ales Prudnikau (April 14, 1910 – August 5, 1941) was a Belarusian poet.
Alexa Ray Joel (born December 29, 1985), Lexington Herald-Leader (Kentucky, U.S.), article published December 31, 1985.
Alexander Abramov-Mirov (19 October 1895 – 25 November 1937) was a Soviet Comintern communications officer and intelligence agent.
Alexander Aleksandrovich Morozov (Oleksándr Oleksándrovych Morózov, 16 on October (29) 1904, Bezhitsa, nowadays within Bryansk – 1979) – the Soviet designer of tanks, the general – the major-engineer (1945), the doctor of technical sciences (1972), twice Hero of the Socialistic Work (1942, 1974).
Alexander Terentyevich Altunin (Алекса́ндр Тере́нтьевич Алту́нин; 14 August 1921 - 15 July 1989) was a Soviet general and politician.
Alexander Andreyevich Svechin (Александр Андреевич Свечин; 17 August 1878, Odessa – 28 July 1938) was a Russian and Soviet military leader, military writer, educator and theorist, and author of the military classic Strategy.
Alexander Artemiev (Chuvash and Артемьев Александр Спиридонович; 14 Sept 1924 - 5 August 1998.), was a Chuvash poet, prose writer, translator and critic.
Alexander Alfredovich Bek (Алекса́ндр Альфре́дович Бек; 2 November 1972), sometimes transliterated from the Russian Cyrillic as Aleksandr Bek or Anglicized to Alexander Beck, was a Soviet novelist and writer.
Alexander Fedorovich Belov (Russian: Александр Фёдорович Белов; November 30, 1923 – April 5, 1980) was a Red Army Sergeant during World War II and a Hero of the Soviet Union.
Alexander Ksaverievich Bulatovich (Алекса́ндр Ксаве́рьевич Булато́вич; 26 September 1870 – 5 December 1919) tonsured Father Antony (отец Антоний) was a Russian military officer, explorer of Africa, writer, hieromonk and the leader of the imiaslavie movement in Eastern Orthodox Christianity.
The Alexander Cemetery (Александровское кладбище) is a cemetery in the city of Rostov-on-Don, Russia.
Alexander Vasilyevich Cherepkov (Александр Васильевич Черепков, 30 October 1920 – 12 July 2009) was a Soviet and Russian International Master of chess.
Alexander Ilyich Dutov (1879—1921), one of the leaders of the Cossack counterrevolution in the Urals, Lieutenant General (1919).
Alexander Edler von Daniels (17 March 1891 – 6 January 1960) was a German general in the Wehrmacht during World War II who fought in the Battle of Stalingrad.
Alexandr Moyseyevich Evensohn (Evenson, Evensson) (1892–1919) was a Russian chess master.
Alexander Konstantinovich Glazunov (10 August 1865 – 21 March 1936) was a Russian composer, music teacher, and conductor of the late Russian Romantic period.
Alexander Vasilyevich Gorbatov (Алекса́ндр Васи́льевич Горба́тов) (21 March 1891 – 7 December 1973) was a Russian and Soviet officer who served as an officer in the Imperial Russian Army during the First World War and as a Colonel-General in the Red Army during the Second World War.
Alexander Grigoryevich Barmin (Александр Григорьевич Бармин Aleksandr Grigoryevich Barmin; 16 August 1899 – 25 December 1987) was an officer in the Soviet Army who fled the purges of the Joseph Stalin era.
Lt. Col. Alexander Jefferson (born November 15, 1921 in Detroit, Michigan), a retired US Air Force officer, famous as one of the Tuskegee Airmen, the 332nd Fighter Group.
Alexander Sergeyevich Kabiskoy (Russian: Александр Сергеевич Кабиской; 15 July 1920 – 15 March 1950) was a Soviet Air Force major, flying ace and Hero of the Soviet Union.
Alexander Grigoryevich Kapitokhin (Russian: Александр Григорьевич Капитохин; 6 June 1892 – 13 August 1958) was a Red Army Lieutenant general.
Alexander Fyodorovich Kazankin (Александр Фёдорович Казанкин; 15 April 1900 – 20 March 1955) was a Red Army Lieutenant general who commanded the Soviet airborne.
Alexander Vasilyevich Kolchak CB (Алекса́ндр Васи́льевич Колча́к, – 7 February 1920) was an Imperial Russian admiral, military leader and polar explorer who served in the Imperial Russian Navy, who fought in the Russo-Japanese War and the First World War.
Alexander Petrovich Koroviakov (Алекса́ндр Петро́вич Коровя́ков; November 16, 1912, Berdskaya, Orenburg Province, Russian Empire – June 12, 1993, Saint Petersburg, Russia) was a Soviet, Russian painter and art teacher, lived and worked in Leningrad – Saint Petersburg, a member of the Saint Petersburg Union of Artists (before 1992 the Leningrad branch of Union of Artists of Russian Federation), regarded as a representative of the Leningrad school of painting.
Alexander Yeliseyevich Krivets (September 12, 1919 – January 27, 1992) was a Hero of the Soviet Union and a participant in the Soviet partisan movement during World War II.
Alexander Lebenstein (November 3, 1927 in Haltern (called Haltern am See now), Germany – 28 January 2010 in Richmond, Virginia) was a German-American Holocaust survivor.
Alexander Ivanovich Litvinov (Александр Иванович Литвинов; August 22, 1853 – 1932) was a general in the Imperial Russian Army.
Alexander Ilyich Lizyukov (Алекса́ндр Ильи́ч Лизюко́в; 26 March 1900 – 23 July 1942) was a Soviet military leader holding the rank of major-general.
Alexander Borisovich Lozovsky (23 September 1907 26 February 1981) was a Soviet Army major general.
Alexander Matveyevich Matrosov (Алекса́ндр Матве́евич Матро́сов; Шәкирйән Юныс улы Мөхәмәтйәнов, Олександр Матвійович Матросов) (February 5, 1924 – February 22 or 27, 1943), born in Yekaterinoslav (now Dnipro) was a Soviet infantry soldier during the Great Patriotic War (Second World War), awarded the title of the Hero of the Soviet Union for blocking a German machine-gun with his body.
Alexander Miasnikian, Myasnikyan or Myasnikov (Ալեքսանդր Մյասնիկյան; Алекса́ндр Фёдорович Мяснико́в; Alexander Fyodorovich Myasnikov; 28 January 1886 – 22 March 1925) was an Armenian Bolshevik revolutionary and official.
Alexander Gavrilovich Moiseyevsky (18 October 1902 18 March 1971) was a Soviet Army major general and a Hero of the Soviet Union.
Alexander Ignatyevich Molodchy (Алекса́ндр Игна́тьевич Моло́дчий; Олександр Гнатович Молодчий, Oleksandr Gnatovych Molodchyi; born on 27 June 1920 – died on 9 June 2002), was a famous pilot of the Soviet Long Range Aviation.
Alexander Vasilyevich MosolovMosolov's name is transliterated variously and inconsistently between sources.
Aleksandr Moiseyevich Nekrich, 3 March 1920, Baku – 2 September 1993, Boston) was a Soviet Russian historian. He emigrated to the United States in 1976. He is known for his works on the history of the Soviet Union, especially under Joseph Stalin’s rule. Born in Baku, Azerbaijan, Nekrich fought in the Red Army ranks during World War II and subsequently graduated from the Moscow University with a degree in history. In 1950, he joined the Russian Academy of Sciences Institute of General History as a senior researcher and a secretary of that institute’s party cell. Nekrich gained fame for his sensational work June 22, 1941; Soviet Historians and the German Invasion, a study of the Soviet-German confrontation during World War II, which was critical of Stalin and the Soviet leadership over their failure to prepare the country for an anticipated German onslaught. The book was harshly criticized and quickly banned, while Nekrich was excluded from the Communist party. He was allowed, though, to leave the Soviet Union in 1976. Nekrich settled in the U.S. and lectured at Harvard. In emigration, Nekrich published his memoirs (1979), wrote The Punished Peoples: The Deportation and Fate of Soviet Minorities at the End of the Second World War (1978), and coauthored, with Mikhail Heller, Utopia in Power: The History of the Soviet Union from 1917 to the Present (1982).
Alexander Petrovich Nikolayev (Russian: Александр Петрович Николаев; 14 November 1918 – 13 June 2009) was a Red Army senior lieutenant and Hero of the Soviet Union.
Alexander Nikonov (August 31, 1893 – October 26, 1937) was a Soviet komdiv (division commander).
Alexander Alexandrovich Novikov (Алекса́ндр Алекса́ндрович Но́виков; – December 3, 1976) was the Chief marshal of the aviation for the Soviet Air Force during Russia's involvement in the Second World War.
Alexander Mikhailovich Orlov (Александр Михайлович Орлов) (born Leiba Lazarevich Feldbin; 21 August 1895 – 25 March 1973), was Major in the Soviet secret police and NKVD Rezident in the Second Spanish Republic.
Alexander (Shura) Pavlovich Chekalin (Алекса́ндр Па́влович Чека́лин; March 25, 1925 – November 6, 1941), was a Russian teenager, Soviet partisan, and Hero of the Soviet Union.
Alexander 'Sasha' Pechersky (Алекса́ндр Аро́нович Пече́рский; 22 February 1909 – 19 January 1990) was one of the organizers, and the leader, of the most successful uprising and mass-escape of Jews from a Nazi extermination camp during World War II; which occurred at the Sobibor extermination camp on 14 October 1943.
Alexander Pinkhosovich Podrabinek (Алекса́ндр Пи́нхосович Подраби́нек; born 8 August 1953, Elektrostal) is a Russian journalist and commentator.
Alexander Nikolaevich Poskrebyshev (Александр Николаевич Поскрёбышев; 7 August 1891 – 3 January 1965) was a Soviet politician and a state and Communist Party functionary.
Alexander Andreyevich Prokofyev (Алекса́ндр Андре́евич Проко́фьев;, Kobona –18 September 1971, Leningrad) was a Soviet poet.
Alexander Ilich Rodimtsev (1905–1977) was a colonel-general in the Soviet Red Army during World War II and twice won the Hero of the Soviet Union award (in 1937 and 1945).
Alexander Alexandrovich Samoylo (Алекса́ндр Алекса́ндрович Само́йло; October 23 (November 4) 1869 – November 8, 1963) was a commander in the Imperial Russian Army and Red Army during World War I and the Russian Civil War.
Alexander Ignatyevich Sedyakin (November 26, 1893 – July 29, 1938) was a Soviet division commander and Komandarm 2nd rank.
Alexander Nikolayevich Shelepin (18 August 1918 – 24 October 1994) was a Soviet politician and security and intelligence officer.
Alexander Sirotkin (August 6, 1890 – January 17, 1965) was a Soviet lieutenant general and division commander.
Alexander Yakovlevich Tairov (Александр Яковлевич Таиров, Олександр Якович Таїров; 6 July 1885 – 5 September 1950) was one of the leading innovators of theatrical art, and one of the most enduring theatre directors in Russia, and through the Soviet era.
Alexander Ivanovich Todorsky (September 8, 1894 – August 27, 1965) was a Soviet general and corps commander.
Alexander Dmitrievich Tsiurupa (Алекса́ндр Дми́триевич Цюру́па, September 19 (O.S. October 1) 1870, Oleshky — May 8, 1928, Mukhalatka village of Oliva urban-type settlement, Crimea) was a Soviet state and Party figure.
Alexander Petrovich Ulanovsky (a.k.a. Ulrich, William Joseph Berman, Bill Berman, Felik, Long Man, Nathan Sherman) (1891–1970) was the chief illegal "rezident" for Soviet Military Intelligence (GRU), who was rezident the United States from 1931 until 1934 and later, with his family, prisoner in the Soviet gulag.
Alexander Ivanovich Utvenko (Russian: Александр Иванович Утвенко; 12 December 1905 – 20 August 1963) was a Red Army Lieutenant general.
Alexander Van der Bellen (born 18 January 1944) is an Austrian politician and economist who serves as the 12th and current President of Austria since 26 January 2017.
Alexander Vasilyevich Belyakov (Алекса́ндр Васи́льевич Беляко́в; – 28 November 1982) was a Soviet flight navigator who, together with command pilot Valery Chkalov and co-pilot Georgy Baydukov, set a record for the longest uninterrupted flight in 1936 and made the first non-stop flight across the North Pole, flying from Moscow to Vancouver, Washington.
Alexander Dmitrivich Vologin (Александр Дмитриевич Вологин; October 8, 1924 – October 17, 1943) was a Soviet soldier who was awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union posthumously on January 15, 1944, for his actions during Operation Kutuzov and the Battle of the Dnieper.
Baron Alexander Alexandrovich von Taube (August 21, 1864 – January 1919) was an Imperial Russian general.He fought in the war of Russia against the Empire of Japan.
Alexander Werth (4 February 1901, St Petersburg – 5 March 1969, Paris) was a Russian-born, naturalized British writer, journalist, and war correspondent.
Alexander Nikolaevich Yakovlev (Алекса́ндр Никола́евич Я́ковлев; 2 December 1923 – 18 October 2005) was a Soviet politician and historian.
Marshal of the aviation Aleksandr Nikolayevich Yefimov (Александр Николаевич Ефимов) (6 February 1923 – 31 August 2012) was a Soviet senior military officer who served as Commander-in-Chief of the Soviet Air Force from 1984 to 1990.
Alexander Ilyich Yegorov or Egorov (Алекса́ндр Ильи́ч Его́ров, Alexandr Iljič Jegorov) (– February 23, 1939), was a Soviet military leader during the Russian Civil War, when he commanded the Red Army's Southern Front and played an important part in defeating the White forces in Ukraine.
Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Zinovyev (October 29, 1922 – May 10, 2006) was a Russian logician and writer of social critique.
Alexander Andreyevich Kolesov (Russian: Александр Андреевич Колесов; 1 February 1922 – 31 July 1994) was a Soviet officer and Hero of the Soviet Union.
Alexandra of Greece and Denmark (Αλεξάνδρα, Александра/Aleksandra; 25 March 1921 – 30 January 1993) was, by marriage to King Peter II, the last Queen of Yugoslavia.
The Alexandrov Ensemble (commonly known as the Red Army Choir in the West) is an official army choir of the Russian armed forces.
The Alexandrov Ensemble choir (established Moscow 1926) is the choir of the Alexandrov Ensemble.
This is a list of recordings made by the Alexandrov Ensemble (under various titles) since 1928.
Alexandru Averescu (3 April 1859 – 2 October 1938) was a Romanian marshal and populist politician.
Alexandru Bassarab, or Basarab (August 7, 1907 – July 8, 1941), was a Romanian painter, engraver, and fascist politician.
Alexandru Iacob (born Jakab Sándor; 1913–1997) was a Hungarian-born Romanian and Hungarian communist politician and economist, who served as Deputy to Vasile Luca within the Romanian Ministry of Finance, and eventually became a victim of repression in Communist Romania.
Alexandru Nicolschi (born Boris Grünberg, his chosen surname was often rendered as Nikolski or Nicolski; Александр Серге́евич Никольский, Alexandr Sergeyevich Nikolsky; June 2, 1915 – April 16, 1992) was a Romanian communist activist, Soviet agent and officer, and Securitate chief under the Communist regime.
Alexandru Robot (born Alter Rotmann,Călinescu, p.902, in Realitatea Evreiască, Nr. 245 (1045), January–February 2006, p.13 also known as Al. Robot; Moldovan Cyrillic: Александру Робот; January 15, 1916 – ca. 1941) was a Romanian, Moldovan and Soviet poet, also known as a novelist and journalist.
Alexandru Toma (occasionally known as A. Toma, born Solomon Moscovici; February 11, 1875 – August 15, 1954) was a Romanian poet, journalist and translator, known for his communist views and his role in introducing Socialist Realism and Stalinism to Romanian literature.
Alexei Nazarovich Arapov (14 March 1906 – 14 September 1943) was a Soviet officer, chief of staff of the 3rd Guards Airborne Division, and a Hero of the Soviet Union.
Oleksiy Prokopovych Berest (Ukrainian: Олексій Прокопович Берест. Russified: Алексей Прокопьевич Берест; March 9, 1921 – November 4, 1970) was a Soviet political officer and one of the three Red Army soldiers who hoisted the Victory Banner.
Oleksi Semenovich Burdeinei (Ukrainian: Олексій Семенович Бурдейний, Russified, Алексей Семёнович Бурдейный; 18 October 1908 in Zhytomir, Russian Empire – 21 April 1987 in Moscow, Soviet Union) was a Soviet general.
Alexei Ivanovich Avtonomov (Алексе́й Ива́нович Автоно́мов) (1890–1919) was a Russian Red military commander during the Russian Civil War.
Alexei Nikolayevich Kosygin (p; – 18 December 1980) was a Soviet-Russian statesman during the Cold War.
Alexei Ilich Likhachyov (Алексей Ильич Лихачёв; 1894, Serpukhov, Moscow Governorate — 5 January 1948, Cheboksary) was a Soviet medic and statesman.
Alexei Andreyevich Polivanov (Алексей Андреевич Поливанов) (March 16, 1855 – September 25, 1920) was a Russian military figure, infantry general (1915).
Alexei Ivanovich Radzievsky, transliterated in several different ways, including Aleksei, Aleksey, Alexey, and Radzievskii, Radzievskiy (born 31 July old style, or 13 August new style, 1911, died 1978), was a professional soldier of the Soviet Union who fought in the Second World War, commanding the 2nd Guards Tank Army during the Lublin–Brest Offensive and afterwards.
Alexei Ivanovich Rykov (25 February 188115 March 1938) was a Russian Bolshevik revolutionary and a Soviet politician most prominent as Premier of Russia and the Soviet Union from 1924 to 1929 and 1924 to 1930 respectively.
Alexei Ivanovich Vinogradov (Алексе́й Ива́нович Виногра́дов; 12 February 1899 – 11 January 1940) was a Soviet kombrig and the commander of the 44th Rifle Division.
Alexei Alexeevich Yepishev, also spelled Epishev (Russian: Алексей Алексеевич Епишев; - September 15, 1985) was a Soviet political officer, politician and diplomat.
Alexey Vasilievich Kurkin (16 March 1948) was a Soviet Army colonel general.
Alexey Vladimirovich Nemkov (Алексей Владимирович Немков) was a Red Army Captain during World War II and a Hero of the Soviet Union.
Alexey Nikolayevich Krutikov (20 July 1895 - 23 April 1949) was a Soviet military leader.
Alexey Ivanovich Polosin (Russian: Алексей Иванович Полосин; 1924-15 October 1943) was a Red Army sergeant, who was posthumously a Hero of the Soviet Union.
Alexey Grigoryevich Rodin (Russian: Алексей Григорьевич Родин; 17 February 1902 – 27 May 1955) was a Soviet Army colonel general and Hero of the Soviet Union.
Alexey Dmitrievich Tereshkov (17 March 189318 March 1960) was a Belarusian Soviet Army Lieutenant general and a Hero of the Soviet Union.
Alexis Rannit (born Alexey Konstantinovich Dolgoshev - Алексей Константинович Долгошев; Estonian: Aleksis Rannit; 14 October 1914– 5 January 1985) was an Estonian poet, critic and literature researcher.
Alfeld is a town in Lower Saxony, Germany.
Alfred George Fripp (13 June 1914 –3 January 2013), known as "Alfie" or "Bill", was a British Royal Air Force squadron leader who was a flight sergeant during the Second World War.
Alfred Biłyk (born 25 September 1889 in Lwów, now Ukraine, died 19 September 1939 in Munkacs, Ukraine, then in Hungary) was a Polish lawyer, military officer, and politician, last Voivode of the Lwów Voivodeship.
Alfred Meyer Henningsen (26 April 1918 – 12 September 2012) was a Norwegian military officer and politician for the Labour Party.
Alfred Käärmann (14 September 1922 in Hargla – 4 February 2010) was an Estonian resistance fighter, also known as Forest brother, as the Estonians call their guerrillas, and author.
Alfred Liskow sometimes Liskov or Liskof or Albert Liskow or Albert Liskov (1910–1942?) was a German soldier who swam across the Bug River at 21:00 on the eve of Operation Barbarossa near Sokal, just north of Lwów (occupied Poland), in 1941 to warn the Red Army of imminent attack the next morning.
Alfred Tilton (1897–1942) was a Latvian who was head of Soviet Military Intelligence (GRU) in the United States in the late 1920s.
Alfred Zech, also known as Alfred Czech (October 12, 1932 – June 13, 2011), was a German child soldier who received the Iron Cross, 2nd Class at the age of 12 years.
Alfreda Noncia Markowska (born May 10, 1926 near Stanisławów, now Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine) is a Polish-Romani woman who during World War II saved approximately fifty Jewish and Roma children from death in the Holocaust and the Porajmos genocide.
Algemba was a railway and oil pipeline project inaugurated by the Bolsheviks in 1919.
Ali Akbar Bahman (also Mirza Ali Akbar Khan; b. 1883 - d. 1967) was an Iranian employee of the Foreign Ministry, diplomat and politician under the Qajar and Pahlavi dynasties.
Ali and Nino is a novel about a romance between a Muslim Azerbaijani boy and Christian Georgian girl in Baku in the years 1918-1920.
General Ali Tajaleei (علی تجلایی; July 1959 – March 1985) was born in Tabriz, East Azerbaijan province, Iran.
Ali-Agha Ismail-Agha oglu Shikhlinski (Əliağa İsmayılağa oğlu Şıxlinski), sometimes anglicized as Ali-Agha Shikhlinsky (Али-Ага Шихлинский; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January.
Alif Turihan oglu Piriyev (Azerbaijani: Əlif Turxan oğlu Piriyev; 10 January 1922 – 20 April 1986) was an Azerbaijani Soviet Army senior lieutenant and Hero of the Soviet Union.
Aliheydar Aligulu oglu Ibragimov (24 December 1906 Bilgəh, Baku, Russian Empire - 6 November 1953 Bilgəh, Baku, Azerbaijan SSR, Soviet Union) was a Soviet military officer, a participant in the Great Patriotic War, and a participant in the liberation struggle Brest Fortress of the war.
Aliheydar Garayev Agakerim oglu (Əliheydər Qarayev Ağakərim oğlu) (June 20, 1896 - April 24, 1938) also spelled as Aliheydar Qarayev, was a Menshevik-turned-Bolshevik revolutionary, People's Commissar of Justice of Azerbaijan SSR, People's Commissar for Military and Naval Affairs of Azerbaijan during Soviet period.
Alime Seit-Osmanovna Abdenanova was a Crimean-Tatar soldier in the Separate Coastal Army during World War II.
Aliya Nurmuhametqyzy Moldagulova (Әлия Нұрмұхамедқызы Молдағұлова; 25 October 1925 – 14 January 1944) was a Soviet sniper and recipient of the title Hero of the Soviet Union after she died of wounds sustained in battle on 14 January 1944.
The All-German Bloc/League of Expellees and Deprived of Rights (Gesamtdeutscher Block/Bund der Heimatvertriebenen und Entrechteten or GB/BHE) was a right-wing political party in West Germany, which acted as an advocacy group of the Germans fled and expelled in and after World War II.
The All-Russian Congress of Soviets was the supreme governing body of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic from 1917 until 1936, effectively.
Alla Sergeyevna Demidova (А́лла Серге́евна Деми́дова; born 29 September 1936, Moscow) is a Russian actress internationally acclaimed for the tragic parts in innovative plays staged by Yuri Lyubimov in the Taganka Theatre.
Alland is a market town in the district of Baden in the Austrian state of Lower Austria.
The Allgemeine SS (General SS) was the most numerous branch of the Schutzstaffel (SS) paramilitary forces of Nazi Germany, and it was managed by the SS Main Office (SS-Hauptamt).
Following the termination of hostilities in World War II, the Allied Powers were in control of the defeated Axis countries.
The Allied invasion of Italy was the Allied amphibious landing on mainland Italy that took place on 3 September 1943 during the early stages of the Italian Campaign of World War II.
The Allied leaders of World War II listed below comprise the important political and military figures who fought for or supported the Allies during World War II.
The Allied Museum (AlliiertenMuseum) is a museum in Berlin.
The Allied occupation of Austria lasted from 1945 to 1955.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
Alma E. Foerster (1885–1967) was an American nurse who worked in both civilian and military care.
Alone and Unarmed (Odin i bez oruzhiya) is a Soviet 1984 crime drama directed by Pavel Fattahutdinov and Vladimir Khotinenko.
The Imperial Territory of Alsace-Lorraine (Reichsland Elsaß-Lothringen or Elsass-Lothringen, or Alsace-Moselle) was a territory created by the German Empire in 1871, after it annexed most of Alsace and the Moselle department of Lorraine following its victory in the Franco-Prussian War.
Alt-Hohenschönhausen (Old Hohenschönhausen) is a district (Ortsteil) in the borough (Bezirk) of Lichtenberg, Berlin.
Altai Krai (p) is a federal subject of Russia (a krai).
The Altalena Affair was a violent confrontation that took place in June 1948 by the newly created Israel Defense Forces against the Irgun (also known as IZL), one of the Jewish paramilitary groups that were in the process of merging to form the IDF.
The Althoff Studios (German: Althoff-Atelier) were film studios located in Potsdam outside the German capital Berlin.
Alytus is a city with municipal rights in southern Lithuania.
The Amber Room (r, Bernsteinzimmer, Bursztynowa komnata) is a reconstructed chamber decorated in amber panels backed with gold leaf and mirrors, located in the Catherine Palace of Tsarskoye Selo near Saint Petersburg.
The AMC 34 was a French tank built originally for the French Army cavalry units.
The American Expeditionary Force, North Russia (AEF in North Russia) (also known as the Polar Bear Expedition) was a contingent of about 5,000 United States Army troopsRobert L. Willett, "Russian Sideshow" (Washington, D.C., Brassey's Inc., 2003), p. 267 that landed in Arkhangelsk, Russia as part of the Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War and fought the Red Army in the surrounding region during the period of September 1918 through to July 1919.
The American Holland-class submarines, also AG class or A class, were Holland 602 type submarines used by the Imperial Russian and Soviet Navies in the early 20th century.
Amir Sjarifuddin Harahap, also spelled Amir Sjarifoeddin Harahap (27 April 1907 – 19 December 1948) was a socialist politician and one of the Indonesian Republic's first leaders, becoming Prime Minister during the country's National Revolution.
The Ampulomet (125-мм ампуломёт образца 1941 года, also rendered Ampulomyot, ampulla mortar, etc., lit. "ampule/vial thrower" cf. миномёт) was an expedient anti-tank weapon which launched a 125 mm incendiary projectile made of spherical glass.
The Amur River Tunnel (Russian:, during its construction — стройка No.4) is a 7200 meter-long railroad tunnel on the Trans-Siberian Railroad, in Khabarovsk, Russia.
Optimistic Tragedy (Оптимистическая трагедия) is a play written by Vsevolod Vishnevskiy in the Soviet Union in 1933 with a dedication to the 15th anniversary of the Red Army.
Optimistic Tragedy (Оптимистическая трагедия, translit. Optimisticheskaya tragediya) is a 1963 Soviet film directed by Samson Samsonov.
Ana Pauker (born Hannah Rabinsohn; 13 December 1893 – 3 June 1960) was a Romanian communist leader and served as the country's foreign minister in the late 1940s and early 1950s.
Anarchism and violence have become closely connected in popular thought, in part because of a concept of "propaganda of the deed".
Russian anarchism is anarchism in Russia or among Russians.
Such as it is, anarchism in Transnistria has short but certainly extant history.
The Anarchist Black Cross (ABC, formerly the Anarchist Red Cross) is an anarchist support organization.
Anastas Ivanovich Mikoyan (25 November 1895 – 21 October 1978) was a Soviet Armenian revolutionary, Old Bolshevik and statesman during the mandates of Lenin, Stalin, Khrushchev and Brezhnev.
Anastasy Andreyevich Vonsyatsky (Анаста́сий Андре́евич Вонся́цкий, Anastazy Wąsacki; June 12, 1898 – February 5, 1965), better known in the United States as Anastase Andreivitch Vonsiatsky, was a Russian anti-Bolshevik émigré and fascist leader based in the United States from the 1920s.
Anatoli Granovsky (born 1922) is a former NKVD agent who defected to the West in 1946 and authored an autobiographical book about his career in Soviet intelligence.
Anatoli Ilych Vasiliev (Анато́лий Ильи́ч Васи́льев; 18 March 1917, Petrograd (former Saint Petersburg), Russian Empire – June 4, 1994, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation) was a Russian and Soviet realist painter, who lived and worked in Leningrad.
Anatolie Popa (Анатолий Васильевич Попа, Anatoliy Vasilievich Popa; March 15, 1896 – June 25, 1920) was a Bessarabian-born military commander active during World War I and the Russian Revolution and Civil War, one of the organisers of the Moldavian armed resistance against the advancing Romanian troops in January 1918.
Anatoli Ilyich Gekker (Анатолий Ильич Геккер) (August 25, 1888 – July 1, 1937) was a Soviet military commander (Komkor) involved in the Russian Civil War.
Anatoly Vladimirovich Betekhtin (Анатолий Владимирович Бетехин; September 20, 1931 – October 27, 2012) was a Soviet military commander and full general since 1988.
Anatoly Borisovich Kuznetsov (Анатолий Борисович Кузнецов; 31 December 1930 – 7 March 2014) was a Russian actor, best known for his role of the Red Army soldier Fyodor Sukhov in White Sun of the Desert (1970).
Anatoly Nikolayevich Demitkov (27 May 1926 – 15 August 2005) was a Soviet canoeist.
Anatoly Ivanovich Lukyanov (Анатолий Иванович Лукьянов) (born 7 May 1930 in Smolensk) is a Russian Communist politician who was the Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR between 15 March 1990 and 22 August 1991.
Anatoly Nikolayevich Pepelyayev (Анатолий Николаевич Пепеляев; 15 August 1891, in Tomsk – 14 January 1938) was a White Russian general who led the Siberian armies of Admiral Kolchak during the Russian Civil War.
Anatoly (Yitzhak) Rubin was a survivor of the Holocaust and later of the Gulags.
Anatoly Pavlovich Shapiro (Анатолий Павлович Шапиро, Анатолій Павлович Шапіро; 18 January 1913 – 8 October 2005), was a Ukrainian-born Jewish soldier of the Army of the Soviet Union, who led the first elements of the advancing army into the Nazi-developed Auschwitz concentration camp in Poland, during the latter stages of World War II.
Anatoly Vladimirovich Tarasov (Анато́лий Влади́мирович Тара́сов; 10 December 1918 in Moscow, Soviet Union – 23 June 1995 in Moscow, Russia) was a Russian ice hockey player and coach.
Anatoly Vladimirovich Treskin (Russian: Анатолий Владимирович Трескин) (1905–1986) was a Soviet art restorer and artist.
Andon Kalchev (Андон Калчев) (1910 – 27 August 1948) was a Bulgarian scientist, army officer, one of the leaders of the Bulgarian-backed Ohrana, a paramilitary formation of Bulgarians in Greek Macedonia during World War II Axis occupation.
András Toma (Újfehértó, Hungary, December 5, 1925 – Nyíregyháza, March 30, 2004) was a Hungarian soldier who was taken prisoner by the Red Army in 1945, then discovered living in a Russian psychiatric hospital in 2000.
André Marty (6 November 1886 – 23 November 1956) was a leading figure in the French Communist Party (PCF) for nearly thirty years.
Andreas Hermes (16 July 1878 – 4 January 1964) was a German agricultural scientist and politician.
Andreas Fritz Hillgruber (18 January 1925 – 8 May 1989) was a conservative German historian.
Andrei Alekseevich Amalrik (Андре́й Алексе́евич Ама́льрик, 12 May 1938, Moscow – 12 November 1980, Guadalajara, Castile-La Mancha, Spain), alternatively spelled Andrei or Andrey, was a Russian writer and dissident.
Andrei Sergeyevich Bubnov; 23 March 1883 – 1 August 1938) was a Bolshevik revolutionary leader in Russia, and member of the Left Opposition.
Andrei Romanovich Chikatilo (Андрей Романович Чикатило, Андрій Романович Чикатило; 16 October 1936 – 14 February 1994) was a Soviet serial killer, nicknamed the Butcher of Rostov, the Red Ripper, and the Rostov Ripper, who committed the sexual assault, murder, and mutilation of at least 52 women and children between 1978 and 1990 in the Russian SFSR, the Ukrainian SSR and the Uzbek SSR.
Andrei Lavrent'evich Getman (Russian: Андрей Лаврентьевич Гетман; 5 October (22 September OS) 1903, in the village Klepalov in Kursk Governorate (now Buryn Raion, Sumy Oblast of Ukraine) – 8 April 1987, Moscow) was a Soviet military commander, Army General (13 April 1964) and Hero of the Soviet Union (May 7, 1965).
Andrei Ivanovich Girich (Russian: Андрей Иванович Гирич; 28 December 1918 – 11 April 1973) was a Ukrainian Soviet Air Force major general and Hero of the Soviet Union.
Andrei Antonovich Grechko (– 26 April 1976) was a Soviet general, Marshal of the Soviet Union and Minister of Defense.
Andrey Grigoryevich Kravchenko (Андре́й Григо́рьевич Кра́вченко; 30 November 1899 – 18 October 1963) was a tank army commander in the Soviet Army during the Great Patriotic War, twice Hero of the Soviet Union and recipient of several other awards.
Andrei Sergeevich Monin (Андре́й Серге́евич Мо́нин; 2 July 1921 – 22 September 2007) was a Russian physicist, applied mathematician, and oceanographer.
The Andrey Pervozvanny class were a pair of predreadnought battleships built in the mid-1900s for the Baltic Fleet of the Imperial Russian Navy.
Andrei Sazontov (1894 – August 26, 1938) was a Soviet komkor (corps commander).
Andrei Grigoriyevich Shkuro (Russian: Андрей Григорьевич Шкуро; Ukrainian: Андрій Григорович Шкуро) (19 January 1887 (O.S.: 7 January) – 17 January 1947) was a Lieutenant General (1919) of the White Army.
Andrei Medardovich Zayonchkovski or Zaionchkovski (Андре́й Меда́рдович Зайончко́вский) (- Moscow, Russia, March 22, 1926) commanded the defence of the Romanian-Bulgarian border in Dobruja upon Romania's entry into World War I in August 1916.
Andrejs Auzāns (1871–1953) was a Latvian general and topographer.
Andrew Stephen 'Andy' Grove (born András István Gróf; 2 September 193621 March 2016) was a Hungarian-born American businessman, engineer, author and a pioneer in the semiconductor industry.
Andrey Alexandrovich Goncharov (Андре́й Алекса́ндрович Гончаро́в, January 2, 1918, Ryazan Governorate, Soviet Russia – September 7, 2001, Moscow, Russian Federation) was a Soviet theatre director, drama teacher, and author.
Andrey Georgyevich Shebalkov (30 October 1921 17 June 1980) was a Red Army senior sergeant and a Hero of the Soviet Union.
Andrey Nikiforovich Vitruk (Андрей Никифорович Витрук; 7 July 1902 – 1 June 1946) was a Soviet military officer, a Major General of the Soviet Air Forces and a Hero of the Soviet Union.
Andrey Andreyevich Vlasov or Wlassow (Андрéй Андрéевич Влáсов, – August 1, 1946) was a Russian Red Army general.
Andrey (Andrei) Ivanovich Yeryomenko (or Yeremenko, Eremenko; Андре́й Ива́нович Ерёменко; Андрій Іванович Єрьоменко; November 19, 1970) was a Soviet general during World War II and, subsequently, a Marshal of the Soviet Union.
Andrija Štampar (1 September 1888 – 26 June 1958) was a distinguished scholar in the field of social medicine from Croatia.
Andrychów (list, list, hist. also Andrychau) is the largest town in Wadowice County in southern Poland, in Little Beskids, in historical region Lesser Poland, with 22,257 inhabitants.
Andrzej Grzegorczyk (22 August 1922 – 20 March 2014) was a Polish logician, mathematician, philosopher, and ethicist noted for his work in computability, mathematical logic, and the foundations of mathematics.
Andrzej Włast (aka Gustaw Baumritter) (17 March 1885 - 1942 or 1943) was a Polish Jewish songwriter.
Anfield Cemetery, or the City of Liverpool Cemetery, is located in Anfield, a district of Liverpool, Merseyside, England.
Animal Farm is an allegorical novella by George Orwell, first published in England on 17 August 1945.
Anita Lasker-Wallfisch (born 17 July 1925) is a cellist, and a surviving member of the Women's Orchestra in Auschwitz.
Anna Alekseyevna Chelishcheva (Анна Алексеевна Челищева, April 7, 1848, Vladimir, Russian Empire – November 15, 1934, Moscow, USSR), better known by her stage name Anna Brenko (Анна Бренко′), was a Russian, Soviet stage actress, theatre entrepreneur, playwright and memoirist, honored with the Meritorious Artist of RSFSR title in 1924.
Anna Heilman, born Hana Wajcblum (1 December 1928 – 1 May 2011), referred to in other sources as Hanka or Chana Weissman, was one of the surviving prisoners from Auschwitz who plotted to blow up the crematoria.
Anna Kolesárová (14 July 1928 – 22 November 1944) was a Slovak Roman Catholic.
Anna Louise Strong (November 24, 1885 – March 29, 1970) was a 20th-century American journalist and activist, best known for her reporting on and support for communist movements in the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China.
Anna Stiegler (born Anna Behrend: 21 April 1881 - 23 June 1963) was a German politician (SPD).
Anne-Lise Stern (born Anneliese Stern: 16 July 1921 - 6 May 2013) was a French psychoanalyst and Holocaust survivor.
The Ansaldo A.1, nicknamed "Balilla" after the Genoan folk-hero was Italy's only domestically-designed fighter aircraft of World War I to be produced in Italy.
Anschluss ('joining') refers to the annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany on 12 March 1938.
Antakalnis Cemetery (Antakalnio kapinės, Cmentarz na Antokolu, Антокальскія могілкі), sometimes referred as Antakalnis Military Cemetery, is an active cemetery in the Antakalnis district of Vilnius, Lithuania.
Antanas Smetona (10 August 1874 – 9 January 1944) was one of the most important Lithuanian political figures between World War I and World War II.
Ante Pavelić (14 July 1889 – 28 December 1959) was a Croatian general and military dictator who founded and headed the fascist ultranationalist organization known as the Ustaše in 1929 and governed the Independent State of Croatia (Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, NDH), a fascist Nazi puppet state built out of Yugoslavia by the authorities of Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy, from 1941 to 1945.
Anthony Sawoniuk, formerly Andrei Andreeovich Sawoniuk (Андрэй Саванюк; 7 March 1921 – 6 November 2005) was a Belarusian Nazi collaborator from the town of Domaczewo in interwar Poland.
An Anti-Aircraft Artillery Division was a type of Anti-aircraft unit of the Soviet Union's Red Army, Soviet Army, and the Soviet Air Defense Forces (PVO) during World War II and the early years of the Cold War.
Anti-communism is opposition to communism.
The anti-communist resistance in Poland, also referred to as the Polish anti-Communist insurrection fought between 1944 and 1946 (and up until 1953), was an armed struggle by the Polish Underground against the Soviet takeover of Poland at the end of World War II in Europe.
The Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia, known more commonly by its Yugoslav abbreviation AVNOJ (Serbo-Croatian: Antifašističko veće narodnog oslobođenja Jugoslavije – AVNOJ / Антифашистичко веће народног ослобођења Југославије – АВНОЈ), was the political umbrella organization for the national liberation councils of the Yugoslav resistance against the Axis occupation during World War II.
Anti-Japanese sentiment (also called Japanophobia, Nipponophobia and anti-Japanism) involves the hatred or fear of anything Japanese.
The anti-Jewish violence in Central and Eastern Europe following the retreat of Nazi German occupational forces and the victorious arrival of the Soviet Red Army – during the latter stages of World War II – was linked in part to postwar anarchy and economic chaos exacerbated by the Stalinist policies imposed across the territories of expanded Soviet republics and new satellite countries.
Anti-partisan operations during World War II were counter-insurgency operations against the various partisan resistance movements.
Following the October Revolution of 1917, the Bolshevik seizure of power led to the Russian Civil War which continued until 1922.
Anti-tank dogs (собаки-истребители танков sobaki-istrebiteli tankov or противотанковые собаки protivotankovye sobaki; Panzerabwehrhunde or Hundeminen, "dog-mines") were dogs taught to carry explosives to tanks, armored vehicles and other military targets.
Anti-tank warfare arose as a result of the need to develop technology and tactics to destroy tanks during World War I. Since the first tanks were developed by the Triple Entente in 1916 but not operated in battle until 1917, the first anti-tank weapons were developed by the German Empire.
Anti-Turkism, also known as Turkophobia or anti-Turkish sentiment, is hostility, intolerance, or racism against Turkish or Turkic people, Turkish culture, Turkic countries, or Turkey itself.
The Antikensammlung Berlin (Berlin antiquities collection) is one of the most important collections of classical art in the world, now held in the Altes Museum and Pergamon Museum in Berlin, Germany.
Antisemitism in the Russian Empire included numerous pogroms and the designation of the Pale of Settlement, from which Jews were forbidden to migrate into the interior of Russia, unless they converted to the Russian Orthodox state religion.
The 1917 Russian Revolution overthrew a centuries-old regime of official antisemitism in the Russian Empire, including its Pale of Settlement.
Haidamakas hang a Jew. Ukrainian folk art, XIX century Antisemitism in Ukraine has been a historical issue in the country, but became even more widespread in the twentieth century.
Anton Stepanovich Bulin (1894 - July 29, 1938) was a Soviet political officer.
Anton Ivanovich Denikin (p; 8 August 1947) was a Russian Lieutenant General in the Imperial Russian Army (1916) and afterwards a leading general of the White movement in the Russian Civil War.
Anton Irv VR I/2, VR II/2, VR II/3 (17 September 1886 – 27 April 1919) was a highly decorated Estonian combat soldier and military officer during World War I and in the Estonian War of Independence.
Anton Kaindl (14 July 1902, Munich, Kingdom of Bavaria – 1948 in Vorkuta, Soviet Union) was an SS-Standartenführer and commandant of the Sachsenhausen concentration camp from 1942-1945.
Anton Ivanovich Lopatin (Антон Иванович Лопатин) (January 18, 1897 – April 9, 1965) was a Soviet officer during the Second World War, and Hero of the Soviet Union.
Anton Nilson (11 November 1887 – 16 August 1989) was a Swedish militant socialist and convicted murderer.
Antonín Kalina (17 February 1902, Třebíč – 1 January 1990, Prague) was a Czechoslovak citizen who was imprisoned during World War II in the Buchenwald concentration camp.
Antonia "Toni" Bruha (born Antonia Spath: 1 March 1915 - 27 December 2006) was an Austrian resistance fighter.
Antonina Khudyakova (20 June 1917 – 17 December 1998) was a senior lieutenant and deputy squadron commander in the 46th Taman Guards Night Bomber Aviation Regiment, 325th Night Bomber Aviation Division, 4th Air and Air Defence Forces Army, 2nd Belorussian Front during World War II.
Antonina Makarova (née Parfenova, Ginsburg by marriage, Антонина Макарова, 1921 – 11 August 1979) was a Soviet war criminal and executioner who collaborated with the Nazis during World War II.
Apollon Karamanovich Kutateladze (in Georgian:, in Khoni – in Tbilisi) was a Georgian painter.
The following events occurred in April 1941.
Arciszewo (Artschau) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Pruszcz Gdański, within Gdańsk County, Pomeranian Voivodeship, in northern Poland.
Argentina–Armenia refers to the current and historical relations between Argentina and Armenia.
The Ark of Bukhara is a massive fortress located in the city of Bukhara, Uzbekistan that was initially built and occupied around the 5th century AD.
Arkady Borisovich Borisov (Russian, Аркадий Борисович Борисов, May 13, 1901 – May 27, 1942) was a Soviet corps commander.
Arkady Sergeyevich Boytsov (17 March 1923 - 15 June 2000) was a MiG-15 pilot of the Soviet Union.
Arkady Yegorovich Chepelev (Russian: Аркадий Егорович Чепелев; 24 January 1915 – 31 July 1985) was a Red Army Starshina or sergeant major and Hero of the Soviet Union.
Arkady Petrovich Golikov (Арка́дий Петро́вич Го́ликов; – 26 October 1941), better known as Arkady Gaidar (Арка́дий Гайда́р), was a Russian Soviet writer, whose stories were very popular among Soviet children, and a Red Army commander.
Arkady Renko is a fictional detective who is the central character of eight novels by the American writer Martin Cruz Smith.
Arkady Pavlovich Rosengolts (1889–15/3/1938), sometimes spelled 'Rosengoltz' or 'Rosenholz', was a Bolshevik politician, a Soviet Commissar of Foreign Trade and a defendant at the Moscow Trial of the Twenty-One in 1938.
Arkady Severny (Zvezdin) (Аркадий Северный; Аркадий Дмитриевич Звездин) (March 12, 1939 - April 12, 1980) was a popular singer from Leningrad.
Arkhangelsk Oblast (Арха́нгельская о́бласть, Arkhangelskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast).
Arkonia Szczecin is the oldest Polish sports organization, formed after World War Two in what was German Province of Pomerania.
Armavir (Армави́р) is a city in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the left bank of the Kuban River.
The Sports Clubs of the Army, спортивные клубы Армии sportivnye kluby Armiy, SKA, also called the Sports Clubs of the Soviet Ministry of Defense or simply Armed Forces or Army were a system of sports clubs and one of the largest sports societies in the USSR.
Armed Forces Day, known also as the Feast of the Polish Armed Forces (Święto Wojska Polskiego), is a national holiday celebrated annually on 15 August in Poland, commemorating the anniversary of the 1920 victory over Soviet Russia at the Battle of Warsaw during the Polish–Soviet War.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
The Armenian Revolutionary Federation (ARF) (classical Հայ Յեղափոխական Դաշնակցութիւն, ՀՅԴ), also known as Dashnaktsutyun (in a short form, Dashnak), is an Armenian nationalist and socialist political party founded in 1890 in Tiflis, Russian Empire (now Tbilisi, Georgia) by Christapor Mikaelian, Stepan Zorian, and Simon Zavarian.
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
There was once a small but important community of Armenians in Afghanistan, centred at Kabul; they were welcome.
Armenians in Azerbaijan are the Armenians who lived in great numbers in the modern state of Azerbaijan and its precursor, Soviet Azerbaijan.
The 812th Armenian Battalion (Armenische Legion; Հայկական լեգիոն Haykakan legion), also known as the Armenian Legion, was a military unit in the German Army during World War II.
Armia Krajowa Obywatelska (AKO, Citizens' Home Army) was a Polish military anticommunist organization, and a successor of the disbanded Polish anti-Nazi resistance Home Army (Armia Krajowa, AK).
Armia Ludowa (AL, pronounced; English: the People's Army) was a communist partisan force set up by the communist Polish Workers' Party (PPR) during World War II.
An armoured fighting vehicle (AFV) is an armed combat vehicle protected by armour, generally combining operational mobility with offensive and defensive capabilities.
An armoured train is a railway train protected with armour.
Armoured warfare, mechanised warfare or tank warfare is the use of armoured fighting vehicles in modern warfare.
An army (from Latin arma "arms, weapons" via Old French armée, "armed" (feminine)) or land force is a fighting force that fights primarily on land.
Army Commissar 2nd rank was a political rank in the Soviet Red Army, equivalent to the military rank of Komandarm 2nd rank.
Army commissar 1st rank (Армейский комиссар 1-го ранга), was a political rank in the Soviet Red Army, equivalent to the military rank of Komandarm 1st rank, and comparable to NATO OF-9.
General of the army (Russian: генерал армии, general armii) was a rank of the Soviet Union which was first established in June 1940 as a high rank for Red Army generals, inferior only to the marshal of the Soviet Union.
An army group is a military organization consisting of several field armies, which is self-sufficient for indefinite periods.
Army Group South (Heeresgruppe Süd) was the name of two German Army Groups during World War II.
The Army of the Czech Republic (Armáda České republiky, AČR), also known as the Czech Army or Czech Armed Forces, is the military service responsible for the defence of the Czech Republic in compliance with international obligations and treaties on collective defence.
Armies have military rank systems that are often used by other military services such as air forces or marines.
Arno Schmidt (18 January 1914 – 3 June 1979) was a German author and translator.
Arnold Meri (1 July 1919 – 27 March 2009) was a Soviet Red Army veteran of World War II and Hero of the Soviet Union who was charged with genocide for his role in the deportation of Estonians to the inhospitable regions of the USSR.
Arnold Hans Weiss (July 25, 1924 – December 7, 2010) was a German-born refugee from Nazi Germany who emigrated to the United States where he became an intelligence officer working for the Office of Strategic Services during World War II and played a key role in the discovery of the last will and testament of Adolf Hitler, dictated during the last days of the war in Europe and laying out the succession of leadership following his impending suicide as the Red Army overtook Berlin and encircled the Führerbunker.
The Arrow Cross Party (Nyilaskeresztes Párt – Hungarista Mozgalom, literally "Arrow Cross Party-Hungarist Movement") was a Nazi party led by Ferenc Szálasi, which formed a government in Hungary known as the Government of National Unity.
Arseny Grigoryevich Zverev (Арсе́ний Григо́рьевич Зве́рев; 18 February 1900 – 27 July 1969) was a Soviet Russian politician, economist and statesman whose career spanned the rules of Stalin and Khrushchev, but culminated during the Stalin years.
The Arsk uprising (Arça fetnäse) was a Tatar peasant rebellion against the Soviet power in Kazan, Layesh, Mamadysh uyezds of Kazan Governorate.
Arthur Aleksandrovich Adams (October 25, 1885, Eskilstuna, Sweden – January 14, 1969) – a Soviet spy, Hero of the Russian Federation, who passed to the Soviet Union critical information about the American Manhattan Project.
Arthur Dodd (born 7 December 1919 in Northwich, Cheshire – 17 January 2011) served in the British Army during World War II and was a Prisoner of War at Auschwitz III (Monowitz), a sub-camp of the notorious Auschwitz.
Arthur Hauffe (20 December 1892 – 22 July 1944) was a German general during World War II and commanded the XIII Army Corps.
Arthur Kobus (9 February 1879 – April 1945) was a German general during the Second World War.
Air Chief Marshal Sir Arthur Murray Longmore, (8 October 1885 – 10 December 1970) was an early naval aviator, before reaching high rank in the Royal Air Force.
Lieutenant-General Arthur Ernest Percival, (26 December 1887 – 31 January 1966) was a senior British Army officer.
Arthur Pieck (28 December 1899 - 13 January 1970) was a qualified typesetter.
Arthur Louis Hugo Rudolph (November 9, 1906 – January 1, 1996) was a German rocket engineer who was a leader of the effort to develop the V-2 rocket for Nazi Germany.
Arthur Schmidt (25 October 1895 – 5 November 1987) was an officer in the German military from 1914 to 1943.
Arthur Szyk (Polish:, June 16, 1894 – September 13, 1951) was a Polish-Jewish artist who worked primarily as a book illustrator and political artist throughout his career.
Artik (Armenian: Արթիկ), is a town and urban municipal community in the Shirak Province of Armenia.
Artillery Battalion (Suurtükiväepataljon) of the 2nd Infantry Brigade is a reserve artillery battalion of the Estonian Defence Forces.
Artur Alliksaar (15 April 1923 in Tartu – 12 August 1966 in Tartu) was an Estonian poet.
Artur Axmann (18 February 1913 – 24 October 1996) was the German Nazi national leader (Reichsjugendführer) of the Hitler Youth (Hitlerjugend) from 1940 to the war's end in 1945.
Artur Gustav Martin Phleps (29 November 1881 – 21 September 1944) was an Austro-Hungarian, Romanian and German army officer who held the rank of SS-Obergruppenführer und General der Waffen-SS (lieutenant general) in the Waffen-SS during World War II.
Artur Sirk (25 September 1900 in Pruuna, Lehtse Parish, Governorate of Estonia, Russian Empire – 2 August 1937 in Echternach, Luxembourg) was an Estonian political and military figure.
Arturs Sproģis (6 March 1904 – 2 October 1980; Артур Карлович Спрогис) was a Latvian colonel and commander of the Soviet partisans during the occupation of Latvia by Nazi Germany in World War II.
The Artus Court, formerly also Junkerhof, (Polish: Dwór Artusa, German: Artushof) is a building in the centre of Gdańsk, Poland (Danzig), at Długi Targ 44, which used to be the meeting place of merchants and a centre of social life.
Arvīds Pelše (А́рвид Я́нович Пе́льше, Arvid Yanovich Pelshe); – May 29, 1983) was a Latvian Soviet politician, functionary, and historian.
Arvid Pardo (February 12, 1914 – June 19, 1999) was a Maltese and Swedish diplomat, scholar, and university professor.
Asael Bielski (1908 – 1945) was the second-in-command of the Bielski partisans during.
,, or AMU, is a national university and medical school in Asahikawa, Hokkaido, Japan.
Ashes and Diamonds (Polish: Popiół i diament) is a 1958 Polish film directed by Andrzej Wajda, based on the 1948 novel by Polish writer Jerzy Andrzejewski.
Ashmyany (Ашмя́ны; Łacinka: Ašmiany; Ошмя́ны; Ašmena; Oszmiana; אָשמענע, Oshmene) is a town in Grodno Region, Belarus, located at 50 km from Vilnius, capital of the Ashmyany raion.
Askania-Nova (Асканія-Нова) is a biosphere reserve (sanctuary) located in Kherson Oblast, Ukraine, within the dry Taurida steppe near Oleshky Sands.
Aslan Farhad oglu Vazirov (13 December 1910 – 18 May 1987) was an Azerbaijani Red Army colonel and Hero of the Soviet Union.
Aslan-Beg Abashidze (ასლან-ბეგ აბაშიძე) (1877–1924) was a Muslim Georgian nobleman and general in the service of the Democratic Republic of Georgia.
Aszód is a town in Pest county, Hungary.
At Home among Strangers (Свой среди чужих, чужой среди своих; Svoy sredi chuzhikh, chuzhoy sredi svoikh) is a 1974 Soviet film starring Yuri Bogatyryov and Anatoly Solonitsyn and directed by Nikita Mikhalkov.
The Attack on Hrubieszów was a joint action of the Polish post-Home Army (AK) organization Freedom and Independence (WiN) and the Ukrainian partisans of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA), which took place on the night of 27 May 1946.
Attersee, also known as Kammersee, English sometimes Lake Atter, is the largest lake of the Salzkammergut region in the Austrian state of Upper Austria.
The following events occurred in August 1918.
The following events occurred in August 1939.
The following events occurred in August 1941.
August Eller (1907, Viljandi – 1990, Haapsalu) was an Estonian chess player, who won the Estonian Chess Championship.
August Kork (also Аугуст Яанович Корк; 11 June 1937) was an Estonian Red Army commander (Komandarm 2nd rank) who was tried and executed during the Great Purge in 1937.
August Edler von Meyszner (3 August 1886 – 24 January 1947) was an Austrian Gendarmerie officer, right-wing politician, and senior Ordnungspolizei (order police) officer who held the post of Higher SS and Police Leader in the German-occupied territory of Serbia from January 1942 to March 1944, during World War II.
August Schmidt (3 November 1892 – 17 January 1972) was a German general who commanded the 10th Panzergrenadier Division during World War II.
The August Uprising (აგვისტოს აჯანყება, agvistos adjanq’eba) was an unsuccessful insurrection against Soviet rule in the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic from late August to early September 1924.
The Augustów roundup (Polish Obława augustowska) was a military operation against the Polish World War II anti-communist partisans and sympathizers following the Soviet takeover of Poland.
Augustin Rösch (11 May 1893 in Schwandorf – 7 November 1961 in Munich) was a German Jesuit, Provincial, and significant figure in Catholic resistance to Nazism.
Augustinas Povilaitis (24 February 1900 in Pašventys, Jurbarkas district – 12 July 1941 in Moscow) was a captain of the Lithuanian Army and Director of the State Security Department of Lithuania.
Augusts Voss (Август Эдуардович Восс; 30 October 1919 in Omsk Governorate – 10 February 1994 in Moscow) was a Soviet politician and party functionary of Latvian origin.
The Aunus expedition was an attempt by Finnish volunteers to occupy parts of East Karelia in 1919, during the Russian Civil War.
Auschwitz concentration camp was a network of concentration and extermination camps built and operated by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland during World War II.
The Austin Armoured Car was a British armoured car produced during the First World War.
The Russian Civil War (1917–1921) began after the provisional government collapsed and the Bolshevik party assumed power in Russia in October 1917.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
Austria–Hungary relations are the neighborly relations between Austria and Hungary, two member states of the European Union.
The elections to the Austrian National Council held on 25 November 1945 were the first after World War II.
Auto Union AG, Chemnitz, was an amalgamation of four German automobile manufacturers, founded in 1932 and established in 1936 in Chemnitz, Saxony, during the Great Depression.
The Auto Union Grand Prix racing cars types A to D were developed and built by a specialist racing department of Auto Union's Horch works in Zwickau, Germany, between 1933 and 1939.
Automotive industry in Ukraine was established during the Soviet times and until fall of the Soviet Union was an integral part of automotive industry of the Soviet Union.
Avala (Авала) is a mountain in Serbia, overlooking Belgrade.
Avaz Hashim oglu Verdiyev (19161 May 1945) was an Azerbaijani Red Army Senior Sergeant and a Hero of the Soviet Union.
An Aviation Division (авиационная дивизия.) was a type of formation of the Military Air Forces of the Red Army during the Second World War, the Soviet Air Forces, Soviet Air Defence Forces (PVO) and Aviation of the Military Naval Fleet, and since 1991 remain major formations within the Military Air Forces of the Russian Federation.
Avigdor Lieberman (אביגדור ליברמן,,; born Evet Lvovich Liberman, Эве́т Льво́вич Ли́берман, 5 July 1958) is a Soviet-born Israeli politician who serves as the Defense Minister of Israel.
Avraham Cholodenko (1871 – May 25, 1942) was a Zionist leader, educator, and one of the first revivers of Hebrew as a modern language in the Russian Empire.
The following is a full list of awards and decorations of Leonid Brezhnev, Soviet president and statesman, sorted into two sections; foreign and domestic.
Axis & Allies Miniatures is a miniature wargaming system including both a rule set and a line of 1/100 scale miniature armor (15 mm figure scale) collectible miniatures.
Axis and Soviet air operations during Operation Barbarossa took place over a six-month period, 22 June – December, 1941.
The Occupation of Vojvodina (a province of modern Serbia) from 1941 to 1944 was carried out by Nazi Germany and its client states / puppet regimes: Horthy's Hungary and Independent State of Croatia In 1941, during World War II, Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy and Hungary invaded and occupied the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
Ayan (Аян) is a rural locality (a selo) and the administrative center of Ayano-Maysky District of Khabarovsk Krai, Russia, located on the shore of a well-protected bay of the Sea of Okhotsk, from Khabarovsk and by sea from Nikolayevsk-on-Amur.
The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (ADR; Azərbaycan Demokratik Respublikası), also known as Azerbaijan People's Republic (Azərbaycan Xalq Cümhuriyyəti) or Caucasus Azerbaijan in diplomatic documents, was the third democratic republic in the Turkic world and Muslim world, after the Crimean People's Republic and Idel-Ural Republic.
Azerbaijan, officially by its full name – the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic, entered World War II alongside the Soviet Union, after the German declaration of war on June 22, 1941.
Azerbaijan State Agricultural University (Azərbaycan Dövlət Aqrar Universiteti, literally "Azerbaijan State Agricultural University"), also referred to as the Azerbaijan State Agricultural University (Az. AA), is a public university located in Ganja, Azerbaijan.
Azerbaijan State Oil and Industry University (formerly Azerbaijan State Oil Academy) Azərbaycan Respublikası Prezidentinin 3 sentyabr 2015-ci il tarixli Sərəncamı.
The Armed Forces of Azerbaijan (Azərbaycan Silahlı Qüvvələri) were re-established according to the Law of the Republic of Azerbaijan on the Armed Forces from 9 October 1991.
Ángel Sanz Briz (28 September 1910 – 11 June 1980) was a Spanish diplomat who served under Francoist Spain during World War II.
Árpád Göncz (10 February 1922 – 6 October 2015) was a Hungarian liberal politician, who served as President of Hungary from 2 May 1990 to 4 August 2000.
Ève Denise Curie Labouisse (December 6, 1904 – October 22, 2007) was a French and American writer, journalist and pianist.
Üllői út (Üllői Avenue, lit. means "Road to Üllő") is a major transport artery in Budapest, Hungary.
Čačalica (Чачалица) is a hill above Požarevac, which contains a memorial park with same name, Memorial Park Čačalica (Спомен парк Чачалица), that was built in 1962 and includes 28 hectares.
Čeminac (Laskafeld) is a village and municipality in Osijek-Baranja county, Croatia.
Červená Voda (Mährisch Rothwasser) is a village in the Pardubice Region of the Czech Republic with a population of 3,264 (2006), is situated in a valley 19 km north-west from the city of Šumperk and belongs to the Okres Ústí nad Orlicí district.
Čestmír Vycpálek (Prague, 15 May 1921 – Palermo, 5 May 2002) was a Czech football player and manager who played as a midfielder.
Čiulai is a small village, located about east of Mindūnai along the Highway 114 in the municipality of Molėtai, Lithuania.
Qutuyıv Ğädelşa Nurmöxämmät ulı (pronounced; Tatar Cyrillic: Кутуев Гаделша Нурмөхәммәт улы; Кутуй Адель Нурмухамметович, Kutuy Adel Nurmukhammetovich), better known as Ğädel Qutuy (Janalif: Ƣədel Qutuj; Tatar Cyrillic: Гадел Кутуй; Адель Кутуй; frequently anglicized as Adel Kutuy; 28 November 1903 Tatarskie Kynady, Kuznetsky Uyezd, Saratov Governorate Russian Empire – 15 June 1945 Zgierz, Poland) was a Soviet Tatar poet, writer and playwright.
Łańcut (Polish pronunciation:; Landshut, לאַנצוט-Lantzut), is a town in south-eastern Poland, with 18,004 inhabitants, as of 2 June 2009.
Łachwa (or Lakhva) Ghetto was a World War II ghetto created by Nazi Germany on 1 April 1942 in the town of Łachwa in occupied eastern Poland (now Lakhva, Belarus), with the aim of persecution, terror and exploitation of the local Jews.
Łambinowice (Lamsdorf) is a village in Nysa County, Opole Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
Łask is a town in central Poland with 17,604 inhabitants (2016).
Łódź (לאדזש, Lodzh; also written as Lodz) is the third-largest city in Poland and an industrial hub.
Łęczna is a town in eastern Poland with 19,780 inhabitants (2014), situated in Lublin Voivodeship.
Łeba (Kashubian/Pomeranian: Leba; Leba) is a town in the Pomeranian Voivodeship of Poland.
Łomża (Yiddish: Lomzhe) is a city in north-eastern Poland, approximately 150 kilometres (90 miles) to the north-east of Warsaw and west of Białystok.
The Łuck Ghetto (a.k.a. the Lutsk Ghetto, getto w Łucku, Ghetto Luzk) was a Jewish World War II ghetto established in 1941 by the Schutzstaffel (SS) in the prewar Polish city of Łuck (now Lutsk, Ukraine) occupied by Germany in the south-eastern region of Kresy during Operation Barbarossa.
Łukasz Ciepliński (born November 26, 1913 - died March 1, 1951) was a Polish soldier who fought in the Polish anti-Nazi and anti-communist resistance movements.
Ścinawa (Steinau an der Oder) is a town and municipality on the Oder river in the Lower Silesian region of Poland.
Ślesin is a town in Konin County, Greater Poland Voivodeship, Poland, with 3,324 inhabitants (2004).
The armoured train Śmiały (Polish for Bold), officially armoured train number 53 was an armoured train of the Polish Army that saw significant action during the German Invasion of Poland in September 1939.
Świętoszów (Neuhammer am Queis) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Osiecznica, within Bolesławiec County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland in the Lower Silesian Wilderness, on the river Kwisa.
Święty Marcin ("Saint Martin"), in full ulica Święty Marcin ("Saint Martin Street"), is a main central street in the city of Poznań in western Poland.
Świdnik is a municipality in eastern Poland with 40,186 inhabitants (2012), situated in the Lublin Voivodeship, southeast of the city of Lublin.
Świebodzin (Schwiebus) is a town in western Poland with 21,757 inhabitants (2004).
Świeradów-Zdrój (Bad Flinsberg) is a spa town in Lubań County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland near the border with the Czech Republic.
Świerklaniec (Neudeck) is a village in Tarnowskie Góry County, in the Silesian Voivodeship of southwestern Poland.
Świnoujście (Swinemünde, both names meaning Świna mouth) is a city and seaport on the Baltic Sea and Szczecin Lagoon, located in the extreme north-west of Poland.
Šajkaška (Шајкашка) is a historical region in northern Serbia.
Štíty (until 1949 Šilperk Schildberg) is a small town in the Olomouc Region of Moravia, in the Czech Republic.
Šumperk (Mährisch Schönberg) is a district town in the Olomouc Region of the Czech Republic.
Żagań (French and Sagan, Zahań, Zaháň, Saganum) is a town on the Bóbr river in western Poland, with 26,253 inhabitants (2010).
Żary (Sorau, Žarow) is a town in western Poland with about 39,900 inhabitants (2006), situated in the Lubusz Voivodeship (since 1999, previously in Zielona Góra Voivodeship (1975–1998)).
Żelechów (Yiddish זשעלעכאָוו) is a town in east Poland in Masovian Voivodeship in Garwolin County.
Not to be confused with the similarly-named town Żary (German: Sorau) in Silesian Voivodeship Żory (Sohrau) is a town and city county in Silesian Voivodeship, Poland with 58,672 inhabitants (2018).
Żydokomuna ((Polish for "Jew-communism"; related to "Jewish Bolshevism") is a pejorative antisemitic stereotype suggesting that most Jews collaborated with the Soviet Union in importing communism into Poland or that there was an exclusively Jewish conspiracy to do so. Some Poles saw communism as part of a wider Jewish-led conspiracy to seize power, despite Soviet leader Joseph Stalin's antisemitism and other communists' view of religious, bourgeois, and Zionist Jews as enemies of communism. The stereotype of Żydokomuna originated as anti-communist propaganda at the time of the Polish-Soviet War (1919–21) and continued through the interwar period, despite only 2-7% of Polish Jews having voted for the Communist Party and its fronts, while most Polish Jews supported the Piłsudski government. After Piłsudski died in 1935, rising state antisemitism attracted secular, non-Zionist Polish Jews to a Soviet alternative; in the 1939-1941 Soviet annexation of eastern Poland, the stereotype was reinforced when Moscow initially put local Polish Jewish communists in positions of authority before replacing them with their own officials. The "Jew-communism" stereotype endured in postwar Poland (1944–56) because Polish anti-communists saw Poland's Soviet-controlled communist government as the fruition of prewar communist anti-Polish agitation and associated it with the Soviets' appointment of Jews to positions of responsibility in the Polish government. The stereotype was again reinforced by the prominent role of a small number of Jews in Poland's Stalinist regime: 37.1% of postwar Poland's Security Office and communist authorities were of Jewish origin, a group that was less than 0.1% of the total Polish Jewish population. It was described in intelligence reports as very loyal to the Soviets.Krzysztof Szwagrzyk, OBEP Wrocław,, Biuletyn IPN (Bulletin of the Institute of National Remebrance"), 11/2005. Some Polish historians have questioned the loyalty of Jews who returned to Poland from the USSR after the Soviet takeover of Poland, raising concern about potential revival of the Żydokomuna concept.
Žanis Bahs (also Žanis Bachs; 1885-1941) was a Latvian general.
Živana "Žanka" Stokić (Жанка Стокић; January 24, 1887 – July 21, 1947) was a Serbian actress.
Žemaičių Naumiestis is a town in Klaipėda county, Šilutė district municipality.
Žilina (Sillein, or; Zsolna; Żylina, names in other languages) is a city in north-western Slovakia, around from the capital Bratislava, close to both the Czech and Polish borders.
Žirmūnai (is the most populous administrative division (elderate) in Vilnius. It is also a neighbourhood in the Lithuanian capital city Vilnius, encompassing the city district of the same name, built in the 1960s. Žirmūnai's history has been traced to the late 14th century, when a Lithuanian fishing village was founded across the River Neris from Vilnius' Old Town. Several historic sites in Žirmūnai are internationally significant; it is the home of Lithuania's largest Jewish cemetery, as well as the location of mass graves of soldiers belonging to Napoleon's Grande Armée and victims of the NKGB's and MGB's executions after World War II. Tuskulėnai Manor, built in 1825, and the surrounding Peace Park are important historical and cultural attractions in Vilnius. The area was given the name Žirmūnai during the early 1960s, when it became the site of an award-winning residential construction project; it was the first city district in the Lithuanian SSR to be constructed applying urban planning concepts established in the USSR at the time. The massive Palace of Concerts and Sports and Žalgiris Stadium are other relics of Žirmūnai's Soviet history. Žirmūnai was important to the industrial sector in the USSR; since that time, this function has been replaced or supplanted by newer businesses, including some of Lithuania's leading companies. Žirmūnai has undergone major renovation and development in the 21st century. Šiaurės miestelis ("North Town") is an area of Žirmūnai that has rapidly evolved into one of the key business and residential districts of the city. This quarter was used by a number of regimes as a military garrison, and internationally significant historical findings have been made in the area.
Benjamin B. Janz (25 September 1877 – 16 October 1964) was a minister of the Mennonite Brethren Church who was instrumental in assisting thousands of Mennonites in emigrating from the Soviet Union to Canada.
The BA-20 (italic) was an armored car developed in the Soviet Union in 1934.
The BA-27 was a Soviet first series-produced armoured car, manufactured from 1928 to 1931, and used for scouting and infantry support duties early in the Second World War.
The BA-64 (БА-64, from Bronirovaniy Avtomobil, literally "armoured car") was a Soviet four-wheeled armoured scout car.
Babidół (Ziegelei Babenthal) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Kolbudy, within Gdańsk County, Pomeranian Voivodeship, in northern Poland.
Babimost (Bomst) is a small town in Poland in Zielona Gora County, Lubusz Voivodeship.
Babruysk, Babrujsk, or Bobruisk (Бабру́йск, Łacinka: Babrujsk, Бобру́йск, Bobrujsk, באברויסק) is a city in the Mogilev Region of eastern Belarus on the Berezina river.
The Bachem Ba 349 Natter (Colubrid, grass-snake) was a World War II German point-defence rocket-powered interceptor, which was to be used in a very similar way to a manned surface-to-air missile.
Bachorza is a manor house located in the village of Bachorza in Masovian Voivodeship, in central-eastern Poland.
The background of the occupation of the Baltic states covers the period before the first Soviet occupation on 14 June 1940, stretching from independence in 1918 to the Soviet ultimatums in 1939–1940.
The background of the Winter War covers the period before the outbreak of the Winter War between Finland and the Soviet Union in 1939–1940, stretching from Finland's Declaration of Independence in 1917 to the Soviet-Finnish negotiations in 1938–1939.
Bad Harzburg railway station (Bahnhof Bad Harzburg) serves the spa town of Bad Harzburg in Lower Saxony, Germany.
The Bagrationi dynasty (bagrat’ioni) is a royal family that reigned in Georgia from the Middle Ages until the early 19th century, being among the oldest extant Christian ruling dynasties in the world. In modern usage, this royal line is often referred to as the Georgian Bagratids (a Hellenized form of their dynastic name), also known in English as the Bagrations. The common origin with the Armenian Bagratuni dynasty has been accepted by several scholars Toumanoff, Cyril, "Armenia and Georgia", in The Cambridge Medieval History, Cambridge, 1966, vol. IV, p. 609. Accessible online at (Although, other sources claim, that dynasty had Georgian roots). Early Georgian Bagratids through dynastic marriage gained the Principality of Iberia after succeeding Chosroid dynasty at the end of the 8th century. In 888, the Georgian monarchy was restored and united various native polities into the Kingdom of Georgia, which prospered from the 11th to the 13th century. This period of time, particularly the reigns of David IV the Builder (1089–1125) and his great granddaughter Tamar the Great (1184–1213) inaugurated the Georgian Golden Age in the history of Georgia.Montgomery-Massingberd, Hugh. "Burke’s Royal Families of the World: Volume II Africa & the Middle East, 1980, pp. 56-67 After fragmentation of the unified Kingdom of Georgia in the late 15th century, the branches of the Bagrationi dynasty ruled the three breakaway Georgian kingdoms, Kingdom of Kartli, Kingdom of Kakheti, and Kingdom of Imereti, until Russian annexation in the early 19th century. While the Treaty of Georgievsk's 3rd Article guaranteed continued sovereignty for the Bagrationi dynasty and their continued presence on the Georgian Throne, the Russian Imperial Crown later broke the terms of the treaty, and their treaty became an illegal annexation. The dynasty persisted within the Russian Empire as an Imperial Russian noble family until the 1917 February Revolution. The establishment of Soviet rule in Georgia in 1921 forced some members of the family to accept demoted status and loss of property in Georgia, others relocated to Western Europe, although some repatriated after Georgian independence in 1991.
Bagrationovsk (Багратио́новск), before 1946 known by its German name Preußisch Eylau (Ylava or Prūsų Ylava; Pruska Iława or Iławka) is a town and the administrative center of Bagrationovsky District in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located south of Kaliningrad, the administrative center of the oblast.
Bahatdin Shahveled oglu Mirzayev (Azerbaijani: Bahəddin Şahvələd oğlu Mirzəyev; 31 December 1914 – 15 April 1987) was an Azerbaijani Red Army captain and a Hero of the Soviet Union.
Bahram bey Nabibekov (Bəhram bəy Nəbibəyov, Бахрам-бек Набибеков; December 6, 1884 - July 1930) was an Azerbaijani colonel in the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic army and one of the leaders of Sheki uprising in 1930.
Baikalia (or Baykalia) is a vague geographical term referring to the region around Lake Baikal.
Bakhtyuras Shampekuly Besikbayev (Бақтыораз Шәмпекұлы Бесікбаев; 1920 – 26 June 1941) was a gunner and radio operator in the 207th Long-Range Bomber Aviation Regiment during the Second World War.
Bakir Dursun oglu Mustafayev (Azerbaijani: Bəkir Dursun oğlu Mustafayev; 11 February 1898 – 10 December 1978) was an Azerbaijani soldier who served in the Red Army during World War II.
Baku Polytechnicum (Bakı Politexnikumun) is a now-defunct technical university that was established in 1887 in Baku, when it was under Russian rule.
Balassagyarmat (formerly Balassa-Gyarmath, Balašske Ďarmoty, Jahrmarkt) is a town in northern Hungary.
The Baldin Collection is a group of 364 masterpieces removed from Germany to the Soviet Union by Russian Army officer Victor Baldin at the end of World War II.
Balga (замок Бальга; Burg Balga; Balga; Bałga) was a medieval castle of the Teutonic Knights in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia.
Ballad of a Soldier (Баллада о солдате, Ballada o soldate), is a 1959 Soviet film directed by Grigori Chukhrai and starring Vladimir Ivashov and Zhanna Prokhorenko.
Balta (Балта; Balta) is a city in Odessa Oblast in south-western Ukraine.
Baltic Station (Balti jaam) is the main railway station in Tallinn, Estonia.
The Baltic Germans (Deutsch-Balten or Deutschbalten, later Baltendeutsche) are ethnic German inhabitants of the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea, in what today are Estonia and Latvia.
The Baltic Offensive, also known as the Baltic Strategic Offensive, denotes the campaign between the northern Fronts of the Red Army and the German Army Group North in the Baltic States during the autumn of 1944.
The Baltic Operation, also known as the Defensive operation in Lithuania and Latvia encompassed the operations of the Red Army from 22 June to 9 July 1941 conducted over the territories of the occupied Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia in response to an offensive launched by the German army.
The Baltic states, also known as the Baltic countries, Baltic republics, Baltic nations or simply the Baltics (Balti riigid, Baltimaad, Baltijas valstis, Baltijos valstybės), is a geopolitical term used for grouping the three sovereign countries in Northern Europe on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.
This Baltic states were under Soviet rule from the end of World War II in 1945, from sovietization onwards until independence was regained in 1991.
The Baltic Way or Baltic Chain (also Chain of Freedom; Balti kett, Baltijas ceļš, Baltijos kelias, Балтийский путь) was a peaceful political demonstration that occurred on 23 August 1989.
The Baltic Landwehr or Baltische Landeswehr ("Baltic Territorial Army") was the name of the unified armed forces of the Couronian and Livonian nobility from 7 December 1918 to 3 July 1919.
Baltiysk (Балти́йск), before 1946 known by its German name Pillau (Piława; Piliava; Yiddish: פּילאַווע, Pilave), is a seaport town and the administrative center of Baltiysky District in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the northern part of the Vistula Spit, on the shore of the Strait of Baltiysk separating the Vistula Lagoon from the Gdańsk Bay.
The Banat Swabians are an ethnic German population in Southeast Europe, part of the Danube Swabians.
Banská Štiavnica (Schemnitz; Selmecbánya (Selmec)) is a town in central Slovakia, in the middle of an immense caldera created by the collapse of an ancient volcano.
Urmançe Ğäbdelbaqí İdris ulı (pronounced), Baqi Urmançe (Janalif: Baqi Urmance; Tatar Cyrillic: Урманче Бакый (Габделбакый) Идрис улы; Урманче́ Баки́ (Габделбакы́й) Идри́сович, Urmanche Baki (Gabdelbaky) Idrisovich; 23 February 1897 - 6 August 1990) was a Tatar painter, sculptor and graphic artist, and a pedagogue.
Baranavichy (Бара́навічы, Łacinka: Baranavičy, Baranavichy; Бара́новичи, Baranowicze, Baranovičiai, באראנאוויטש, Baranovitsh) is a city in the Brest Region of western Belarus with a population (as of 1995) of 173,000.
Baranów Sandomierski is a small town in southern Poland, in the Subcarpathian Voivodship, Tarnobrzeg County on the Vistula River, with 1,440 inhabitants (02.06.2009).
Barbu Solacolu (March 18, 1897 – October 30, 1976) was a Romanian poet, translator, civil servant and social scientist.
Bardejov (Bartfeld, Bártfa, Бардеёв, Бардіїв, Bardejów) is a town in North-Eastern Slovakia.
Baroness Elisabeth of Wangenheim-Winterstein (16 January 1912 – 15 March 2010) was the wife of Charles Augustus, Hereditary Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, and the mother of Prince Michael, current head of the House of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach.
Baroness Marie Alexandrine von Vetsera (19 March 1871 – 30 January 1889) was a member of Austrian "second society" (new nobility) and one of Crown Prince Rudolf of Austria's mistresses.
The Barracks Complex in Września - the old prussian barracks, built in the early twentieth century (1902–1910), at the current Kosciuszko Street (old de. Kaiser-Wilhelm-strasse).
Barrier troops, blocking units, or anti-retreat forces are troops that are placed behind the front lines during a battle in order to shoot any soldiers attempting to retreat or escape from the battle.
Bartoszyce (German: Bartenstein; Barštynas) is a town on the Łyna River in northeastern Poland with 25,621 inhabitants.
The Barvenkovo–Lozovaya Offensive was a Red Army operation on the Eastern Front in the European Theatre of World War II; it took place between 18 and 31 January 1942.
The Republic of Bashkortostan (Башҡортостан Республикаһы, p), also historically known as Bashkiria (p), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic (state)).
The Basmachi movement (Басмачество, Basmachestvo) or Basmachi Revolt was an uprising against Russian Imperial and Soviet rule by the Muslim peoples of Central Asia.
Basta (That’s enough!/Das genügt!) is an album that was released by Quilapayún in 1969.
Bat-Sheva Dagan (בת-שבע דגן) (born September 8, 1925) is a Polish-Israeli Holocaust survivor, educator, author, and speaker.
Bataliony Chłopskie (BCh, Polish Farmers' Battalions) was a Polish World War II resistance movement, guerrilla and partisan organisation.
The Batskelevich Cavalry Group was a cavalry formation of the Red Army during World War II.
A battle cry is a yell or chant taken up in battle, usually by members of the same combatant group.
The Battle for Caen (June to August 1944) is the name for the fighting between the British Second Army and German Panzergruppe West in the Second World War for control of the city of Caen and vicinity, during the Battle of Normandy.
An illicit broadcast from the radio studio in Prague helped spark the Prague uprising during the final days of World War II, but German counterattacks led to a pitched battle breaking out.
Battle for Sevastopol ("Битва за Севастополь"; "Незламна" "Indestructible") is a 2015 biographical war film about Lyudmila Pavlichenko, a young Soviet who joined the Red Army to fight the Nazi invasion of the USSR and became one of the deadliest snipers in World War II.
The Velikiye Luki offensive operation (Великолукская наступательная операция) was executed by the forces of the Red Army's Kalinin Front against the Wehrmacht's 3rd Panzer Army during the Winter Campaign of 1942–1943 with the objective of liberating the Russian city of Velikiye Luki as part of the northern pincer of the Rzhev-Sychevka Strategic Offensive Operation (Operation Mars).
The battle in Berlin was an end phase of the Battle of Berlin.
The Battle of Anzio was a battle of the Italian Campaign of World War II that took place from January 22, 1944 (beginning with the Allied amphibious landing known as Operation Shingle) to June 5, 1944 (ending with the capture of Rome).
The Battle of Arbuzovka was fought between 22 and 25 December 1942 in the valley of Arbuzovka (near Chertkovo, Russia), between Italian and German forces and Soviet forces, as part of the Battle of Stalingrad.
The Battle of Batina or The Batina Operation is one of the battles of the Second World War which took place from 11 to 29 November 1944 at the Croatian village of Batina in Baranja, on the right bank of the Danube River, between the units of the Red Army, the People's Liberation Army, the Wehrmacht, and their allies.
The Battle of Bereza Kartuska was fought between the combined forces of the Second Polish Republic and the Soviet Russia around the village Bereza Kartuska (now Byaroza, Belarus) first on 14 February 1919, and again, between July 21 and July 26, 1920.
The Battle of Berlin, designated the Berlin Strategic Offensive Operation by the Soviet Union, and also known as the Fall of Berlin, was the final major offensive of the European theatre of World War II.
The Battle of Białystok was a battle of the Polish–Soviet War that took place near and within Białystok, Poland on August 22, 1920.
The Battle of Białystok–Minsk was a German strategic operation conducted by the Army Group Centre during the penetration of the Soviet border region in the opening stage of Operation Barbarossa lasting from 22 June to 3 July 1941.
The Battle of Bobrujsk took place between February 2 – March 11, 1918.
The Battle of Bolshie Ozerki was a major engagement fought during the Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War.
The Battle of Borkowo took place on August 14–15, 1920, during the Polish–Soviet War.
The Battle of Borodzianka took place on June 11–13, 1920, during the Kiev Offensive of the Polish Army in the Polish–Soviet War.
Battle of Britain DayMason 1969, p. 386.
The Battle of Brody (other names in use include Battle of Dubna, Battle of Dubno, Battle of Rovne, Battle of Rovne-Brody) was a tank battle fought between the 1st Panzer Group's III Army Corps and XLVIII Army Corps (Motorized) and five mechanized corps of the Soviet 5th Army and 6th Army in the triangle formed by the towns Dubno, Lutsk, and Brody between 23 and 30 June 1941.
The Battle of Brześć Litewski (also known as the Siege of Brześć, Battle of Brest-Litovsk or simply Battle of Brześć) was a World War II battle involving German and Polish forces that took place between 14 and 17 September 1939, near the town of Brześć Litewski (now Brest, Belarus).
The Battle of Cēsis (Cēsu kaujas; Võnnu lahing Battle of Võnnu; Schlacht von Wenden, Battle of Wenden), fought near Cēsis (or Võnnu, Wenden) in June 1919, was a decisive battle in the Estonian War of Independence and the Latvian War of Independence. After heavy fighting an Estonian force moving from the north, supplemented by Latvian units, repelled Baltic German attacks and went on full counter-attack.
The Battle of Czarnobyl took place on April 27, 1920, near the town of Chernobyl, Ukraine, during the Polish-Soviet War.
Battle of Daugavpils (also known as the Battle of Dyneburg) was the final battle in the Polish-Soviet campaign of 1919.
The Battle of Dawan Cheng (1934) occurred when Gen.
Battle of Dytiatyn was one of battles of the Polish–Soviet War of 1919–1921 also referred to as the Polish Thermopylae (together with Battle of Zadwórze and Battle of Wizna).
The Battle of Głębokie took place during the Polish–Soviet War (1919–21).
Battle of Goychay (Göyçay döyüşü, Геокчайский бой, Göyçay Savaşı), was a battle that took place from 27 June, 1918 to 1 July of the same year, between Ottoman–Azerbaijani coalition forces led by Nuri Pasha and Armenian branches of the Soviet 11th Army.
The Battle of Grodno took place between 21 September and 24 September 1939, during the Soviet invasion of Poland.
The Battle of Halbe (Kessel von Halbe, Хальбский котёл, Halbe pocket) from April 24 – May 1, 1945 was a battle in which the German Ninth Army, under the command of General Theodor Busse, was destroyed as a fighting force by the Red Army during the Battle for Berlin.
The Battle of Hamburg was one of the last battles of World War II, where the remaining troops of the German 1st Parachute Army fought the British VIII Corps for the control of Hamburg, between 18 April and 3 May 1945.
The Battle of Honkaniemi was fought between Finnish and Soviet forces on 26 February 1940.
The Battle of Husynne (bitwa pod Husynnem) was an armed engagement fought on 24 September 1939 between the Polish Army and the Red Army during the Nazi and Soviet invasion of Poland.
The Battle of Ilomantsi was a part of the Continuation War (1941–1944).
Unit locations on July 25, 1942The large reservoir in the southwest corner of the map did not exist in 1942 | label.
The Battle of Kassel was a four-day struggle between the U.S. Army and the German Army in April 1945 for Kassel, a medium-sized city 140 kilometers northeast of Frankfurt am Main, which also is the second-largest city in Hesse (after Frankfurt).
The Battle of Königsberg, also known as the Königsberg Offensive, was one of the last operations of the East Prussian Offensive during World War II.
The Battle of Kiauneliškis was fought on March 11–13, 1945 between the Lithuanian partisans and Soviet forces.
The First Battle of Kiev was the German name for the operation that resulted in a very large encirclement of Soviet troops in the vicinity of Kiev during World War II.
The Second Battle of Kiev was part of much wider Soviet offensive in Ukraine known as the Battle of the Dnieper involved three strategic operations by the Soviet Red Army, and one operational counterattack by the Wehrmacht which took place between 3 October and 22 December 1943.
The Battle of Kiev of December 1919 was the third of three battles fought that year in Kiev, the capital of Ukraine during the Russian Civil War.
The Battle of Kiev in January 1919 was one of the three battles in Kiev, capital of Ukraine during the Russian Civil War and Ukrainian–Soviet War.
The Battle of Kobryń was one of the battles of the Invasion of Poland.
The Battle of Kock was fought between August 14 and 16, 1920 in the vicinity of the town of Kock in east-central Poland.
The Battle of Kock was the final battle in the invasion of Poland at the beginning of World War II in Europe.
The Battle of Kolberg or Battle of Kołobrzeg (also, battle for Festung Kolberg) was the taking of the city of Kolberg, now the city of Kołobrzeg, in German Pomerania by the Soviet Army and its Polish allies from Nazi German forces during the World War II East Pomeranian Offensive.
The Battle of Komarów, or the Zamość Ring, was one of the most important battles of the Polish-Soviet War.
The Battle of Koziatyn (also known as the Raid on Koziatyn and Koziatyn Envelopment) of 25–27 April 1920 was one of the most spectacular raids of the Polish cavalry during the Polish-Soviet War.
The Battle of Krasny Bor was part of the Soviet offensive Operation Polyarnaya Zvezda.
Battle of Krivasoo (Krivasoo lahing; November 18, 1919 - December 30, 1919) took place in the Kriivasoo swamp, Estonia during the Estonian War of Independence between Estonian Army and the Red Army.
The Battle of Kursk was a Second World War engagement between German and Soviet forces on the Eastern Front near Kursk (south-west of Moscow) in the Soviet Union, during July and August 1943.
The Battle of lake Baikal was probably the only naval battle to be undertaken by Czechoslovak forces.
The Battle of Lenino was a tactical World War II engagement that took place between October 12 and October 13, 1943, north of the village of Lenino in the Mogilev region of Byelorussia.
The Battle of Lida took place on 16 and 17 April 1919 around the city of Lida during the Polish–Soviet War of 1919–20.
The Battle of Lijevče Field (Bitka na Lijevča polju, Битка на Лијевча пољу) was a battle fought between March 30 and April 8, 1945 between the Croatian Armed Forces (HOS, the amalgamated Ustaše militia and Croatian Home Guard forces) and Chetnik forces on the Lijevče Field near Banja Luka in what was then the Independent State of Croatia (NDH).
During the Polish-Soviet War of 1920 the city of Lwów (modern Lviv, Ukraine) was attacked by the forces of Alexander Ilyich Yegorov.
The Battle of Lwów (sometimes called the Siege of Lwów) was a World War II battle for the control over the Polish city of Lwów (now Lviv, Ukraine) between the Polish Army and the invading Wehrmacht and the Red Army.
The Battle of Memel or the Siege of Memel (Erste Kurlandschlacht) was a battle which took place on the Eastern Front during World War II.
The Battle of Moscow (Russian: Битва за Москву, Bitva za Moskvu) is a 1985 Soviet two-part war film, presenting a dramatized account of the 1941 Battle of Moscow and the events preceding it.
The Battle of Mutanchiang (or Mudanjiang) was a large-scale military engagement fought between the forces of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the Empire of Japan from August 12 to 16, 1945, as part of the Soviet invasion of Manchuria in World War II.
The Battle of Novo Litovoskaya took place on 7 August 1919, and was the result of two small contingents of opposing troops making contact during their respective patrols of the town.
The Battle of Obuchowo took place on September 26, 1920, during the Polish–Soviet War.
The Battle of Ossów took place in the fields near Wołomin on 14 August 1920.
The Battle of Ostrołęka took place on August 2–6, 1920, during the Polish–Soviet War.
The Battle of Paju (Paju lahing) was fought in Paju, near Valga, Estonia, on 31 January 1919 during the Estonian War of Independence.
In the Battle of Peregonovka (or Perehonivka) in September 1919, part of the Russian Civil War, the (Makhnovist) Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine routed elements of the (White) Volunteer Army.
Battle of Porkuni (Porkuni lahing) was the largest engagement between Estonians serving in the Red Army and Estonian pro-independence and Waffen-SS units.
The Battle of Porlampi, also known as the Battle of Porlammi, was a military engagement fought between the Finnish Army and Red Army from 30 August to 1 September 1941 on the Karelian Isthmus.
The Battle of Poznań (Battle of Posen) during World War II in 1945 was a massive assault by the Soviet Union's Red Army that had as its objective the elimination of the Nazi German garrison in the stronghold city of Poznań in occupied Poland.
The Battle of Prokhorovka was fought on 12 July 1943 near Prokhorovka, southeast of Kursk in the Soviet Union, during the Second World War.
The Battle of Przasnysz took place on August 21, 1920, near the towns of Przasnysz and Ciechanow, during the Polish-Soviet War.
The Battle of Raate Road was a battle fought during the Winter War between the Soviet Union and Finland in January 1940, as a part of the Battle of Suomussalmi.
The Battle of Radzymin (Bitwa pod Radzyminem) took place during the Polish–Soviet War (1919–21).
The Battle of Radzymin was one of a series of engagements between the Red Army's 1st Byelorussian Front and the German Army's XXXIXth Panzer Corps that occurred as part of the Lublin-Brest Offensive between 1 and 10 August 1944 at the conclusion of the Belorussian strategic offensive operation near the town of Radzymin in the vicinity of Warsaw, part of which entailed a large tank battle at Wołomin.
The Battle of Rapido River was fought from 20 to 22 January 1944 in the course of the Battle of Monte Cassino, part of the Italian Campaign of World War II.
The Battle of Raseiniai (23–27 June 1941) was a large tank battle that took place in the early stages of Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the Soviet Union.
Battle of Rautu was a 1918 Finnish Civil War battle, fought in Rautu, Finland (now Sosnovo, Leningrad Oblast, Russia) from 21 February to 5 April 1918 between the Finnish Whites against the Finnish Reds and the Russian Bolsheviks.
The Battle of Rzhev in the Summer of 1942 was part of a series of battles that lasted 15 months in the center of the Eastern Front.
The Battle of Sarnowa Góra took place on August 14–15, 1920, during the Polish–Soviet War.
The Battle of Shenkursk, in January 1919, was a major battle of the Russian Civil War.
The Battle of Siping (四平战斗), also called the Battle to Liberate Siping (四平解放战) by the communists was a battle fought between the Communist Forces and the Nationalist Forces in Jilin, China for the control of Siping (city) during the Chinese Civil War.
The First Battle of Smolensk (Kesselschlacht bei Smolensk ("Cauldron-battle) of Smolensk)";, Smolenskaya strategicheskaya oboronitelnaya operatsiya, "Smolensk strategic defensive operation") was a battle during the second phase of Operation Barbarossa, the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, in World War II. It was fought around the city of Smolensk between 10 July and 10 September 1941, about west of Moscow. The Wehrmacht had advanced into the USSR in the 18 days after the invasion on 22 June 1941. During the battle the German Army encountered unexpected resistance, leading to a two-month delay in their advance on Moscow. Three Soviet armies (the 16th, 19th and the 20th army) were encircled and destroyed just to the south of Smolensk, though significant numbers from the 19th and 20th armies managed to escape the pocket. Some historians have asserted that the losses of men and materiel incurred by the Wehrmacht during this drawn-out battle and the delay in the drive towards Moscow led to the defeat of the Wehrmacht by the Red Army in the Battle of Moscow of December 1941.
The second Battle of Smolensk (7 August–2 October 1943) was a Soviet strategic offensive operation conducted by the Red Army as part of the Summer-Autumn Campaign of 1943.
The Battle of Sokolovo took place on March 8 and 9, 1943, near the town of Sokolovo near Kharkiv in Ukraine when the ongoing attack of the Wehrmacht was delayed by joint Soviet and Czechoslovak forces.
The Battle of Stalingrad (23 August 1942 – 2 February 1943) was the largest confrontation of World War II, in which Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) in Southern Russia.
The Battle of Stalingrad (1942–43), a battle on the Eastern Front of World War II, often regarded as the single largest and bloodiest battle in the history of warfare, and one of the most decisive battles of World War II, has inspired a number of media works.
The Battle of Studzianki was a tactical engagement between elements of the Soviet Red Army's 2nd Guards Tank Army employed as a cavalry mechanized group of the 1st Belorussian Front, and elements of the German 9th Army of the Army Group North Ukraine defending the area south of Warsaw.
The Battle of Surkonty took place on 21 August 1944.
Battle of Szack (Shatsk) was one of the major battles between the Polish Army and the Red Army fought in 1939 in the beginning of the Second World War.
The Battle of Târgu Frumos, also known as the Battles of Târgu Frumos, occurred during 1944 in World War II in and around the town of Târgu Frumos in Iaşi County, Moldavia, Romania.
The Battle of the Bulge (16 December 1944 – 25 January 1945) was the last major German offensive campaign on the Western Front during World War II.
The Battle of the Caucasus is a name given to a series of Axis and Soviet operations in the Caucasus area on the Eastern Front of World War II.
The Battle of the Dnieper was a military campaign that took place in 1943 on the Eastern Front of World War II.
The Battle of the Kerch Peninsula, which commenced with the Soviet Kerch-Feodosia landing operation (Керченско-Феодосийская десантная операция, Kerchensko-Feodosiyskaya desantnaya operatsiya) and ended with the German Operation Bustard Hunt (Unternehmen Trappenjagd), was a World War II battle between Erich von Manstein's German and Romanian 11th Army and Soviet Crimean Front forces in the Kerch Peninsula, in the eastern part of the Crimea.
The Korsun-Shevchenkovsky Offensive led to the Battle of the Korsun–Cherkasy Pocket which took place from 24 January to 16 February 1944.
The Battle of the Niemen River was the second-greatest battle of the Polish–Soviet War.
The Battle of the Oder–Neisse is the German name for the initial (operational) phase of one of the last two strategic offensives conducted by the Red Army in the Campaign in Central Europe (1 January – 9 May 1945) during World War II.
The Battle of the Sea of Azov, also known as the Chernigovka pocket was an Axis military campaign fought between 26 September 1941 and 11 October 1941 on the northern shores of the Sea of Azov on the Eastern Front of World War II during Operation Barbarossa.
The Battle of the Transdanubian Hills (also known in Bulgaria as the "Drava Operation") was a defensive operation of the Bulgarian First Army during Bulgaria's participation in World War II against German Wehrmacht forces, who were trying to capture the north bank of the Drava river as part of Operation Spring Awakening.
The Battle of Tomaszów Lubelski took place from 18 September to 20 September 1939 near the town of Tomaszów Lubelski.
The Battle of Tsaritsyn was a military confrontation between Bolshevik forces and the White Army during the Russian Civil War.
The Battle of Tutong (1934) occurred when Gen.
The Battle of Uman (15 July – 8 August 1941) was the German and allied encirclement of the 6th and 12th Soviet Armies—under the command of Lieutenant General I. N. Muzyrchenko and Major General P. G. Ponedelin, respectively—south of the city of Uman during the initial offensive operations of German Army Group South, commanded by ''Generalfeldmarshall'' Gerd von Rundstedt, as part of Operation Barbarossa on the Eastern Front during World War II.
The Battle of Vystavka was the defense of the village of Vystavka and several neighboring villages by Allied forces against a series of attacks from the Red Army during the Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War in late January-early March, 1919.
The Battle of Warsaw refers to the decisive Polish victory in 1920 during the Polish–Soviet War.
The Battle of Wołodarka was a clash between the Polish Army and Siemion Budionnyi's First Cavalry Army.
The battle of Wytyczno took place on October 1, 1939 near the village of Wytyczno near Włodawa in Poland.
Battle of Zadwórze (sometimes referred to as the "Polish Thermopylae") was a battle of the Polish-Soviet War.
A battlefield, battleground, or field of battle is the location of a present or historic battle involving ground warfare.
Battlefield 1 is a first-person shooter video game developed by EA DICE and published by Electronic Arts.
The Battles of Khalkhyn Gol were the decisive engagements of the undeclared Soviet–Japanese border conflicts fought among the Soviet Union, Mongolia, Japan and Manchukuo in 1939.
The Battles of Parczew, Jabłoń and Milanów constituted one of the major battles between the Polish Army and the Red Army during the Soviet invasion of Poland.
The Battles of Rzhev (Ржевская битва) were a series of Soviet operations in World War II between January 8, 1942 and March 31, 1943.
Bauska is a town in Bauska Municipality, in the Zemgale region of southern Latvia.
Bauyrzhan Momyshuly, also spelled Baurjan Momish-UliWhile publications of the Kazakh government use the first version, all the English translations of Alexander Bek's books use the second.
The Baworowscy Library (Polish: Biblioteka Baworowskich) was one of major Polish libraries, with thousands of books and historical documents.
Baymirza Hayit Mahmutmirzaoğlov (December 17, 1917 – October 31, 2006), also spelled Boymirza Hayit Mahmutmirzaoğlov, was a historian and orientalist who specialized in the history of Turkestan and Central Asia.
Bálint Hóman (29 December 1885 – 2 June 1951) was a Hungarian scholar and politician who served as Minister of Religion and Education twice: between 1932–1938 and between 1939–1942.
Bátaszék (Badeseck, Batsek) is a town in Tolna County, Hungary.
Bârlad is a city in Vaslui County, Romania.
Béla Heinrich Bánáthy (Bánáthy Béla; December 1, 1919 – September 4, 2003) was an Hungarian-American linguist, and Professor at San Jose State University and UC Berkeley.
Béla Jurcsek (30 August 1893 – 1945) was a Hungarian politician, who served as Minister of Agriculture in 1944 and Minister of Welfare between 1944 and 1945.
Béla Kun (20 February 1886 – 29 August 1938), born Béla Kohn, was a Hungarian Communist revolutionary and politician who was the de facto leader of the Hungarian Soviet Republic in 1919.
Béla Miklós de Dálnok, Vitéz of Dálnok (11 June 1890 – 21 November 1948) was a Hungarian military officer and politician who served as acting Prime Minister of Hungary, at first in opposition, and then officially, from 1944 to 1945.
Béla Sulyok (21 November 1904 – 1 March 1977) was a Hungarian economist, who served as Governor of the Hungarian National Bank during the Communist regime from 1 July 1960 to 31 October 1961.
Böhönye is a village in Somogy county, Hungary.
Będzieszyn (Bangschin) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Pruszcz Gdański, within Gdańsk County, Pomeranian Voivodeship, in northern Poland.
Będzin (also Bendzin; Bendzin, בענדין Bendin) is a city in Zagłębie Dąbrowskie, southern Poland.
Bedřich Pokorný (6 March 1904 Brno – 25 March 1968 Brno) was a Czechoslovak secret service officer.
Bednota (Беднота, or "poverty") was a daily newspaper for peasants, issued by Central Committee of the Communist Party in Moscow, Russia, from March 1918 till January 1931.
Beelitz is a historic town in Potsdam-Mittelmark district, in Brandenburg, Germany.
Begoml or Biahoml (Бего́мль, Bieholin) is a town in the Dokshitsy district of Vitsebsk Province, Belarus, located on Highway М3 (Belarus) from Minsk to the north, from Vitebsk to the south and from Dokshitsy to the east.
The Belarusian Central Council or the Belarusian Central Rada (Беларуская Цэнтральная Рада, Biełaruskaja Centralnaja Rada; Weißruthenischer Zentralrat) was a Belarusian representative body with limited governmental functions during World War II in the German occupied Belarusian SSR.
The Belarusian Independence Party (Беларуская незалежніцкая партыя, БНП, Biełaruskaja Niezaležnickaja Partyja, BNP) was a Belarusian nationalistic military organization during the Second World War.
The Belarusian People's Republic (Белару́ская Наро́дная Рэспу́бліка,, transliterated as Bielarúskaja Naródnaja Respúblika, BNR), (Белорусская народная республика) (transliterated as Belorusskaya narodnaya respublika), historically referred to as the White Ruthenian Democratic Republic (Weißruthenische Volksrepublik) was a failed attempt to create a Belarusian state on the territory controlled by the German Imperial Army during World War I. The BNR existed from 1918 to 1919.
The Belarusian Resistance during World War II opposed Nazi Germany from 1941 until 1944.
Belarusian resistance movement are the resistance movements on the territory of contemporary Belarus.
Belastok Voblast or Belostok Oblast (Беластоцкая вобласць, Biełastockaja vobłasć, Белостокская Область, Obwód białostocki) was a short-lived territorial unit in the Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic (BSSR) during World War II from September 1939 until Operation Barbarossa of 22 June 1941.
Belgorod (p) is a city and the administrative center of Belgorod Oblast, Russia, located on the Seversky Donets River north of the border with Ukraine.
The Belgorod-Bogodukhov Offensive Operation (3 August 1943 – 23 August 1943) was a combat operation executed as part of Operation Polkovodets Rumyantsev by the Red Army against the Wehrmacht forces.
The Belgorod-Kharkov Strategic Offensive Operation, or simply Belgorod-Kharkov Offensive Operation, was a Soviet strategic summer offensive that aimed to recapture Belgorod and Kharkov (now Kharkiv), and destroy the German forces of the 4th Panzer Army and Army Detachment Kempf.
Belgrade (Beograd / Београд, meaning "White city",; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Serbia.
The Belgrade Military Parade, known as Korak pobednika ("Step/March of the Victor"), was a military parade on Nikola Tesla Boulevard on 16 October 2014, during the 70th anniversary of the liberation of Belgrade.
The New Cemetery (Ново гробље, Novo groblje) is a cemetery complex in Belgrade, Serbia.
The Belgrade Offensive or the Belgrade Strategic Offensive Operation (Beogradska operacija, Београдска операција; Белградская стратегическая наступательная операция, Belgradskaya strategicheskaya nastupatel'naya operatsiya) (14 September 1944 – 24 November 1944) was a military operation in which Belgrade was liberated from the German Wehrmacht through the joint efforts of the Soviet Red Army, Yugoslav Partisans, and the Bulgarian People's Army.
Kalmyk Buddhist Temple, also known as Kalmyk Home, was a Buddhist temple in Belgrade, capital of Serbia.
The Bell Tower of Berlin Olympic Stadium was a 77 metres high observation tower that was built in 1934 after plans by Professor Werner March.
The Belosselsky-Belozersky princely and Rurikid family is an aristocratic Russian family that descends in a direct male line from the Earliest Kievan Rus rulers and later of the medieval sovereigns of the Principality of Beloozero.
The Belostok Offensive (Белостокская наступательная операция) was part of the third and final phase of the Belorussian Strategic Offensive of the Red Army in summer 1944, commonly known as Operation Bagration.
Belov (Белов), or Belova (feminine; Белова), is a common Russian surname, derived from the word Bely (белый, meaning "white").
The Bendery Uprising of 1919 was an armed uprising by Bolsheviks and their working-class allies in the city of Bendery.
The Bendlerblock is a building complex in the Tiergarten district of Berlin, Germany, located on Stauffenbergstraße (formerly named Bendlerstraße).
The Decrees of the President of the Republic (Dekrety presidenta republiky, Dekréty prezidenta republiky) and the Constitutional Decrees of the President of the Republic (Ústavní dekrety presidenta republiky, Ústavné dekréty prezidenta republiky), commonly known as the Beneš decrees, were a series of laws drafted by the Czechoslovak government-in-exile in the absence of the Czechoslovak parliament during the German occupation of Czechoslovakia in World War II.
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF).
Dov Ber Borochov (Дов-Бер Борохов; July 3, 1881 – December 17, 1917) was a Marxist Zionist and one of the founders of the Labor Zionist movement and unusually for a Zionist, as a pioneer in the study of Yiddish as a language.
Berezhany (Бережани, Brzeżany, Brezhan, בּז'יז'אני/בּז'ז'ני Bzhezhani/Bzhizhani) is a city of regional significance located in the Ternopil Oblast (province) of western Ukraine.
Bergen auf Rügen is the capital of the former district of Rügen in the middle of the island of Rügen in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.
The Special Group Bergmann or the Bergmann Battalion (Sonderverband Bergmann) was a military unit of the German Abwehr during World War II, composed of five German-officered companies of the Caucasian volunteers.
Berlin Hermannstraße is a railway station in the Neukölln district of Berlin.
The Potsdamer Bahnhof is a former railway terminus in Berlin, Germany.
The Berlin Victory Parade of 1945 was held by the Allies of World War II on 7 September 1945 in Berlin, the capital of the defeated Nazi Germany, shortly after the end of World War II.
Berlin: The Downfall 1945 (also known as The Fall of Berlin 1945 in the US) is a narrative history by Antony Beevor of the Battle of Berlin during World War II.
The Berlin–Wrocław railway (Niederschlesisch-Märkische Eisenbahn-Gesellschaft, roughly translating as "Lower Silesian-Marcher Railway", NME) was a German private railway that connected Berlin (then capital of the March of Brandenburg, Mark Brandenburg) and Wrocław (in Lower Silesia, then part of Prussia, and called Breslau in German, now in Poland).
Bernard Leon Barker (March 17, 1917 – June 5, 2009) was a Watergate burglar and undercover operative in CIA directed plots to overthrow Cuban leader Fidel Castro.
Bernard Koenen (born Hamburg 17 February 1889: died Berlin 30 April 1964) was a German politician.
Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, (17 November 1887 – 24 March 1976), nicknamed "Monty" and "The Spartan General", was a senior British Army officer who fought in both the First World War and the Second World War.
Bernd Eisenfeld (9 January 1941 – 12 June 2010), also known by the pseudonym Fred Werner, was an opponent of the East German dictatorship who became a writer and an historian.
Bersarinplatz is a square in Friedrichshain, Berlin.
Bertha Thalheimer (17 March 1883 - 23 April 1959) was a German left-wing peace activist who became a politician (KPD).
Berthold Romanovich Lubetkin (14 December 1901 – 23 October 1990) was a Russian émigré architect who pioneered modernist design in Britain in the 1930s.
Bessarabia (Basarabia; Бессарабия, Bessarabiya; Besarabya; Бессара́бія, Bessarabiya; Бесарабия, Besarabiya) is a historical region in Eastern Europe, bounded by the Dniester river on the east and the Prut river on the west.
The Bessarabian Soviet Socialist Republic or Bessarabian SSR (Бессарабская Советская Социалистическая Республика, Бессарабская ССР) was a failed attempt of the Soviet Russia to establish its control over territory of historical Bessarabia in 1919.
Bezirk Bialystok (German for District or Region of Białystok, also Belostok) was an administrative unit of Nazi Germany created during the World War II invasion of the Soviet Union.
Bezledy (Beisleiden) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Bartoszyce, within Bartoszyce County, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, in northern Poland, close to the border with the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia.
Białogard (Belgard; Kashubian/Pomeranian: Biôłogard) is a town in Middle Pomerania, northwestern Poland with 24,399 inhabitants (2004).
Białowieża (Белавежа Biełavieža, Bialovieža, Беловежская Belovezhskaya) is a village in Poland, in Podlaskie Voivodeship, in the middle of Białowieża Forest, of which it is a namesake.
Białowieża Forest (Белавежская пушча, Biełaviežskaja Pušča; Baltvyžio giria; Puszcza Białowieska) is one of the last and largest remaining parts of the immense primeval forest that once stretched across the European Plain.
Biały Słoń (English: White Elephant; Ukrainian: Білий слон, Bily slon) is a Polish name for an abandoned campus of the former Polish Astronomical and Meteorological Observatory of Warsaw University, located at remote area on the peak of Pip Ivan in the Chornohora range of the Carpathian Mountains, Ukraine.
Białystok (Bielastok, Balstogė, Belostok, Byalistok) is the largest city in northeastern Poland and the capital of the Podlaskie Voivodeship.
The Białystok Ghetto (getto w Białymstoku) was a World War II Jewish ghetto set up by Nazi Germany between July 26 and early August 1941 in the newly formed Bezirk Bialystok district within Nazi occupied Poland.
Biłgoraj (בילגאריי, Bilgoray, Білґорай) is a town in south-eastern Poland with about 27,100 inhabitants (2014).
Bicske is a town in Fejér county, Hungary.
Bielsk County (powiat bielski) is a unit of territorial administration and local government (powiat) in Podlaskie Voivodeship, north-eastern Poland.
Bielsk Podlaski (Бельск Падляскі, Більськ) is an Urban Gmina (Polish: gmina miejska) (Town) in Bielsk County, Podlaskie Voivodeship.
The Bielski partisans were a unit of Jewish partisans who rescued Jews from extermination and fought the German occupiers and their collaborators around Nowogródek (Navahrudak) and Lida (now in western Belarus) in German-occupied Poland.
Bierut Decrees is a direct translation of a German-coined political phrase Bierut-Dekrete, used only in Germany by bodies representative of the cross-border interests of the ethnic Germans expelled from Poland in the aftermath of the Second World War.
Biesenthal is a town in the district of Barnim in Brandenburg, Germany.
Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi (Білгород-Дністровський, Cetatea Albă), formerly known as Akkerman (see naming section below), is a city and port situated on the right bank of the Dniester Liman (on the Dniester estuary leading to the Black Sea) in Odessa Oblast of southwestern Ukraine, in the historical region of Bessarabia.
Biskupiec (Bischofsburg) is a town in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship in Poland.
The Biuro Szyfrów (Polish for "Cipher Bureau") was the interwar Polish General Staff's Second Department's unit charged with SIGINT and both cryptography (the use of ciphers and codes) and cryptanalysis (the study of ciphers and codes, for the purpose of "breaking" them).
Black is the darkest color, the result of the absence or complete absorption of visible light.
Black Army can refer to several different groups and affiliations.
The Black Sea Fleet (Черноморский Флот, Chernomorsky Flot) is the fleet of the Russian Navy in the Black Sea, the Sea of Azov and the Mediterranean Sea.
The Black Sea Germans (Schwarzmeerdeutsche; Черноморские немцы; Чорноморські німці) were ethnic Germans who left their homelands in the 18th and 19th centuries, and settled in territories off the north coast of the Black Sea, mostly in the territories of the southern Russian Empire (including modern-day Ukraine).
The Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale (MVSN, "Voluntary Militia for National Security"), commonly called the Blackshirts (Camicie Nere, CCNN, singular: Camicia Nera) or squadristi (singular: squadrista), was originally the paramilitary wing of the National Fascist Party and, after 1923, an all-volunteer militia of the Kingdom of Italy.
Blazing Angels: Squadrons of WWII is a flight combat video game for Microsoft Windows, Xbox, Xbox 360, PlayStation 3 and Wii.
Bleiburg repatriations (see terminology) is a term encompassing events that took place after the end of World War II in Europe, when tens of thousands of soldiers and civilians associated with the Axis fleeing Yugoslavia were repatriated to that country.
The Blessed Martyrs of Drina (Drinske mučenice, Дринске мученицe) are the professed Sisters of the Congregation of the Daughters of Divine Charity, who lost their lives during World War II.
Blitzkrieg (German, "lightning war") is a method of warfare whereby an attacking force, spearheaded by a dense concentration of armoured and motorised or mechanised infantry formations with close air support, breaks through the opponent's line of defence by short, fast, powerful attacks and then dislocates the defenders, using speed and surprise to encircle them with the help of air superiority.
Blizna is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Ostrów, within Ropczyce-Sędziszów County, Subcarpathian Voivodeship, in south-eastern Poland.
The Blockade of Germany (1939–1945), also known as the Economic War, was carried out during World War II by the United Kingdom and France in order to restrict the supplies of minerals, metals, food and textiles needed by Nazi Germany - and later Fascist Italy - in order to sustain their war efforts.
Blu is the pseudonym of an Italian artist who conceals his real identity.
The Blue Army of Our Lady of Fátima, now mostly known as the World Apostolate of Fátima, is a public international association of the Christian faithful that has as its general purpose "the promotion of the authentic teaching of the Roman Catholic Church and the strict adherence to the tenets of the Gospel; the personal sanctification of adherents through faithful adherence to the Message of Our Lady of Fátima and the promotion of the common good by the spreading of that Message of Fátima".
The Blue Blouse (Синяя блуза, Sinyaya Bluza) was an influential agitprop theatre collective in the early Soviet Union.
The Blue Division (División Azul, Blaue Division), officially designated as División Española de Voluntarios by the Spanish Army and 250.
The Bobruysk Offensive (Бобруйская наступательная операция) was part of the Belorussian Strategic Offensive of the Red Army in summer 1944, commonly known as Operation Bagration.
The Bofors 37 mm gun was an anti-tank gun designed by Swedish manufacturer Bofors in the early 1930s.
Bogdan Khmelnitsky Melitopol State Pedagogical University is a Ukrainian university in Melitopol.
Bohumín (Bogumin, Oderberg) is a town in Karviná District, Moravian-Silesian Region, Czech Republic on the border with Poland.
Bolesław Bierut (18 April 1892 – 12 March 1956) was a Polish Communist leader, NKVD agent, and a hard-line Stalinist who became President of Poland after the defeat of the Nazi forces in.
Lieutenant Bolesław Kontrym (Zatruka, Russian Empire, 27 August 1898 – 20 January 1953, Warsaw, Poland), also known by codenames Żmudzin, Biały, Bielski and Cichocki, was a Polish Army officer, a Home Army soldier, participant in the Warsaw Uprising and organizer of underground secret-police force Cichociemni.
Brig. Gen. Bolesław Jerzy Roja (4 April 1876 − 27 May 1940) was an officer of the Polish Legions in World War I, a general, and a politician in the Second Polish Republic, recipient of some of the highest Polish military awards including Virtuti Militari.
Bolesławiec (Bunzlau; Bolesławjec) is a town located on the Bóbr River in the Lower Silesian Voivodeship in southwestern Poland, with 40,837 inhabitants (2006).
Bolman (Bolmány; Болман) is a settlement in the region of Baranja, Croatia.
Bolnisi (ბოლნისი), is a city in the country of Georgia, located in the Kvemo Kartli region and capital of the Bolnisi district.
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
Berlin, the capital of Nazi Germany, was subject to 363 air raids during the Second World War.
The bombing of Dresden was a British/American aerial bombing attack on the city of Dresden, the capital of the German state of Saxony, during World War II in the European Theatre.
The bombing of Gorky (now known as Nizhny Novgorod) by the Luftwaffe continued from 1941 to 1943 in the Eastern Front theatre of World War II.
Bonapartism is the political ideology of Napoleon Bonaparte and his followers and successors.
The Bonhoeffer family is a German family originally descending from Nijmegen and documented in Schwäbisch Hall from 1513 onwards.
Bonyhád is a town in Tolna County in Southwestern Hungary.
Border Defense Corps Regiment Sarny was a unit of the Second Polish Republic's Border Defence Corps, stationed in Sarny, Wołyń Voivodeship (now Ukraine), near pre-1939 Polish - Soviet border.
A border guard of a country is a national security agency that performs border control, i.e., enforces the security of the country's national borders.
Border states or European buffer states was a political term used in the West before World War II, and referring to the European nations that won their independence from the Russian Empire after the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917, the treaty of Brest-Litovsk, and ultimately the defeat of the German Empire and Austria-Hungary in World War I. During the 20th century interwar period the nations of Western Europe implemented a border states policy which aimed at uniting these nations in defense against the Soviet Union and communist expansionism.
Boris Alexandrovich Alexandrov (Борис Александрович Александров, August 4, 1905 Bologoye – June 17, 1994 Moscow) was a Soviet Russian composer, and, from 1946 to 1986, the second head of the Alexandrov Ensemble which was founded by his father, Alexander Vasilyevich Alexandrov.
Boris Andreyevich Babochkin (Бори́с Андре́евич Ба́бочкин; 18 January 1904 – 17 July 1975) was a well-known Soviet film and theatre actor and director.
Boris Vasilyevich Barnet (Бори́с Васи́льевич Ба́рнет; 18 June 1902 – 8 January 1965) was a Soviet film director, actor and screenwriter of British origin.
Boris Yakovlevich Bukov, also Boris Bykov ("Sasha") Regiment Commissar (15 November 1935) was a member of the Communist Party member since 1919.
Boris Grigoryevich Chukhnovsky (Борис Григорьевич Чухновский,, Saint Petersburg - September 30, 1975, Moscow) was a Russian and Soviet pilot and Arctic explorer.
Boris Ivanovich Fomin (Борис Иванович Фомин, 12 April 1900, Saint Petersburg, Russian Empire, - 25 October 1948, Moscow, USSR) was a Soviet musician and composer who specialized in the Russian romance.
Boris Sergeevich Gorbachyov (August 19, 1892 – July 3, 1937) was a Soviet komkor.
Boris Gudz (1902 – 27 December 2006) was the last survivor of the October Revolution, a veteran of the Russian Civil War, and an OGPU security agent.
Boris Franzevich Gulko (p; born February 9, 1947) is a Soviet-American International Grandmaster in chess.
Boris Mikhailovich Hessen (Бори́с Миха́йлович Ге́ссен), also Gessen (August 16, 1893, Elisavetgrad – December 20, 1936, Moscow), was a Soviet physicist, philosopher and historian of science.
Boris Dmitrievich Kabishev (Russian: Борис Дмитриевич Кабишев; 17 October 1922-5 December 1998) was a Soviet Air Defence Forces (PVO) Lieutenant general and Hero of the Soviet Union.
Boris Khodorov (Борис Израилевич Ходоров, b. 17 January 1922 – d. 5 July 2014) was a Soviet and Russian physiologist, M.D., D.Sc., Professor of Physiology, and Head of the Cell Physiology section of Moscow Physiological Society (formerly the Pavlov All-USSR Society of Physiologists; Всесоюзное Физиологическое общество имени И. П. Павлова).
Borys Rostislavovich Khreschatytsky (1881, Stanitsa Novomykolaivska, Don Host Oblast –1940) was a general of the Russian Empire.
Boris Kumm (– 21 November 1958) was an Estonian communist politician.
Boris Andreyevich Lavrenyov (Борис Андреевич Лавренёв) (real name Sergeyev), born July 5 (17), 1891 in Kherson, died January 7, 1959 in Moscow, was a Soviet Russian writer and playwright.
Boris Nikolayevich Livanov (Бори́с Никола́евич Лива́нов; —22 September 1972) was a Soviet theater and film actor and a theatre director.
Boris Anatolevich Nartsissov (Борис Анатольевич Нарциссов; 14 February 1906 – 27 November 1982) was a Russian émigré poet.
Boris Petrovich Polevoy (Борис Петрович Полевой; the surname is also transcribed as Polevoi; 10 May 1918 - 26 January 2002) was a Russian historian known for his work on the history of the Russian Far East.
Boris Polak (בוריס פולק; born July 15, 1954) is an Israeli former world champion and Olympic sport shooter.
Boris Feoktistovich Safonov (Борис Феоктистович Сафонов); 26 August 1915 – 30 May 1942, was a Soviet Naval Aviation fighter ace of the Great Patriotic War and twice recipient of the honorary title of Hero of the Soviet Union.
Boris Viktorovich Savinkov (Russian: Бори́с Ви́кторович Са́винков; 19 January 1879 – 7 May 1925) was a Russian writer and revolutionary.
Boris Mikhailovitch Shaposhnikov (Бори́с Миха́йлович Ша́пошников) (– March 26, 1945) was a Soviet military commander, Chief of the Staff of the Red Army, and Marshal of the Soviet Union.
Boris Aleksandrovich Shteifon (6 December 1881 – 30 April 1945) (Борис Александрович Штейфон) was a general in the Imperial Russian Army, who subsequently served as a general in the Russian anti-communist White army, and as the leader of the Nazi-allied Russian Corps in Serbia during World War II.
Boris Slutsky (Бори́с Абра́мович Слу́цкий; 7 May 1919 in Slovyansk, Ukraine — 23 February 1986 in Tula) was a Soviet poet of the Russian language.
Boris Vasilievich Snetkov (27 February 1925 18 September 2006) was a Soviet Army and briefly Russian Ground Forces Army General.
Boris Spiegel (born 18 February 1953 in Khmelnytskyi, Ukraine) (Бори́с Исаа́кович Шпи́гель) is a Russian politician and businessman.
Boris Stepanovich Lukoshkov (Борис Степанович Лукошков, June 20, 1922 – December 3, 1989) was a Russian artist.
Boris Vyacheslavovich Tolpygo (Борис Вячеславович Толпыго, 5 January 1893, Bogorodsk, Moscow Governorate, Russian Empire — 29 March 1939, Nikolayevsk-on-Amur) was a Russian and Soviet Communist politician, who served as the Executive Secretary of the Tajik Provincial Committee Communist Party of the Tajik Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in 1925-1927 and the chairman of the executive committee of Soviet of Lower Amur Oblast in 1936-1938.
Boris Lvovich Vannikov (Бори́с Льво́вич Ва́нников; 26 August 1897; Baku, Russian Empire – 22 February 1962; Moscow, Russia SFSR, Soviet Union) was a Soviet government and military official, a three-star General.
Boris Lvovich Vasilyev (Бори́с Льво́вич Васи́льев; 21 May 1924 – 11 March 2013) was a Russian writer and screenwriter.
Boris Alexandrovich Vladimirov (14 April 1905 1 May 1978) was a Soviet Army lieutenant general and a Hero of the Soviet Union.
Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin (p; 1 February 1931 – 23 April 2007) was a Soviet and Russian politician and the first President of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999.
Borne Sulinowo (former German name: Groß Born) is a town in Poland's Western Pomeranian Voivodship, in the Powiat of Szczecinek.
The Borodino-class battlecruisers (Линейные крейсера типа «Измаил») were a group of four battlecruisers ordered by the Imperial Russian Navy before World War I. Also referred to as the Izmail class, they were laid down in late 1912All dates used in this article are New Style (Gregorian).
Borodino class motorship was a class of Russian river passenger ships.
Borowina (Barenhütte) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Przywidz, within Gdańsk County, Pomeranian Voivodeship, in northern Poland.
Bortnytsia (Бортниця, Bortnica) is a village in Volyn oblast, near the town of Dubno, in Dubno Raion, Ukraine.
Borys Yukhymovych Steklyar (Бори́с Юхи́мович Стекляр, Борис Ефимович Стекляр (29 January 1923, Novohrad-Volynskyi – 18 January 2018, Rivne) was colonel of Committee for State Security of USSR, he was one of the main specialists in combating Ukrainian Insurgent Army in Rivne region. The accused in the murder of two or more persons in March 1952, including artist and member of Volyn regional OUN propaganda Referenty Nil Khasevych and two of his colleagues.
Boryspil (Бориспіль, translit. Boryspil’, Борисполь; also referred to as Borispol) is a city of regional significance located in the Kiev Oblast (region) in northern (central) Ukraine.
The Botanical Garden in Potsdam (Botanischer Garten Potsdam or Botanischer Garten der Universität Potsdam), is a botanical garden and arboretum maintained by the University of Potsdam.
Botoșani (Botosány, Botoszany, Botoschan) is the capital city of Botoșani County, in the northern part of Moldavia, Romania.
Boyuk Zira (Böyük Zirə), also known as Nargin, is an island in the Caspian Sea.
Brand-Briesen Airfield is a redeveloped military air base located at Briesen/Brand, part of Halbe in Dahme-Spreewald, Brandenburg, Germany, about south-southeast of Berlin.
The Brandberge is a protected natural area in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany, in the northwest of Halle.
Brandenburg-Görden Prison is located on Anton-Saefkow-Allee in the Görden quarter of Brandenburg an der Havel.
The Brandenburgers (Brandenburger) were members of the Brandenburg German special forces unit during World War II.
Braniewo, (Braunsberg in Ostpreußen, Brunsberga, Old Prussian: Brus, Prūsa), is a town in northeastern Poland, in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, with a population of 18,068 (2004).
Bratislava (Preßburg or Pressburg, Pozsony) is the capital of Slovakia.
The Bratislava–Brno Offensive was an offensive conducted by the Red Army in western Slovakia and south Moravia towards the end of World War II.
Bratslav (Брацлав; Bracław; בראָסלעוו, Broslev, today also pronounced Breslev or Breslov as the name of a Hasidic group, which originated from this town) is an urban-type settlement in Ukraine, located in Nemyriv Raion of Vinnytsia Oblast, by the Southern Bug river.
The Brünnlitz labor camp (Arbeitslager Brünnlitz) was a concentration camp of Nazi Germany which was established in 1944 just outside the town of Brünnlitz, solely as a site for an armaments factory run by German industrialist Oskar Schindler, which was in actuality a front for a safe haven for Schindlerjuden.
Brăila (Βράιλα; Turkish: İbrail) is a city in Muntenia, eastern Romania, a port on the Danube and the capital of Brăila County.
Brūno (also: Bruno) Haralds Kalniņš (7 May 1899, in Tukums, Courland Governorate of the Russian Empire, now Latvia – 26 March 1990, in Stockholm, Sweden) was a Latvian social democratic politician and historian.
Brdy is a range of hills in the Czech Republic, forming a long massif stretching for cca.60 km southwest from Prague.
Brest (Брэст There is also the name "Berestye", but it is found only in the Old Russian language and Tarashkevich., Брест Brest, Берестя Berestia, בריסק Brisk), formerly Brest-Litoŭsk (Брэст-Лiтоўск) (Brest-on-the-Bug), is a city (population 340,141 in 2016) in Belarus at the border with Poland opposite the Polish city of Terespol, where the Bug and Mukhavets rivers meet.
The Brethren Cemetery (Братское кладбище) is a cemetery at Oktyabrskiy District of the city of Rostov-on-Don, Russia.
Lieutenant-General Sir Brian Gwynne Horrocks, (7 September 1895 – 4 January 1985) was a British Army officer, chiefly remembered as the commander of XXX Corps in Operation Market Garden and other operations during the Second World War.
Kiev, historically situated on the right bank of the Dnieper River, now covers both banks of the river whose width, as it flows through the city, reaches several hundred metres.
Belgrade, the capital of Serbia, is located on two major rivers, the Danube and the Sava which are spanned by 11 bridges in total.
British anti-invasion preparations of the Second World War entailed a large-scale division of military and civilian mobilisation in response to the threat of invasion by German armed forces in 1940 and 1941.
The British Campaign in the Baltic 1918–19 was a part of the Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War. The codename of the Royal Navy campaign was "Operation Red Trek". The intervention played a key role in enabling the establishment of the independent states of Estonia and LatviaKinvig, Churchill's Crusade but failed to secure the control of Petrograd by White Russian forces, which was one of the main goals of the campaign.Kinvig, Churchill's Crusade, pp. 271–90.
The British Free Corps (Britisches Freikorps) was a unit of the Waffen SS during World War II, consisting of British and Dominion prisoners of war who had been recruited by Nazi Germany.
Brno (Brünn) is the second largest city in the Czech Republic by population and area, the largest Moravian city, and the historical capital city of the Margraviate of Moravia.
The Brno death marchRozumět dějinám, Zdeněk Beneš, p. 208 (Brünner Todesmarsch) is traditional German term for the forced expulsion of the German inhabitants of Brno (Brünn) after World War II.
The Brocken, also sometimes referred to as the Blocksberg, is the highest peak of the Harz mountain range and also the highest peak of Northern Germany; it is located near Schierke in the German state of Saxony-Anhalt between the rivers Weser and Elbe.
Brodnica (Strasburg in Westpreußen or Strasburg an der Drewenz) is a town in north-central Poland with 28,574 inhabitants.
Brody (Броди; Brody; Brody; Brody; Brody) is a city in Lviv Oblast (region) of western Ukraine.
Brody (Brody, Pförten) is a village in Żary County, Lubusz Voivodeship, in western Poland, close to the German border.
The Bronze Night (Pronksiöö or Pronksöö), also known as the April Unrest (Aprillirahutused) and April Events (Aprillisündmused), is the controversy and riots in Estonia surrounding the 2007 relocation of the Bronze Soldier of Tallinn, the Soviet World War II memorial in Tallinn.
The Bronze Soldier (Pronkssõdur, Бронзовый Солдат, Bronzovyj Soldat) is the informal name of a controversial Soviet World War II war memorial in Tallinn, Estonia, built at the site of several war graves, which were relocated to the nearby Tallinn Military Cemetery in 2007.
The Brotherhood cemetery (Братское кладбище на Северной стороне) is an Imperial Russian military cemetery in Sevastopol, Ukraine.
The Browning wz.1928 is a Polish version of the M1918 BAR.
Brtnice (Pirnitz) is a town in the Vysočina Region of the Czech Republic.
Brunhilde Pomsel (11 January 1911 – 27 January 2017) was a German woman who, as a personal secretary to Joseph Goebbels from 1942 onwards, was one of the last surviving eyewitnesses of the Nazi power apparatus.
Bruno Schatz (24 June 1894 – 3 December 1974) as a general in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II who commanded the 122nd Infantry Division.
Bruntál (Freudenthal in Schlesien, Bruntal, Latin: Vallis Gaudiorum, Vrudental) is a town located near the western boundary of the Moravian-Silesian Region, in Czech Silesia.
The Bryansk Front (Брянский фронт) was a major formation of the Red Army during the Second World War.
Brześć Kujawski, often anglicized to Kuyavian Brest, is a town in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship of Poland.
Brzeg (Latin: Alta Ripa, former German name: Brieg) is a town in southwestern Poland with 36,381 inhabitants (2016) and the capital of Brzeg County.
Brzeziny (ברעזין, Brezin) is a town in Poland, in Łódź Voivodeship, about 20 km east of Łódź.
The BTR-152 (also known as BTR-140) was a six-wheeled Soviet armored personnel carrier (БТР, from Бронетранспортер/Bronetransporter, literally "armored transporter"), built on the chassis and drive train of a ZiS-151 utility truck.
Buchach (Бучач; Buczacz; Betshotsh.or ביטשאטש (Bitshtosh); Buch'ach; Bucaş) is a town located on the Strypa River (a tributary of the Dniester) in Ternopil Oblast (province) of Western Ukraine.
The events in Poland which led to the elimination of that country's Stalinist leadership and the rise to power of Władysław Gomułka on 19 October 1956 provoked unrest among university students in Eastern bloc countries.
Walter Maynard "Bud" Moore Jr. (May 25, 1925 – November 27, 2017) was a NASCAR car owner who operated the Bud Moore Engineering team.
Budapest is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, and one of the largest cities in the European Union.
The Budapest Ghetto was a Nazi ghetto set up in Budapest, Hungary, where Jews were forced to relocate by a decree of the Hungarian Government during the final stages of World War II.
The Budapest Offensive was the general attack by Soviet and Romanian armies against Nazi Germany and their Axis allies from Hungary.
Budimir Alexeevich Metalnikov (Будимир Алексеевич Метальников; 27 September 1925 — 1 September 2001) was a Soviet and Russian screenwriter and film director.
The S. M. Budjonny Military Academy of the Signal Corps is a military university in Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation, founded in 1919.
Bug is the name both of the westernmost tongue of land (Landzunge) on the peninsula of Wittow on the German island of Rügen, as well as the name of the former village there.
The Bug River (Bug or Western Bug; Західний Буг, Zakhidnyy Buh, Захо́дні Буг, Zakhodni Buh; Западный Буг, Zapadnyy Bug) is a major European river which flows through three countries with a total length of.
The Police Prevention Department building is a historical administrative building in Bydgoszcz, which was initially an orphanage.
Bukhara (Uzbek Latin: Buxoro; Uzbek Cyrillic: Бухоро) is a city in Uzbekistan.
The Bukhara operation (1920), was a military conflict fought between the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and the Young Bukharians against the Emirate of Bukhara.
The Bukharan People's Soviet Republic (Buxoro Xalq Shoʻro Jumhuriyati; Ҷумҳурии Халқии Шӯравии Бухоро; r) was a short-lived Soviet state that governed the former Emirate of Bukhara during the years immediately following the Russian Revolution.
Bukovina (Bucovina; Bukowina/Buchenland; Bukowina; Bukovina, Буковина Bukovyna; see also other languages) is a historical region in Central Europe,Klaus Peter Berger,, Kluwer Law International, 2010, p. 132 divided between Romania and Ukraine, located on the northern slopes of the central Eastern Carpathians and the adjoining plains.
Bulat Shalvovich Okudzhava (Була́т Ша́лвович Окуджа́ва; ბულატ ოკუჯავა) (May 9, 1924 – June 12, 1997) was a Soviet and Russian poet, writer, musician, novelist, and singer-songwriter of Georgian-Armenian ancestry.
Bulgaria–Russia relations (Отношения между България и Русия, Российско-болгарские отношения) are foreign relations between Bulgaria and Russia.
The Bulgarian Army (Българска армия) represents the Armed Forces of the Republic of Bulgaria.
The Bulgarian Communist Party (BCP; Bulgarian: Българска Комунистическа Партия, Bâlgarska Komunisticheska Partiya (БКП)) was the Communist and Marxist-Leninist ruling party of the People's Republic of Bulgaria from 1946 until 1989 when the country ceased to be a communist state.
The Bulgarian Land Forces (Сухопътни войски на България) are the ground warfare branch of the Bulgarian Armed Forces.
The Bulgarian Resistance was part of the anti-Axis resistance during World War II.
The Bullenhuser Damm School is located at 92–94 Bullenhuser Damm, a street in the Rothenburgsort section of Hamburg, Germany.
The Bunker (also Reichsbahnbunker) in Berlin-Mitte is a listed air-raid shelter.
Burg Kreuzenstein is a castle near Leobendorf in Lower Austria, Austria.
Burg Lockenhaus (Hungarian Léka) is a castle and medieval fortress in the Güns Valley in the southeastern part of Lockenhaus, in Burgenland, eastern Austria.
Burg Stargard (Polabian Stargart, is a small town in the Mecklenburgische Seenplatte district, in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany. It is situated southeast of Neubrandenburg. The town's sights include: Germany’s most northerly hill castle, a local history museum in the castle, a historic town centre, an exhibition by Marie Hager, the well-known German artist, and the wildlife park.
The Burgschule or Oberrealschule auf der Burg was a secondary school (Oberrealschule) located originally in central Königsberg, Germany, and later in the suburban Amalienau quarter.
The burning of the Riga synagogues occurred in 1941, during the first days of the World War II Nazi German occupation of the city of Riga, the capital and largest city in the country of Latvia.
Burnt by the Sun (Утомлённые солнцем, translit. Utomlyonnye solntsem, literally "wearied by the sun") is a 1994 film by Russian director and screenwriter Nikita Mikhalkov and Azerbaijani screenwriter Rustam Ibragimbekov.
Burnt by the Sun 2 (Утомлённые солнцем 2, translit. Utomlyonnye solntsem 2: Predstoyanie) is a 2010 Russian drama film directed by and starring Nikita Mikhalkov.
The Buryats (Buryaad; 1, Buriad), numbering approximately 500,000, are the largest indigenous group in Siberia, mainly concentrated in their homeland, the Buryat Republic, a federal subject of Russia.
Petersburg Bus (Петербу́ргский авто́бус) is one of transport systems of the city of Saint Petersburg and its suburbs.
The Butovo Firing Range or Butovo Shooting Range (Бутовский полигон) is a former private estate near the village of Drozhzhino (Дрожжино) in the Yuzhnoye Butovo District south of Moscow that was seized by the Soviets after the 1917 revolution and thereafter used by their secret police as an agricultural colony, shooting range, and from 1938 to 1953, as a site for executions and mass graves of persons deemed "enemies of the people." During Josef Stalin's Great Terror from 1937 to 1938, more than 20,000 political prisoners were transported to the site and executed by gunshot.
Buyan Island in the Don River is located near the Bagaevskaya settlement in Rostov Oblast, Russia.
Biaroza (Бяро́за, official Belarusian romanization standard: Biaroza, formerly Бяро́за-Карту́зская; Beryoza; Bereza) is a town of 31 000 inhabitants (1995) in Western Belarus in Brest Region and the administrative center of the Byaroza District.
Bydgoszcz (Bromberg; Bydgostia) is a city in northern Poland, on the Brda and Vistula rivers.
Bydgoszcz Canal (Bromberger Kanal) is a canal, 24.7 km long, between the cities of Bydgoszcz and Nakło in Poland, connecting Vistula river with Oder river, through Brda and Noteć rivers (the latter ending in the Warta river which itself ends in Oder).
Bydlino (Bedlin.) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Słupsk, within Słupsk County, Pomeranian Voivodeship, in northern Poland.
Byelorussia (also known as the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic), known today as Belarus was a republic of the Soviet Union when World War II began.
The Belarusian Home Defence, or the Byelorussian Home Guard (Беларуская краёвая абарона, Bielaruskaja Krajovaja Abarona, BKA) was a name of the collaborationist volunteer battalions formed by the Belarusian Central Council (1943-1944), a pro-Nazi Belarusian self-government within Reichskommissariat Ostland during World War II.
Bystrzyca Kłodzka (Habelschwerdt, Kladská Bystřice) is a historic town in Kłodzko County, in Lower Silesian Voivodeship in southwestern Poland.
Bytów (Bëtowò; Bütow is a town in the Gdańsk Pomerania region of northern Poland with 16,888 inhabitants (2004). Previously in Słupsk Voivodeship (1975–1998), it is the capital of Bytów County in Pomeranian Voivodeship (since 1999). The origins of Bytów can be traced back to the early Middle Ages when a fortified stronghold once stood near the town. Bytów was later mentioned, under the Latin name castrum nomine Bitom, by notable Gallus Anonymus in his Chronicles describing medieval Poland. In 1346 Bütow got German town law from the Teutonic Order. During the Thirteen Years' War (1454-1466), the town was the sight of heavy fighting and changed hands over time. Eventually, King Casimir IV Jagiellon granted the town to Eric II, Duke of Pomerania, as a perpetual fiefdom. After the Partitions of Poland, Bytów became part of German Prussia and remained in Germany until the end of World War II. At the final stages of the war, Bytów was the center of heavy artillery shelling initiated by the Red Army; as a result over 55% of buildings were destroyed. Throughout its whole history, Bytów was known to be a multicultural town inhabited by Kashubians, Poles, Germans and Jews. Since 2000 a bugle call is played during important events which taking place in the area. Bytów is a popular tourist destination in the region of Pomerania and is famous for its medieval Teutonic Castle built in the late 14th century.
A cadet is a trainee.
Café Schwarzenberg is a traditional Viennese coffee house, located on the Ringstraße boulevard (Kärntner Ring No. 17) near Schwarzenbergplatz in the central Innere Stadt district of Vienna, Austria.
Call of Duty is a first-person shooter video game franchise.
Call of Duty 2 is a first-person shooter video game developed by Infinity Ward and published by Konami in Japan and Activision in the rest of the world.
Call of Duty: Black Ops is a first-person shooter video game, developed by Treyarch and published by Activision.
Call of Duty: Black Ops II is a first-person shooter developed by Treyarch and published by Activision.
Call of Duty: World at War is a first-person shooter video game developed by Treyarch and published by Activision.
Call of Duty: WWII is a first-person shooter video game developed by Sledgehammer Games and published by Activision.
Camouflage is the use of any combination of materials, coloration, or illumination for concealment, either by making animals or objects hard to see (crypsis), or by disguising them as something else (mimesis).
Camp Fünfeichen (Lager Fünfeichen) was a World War II German prisoner-of-war camp located in Fünfeichen, a former estate within the city limits of Neubrandenburg, Mecklenburg, northern Germany.
Campaign to Suppress Bandits in Northeast China (东北剿匪) was a counterinsurgency / counter guerrilla campaign fought between the bandits turned guerrillas allied with nationalists and the communists during Chinese Civil War in the post World War II era, and resulted in the communist victory.
Canada has not officially maintained and possessed weapons of mass destruction since 1984 and, as of 1998, has signed treaties repudiating possession of them.
Cape Fonar (Мыс Фонарь, Мис Фонар, Fener, Фенер, Παρθένιον) is the easternmost point of the Crimean peninsula.
The Warsaw Uprising of 1944 was ended through a capitulation agreement which guaranteed not only the rights of the resistance to be treated as Prisoners of War but also was designed to guarantee the fair treatment of the civilians living in Warsaw.
Kapitan 1st rank (Капитан 1-го ранга; literal: captain of the 1st rank) is in the Navy of the Russian Federation the designation to the most senior rank in the staff officer´s career group.
Captain Conan (original title: Capitaine Conan) is a 1996 French drama film directed by Bertrand Tavernier.
The Capture of Kiev by the White Army occurred on Old Style August 18 (New Style August 31), 1919 and was one of the three battles fought in Kiev, the capital of Ukraine in 1919 during the Russian Civil War, in which the White Army conquered the city from the Red Army without a fight.
Carbisdale Castle was built in 1907 for the Duchess of Sutherland on a hill across the Kyle of Sutherland from Invershin in the Scottish Highlands.
Carinhall was the country residence of Hermann Göring.
Carl Ulrich Ernst Paul Anders (31 August 1893 – 28 January 1972) was a German general in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II who commanded several infantry divisions.
Carl Becker (16 January 1895 – 24 March 1966) was a German general during World War II, who commanded several divisions.
Carl Clauberg (28 September 1898 – 9 August 1957) was a German gynecologist who conducted medical experiments on human subjects (mainly Jewish) at Auschwitz concentration camp.
Carl Hilpert (12 September 1888 – 1 February 1947) was a German general during World War II.
Carl Lutz (30 March 1895 – 12 February 1975) was a Swiss diplomat.
Carl Maria Splett (17 January 1898 – 5 March 1964) was a German Roman Catholic priest and Bishop of Danzig (Gdańsk); his role during World War II, especially as Apostolic Administrator of the Diocese of Culm is controversial.
Carol II (15 October 18934 April 1953) reigned as King of Romania from 8 June 1930 until his enforced abdication on 6 September 1940.
Carpathian Germans (Karpatendeutsche, Mantaken, kárpátnémetek or Felvidéki németek, karpatskí Nemci) are a group of ethnic Germans.
Carpathian Ruthenia, Carpatho-Ukraine or Zakarpattia (Rusyn and Карпатська Русь, Karpats'ka Rus' or Закарпаття, Zakarpattja; Slovak and Podkarpatská Rus; Kárpátalja; Transcarpatia; Zakarpacie; Karpatenukraine) is a historic region in the border between Central and Eastern Europe, mostly located in western Ukraine's Zakarpattia Oblast, with smaller parts in easternmost Slovakia (largely in Prešov Region and Košice Region) and Poland's Lemkovyna.
Carpathian Ruthenia was a region in the easternmost part of Czechoslovakia (Subcarpathian Ruthenia, or Transcarpathia) that became autonomous within that country in September 1938, declared its independence as the "Republic of Carpatho-Ukraine” in March 1939, was immediately occupied and annexed by Hungary, invaded by the Soviet Red Army in 1944 and incorporated into the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic in 1946.
Carpatho-Ukraine (Карпа́тська Украї́на, Karpats’ka Ukrayina) was an autonomous region within Czechoslovakia from late 1938 to March 15, 1939.
Case Blue (Fall Blau), later named Operation Braunschweig, was the German Armed Forces' (Wehrmacht) name for its plan for the 1942 strategic summer offensive in southern Russia between 28 June and 24 November 1942, during World War II.
The Case of Trotskyist Anti-Soviet Military Organization ("дело троцкистской антисоветской военной организации" or "дело антисоветской троцкистской военной организации", also known as the "Military Case" ("дело военных") or the "Tukhachevsky Case"), was a 1937 secret trial of the high command of the Red Army, a part of the Great Purge.
A casemate, sometimes erroneously rendered casement, is a fortified gun emplacement or armored structure from which guns are fired.
The Caspian Flotilla (r) is the flotilla of the Russian Navy in the Caspian Sea.
The Caspian-Caucasian Front was a front of the Red Army during the Russian Civil War, formed on 8 December 1918 as a branch of the Southern Front.
Cathedral of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary – is a ruinate church of the former German Catholic village of Selz, now Lymanske in Rozdilna Raion, Odessa Oblast, Ukraine.
Caucasian days (Jours caucasiens) is a novel by the French writer of Azeri origin Banine, published in Paris, in 1945.
The Caucasian Front was a front of the Red Army during the Russian Civil War which existed between January 16, 1920 and May 29, 1921, and was the continuation of the Southeastern Front.
The Caucasian Front or Caucasus Front was a military subdivision (Front) of the Red Army during the Second World War.
In the Polish–Soviet War of 1919-1921, Soviet Russia and Soviet Ukraine were in combat with the newly independent Second Polish Republic and the Ukrainian People's Republic.
Cavalry (from the French cavalerie, cf. cheval 'horse') or horsemen were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback.
The cavalry corps (кавалерийский корпус) of the Workers and Peasant Red Army was a type of military formation that existed from the early days of the Russian Civil War until 1947 when the Red Army was renamed as the Soviet Army and all cavalry corps were disbanded.
The cavalry division (кавалерийская дивизия) of the Soviet Union's Red Army was a type of military formation that existed from the early days of the Russian Civil War until the early 1950s when they became obsolete with the rise of mechanized warfare.
A cavalry-mechanized group was a type of military formation used in the Red Army during World War II against Germany and Japan.
Cecil John L'Estrange Malone (7 September 1890 – 8 June 1965) was a British politician and pioneer naval aviator who served as the United Kingdom's first Communist member of parliament.
Cecilienhof Palace (Schloss Cecilienhof) is a palace in Potsdam, Brandenburg, Germany built from 1914 to 1917 in the layout of an English Tudor manor house.
Cedynia (Zehden) is a small town in Poland, the administrative seat of Gmina Cedynia in Gryfino County, West Pomeranian Voivodeship.
Cement (Russian: Цемент) is a Russian novel by Fyodor Gladkov (1883–1958).
Censorship in the Soviet Union was pervasive and strictly enforced.
Censorship of images in the Soviet Union was widespread in the USSR.
The Central Agricultural Zone is a traditional region of Russia.
The Central Archives of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation (Центральный архив Министерства обороны Российской Федерации; TsAMO RF, ЦАМО РФ) is located in Podolsk, just south of the city of Moscow.
The Central Armed Forces Museum (Центральный Музей Вооруженных сил) also known as the Museum of the Soviet Army, is located in northern Moscow, Russia, near the Red Army Theater.
The Central Committee (CC) composition was elected at the 17th Congress, and sat from 10 February 1934 until 22 March 1939.
The Central Committee (CC) composition was elected by the 9th Congress, and sat from 5 April 1920 until 16 March 1921.
The Central Front was a major formation of the Red Army during the Second World War.
Central Naval Museum (Центральный военно-морской музей) is a naval museum in St Petersburg, Russia.
Central Park, also known as Gorky Park, is an urban park located in the Medeusky district of Almaty.
Mzechabuk "Chabua" Amirejibi, (often written as "Amiredjibi", მზეჭაბუკ "ჭაბუა" ამირეჯიბი) (November 18, 1921 – December 12, 2013) was a Georgian novelist and Soviet-era dissident notable for his magnum opus, Data Tutashkhia, and a lengthy experience in Soviet prisons.
Chanel S.A. is a French, privately held company owned by Alain Wertheimer and Gérard Wertheimer, grandsons of Pierre Wertheimer, who was an early business partner of the couturière Gabrielle Bonheur Chanel.
Changchun is the capital and largest city of Jilin Province, and is also the core city of Northeast Asia.
Chapaev (Чапаев) is a 1934 Soviet war film, directed by the Vasilyev brothers for Lenfilm.
Chapayevka (Чапа́евка) or the Mocha (Мо́ча) is a river in Samara Oblast, Russia, a left tributary of the Volga River.
Chapayevsk (Чапа́евск) is a town in Samara Oblast, Russia, located from the city of Samara, on the right bank of the Chapayevka River (a tributary of the Volga River).
The Chapel of Osmussaar (Jesu Kapell in Swedish, Jeesuse kabel in Estonian) is a chapel on the island of Osmussaar which is currently in ruins.
Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general and statesman who led the French Resistance against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 in order to reestablish democracy in France.
Charles Puffy (3 November 1884 – 1942 or 1943) born Károly Hochstadt in Budapest, was a Hungarian film actor.
Charles Sydney Gibbes (19 January 1876 – 24 March 1963) was a British academic who from 1908 to 1917 served as the English tutor to the children of Emperor Nicholas II of Russia.
Chełmża (Kulmsee, earlier Culmsee), is a town in Toruń County, Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland.
The Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, or Chechen-Ingush ASSR was an autonomous republic within the Russian SFSR.
Checheno-Estonian relations (or otherwise Estonian-Chechen relations, or Esto-Ichkerian relations) are the relations between the Estonian people and the Chechen people.
The Chechen Republic (tɕɪˈtɕɛnskəjə rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə; Нохчийн Республика, Noxçiyn Respublika), commonly referred to as Chechnya (p; Нохчийчоь, Noxçiyçö), is a federal subject (a republic) of Russia.
All-Russian Extraordinary Commission (Всероссийская Чрезвычайная Комиссия), abbreviated as VChK (ВЧК, Ve-Che-Ka) and commonly known as Cheka, (from the initialism ChK) was the first of a succession of Soviet secret police organizations.
Chemical warfare (CW) involves using the toxic properties of chemical substances as weapons.
Cheng Fangwu (Chinese: 成仿吾; August 24, 1897 – 17 May 1984) was a top level Party elder 元老 who cut his teeth at the beginning of the long march, responsible for education of the Red Army and the party apparatus from the mid-1930s to the end of his life.
Chernihiv (Чернігів) also known as Chernigov (p, Czernihów) is a historic city in northern Ukraine, which serves as the administrative center of the Chernihiv Oblast (province), as well as of the surrounding Chernihiv Raion (district) within the oblast.
Chernivtsi (Černivci; see also other names) is a city in western Ukraine, situated on the upper course of the River Prut.
Chernobyl or Chornobyl (Chornobyl′,;; Charnobyl′) is a city in the restricted Chernobyl Exclusion Zone situated in the Ivankiv Raion of northern Kiev Oblast, near Ukraine's border with Belarus.
Chernyakhovsk (Черняхо́вск); prior to 1946 known by its German name (Įsrutis; Wystruć) is a town and the administrative center of Chernyakhovsky District in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located at the confluence of the Instruch and Angrapa Rivers, forming the Pregolya.
Chernyshevskoye (from 1938: Eydtkau) is a settlement in Nesterovsky District in the eastern part of Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, close to the border with Lithuania.
The Chevrolet G506 trucks were a series of -ton 4x4 trucks produced by Chevrolet and used by the U.S. Army during and after World War II.
Chicken Kiev (котлета по-київськи, kotleta po-kyivsky, котлета по-киевски, kotleta po-kiyevski; literally "cutlet Kiev-style") is a dish of chicken fillet pounded and rolled around cold butter, then coated with eggs and bread crumbs, and either fried or baked.
Child 44 is a 2015 American mystery drama film directed by Daniel Espinosa, written by Richard Price, and based on Tom Rob Smith's 2008 novel of the same name.
Child Euthanasia (Kinder-Euthanasie) was the name given to the organised murder of severely mentally and physically handicapped children and young people up to 16 years old during the Nazi era in over 30 so-called special children's wards.
China Medical University is a medical university in the city of Shenyang, Liaoning, China under the provincial and central governments.
The bilateral relations between Mongolia and the People's Republic of China have long been determined by the relations between China and the Soviet Union, Mongolia's other neighbour and main ally until 1990.
The border between China and Tajikistan is the 414 km long, generally north-south line which separates eastern Tajikistan (province of Gorno-Badakhshan) from the territory of China (province of Xinjiang).
The Chinese Civil War was a war fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led government of the Republic of China and the Communist Party of China (CPC).
There are a number of reports about the involvement of Chinese detachments in the Russian Revolution and Russian Civil War.
Chingiz Ildyrym oglu Sultanov (Çingiz İldırım oğlu Sultanov) (1890–1937) better known as Chingiz Ildyrym, was an Azerbaijani Bolshevik revolutionary, innovator and the first People's Commissar for Military and Naval Affairs of Azerbaijan after the Sovietization of Azerbaijan.
Chlorine trifluoride is an interhalogen compound with the formula ClF3.
Cho Ki-chon (조기천; 6 November 1913 – 31 July 1951) was a Russian-born North Korean poet.
Chojna (Königsberg in der Neumark; Czińsbarg; Regiomontanus Neomarchicus "King's Mountain in (the) New March") is a small town in western Poland in the West Pomeranian Voivodeship.
Chojnów (Haynau) is a small town in Legnica County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
Chojnice (Kashubian/Pomeranian: Chònice, Konitz) is a town in northern Poland with approximately 40 447 inhabitants (2011), near the famous Tuchola Forest and many other natural reservoirs.
The Cholm Shield was a World War II German military decoration awarded to those who fought in the Cholm Pocket between 21 January and 5 May 1942.
Chortitza Colony was a volost Yekaterinoslav Governorate granted to German-speaking Mennonites for colonization northwest of Khortytsia Island and is now part of Zaporizhia, Ukraine.
Chortkiv (Чортків; Czortków; טשאָרטקאָוו Chortkov) is a city in Ternopil Oblast (province) in western Ukraine.
Chorzów (Königshütte; Chorzůw) is a city in Silesia in southern Poland, near Katowice.
Choszczno (Arnswalde) is a town (population around 16,173) in West Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland.
Chróstnik (Brauchitschdorf) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Lubin, within Lubin County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
Chris Bohjalian (Քրիս Պոհճալեան), is an American novelist and the author of 20 novels, including such bestsellers as Midwives, The Sandcastle Girls and The Guest Room.
Chris Nowotny (April 19, 1928 – March 18, 1989) was a German photographer, known for her highly stylized black and white portraits of actors, photographs of landscape, as well as colour and b/w portraits of children and babies.
Christa Tordy (30 June 1904 – 28 April 1945) was a German film actress.
Christiaan Antonius Lindemans (Rotterdam, 24 October 1912 – Scheveningen, 18 July 1946), the fourth son of Joseph Hendrik Lindemans and Christina Antonia van Uden, was a Dutch double agent during the Second World War, working under Soviet control.
Christian Graf von Krockow, (May 26, 1927 – March 17, 2002) was a German writer and political scientist, Christian Count of Krockow was the son of a historic Pomeranian noble family.
Christian Peder Kryssing (July 7, 1891 – July 7, 1976), commonly known as C.P. Kryssing, was a Danish collaborator with Nazi Germany during World War II.
Christian Rakovsky (– September 11, 1941) was a Bulgarian socialist revolutionary, a Bolshevik politician and Soviet diplomat; he was also noted as a journalist, physician, and essayist.
Chrzanów is a town in southern Poland with 39,704 inhabitants.
Chuhuiv (Чугуїв, Čuhujiv) or Chuguev (Чугуев, Čugujev) is a Ukrainian city in Kharkiv Oblast.
The Church of Our Lady is the oldest church in the town of Sławno in Poland.
The Church of Saint Sava (Храм светог Саве/Hram svetog Save, literal translation into English: "The Temple of Saint Sava") is a Serbian Orthodox church located on the Vračar plateau in Belgrade.
Church of Saints Simon and Helena (Касцёл св