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Abdelaziz of Morocco (24 February 187810 June 1943; عبد العزيز الرابع), also known as Mulai Abd al-Aziz IV, succeeded his father Hassan I of Morocco as the Sultan of Morocco in 1894 at the age of sixteen and served in that position until he was deposed in 1908.
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Muḥammad Bey Abū aḏ-Ḏahab (1735–1775), also just called Abū Ḏahab (meaning "father of gold", a name apparently given to him on account of his generosity and wealth), was a Mamluk emir and regent of Ottoman Egypt.
Abu Zakariya Yahya ibn Ziyan al-Wattasi (died 1448) (abū zakarīyā' yaḥyā ben ziyān al-waṭṭāsī أبو زكرياء يحيى بن زيان الوطاس. was a vizier of the Marinid sultan of Fez, regent and effective strongman ruler of Morocco from 1420 until 1448. He is the founder of the Wattasid dynasty of viziers and later sultans, and as such often designated as Yahya I in Wattasid lists. He was also known by his nickname Lazeraque (the wall-eyed), as found in Portuguese chronicles. The Wattasids (or Banu Wattas) were a Moroccan Berber clan related to the Marinid sultans of Morocco.C.E. Bosworth, The New Islamic Dynasties, (Columbia University Press, 1996), 48. They were traditionally established in the Rif, holding the citadel of Tazuta as their base. The Portuguese capture of Ceuta in 1415 had taken the Moroccans by surprise. In 1418, the Marinid sultan Abu Said Uthman III of Morocco led an army to recover it, but the siege failed. This led to widespread disaffection with the sultan and instability in the Marinid state. This culminated in a coup in Fez in 1420 (sometimes dated 1419), in which the sultan Abu Said Uthman III was assassinated, leaving behind only a one-year-old child, Abu Muhammad Abd al-Haqq II as son and heir, supported by Abu Zakariya. A succession struggle broke out immediately as other pretenders quickly emerged. Opportunistically, the Nasrid rulers of Granada and the Abdalwadids of Tlemcen intervened, each sponsoring different candidates for the Moroccan throne. At the time, Abu Zakariya Yahya al-Wattasi was serving as the long-time governor of Salé for the Marinids. Hearing the news of the sultan's assassination, Abu Zakariya hurried from Salé and seized control of the royal palace of Fez, proclaiming the orphan child Abd al-Haqq as the new Marinid sultan and appointing himself his regent and chief minister (vizier). Abu Zakariya's intervention had been facilitated by the old Marinid palace bureaucracy, who feared the other candidates would deliver Morocco to foreign domination. But the writ of Abu Zakariya did not extend much beyond the palace. Refusing to recognize the Wattasid minister, Morocco quickly descended into disorder and strife. Granadan and Tlemcen interventions and intrigues continued, regional governors seized control of their districts, selling and re-selling their allegiance to the highest bidder, Sufi-inspired religious radicals drummed up mobs to seize control of urban centers and take to the field, while rowdy rural nomads, the Hilalian Bedouin tribesmen, availed themselves of the general breakdown of law and order to launch a series of bandit raids on smaller towns and settlements. With Morocco in disorder, pressure on the Portuguese in Ceuta was lifted, (save for the occasional makeshift puritan column that marched up to the walls of Ceuta to demand a trial of arms). The Portuguese used this respite to entrench themselves firmly in Ceuta. Anarchy would continue to prevail in Morocco for the next several years, as Abu Zakariya struggled to defeat the string of pretenders and stich the country back together, in the name of the young Marinid child-sultan. The Marinid sultan Abd al-Haqq II came of age by 1436, but Abu Zakariya Yahya refused to step down from the regency. Sensing a new political crisis was brewing, the Portuguese thought it an opportune moment to take another bite out of Morocco and began organizing an expedition to seize the Moroccan citadel of Tangier. The Portuguese expeditionary force, personally commanded by Portuguese prince Henry the Navigator, landed in August 1437. But he was unable to take the well-fortified city. For Abu Zakariya Yahya, the Portuguese attack turned out to be a political opportunity. Appealing for national unity to expel the foreign intruders, forces were dispatched from all corners of Morocco, placing themselves at the disposal of the Wattasid mayor. Abu Zakariya led a massive army to Tangiers, and quickly encircled the Portuguese siege camp by early October 1437. The Portuguese expeditionary force was starved into submission, and, on October 15, Prince Henry agreed to a treaty to deliver Ceuta back to Morocco, in return for being allowed to withdraw his army unmolested. The victory over the Portuguese at Tangier turned Abu Zakariya from reviled regent to national hero overnight. Sufi activists who had long led the grassroots opposition the regent, now rallied for him. Rivals and regional governors quickly came back under the fold. Any ideas that the Marinid sultan Abd al-Haqq II might have about dismissing his now-popular and powerful minister were shelved. Abu Zakariya was able to cement and extend his power over Morocco. The astute Abu Zakariya celebrated the triumph by erecting the magnificent shrine of Zaouia Moulay Idriss II in Fez, over the alleged tomb of Idriss II (the founder of the Idrisid dynasty back in 807). The remains of Idris II was long-assumed to be buried with his father Idris I in Moulay Idriss (near Volubilis), but popular belief and reverence had switched when an uncorrupted body was discovered at the new location around 1307. Hoping to tap into the popular Idrisid cult, Abu Zakariya's ensured religious authorities and the living members of the Idrisid family confirmed it. Thus, in a way, the new tomb of Idris II served also as a monument to Abu Zakariya's triumph at Tangier. In the end, the Portuguese refused to fulfill the treaty, and allowed their hostages, including the royal Ferdinand the Saint Prince, to rot in Moroccan captivity, rather than give up Ceuta. Ferdinand would die in 1443. But this did not diminish Abu Zakariya's new prestige. After the long years of anarchy and disorder, a bit of a springtime prevailed over Morocco after 1437. Abu Zakariya continued ruling Morocco until his death in 1448. His popularity and power was still strong enough to secure the appointment of his nephew, Ali ibn Yusuf, to succeed him as the new all-powerful Wattasid vizier of Morocco, for the dissolute and increasingly irrelevant Marinid sultan Abd al-Haqq II. Abu Zakariya's own son, Yahya ibn Abi Zakariya would succeed his cousin as vizier in 1458. In the Portuguese chronicles of Frei João Álvares and Ruy de Pina, Abu Zakariya is referred to as Lazeraque, a nickname which Álvares explains was "because of his wall-eyes, his proper name was Bazaquary, of the generation called Benvotaçy, by his father related to the Marinids, and by his mother, descended from Christians.". Álvares, who was imprisoned alongside Ferdinand in Fez, impugns Abu Zakariya's personal character mercilessly, a person of 'low' background, who seized power by malice and deception, who brutally broke the Marinid nobility and kept the sultan in thrall, universally feared, but nonetheless disarmed his opponents with the affectation of mildness, piety and courtesy.
Act Anent the demission of the Crown in favour of our Sovereign Lord, and his Majesty's Coronation 1567
The Act Anent the demission of the Crown in favour of our Sovereign Lord, and his Majesty’s Coronation was an Act of the Parliament of Scotland passed on 12 December 1567.
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Alexander I (– 9 October 1934), also known as Alexander the Unifier, served as a prince regent of the Kingdom of Serbia from 1914 and later became King of Yugoslavia from 1921 to 1934 (prior to 1929 the state was known as the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes).
Alexander IV (Greek: Ἀλέξανδρος Δ΄; 323–309 BC), erroneously called sometimes in modern times Aegus, was the son of Alexander the Great (Alexander III of Macedon) and Princess Roxana of Bactria.
Alexander (Αλέξανδρος, Aléxandros; 1 August 189325 October 1920) was King of Greece from 11 June 1917 until his death three years later, at the age of 27, from the effects of a monkey bite.
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Amalienborg is the home of the Danish royal family, and is located in Copenhagen, Denmark.
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Amarasi was a traditional princedom in West Timor, in present-day Indonesia.
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Amyntas IV (Greek: Ἀμύντας Δ΄) was a titular king of Macedonia in 359 BC and member of the Argead dynasty.
The Anarchy of the 12 Warlords (Loạn 12 sứ quân or Loạn Thập nhị sứ quân), also the Period of the 12 Warlords, was a period of chaos and civil war in the history of Vietnam, from 966 to 968 during the Ngô Dynasty, due to a conflict of succession after the death of King Ngô Quyền.
Fjotolf Hansen (born Anders Behring Breivik (born 13 February 1979), also known by his pseudonym Andrew Berwick, is a Norwegian far-right terrorist who committed the 2011 Norway attacks. On 22 July 2011 he killed eight people by detonating a van bomb amid Regjeringskvartalet in Oslo, then shot dead 69 participants of a Workers' Youth League (AUF) summer camp on the island of Utøya. In August 2012 he was convicted of mass murder, causing a fatal explosion, and terrorism. On the day of the attacks, Breivik electronically distributed a compendium of texts entitled 2083: A European Declaration of Independence, describing his militant ideology. In them, he lays out a worldview encompassing opposition to Islam and blaming feminism for creating a European "cultural suicide".Jones, Jane Clare., The Guardian, 27 July 2011. The texts call Islam and "Cultural Marxism" the enemy and advocate the deportation of all Muslims from Europe based on the model of the Beneš decrees, while also claiming that feminism exists to destroy European culture. Breivik wrote that his main motive for the atrocities was to market his manifesto. Two teams of court-appointed forensic psychiatrists examined Breivik before his trial. The first report diagnosed Breivik as having paranoid schizophrenia. A second psychiatric evaluation was commissioned following widespread criticism of the first. The second evaluation was published a week before the trial; it concluded that Breivik was not psychotic during the attacks nor during the evaluation. He was instead diagnosed as having narcissistic personality disorder. His trial began on 16 April 2012, with closing arguments made on 22 June 2012. On 24 August 2012, Oslo District Court delivered its verdict, finding Breivik sane and guilty of murdering 77 people. He was sentenced to 21 years in prison, in a form of preventive detention that required a minimum of 10 years incarceration and the possibility of one or more extensions for as long as he is deemed a danger to society. This is the maximum penalty in Norway. Breivik announced that he did not recognize the legitimacy of the court and therefore did not accept its decision—he claims he "cannot" appeal because this would legitimize the authority of the Oslo District Court. While imprisoned, Breivik has identified himself as a fascist and a national socialist, saying he previously exploited counterjihadist rhetoric in order to protect ethno-nationalists. In 2015, he said that he has never personally identified as a Christian, and called his religion Odinism. In 2016, Breivik sued Norwegian Correctional Service, claiming that his solitary confinement violated his human rights and subjected him to degrading treatment and privacy violations. In its judgment of 20 April 2016, the City Court found that Breivik's rights under Article 3 of the Convention had been violated, but not those under Article 8. The government appealed against the City Court's judgment as concerned the finding of a breach of Article 3 of the Convention, while Breivik appealed as concerned the finding that Article 8 had not been breached. On 1 March 2017, the Court of Appeals ruled that neither Article 3 nor Article 8 had been breached. On 8 June 2017, Norway's Supreme Court upheld the verdict of the Court of Appeals. On 30 June 2017, Breivik filed a complaint with the European Court of Human Rights, which the court dismissed on 21 June 2018.
André Marie Jean Jacques Dupin (1 February 17838 November 1865), commonly called Dupin the Elder, was a French advocate, president of the chamber of deputies and of the Legislative Assembly.
Sir Andrew Dudley, KG (c. 1507 – 1559) was an English soldier, courtier, and diplomat.
Andrew Stewart (c. 14201488) was Lord Chancellor of Scotland from 1460 to 1482 and one of the leading servants of King James III of Scotland.
Free Imperial Knight Andries de Graeff (19 February 1611 – 30 November 1678) was a very powerful member of the Amsterdam branch of the De Graeff - family during the Dutch Golden Age.
Andronikos V Palaiologos (or Andronicus V Palaeologus) (Ανδρόνικος Ε' Παλαιολόγος) (c. 1400 – c. 1407) was co-emperor of the Byzantine Empire with his father John VII Palaiologos.
Philippe Angélique de Froissy (1702 – 15 October 1785 in Paris) was an illegitimate daughter of Philippe d'Orléans, the nephew and son-in-law of Louis XIV of France.
The Anglo-French War was a war between the Kingdom of France and the Kingdom of England.
The Anglo–Iraqi War (2–31 May 1941) was a British military campaign against the rebel government of Rashid Ali in the Kingdom of Iraq during the Second World War.
The Anglo-Portuguese Alliance (or Aliança Luso-Britânica, "Luso-British Alliance", also known in Portugal as Aliança Inglesa, "English Alliance"), ratified at the Treaty of Windsor in 1386, between England (succeeded by the United Kingdom) and Portugal, is the oldest alliance in the world that is still in force – with the earliest treaty dating back to the Anglo-Portuguese Treaty of 1373.
Ann Wynia (née Jobe, born September 29, 1943) is an American politician who served in the Minnesota House of Representatives from 1977–1989.
Anna Colonna (1601–1658) was an Italian noblewoman of the Colonna and Barberini families.
Anna Leopoldovna (А́нна Леопо́льдовна; 18 December 1718 – 19 March 1746), born as Elisabeth Katharina Christine von Mecklenburg-Schwerin and also known as Anna Carlovna (А́нна Ка́рловна), was regent of Russia for a few months in 1740 and 1741 during the minority of her infant son Emperor Ivan VI.
Grand Princess Anna Vasilievna of Ryazan (Анна Васильевна) (1451–1501) was a Russian noblewoman, Regent of the Ryazan Principality in 1483 and in 1500–1501, during the minority of her son and grandson.
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Countess Anna Sibylle of Hanau-Lichtenberg (16 May 1542 in Lichtenberg – 5 January 1580) was the eldest surviving daughter of Count Philipp IV (20 May 1512 – 19 February 1590) and his wife, Countess Eleonore of Fürstenberg (11 October 1523 – 26 April 1544).
Anne d'Alençon (Italian: Anna d'Alençon) (30 October 1492 – 18 October 1562), Lady of La Guerche, was a French noblewoman and a Marquise of Montferrat as the wife of William IX, Marquis of Montferrat.
Anne de La Tour d'Auvergne (1496–1524) was sovereign Countess of Auvergne from 1501 until 1524, and Duchess of Albany by marriage to John Stewart, Duke of Albany.
Anne Geneviève de Bourbon (28 August 16195 April 1679) was a French princess who is remembered for her beauty and amours, her influence during the civil wars of the Fronde, and her final conversion to Jansenism.
Anne Hamilton, 3rd Duchess of Hamilton (6 January 1631 – 17 October 1716) was a Scottish peeress.
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Anne of Austria (22 September 1601 – 20 January 1666), a Spanish princess of the House of Habsburg, was queen of France as the wife of Louis XIII, and regent of France during the minority of her son, Louis XIV, from 1643 to 1651.
Anne of Auvergne also known as Anna d'Auvergne (1358 – Moulins 22 September 1417) was Sovereign Dauphine of Auvergne and Countess of Forez as well as Dame de Mercoeur from 1400 and 1417.
Anne of Bohemia (Anna Lehnická, Anna Przemyślidka; c. 1203/1204 – 26 June 1265), a member of the Přemyslid dynasty, was Duchess of Silesia and High Duchess of Poland from 1238 to 1241, by her marriage to the Piast ruler Henry II the Pious.
Anne of France (or Anne de Beaujeu; 3 April 146114 November 1522) was a French princess and regent, the eldest daughter of Louis XI by Charlotte of Savoy.
Anne of Kiev (c. 1030 – 1075), Anna Yaroslavna, Anna of Rus also called Agnes, in France known initially as Anne de Russie or Agnes de Russie, was the queen consort of Henry I of France, and regent of France during the minority of her son, Philip I of France, from 1060 until 1065.
Anne, Princess Royal and Princess of Orange (2 November 1709 – 12 January 1759) was the second child and eldest daughter of King George II of Great Britain and his consort Caroline of Ansbach.
Anno II (– 4 December 1075) was Archbishop of Cologne from 1056 until his death.
Ansprand (657 – 712) was king of the Lombards briefly in 712.
Ansur, Assur, or Asur Fernández (died 947/50) was a powerful Castilian nobleman and military leader in the Kingdom of León during the reign of Ramiro II.
Antigone (Ἀντιγόνη, born before 317 BC-295 BC) was a Greek Macedonian noblewoman.
Antigone (Ἀντιγόνη) was a Macedonian noblewoman that lived in the 4th century BC.
Antigonus I Monophthalmus (Antigonos ho Monophthalmos, Antigonus the One-eyed, 382–301 BC), son of Philip from Elimeia, was a Macedonian nobleman, general, and satrap under Alexander the Great.
Antigonus III Doson (Ἀντίγονος Γ΄ Δώσων, 263–221 BC) was king of Macedon from 229 BC to 221 BC.
Antioch on the Orontes (Antiókheia je epi Oróntou; also Syrian Antioch)Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ, "Antioch on Daphne"; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ Μεγάλη, "Antioch the Great"; Antiochia ad Orontem; Անտիոք Antiok; ܐܢܛܝܘܟܝܐ Anṭiokya; Hebrew: אנטיוכיה, Antiyokhya; Arabic: انطاكية, Anṭākiya; انطاکیه; Antakya.
Antiochus V Eupator (Greek: Αντίοχος Ε' Ευπάτωρ, whose epithet means "of a good father"; ca. 172 BC – 161 BC) was a ruler of the Greek Seleucid Empire who reigned 163–161 BC (based on dates from 1 Maccabees 6:16 and 7:1).
Antipater (Ἀντίπατρος Antipatros; c. 397 BC319 BC) was a Macedonian general and statesman under kings Philip II of Macedon and Alexander the Great, and father of King Cassander.
Honorius II (c. 1010 – 1072), born Pietro Cadalo (Latin Petrus Cadalus), was an antipope from 1061 to 1072.
Anne-Antoinette-Cécile Clavel, better known by her stage name Madame Saint-Huberty or Saint-Huberti (Strasbourg, 15 December 1756 - 22 July 1812, Barnes, London) was a celebrated French operatic soprano whose career extended from c.1774 until 1790.
Anton Freiherr von Lehár (born Antal Lehár; 21 February 1876 – 12 November 1962; known sometimes as Baron Antal Lehár) was an Hungarian officer, who reached the pinnacle of his service after World War I when he supported the former Emperor Charles I of Austria's attempts to retake the throne of Hungary.
Anton Ritter von Schmerling (August 23, 1805 in Lichtental, ViennaMay 23, 1893 in Vienna), Austrian statesman, was born at Vienna, where his father held a high position on the judicial side of the civil service.
Antonio Alcalá Galiano y Fernández de Villavicencio, (22 July 1789, Cádiz - 11 April 1865, Madrid) was a Spanish politician and writer who served as Minister of the Navy (1836) and Minister of Public Works (1865).
Antonio Carrillo de Peralta y de Velasco, II Marquis of Falces, deceased in 1545, Marcilla, Navarra, Spain, was the son of Navarrese Conetable of the kingdom of Navarre Alonso Carrillo - Acuña y de Peralta, 1st Marquis of Falces, 2nd Count Consort of Santisteban de Lerín, Sieur Consort of Peralta, Falces, Carcer, and other Navarrese places, deceased and buried at Marcilla, Navarre, in 1534.
Antonio Iturmendi Bañales (Baracaldo, 1903 – Madrid, 1976) was a Spanish Carlist and Francoist politician.
Antonio María Pérez de Olaguer Feliu (1907–1968) was a Spanish writer and a Carlist militant.
Antonio Trivulzio the Elder (It.: Antonio Trivulzio, seniore) (1457–1508) (called the Cardinal of Como) was an Italian Roman Catholic bishop and cardinal.
Anushirvan ibn Lashkari was the son and successor of Lashkari ibn Musa and briefly the seventh emir of the Shaddadids at Ganja in 1049.
Anwaruddin Khan (1672 – 3 August 1749), a.k.a. Muhammad Anwaruddin, was the 1st Nawab of Arcot of the second Dynasty.
Apollo Kironde (1915 – 21 April 2007) was the first ambassador to the United Nations (UN) from Uganda.
Archagathus (Ἀρχάγαθος) was a Syracusan Greek prince and Ptolemaic official who lived around the late second half of the 4th century BC and first half of the 3rd century BC.
The archducal hat (Erzherzogshut) is the insignia of the Archduchy of Austria, mostly apparently symbolic and used in the heraldry and some portraits of Austrian archdukes rather than routinely worn.
Archduke Eugen Ferdinand Pius Bernhard Felix Maria of Austria-Teschen (21 May 1863 – 30 December 1954) was an Archduke of Austria and a Prince of Hungary and Bohemia.
Archduke John of Austria (Erzherzog Johann Baptist Joseph Fabian Sebastian von Österreich; 20 January 1782 – 11 May 1859), a member of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine, was an Austrian field marshal and imperial regent (Reichsverweser) of the short-lived German Empire during the Revolutions of 1848.
Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus (c. 148922 January 1557) was a Scottish nobleman active during the reigns of James V and Mary, Queen of Scots.
Architecture of Wales is an overview of architecture in Wales from the Medieval period to the present day, excluding castles and fortifications, ecclesiastical architecture and industrial architecture.
Archontology is the study of historical offices and important positions in state, international, political, religious and other organizations and societies.
Arda (Արդա; died after 1116) was the queen of the Jerusalem as the 2nd spouse of King Baldwin I of Jerusalem.
The Ardennes-Verdun dynasty was one of the first documented medieval European noble families, centered on Verdun.
Aripert II (also spelled Aribert) was the king of the Lombards from 701 to 712.
Aristagoras (Ἀρισταγόρας ὁ Μιλήσιος), d. 497/496 BC, was the leader of Miletus in the late 6th century BC and early 5th century BC and a key player during the early years of the Ionian Revolt against the Persian Achaemenid Empire.
Queen Arjayadengjayaketana of Bali was a ruler of that island in 1200.
The Armagnac–Burgundian Civil War was a conflict between two cadet branches of the French royal family — the House of Orléans (Armagnac faction) and the House of Burgundy (Burgundian faction) from 1407 to 1435.
Armazi (არმაზი) is a locale in Georgia, 4 km southwest of Mtskheta and 22 km northwest of Tbilisi.
The Armazi stele of Serapit (სერაფიტას არმაზის სტელა) or Armazi bilingual (არმაზის ბილინგვა) is a funerary stele with bilingual inscriptions written in Ancient Greek and Armazic, a local idiom of Aramaic, found in 1940, at Armazi, near Mtskheta, in the ancient capital of the Kingdom of Iberia.
Arnulf III (died 22 February 1071) was Count of Flanders from 1070 until his death at the Battle of Cassel in 1071.
Arpajon is a commune in the Essonne department in the Île-de-France region of northern France.
Arsinoe I (Αρσινόη Α’., 305 BC – after c. 248 BC, Footnote 10) was Queen of Egypt by marriage to Ptolemy II Philadelphus.
Arsinoe III Philopator (Ἀρσινόη ἡ Φιλοπάτωρ, which means "Arsinoe the father-loving", 246 or 245 BC – 204 BC) was Queen of Egypt in 220 – 204 BC.
Artabanus of Persia (or Artabanus the Hyrcanian; Ἀρτάβανος) was a Persian political figure during the Achaemenid dynasty who was reportedly Regent of Persia for a few months (465 BC – 464 BC).
Arthur Tudor (19 September 1486 – 2 April 1502) was Prince of Wales, Earl of Chester and Duke of Cornwall.
The Aryacakravarti dynasty (அரியச் சக்கரவர்த்திகள் வம்சம்) were kings of the Jaffna Kingdom in Sri Lanka.
Ashot II (Աշոտ Բ; r. 914–29) was an Armenian monarch and the third king of the royal Bagratuni line.
The Assyrian independence movement is a movement guided by the Assyrian people for independence in the Assyrian homeland, notably in Northern Iraq.
Atenulf I (died 910), called the Great (Latin magnus), was the prince of Capua from 7 January 887 and of Benevento from 899, when he conquered that principality.
Atenulf II (died October 1064) was the duke of Gaeta for a brief two years (1062–1064) under the regency of his mother, Maria.
Audata (Ancient Greek Αὐδάτη; ruled c. 359 – 336 BC) was an Illyrian princess and later a Macedonian queen when she married Philip II of Macedon in 359 BC.
The following events occurred in August 1943.
Augustine Grimaldi (1482 – 14 April 1532) was Regent of Monaco (1523–1532), Bishop of Grasse, Abbot of Lérins, and founder of the village of Valbonne.
Augustus (31 July 152611 February 1586) was Elector of Saxony from 1553 to 1586.
Augustus (13 July 1783 – 27 February 1853) was the reigning Grand Duke of Oldenburg from 1829 to 1853.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
The Axis leaders of World War II were important political and military figures during World War II.
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
Álvaro de Luna y Jarana (between 1388 and 13902 June 1453), Duke of Trujillo, 1st Count of San Esteban de Gormaz, was a Spanish politician.
Álvaro Vaz de Almada, 1st Count of Avranches sometimes referred to with the wrong name Albro Vasques d' Almadea Earl of Averence KG (c. 1390 – 20 May 1449, Alverca do Ribatejo) was an illustrious Portuguese knight and nobleman, with a long and illustrious career abroad in England.
Ælfgifu of Northampton (990 – after 1036) was the first wife of King Cnut of England and Denmark, and mother of King Harold I of England (1035–40).
Élisabeth Charlotte d'Orléans (13 September 1676 – 23 December 1744) was a French ''petite-fille de France'', and duchess of Lorraine and Bar by marriage to Leopold, Duke of Lorraine.
Íñigo Arista (Eneko, ونّقه, Wannaqo, c. 790 – 851 or 852) was a Basque leader, considered the first King of Pamplona.
The Đinh dynasty was the imperial dynasty of Vietnam starting in 968 when Đinh Tiên Hoàng vanquished the upheavals of Twelve warlords and ended as the son of Đinh Tiên Hoàng, Đinh Phế Đế, ceded the throne to Lê Hoàn in 980.
Łowicz is a town in central Poland with 28,811 inhabitants (2016).
The B.O. Cutter House is a house in the Marcy-Holmes neighborhood of Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States.
Babai the Great (ܒܐܒܐܝ ܡܚܡܘܕܐ ca. 551 – 628) was an early church father of the Church of the East.
Babylon 5 is an American science fiction television series created by writer and producer J. Michael Straczynski, under the Babylonian Productions label, in association with Straczynski's Synthetic Worlds Ltd.
Sultan Sir Badlishah ibni Almarhum Sultan Abdul Hamid Halim Shah (17 March 1894 – 13 July 1958) was the 27th Sultan of Kedah, a present Malaysian state, between 1943 and 1958.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
Bagrat III (ბაგრატ III) (c. 960 – 7 May 1014), of the Georgian Bagrationi dynasty, was King of Abkhazia from 978 on (as Bagrat II) and King of Georgia from 1008 on.
Bagrat IV (ბაგრატ IV) (1018 – 24 November 1072), of the Bagrationi dynasty, was the King of Georgia from 1027 to 1072.
Bahey El Din Barakat Pasha (1889–1972) was an Egyptian political figure.
Bairam Khan also Bayram Khan was an important military commander, later commander-in-chief of the Mughal army, a powerful statesman and regent at the court of the Mughal Emperors, Humayun and Akbar.
The Bal des Ardents (Ball of the Burning Men) or Bal des Sauvages (Ball of the Wild Men) was a masquerade ballSources vary whether the event was a masquerade or a masque.
Bald–hairy (лысый–волосатый) is a common joke in Russian political discourse, referring to the empirical rule of the state leaders' succession defined as a change of a bald leader to a hairy one and vice versa.
Baldwin V of Flanders (19 August 1012, Arras, Flanders – 1 September 1067, Lille, Flanders) was Count of Flanders from 1035 until his death.
Ballynegall House (sometimes spelled "Ballynagall") was a large country house in County Westmeath, Ireland.
Balthasar of Hanau-Münzenberg (29 June 1508 – 9 December 1534, in Hanau) was a posthumous son of Count Reinhard IV of Hanau-Münzenberg (1473 - 1512) and his wife Countess Catherine of Schwarzburg-Blankenburg (d. 1514).
Banjar Regency is one of the nine regencies in the Indonesian province of South Kalimantan; the capital is Martapura.
The Banjica concentration camp (KZ Banjica) was a German concentration camp in the Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia during World War II.
The Bank of Isabella II (Banco de Isabel II) was a financial institution in Spain, created by a Royal Decree of 25 January 1844Teodora Gómez Herrero, Diccionario-guía legislativo español: comprende todas las disposiciones legales que se han publicado durante el presente siglo xix, presentadas dentro de un orden y clasificación por artículos, de tal forma enunciados..., Volume 1, Part 1, R. Fé, 1902.
The Bareilly district belongs to the state Uttar Pradesh in northern India.
The title of Baron Grey of Codnor is a title in the peerage of England.
Barrayar is a science fiction novel by Lois McMaster Bujold.
Sir Basil Shillito Cave (1865–1931) was a British consul.
Basileopatōr (βασιλεοπάτωρ, literally "father of the basileus ") was one of the highest secular titles of the Byzantine Empire.
Basileus (βασιλεύς) is a Greek term and title that has signified various types of monarchs in history.
Batak is a collective term used to identify a number of closely related Austronesian ethnic groups predominantly found in North Sumatra, Indonesia who speak Batak languages.
The Monastery of Batalha (Mosteiro da Batalha), literally the Monastery of the Battle, is a Dominican convent in the municipality of Batalha, in the district of Leiria, in the Centro Region of Portugal.
The Battalion of University Volunteers from the Royal University of Toledo was a military unit created at the initiative of all the University's professors in August 1808 after the uprising of 2 May in Madrid against the Napoleonic invasion.
The Battle of Aguioncha or Aguiuncias, the culmination of a Galician–Portuguese civil war in the Kingdom of León, was fought at the hill called Aguioncha on the river Salas in the province of Ourense between two aristocratic factions.
The Battle of Anchem (also Battle of Anchiem or Battle of Anchim) was a battle fought between two factions of the Royal family in the Ethiopian Empire (Mangista Ityop'p'ya).
The Battle of Artah was fought in 1105 between Crusader forces and the Seljuk Turks at the town of Artah near Antioch.
The Battle of Öland was a naval battle between an allied Danish-Dutch fleet and the Swedish navy in the Baltic Sea, off the east coast of Öland on 1 June 1676.
The Battle of Bosworth Field (or Battle of Bosworth) was the last significant battle of the Wars of the Roses, the civil war between the Houses of Lancaster and York that extended across England in the latter half of the 15th century.
The Battle of Harlaw (Cath Gairbheach) was a Scottish clan battle fought on 24 July 1411 just north of Inverurie in Aberdeenshire.
The Second Battle of Kosovo (Hungarian: második rigómezei csata, Turkish: İkinci Kosova Savaşı) (17–20 October 1448) was a land battle between a Hungarian-led Crusader army and the Ottoman Empire at Kosovo Polje.
The Battle of Langside, fought on 13 May 1568, was one of the most unusual contests in Scottish history, bearing a superficial resemblance to a grand family quarrel, in which a woman fought her brother who was defending the rights of her infant son.
The Second Battle of Lincoln occurred at Lincoln Castle on Saturday 20 May 1217, during the First Barons' War, between the forces of the future Louis VIII of France and those of King Henry III of England.
The Battle of Megalopolis was fought in 331 BC between Spartan led forces and Macedonia.
The Battle of Paxos was a naval battle between a coalition of Illyrian tribes with their Acarnanian allies, against the allies of Corcyra (modern Corfu), the Achaean League and Aetolian League.
The Battle of Pinkie Cleugh, sometimes known as the Battle of Pinkie, took place on 10 September 1547 on the banks of the River Esk near Musselburgh, Scotland.
The Battle of Schwechat was a battle in the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, fought on 30 October 1848 between the revolutionary Hungarian Army against the army of the Austrian Empire, in Schwechat, near Vienna.
The Battle of Shanhai Pass, fought on 27 May 1644 at Shanhai Pass (Shanhaiguan, 山海關) at the eastern end of the Great Wall of China, was a decisive battle leading to the formation of the Qing dynasty in China.
The Battle of Stångebro, or the Battle of Linköping, took place at Linköping, Sweden, on 25 September 1598 (O.S.) and effectively ended the personal union between Sweden and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, that had existed since 1592.
The 1437 Battle of Tangier, sometimes referred to as the Siege of Tangiers, refers to the attempt by a Portuguese expeditionary force to seize the Moroccan citadel of Tangier, and their subsequent defeat by the armies of the Marinid sultanate of Morocco.
The Battle of Tuiteam Tarbhach ("plentiful slaughter"; also known as Tuttim–Tarwach, Tuttim–Turwigh, Tuttim–Tarwigh or Tutim Tarvach) was a Scottish clan battle in which the Mackays wiped out raiders from the Clan MacLeod of Lewis who were returning from an attack on Mackay land in Strathnaver.
The Battle of Welfesholz was fought on 11 February 1115 between the Imperial army of the Emperor Henry V and a rebellious Saxon force.
Batu Khan (Бат хаан, Bat haan, Бату хан, Bá dū, хан Баты́й, Μπατού; c. 1207–1255), also known as Sain Khan (Good Khan, Сайн хаан, Sayn hân) and Tsar Batu, was a Mongol ruler and founder of the Golden Horde, a division of the Mongol Empire.
The Bayeux Tapestry (Tapisserie de Bayeux or La telle du conquest; Tapete Baiocense) is an embroidered cloth nearly long and tall, which depicts the events leading up to the Norman conquest of England concerning William, Duke of Normandy, and Harold, Earl of Wessex, later King of England, and culminating in the Battle of Hastings.
Béla vitéz Imrédy de Ómoravicza (Vitéz ómoraviczai Imrédy Béla; 29 December 1891 in Budapest – 28 February 1946 in Budapest) was Prime Minister of Hungary from 1938 to 1939.
Beatrice of Castile or Beatriz (8 March 129325 October 1359), was an infanta of Castile, daughter of Sancho IV and María de Molina.
Beatrice of Bar (also Beatrix) (c. 102018 April 1076) was a stateswoman and marchioness of Tuscany by marriage to Boniface III of Tuscany, and Regent of Tuscany from 1052 until her death during the minority of and in co-regency with her daughter Matilda.
The Belgian Federal Parliament is the bicameral parliament of Belgium.
The history of Belgium from 1789 to 1914, the period dubbed the "Long Nineteenth Century" by the historian Eric Hobsbawm, includes the end of Austrian rule and periods of French and Dutch occupation of the region, leading to the creation of the first independent Belgian state in 1830.
Belgrade (Beograd / Београд, meaning "White city",; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Serbia.
The Belgrade Special Police (Specijalna policija Uprave grada Beograda, SP UGB) was a Serbian collaborationist police organisation directed and controlled by the German Gestapo (Geheime Staatspolizei) in the German-occupied territory of Serbia from 1941 to 1944 during World War II.
Bellarion the Fortunate, published in 1926, is an historical novel by Rafael Sabatini.
Bengal (Bānglā/Bôngô /) is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in Asia, which is located in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal.
Bengkalis Regency is a regency of Indonesia in the Riau province.
Benjamin Leroy Holt (January 1, 1849 – December 5, 1920) was an American inventor who patented and manufactured the first practical crawler-type tread tractor.
Berardo Eroli (1409–1479) (called the Cardinal of Spoleto) was an Italian Roman Catholic bishop and cardinal.
Berengar (French: Bérenger or Bélenger, Latin: Berengarius or Belengarius, Spanish: Berenguer) was the eldest son of Alausia, daughter of Sancho VI of Gascony, and Hilduin, Count of Angoulême.
Berengaria (Castilian: Berenguela; nicknamed the Great (Castilian: la Grande); 1179 or 1180 – 8 November 1246) was queen regnant of Castile in 1217 and queen consort of León from 1197 to 1204.
Berenguer Ramon I (1005 – 26 May 1035), called the Crooked or the Hunchback (in Latin curvus; in Catalan el Corbat; in Spanish el Corvado or el Curvo), was the count of Barcelona, Girona, and Ausona from 1018 to his death.
Berenice also known as Berenike (Βερενίκη; fl. second half of 3rd century BC and first half of 2nd century BC), was a Greek Princess from Asia Minor who was a distant relative of the Seleucid Monarch Antiochus III the Great.
Berlinghiero Gessi (28 October 1563 – 6 April 1639) was an Italian Catholic Cardinal.
Bernard VII of Lippe (4 December 1428 – 2 April 1511) was the ruler of the Lordship of Lippe from 1429 until his death.
Bernard-Raymond Fabré-Palaprat (29 May 1773 – 18 February 1838), founded a neo-Templar imitation order called l'Ordre du Temple in 1804 and the Johannite Church in 1812, and proclaimed himself Grand Master of the Templars and Sovereign Pontiff of the Primitive Christian Catholic religion, opposing the Church of Saint Peter.
Bernhard von Spanheim (or Sponheim; 1176 or 1181 – 4 January 1256), a member of the noble House of Sponheim, was Duke of Carinthia for 54 years from 1202 until his death.
Berriew (Aberriw) is a village, a community and an electoral ward in Powys, Wales, situated on the Montgomeryshire Canal and the afon Rhiw near the confluence (Welsh: aber) with the River Severn (Welsh: Afon Hafren) at and is 79 miles (128 km) from Cardiff and 151 miles (243 km) from London.
Bertalan Szemere (1812–1869) was a Hungarian poet and nationalist who became the third Prime Minister of Hungary during the short period of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848 when Hungary was independent of rule by the Austrian Empire.
Bertha (863-8 – March 925 in Lucca) was countess of Arles by marriage to Theobald of Arles, and margravine of Tuccany by marriage to Adalbert II of Tuscany.
Bhumibol Adulyadej (ภูมิพลอดุลยเดช;;; see full title below; 5 December 1927 – 13 October 2016), conferred with the title King Bhumibol the Great in 1987, was the ninth monarch of Thailand from the Chakri dynasty as Rama IX.
Bianca Riario (March 1478 – 1522) was an Italian noble and regent, Marchioness of San Secondo by marriage to Troilo I de' Rossi, and regent of the marquisate and county of San Secondo for her son Pier Maria during his minority between 1521 and 1522.
Bideford is a historic port town on the estuary of the River Torridge in north Devon, south-west England.
Bikaner State was a princely state in the Bikaner region from 1465 to 1947.
The House of Biron was a szlachta family in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and a noble family in the Russian Empire.
The Bishopric of Brandenburg (Episcopatus Brandenburgensis or Dioecesis Brandenburgensis) was a Roman Catholic diocese established by King Otto I of Germany in 948, in the territory of the Marca Geronis (Saxon Eastern March) east of the Elbe river.
Blackadder the Third is the third series of the BBC sitcom Blackadder, written by Richard Curtis and Ben Elton, which aired from 17 September to 22 October 1987.
The Blagaj massacre was the mass killing of around 400 Serb civilians by the Croatian nationalist Ustaše movement on 9 May 1941, during World War II.
Blanche of Artois (Blanka; 1248 – 2 May 1302) was a member of the Capetian House of Artois who, as queen dowager, held regency over the Kingdom of Navarre and the County of Champagne.
Blanche of Castile (Blanca; 4 March 1188 – 27 November 1252) was Queen of France by marriage to Louis VIII.
Blanche of France (1 April 1328 – 8 February 1382) was the posthumous daughter of King Charles IV of France and his third wife, Jeanne d'Évreux.
Blanche of Montferrat or Bianca di Montferrato (1472 – 30 March 1519), was the Duchess of Savoy and titular Queen consort of Cyprus, Jerusalem, and Armenia as the wife of Charles I of Savoy.
Blanche of Navarre (?–1229) was Countess of Champagne, then Regent of Champagne, and finally also regent of her native kingdom of Navarre.
Blasco II d'Alagona (died 23 October 1355), called the Younger, was a very influential nobleman in fourteenth century Sicily.
Bohemond VII (1261 – October 19, 1287) was the count of Tripoli and nominal prince of Antioch from 1275 to his death.
Bolesław II Rogatka or Bolesław II the Horned (Bolesław II Rogatka), known also as Bolesław II the Bald, (Bolesław II Łysy) (c. 1220/5 – 26/31 December 1278), a member of the Silesian Piasts, was High Duke of Poland briefly in 1241 and Duke of Silesia at Wrocław from 1241 until 1248, when the duchy was divided between him and his brothers.
The Book of Swords Series is collectively a science fiction/fantasy novel series written by Fred Saberhagen.
Boris Fyodorovich Godunov (Бори́с Фёдорович Годуно́в,; c. 1551) ruled the Tsardom of Russia as de facto regent from c. 1585 to 1598 and then as the first non-Rurikid tsar from 1598 to 1605.
Boris Godunov (Борис Годунов, Borís Godunóv) is an opera by Modest Mussorgsky (1839–1881).
Boris Godunov («Борис Годунов», Borís Godunóv; variant title: Драматическая повесть, Комедия o настоящей беде Московскому государству, o царе Борисе и о Гришке Отрепьеве, A Dramatic Tale, The Comedy of the Distress of the Muscovite State, of Tsar Boris, and of Grishka Otrepyev) is a closet play by Alexander Pushkin.
"Born to Be King" is the second episode of The Black Adder, the first series of the BBC sitcom Blackadder.
The Boulogne agreement was a document signed by a group of English magnates in 1308, concerning the government of Edward II.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
The Brazilian Army (Exército Brasileiro) is the land arm of the Brazilian Armed Forces.
Brictric son of Algar (West Saxon "Beorhtric" and "Aethelgar") was a powerful Saxon thegn whose many English landholdings, mostly in the Westcountry, are recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086.
Brodick Castle is a castle situated outside the port of Brodick on the Isle of Arran, an island in the Firth of Clyde, Scotland.
Bronson Murray Cutting (June 23, 1888May 6, 1935) was a United States Senator from New Mexico.
Brunhilda (c. 543–613) was a Queen of Austrasia by marriage to the Merovingian King Sigebert I of Austrasia, part of Francia.
Bruno Mussolini (22 April 1918 – 7 August 1941) was the son of Italian dictator Benito Mussolini and Mussolini's wife Rachele.
The Brussels–Charleroi Canal, also known as the Charleroi Canal amongst other similar names, (canal Bruxelles-Charleroi, kanaal Brussel-Charleroi) is an important canal in Belgium.
Budashiri (Mongolian: ᠪᠦᠳᠬᠠᠱᠢᠷᠢ, Budashri), or in Sinicized form Putashali (卜答失里; born c. 1307 – died c. 1340) was a regent of the Yuan dynasty between 1332 and 1333.
Buni River (Indonesian: Ci Buni, Sungai Cibuni) is a river in southern West Java, Indonesia.
This list contains all European emperors, kings and regent princes and their consorts as well as well-known crown princes since the Middle Ages, whereas the lists are starting with either the beginning of the monarchy or with a change of the dynasty (e.g. England with the Norman king William the Conqueror, Spain with the unification of Castile and Aragon, Sweden with the Vasa dynasty, etc.). In addition, it contains the still-existing principalities of Monaco and Liechtenstein and the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg.
The Burmese–Siamese War (1547–49) (ယိုးဒယား-မြန်မာစစ် (၁၅၄၇–၄၉); งครามพม่า-สยาม.. or สงครามพระเจ้าตะเบ็งชเวตี้, lit. "Tabinshwehti's war") was the first war fought between the Toungoo Dynasty of Burma and the Ayutthaya Kingdom of Siam, and the first of the Burmese–Siamese wars that would continue until the middle of the 19th century.
Buumi (many variations: Buumy, Bumy, Bumi, etc.) was a Serer royal title in the Serer pre-colonial Kingdoms of Sine, Saloum and previously Baol.
The Byzantine Empire was ruled by the Amorian or Phrygian dynasty from 820 to 867.
The Byzantine–Georgian wars (ბიზანტიურ-ქართული ომები) were a series of conflicts fought during the 11th-13th centuries over several strategic districts in the Byzantine-Georgian marchlands.
Richard (died 1187) was a kaid of the curia regis or diwan of Palermo during the latter years of the reign of William I of Sicily and during the regency of his wife, Margaret of Navarre, for their son William II.
After the 1912 Parliamentary Election, a Caretaker Government had to be formed quickly because of the sudden death of the Prime Minister Milovan Milovanović.
Cài is a Chinese surname that derives from the name of the ancient Cai state.
Don Camilo Carlos Adolfo Ruspoli y Caro, Álvarez de Toledo y Caro, dei Principi Ruspoli (Madrid, June 5, 1904 – Madrid, November 20, 1975) was a Spanish aristocrat, son of Carlos Ruspoli, 3rd Duke of Alcudia and Sueca, and first wife Doña María del Carmen Caro y Caro, Álvarez de Toledo y Gomurcio.
Can't Buy Me Love (Chinese: 公主嫁到) is a 2010 Hong Kong television series.
Captain general (and its literal equivalent in several languages) is a high military rank of general officer grade, and a gubernatorial title.
Captain N: The Game Master is an American–Canadian animated television series that aired on television from 1989 to 1991 as part of the Saturday morning cartoon lineup on NBC.
Cardinal Jules Raymond Mazarin, 1st Duke of Rethel, Mayenne and Nevers (14 July 1602 – 9 March 1661), born Giulio Raimondo Mazzarino or Mazarino, was an Italian cardinal, diplomat, and politician, who served as the Chief Minister to the kings of France Louis XIII and Louis XIV from 1642 until his death.
Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim (4 June 1867 – 27 January 1951) was a Finnish military leader and statesman.
Baron Carl Carlsson Gyllenhielm (4 March 1574 – 17 March 1650) was a Swedish soldier and politician.
Carlism (Karlismo; Carlisme) is a Traditionalist and legitimist political movement in Spain seeking the establishment of a separate line of the Bourbon dynasty on the Spanish throne.
Carlo Perosi (18 December 1868 – 22 February 1930) was an Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church who served as Secretary of the Sacred Consistorial Congregation from 1928 until his death, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1926.
The Carnival of La Bañeza (also called winter festivals, carnivals, the run of carnival, antruejo), in the province of Leon, is a festival declared of national tourist interest that began to gain importance and fame at the beginning of the 20th century during the repression under Franco, due to the prohibition of concealing one’s face or wearing a costume.
Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach (Wilhelmina Charlotte Caroline; 1 March 1683 – 20 November 1737) was Queen consort of Great Britain as the wife of King George II.
Caroline of Brunswick (Caroline Amelia Elizabeth; 17 May 1768 – 7 August 1821) was Queen of the United Kingdom by marriage to King George IV from 29 January 1820 until her death in 1821.
Countess Caroline of Nassau-Saarbrücken (12 August 1704 – 25 March 1774) was Countess Palatine of Zweibrücken by marriage.
Cassander (Κάσσανδρος) was a Greek Macedonian nobleman who lived in the 4th century BC.
Castle Rising is a ruined medieval fortification in the village of Castle Rising, Norfolk, England.
Catherine de Medici (Italian: Caterina de Medici,; French: Catherine de Médicis,; 13 April 1519 – 5 January 1589), daughter of Lorenzo II de' Medici and Madeleine de La Tour d'Auvergne, was an Italian noblewoman who was queen of France from 1547 until 1559, by marriage to King Henry II.
Catherine de' Medici's patronage of the arts made a significant contribution to the French Renaissance.
Catherine Henriette de Balzac d'Entragues, Marquise de Verneuil (1579–1633) was the favourite mistress of Henry IV of France after Gabrielle d'Estrées died: her sister Marie-Charlotte de Balzac d’Entragues was also a mistress of the king.
Catherine of Aragon (16 December 1485 – 7 January 1536), was Queen of England from June 1509 until May 1533 as the first wife of King Henry VIII; she was previously Princess of Wales as the wife of Henry's elder brother Arthur.
Catherine of Braganza (Catarina; 25 November 1638 – 31 December 1705) was queen consort of England, of Scotland and of Ireland from 1662 to 1685, as the wife of King Charles II.
Catherine Parr (alternatively spelled Katherine, Katheryn or Katharine, signed 'Katheryn the Quene KP') was Queen of England and Ireland (1543–47) as the last of the six wives of King Henry VIII, and the final queen consort of the House of Tudor.
Catherine Vasa of Sweden (Katarina Gustavsdotter Vasa; 6 June 1539 – 21 December 1610) was a Swedish princess, and the Countess consort of East Frisia as the spouse of Edzard II, Count of East Frisia.
The causes of the Dutch Revolt and the ensuing Eighty Years War, considered to have started in June 1568, were a number of incidents and frictions had accumulated between the Dutch provinces and their Habsburg overlord.
Caversham Bridge is a bridge across the River Thames between Caversham and the town centre of Reading.
Caversham is a suburb in the Borough of Reading, a unitary authority, in the royal, non-administrative county of Berkshire, England.
Cen Changqian (died November 7, 691), briefly known as Wu Changqian (武長倩) during the reign of Wu Zetian, formally the Duke of Deng (鄧公), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty and Wu Zetian's Zhou Dynasty, serving as chancellor during the reign of Emperor Gaozong, as well as Wu Zetian's reign and her earlier regency over her sons Emperor Zhongzong and Emperor Ruizong.
Cen Xi (died July 29, 713), courtesy name Bohua (伯華), was an official of the Chinese Tang Dynasty and Wu Zetian's Zhou Dynasty, serving as a chancellor during the reigns of Emperor Shang, Emperor Ruizong, and Emperor Xuanzong.
The Centauri are a humanoid species in the fictional universe of the Babylon 5 television series.
Cersei Lannister is a fictional character in the A Song of Ice and Fire series of fantasy novels by American author George R. R. Martin, and its television adaptation Game of Thrones, where she is portrayed by Lena Headey.
Chancellor of Poland (Kanclerz -, from cancellarius) was one of the highest officials in the historic Poland.
Maharani Chand Kaur (1802 – 11 June 1842) was briefly regent of the Sikh Empire.
The change of Xianbei family names to Han names was part of a larger sinicization campaign.
Charles Clark Stevenson (February 20, 1826 – September 21, 1890) was an American politician.
Charles Durwin Parker (December 27, 1827 – December 27, 1925) was a Wisconsin politician.
Charles Emil Sorensen (7 September 1881 – 11 August 1968) was a Danish-American principal of the Ford Motor Company during its first four decades.
Charles Belknap Henderson (June 8, 1873November 8, 1954) was an American attorney, businessman, and politician who served as United States Senator from Nevada.
Charles I or Karl I (Karl Franz Joseph Ludwig Hubert Georg Otto Maria; 17 August 18871 April 1922) was the last reigning monarch of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Charles Louis (Carlo Ludovico; 22 December 1799 – 16 April 1883) was King of Etruria (1803–1807; reigned as Louis II), Duke of Lucca (1824–1847; reigned as Charles I), and Duke of Parma (1847–1849; reigned as Charles II).
Charles II, Margrave of Baden-Durlach (born July 24, 1529 in Pforzheim – died March 23, 1577 in Durlach), nicknamed Charles with the bag, governed the Margravate of Durlach from 1552 to 1577.
After Miklós Horthy was chosen Regent of Hungary on 1 March 1920, Charles I of Austria, who had also reigned as Charles IV of Hungary, returned to Hungary twice, to try unsuccessfully to retake his throne.
Charles Montagu, 1st Earl of Halifax (16 April 1661 – 19 May 1715) was an English poet and statesman.
Prince Charles Philip of Sweden, Duke of Södermanland, (Swedish: Carl Filip; Alt-Anzen (Vana-Antsla), 22 April 1601 – Narva, 25 January 1622) was a Swedish prince, Duke of Södermanland, Närke and Värmland.
Charles Pratt, 1st Earl Camden, PC (baptised 21 March 1714 – 18 April 1794) was an English lawyer, judge and Whig politician who was first to hold the title of Earl Camden.
Charles Stuart, 1st (or 5th) Earl of Lennox (April or May 1557–1576), was the fourth son of Matthew Stewart, 4th Earl of Lennox and Margaret Douglas, daughter of Margaret Tudor and granddaughter of King Henry VII of England.
Charles Talbot, 1st Duke of Shrewsbury, KG, PC (24 July 1660 – 1 February 1718) was an English politician who was part of the Immortal Seven group that invited William III, Prince of Orange to depose James II of England as monarch during the Glorious Revolution.
Charles V (21 January 1338 – 16 September 1380), called "the Wise" (le Sage; Sapiens), was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1364 to his death.
Charles V (Carlos; Karl; Carlo; Karel; Carolus; 24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of both the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and the Spanish Empire (as Charles I of Spain) from 1516, as well as of the lands of the former Duchy of Burgundy from 1506.
Charles VIII, called the Affable, l'Affable (30 June 1470 – 7 April 1498), was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1483 to his death in 1498.
Charles XIII & II also Carl, Karl XIII (7 October 1748 – 5 February 1818), was King of Sweden (as Charles XIII) from 1809 and King of Norway (as Charles II) from 1814 until his death.
Charles of France, Duke of Berry, (31 July 1686 – 5 May 1714) was a grandson of Louis XIV of France.
Charlotte of Albret (1480 – 11 March 1514), also known as Charlotte d'Albret, was a wealthy French noblewoman of the Albret family.
The Château de Chenonceau is a French château spanning the River Cher, near the small village of Chenonceaux in the Indre-et-Loire département of the Loire Valley in France.
Château de Pommard is a winery in Pommard, Burgundy, France.
Chen Shubao (553–604), also known as the Final Lord of Chen, posthumous name Duke Yáng of Chángchéng, courtesy name), nickname, was the last emperor of Chen China, which was conquered by Sui China. At the time of his ascension, Chen was already facing military pressure by the Sui on multiple fronts, and, according to traditional historians, Chen Shubao was an incompetent ruler who was more interested in literature and women than in the affairs of the state. In 589, Sui forces captured his capital, Jiankang, and captured him, ending Chen rule and unifying China after nearly three centuries of division that had started with the conquests of Emperor Hui of Jin. He was taken to the Sui capital Chang'an, where he was treated kindly by Emperor Wen of Sui until his death in 604, during the reign of Emperor Wen's son, Emperor Yang.
Chen Yueyi (565?-650?), later Buddhist nun name Huaguang (華光), was a concubine of Emperor Xuan of Northern Zhou, an emperor of the Chinese/Xianbei dynasty Northern Zhou.
Chiara Zorzi or Giorgio, also Clara or Claire (died 1454), was duchess consort of Athens by marriage to Nerio II Acciaioli, Duke of Athens, and regent of Athens during the minority of her son Francesco I from 1451 until 1454.
Chao Ho was the lead ship of a class of her class of training protected cruisers originally built for the Manchu Qing Dynasty.
Sree Padmanbhadasa Sree Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma (7 November 1912 – 20 July 1991), popularly known as Sree Chithira Thirunal, was the last ruling Maharaja of the Princely State of Travancore, in southern India until 1949 and later the Titular Maharajah of Travancore until 1991.
Chitral (or Chitrāl) (Urdu) was a princely state in alliance with British India until 1947, then a princely state of Pakistan until 1969.
Chivalry and Betrayal: The Hundred Years' War is a 2013 documentary television series written and presented by cultural historian Dr.
Christian IV (Christian den Fjerde; 12 April 1577 – 28 February 1648), sometimes colloquially referred to as Christian Firtal in Denmark and Christian Kvart or Quart in Norway, was king of Denmark-Norway and Duke of Holstein and Schleswig from 1588 to 1648.
Christian Louis de Massy (born 17 January 1949) is the son of Princess Antoinette of Monaco, Baroness de Massy, and her husband, international tennis champion Alexandre-Athenase Noghès.
The doctrine of sin is central to Christianity, since its basic message is about redemption in Christ.
In 16th-century Christianity, Protestantism came to the forefront and marked a significant change in the Christian world.
Christmas in Indonesia (locally known as Natal, from the Portuguese word for Christmas), which has approximately 25 million Christians (of which about 30% are Roman Catholics),, Badan Pusat Statistik.
Christodulus (died 1131) (Χριστόδουλος, Christodoulos, meaning "Slave of Christ;" Arabic: Abd al-Rahman al-Nasrani, meaning "Slave of the All Merciful, the Nazarene "), probably either a Greek Orthodox, the name was a common Greek Orthodox name, or a Muslim convert, was the first emir of Palermo (later ammiratus ammiratorum) under the Normans.
Christoph Friedrich von Sacken-Appricken was the Regent of Courland from 1740 to 1758, in modern-day Latvia.
Christopher French (fl. c. 1650–c.1713) was an Irish theologian.
Christopher of Bavaria (26 February 1416 – 5/6 January 1448) was King of Denmark (1440–48, as Christopher III), Sweden (1441–48) and Norway (1442–48) during the era of the Kalmar Union.
Chu Suanzi (324–384), formally Empress Kangxian (康獻皇后, literally "the joyful and wise empress"), at times as Empress Dowager Chongde (崇德太后), was an empress of Jin Dynasty (265-420).
Phra Bat Somdet Phra Poraminthra Maha Chulalongkorn Phra Chunla Chom Klao Chao Yu Hua (พระบาทสมเด็จพระปรมินทรมหาจุฬาลงกรณ์ พระจุลจอมเกล้าเจ้าอยู่หัว), or Rama V (20 September 1853 – 23 October 1910), was the fifth monarch of Siam under the House of Chakri.
Chupzang Nunnery (Chu bzang dgon) is a historical nunnery, belonging to Sera Monastery.
Chwa I Nabakka was Kabaka (King) of the Kingdom of Buganda.
Claire Tomalin (born Claire Delavenay on 20 June 1933) is an English author and journalist, known for her biographies on Charles Dickens, Thomas Hardy, Samuel Pepys, Jane Austen, and Mary Wollstonecraft.
Clan Arbuthnott is a Lowland Scottish clan.
Clan Boyd is a Scottish clan and is recognized as such by the Lord Lyon King of Arms.
Clan Cumming, (Na Cuimeinich) also known as Clan Comyn, is a Scottish clan from the central Highlands that played a major role in the history of 13th-century Scotland and in the Wars of Scottish Independence.
Clan Home (pronounced and sometimes spelt Hume) is a Scottish clan.
Clan MacFarlane (Scottish Gaelic: Clann Phàrlain) is a Highland Scottish clan.
Clan Stewart (Gaelic: Stiùbhart) is a Highland Scottish clan.
Claud Hamilton, 1st Lord Paisley (Baptised 9 June 1546 – before 3 May 1621) was a Scottish politician.
Clement (died 1258) was a 13th-century Dominican friar who was the first member of the Dominican Order in Britain and Ireland to become a bishop.
Clementia of Burgundy (c. 1078 – c. 1133) was a Countess of Flanders by marriage.
Clementia of Hungary (Clémence; 1293–12 October 1328) was queen of France and Navarre as the second wife of King Louis X.
Clifford Walter Dupont, GCLM, ID (6 December 1905 – 28 June 1978) was a Rhodesian politician who served in the internationally unrecognised positions of Officer Administrating the Government (from 1965 until 1970) and President (from 1970 to 1975).
Cnut the GreatBolton, The Empire of Cnut the Great: Conquest and the Consolidation of Power in Northern Europe in the Early Eleventh Century (Leiden, 2009) (Cnut se Micela, Knútr inn ríki. Retrieved 21 January 2016. – 12 November 1035), also known as Canute—whose father was Sweyn Forkbeard (which gave him the patronym Sweynsson, Sveinsson)—was King of Denmark, England and Norway; together often referred to as the North Sea Empire.
Hungarian pengő coins (pengő érmék) were part of the physical form of Hungary's historical currency, the Hungarian pengő.
Collaborator is an alternate history novel by Murray Davies, published as a hardcover on 19 September 2003 and released in paperback in the United Kingdom and the United States in September 2004.
The College of New Rochelle (CNR) is a private Catholic college with its main campus located in New Rochelle, New York.
The Colombian Declaration of Independence refers to the events of July 20, 1810, in Santa Fe de Bogota, in the Spanish colonial Viceroyalty of New Granada.
Comédie-Italienne or Théâtre-Italien are French names which have been used to refer to Italian-language theatre and opera when performed in France.
Farmandeye Koll-e Qova (فرمانده کل قوا), formerly known as Bozorg Arteshtaran (بزرگارتشتاران), is the supreme commanding authority of all the Armed Forces of Iran and the highest possible military position within the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Commius (Commios, Comius, Comnios) was a king of the Belgic nation of the Atrebates, initially in Gaul, then in Britain, in the 1st century BC.
With the death of King Alexander III in 1286, the crown of Scotland passed to his only surviving descendant, his three-year-old granddaughter Margaret, the Maid of Norway.
The Concordat of Bologna (1516), marking a stage in the evolution of the Gallican Church, was an agreement between King Francis I of France and Pope Leo X that Francis negotiated in the wake of his victory at Marignano in September 1515.
ConnachtPage five of An tOrdú Logainmneacha (Contaetha agus Cúigí) 2003 clearly lists the official spellings of the names of the four provinces of the country with Connacht listed for both languages; when used without the term 'The province of' / 'Cúige'.
Conon de Béthune (before 1160 in the former region of Artois, today Pas-de-Calais - 17 December 1219, possibly at Adrianople) was a French crusader and "trouvère" poet who became a senior official and finally regent of the Latin Empire of Constantinople.
Conrad (25 April 1228 – 21 May 1254), a member of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was the only son of Emperor Frederick II from his second marriage with Queen Isabella II of Jerusalem.
The conservation and restoration of wooden furniture is an activity dedicated to the preservation and protection of wooden furniture objects of historical and personal value.
Consort Xiao, imperial consort rank Shufei (蕭淑妃, personal name unknown) (died 655?), was a concubine of Emperor Gaozong of Tang (Li Zhi).
Consort Yang, imperial consort rank Xianfei (楊賢妃, personal name unknown) (died February 12, 840Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 246.), was an imperial consort of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty.
Constance of France (1078 – 14 September 1125) was the daughter of King Philip I of France and Bertha of Holland.
Constantine VI (Κωνσταντῖνος Ϛ΄, Kōnstantinos VI; 771 – before 805Cutler & Hollingsworth (1991), pp. 501–502) was Byzantine Emperor from 780 to 797.
Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos or Porphyrogenitus ("the Purple-born", that is, born in the purple marble slab-paneled imperial bed chambers; translit; 17–18 May 905 – 9 November 959) was the fourth Emperor of the Macedonian dynasty of the Byzantine Empire, reigning from 913 to 959.
Prince Friedrich Wilhelm Konstantin Hermann Thassilo of Hohenzollern-Hechingen (16 February 1801 in Schloss Sagan, Sagan, Silesia, Prussia – 3 September 1869 in Schloss Polnisch Nettkow, Grünberg, Silesia, Prussia) was the last Prince of Hohenzollern-Hechingen.
Dom Constantino of Braganza (1528–1575) was a Portuguese statesman and military commander of the 16th century.
The Constitution of 3 May 1791 (Konstytucja 3 Maja, Gegužės trečiosios konstitucija) was adopted by the Great Sejm (parliament) of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, a dual monarchy comprising the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
The Constitution of Belgium dates back to 1831.
The Constitution of Bhutan (Dzongkha: འབྲུག་གི་རྩ་ཁྲིམས་ཆེན་མོ་; Wylie: 'Druk-gi cha-thrims-chen-mo) was enacted 18 July 2008 by the Royal Government of Bhutan.
The Constitution for the Kingdom of the Netherlands (Grondwet voor het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden) is one of two fundamental documents governing the Kingdom of the Netherlands as well as the fundamental law of the European territory of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
The Persian Constitutional Revolution was a short-lived push for democratic rule in the form of a constitutional monarchy within a highly elitist yet decentralized society under the Qajars.
Contents of the United States diplomatic cables leak has depicted Europe and related subjects extensively.
The Convention Parliament was a parliament in English history which, owing to an abeyance of the Crown, assembled without formal summons by the Sovereign.
Cordelia Naismith is the name of two fictional characters by American writer Lois McMaster Bujold.
Cornelis de Graeff (23 August 1671, Amsterdam – 16 February 1719, Ilpendam) was a member of the family De Graeff, a prominent regent family from the Dutch Golden Age.
Cornelis Elout (Haarlem, 11 March 1714 - Haarlem, 3 November 1779)Van der Aa et al., p.96 (Dutch) was a Haarlem regent, collector, one of the first members of Teylers Tweede Genootschap (Teylers Second or Scientific Society) and regent of the Armekinderhuis ("poor children's home").
Dr Cornelis M. H. (born 27 July 1953) is a West Kalimantan governor for 2008–2013 term.
The coronation of the Thai monarch is a ceremony in which the King of Thailand is formally consecrated by anointment and crowning.
The Council of Castile (Real y Supremo Consejo de Castilla), known earlier as the Royal Council (Consejo Real), was a ruling body and key part of the domestic government of the Crown of Castile, second only to the monarch himself.
The Council of State is the privy council of Denmark.
In the United Kingdom, Counsellors of State are senior members of the British Royal Family to whom the monarch, currently Elizabeth II, delegates certain state functions and powers when not in the United Kingdom or unavailable for other reasons (such as short-term incapacity or sickness).
The Count's Feud (Grevens Fejde), also called the Count's War, was a civil war that raged in Denmark in 1534–36 and brought about the Reformation in Denmark.
Countess Franziska de Paula Kinsky von Wchinitz und Tettau (8 August 1813, Vienna – 5 February 1881, Vienna) was princess consort of Aloys II, Prince of Liechtenstein.
Eleonora Catherine of the Palatinate-Zweibrücken (17 May 1626 – 3 March 1692), was a cousin and foster sister of Queen Christina of Sweden and sister of King Charles X of Sweden.
The Counts of Celje (Celjski grofje) or the Counts of Cilli (Grafen von Cilli; cillei grófok) were the most influential late medieval noble dynasty on the territory of present-day Slovenia.
The (Princely) County of Tyrol was an estate of the Holy Roman Empire established about 1140.
A court is an extended royal household in a monarchy, including all those who regularly attend on a monarch, or another central figure.
The Craiovești, later Brâncovenești, were a boyar family in Wallachia who gave the country several of its Princes and held the title of Ban of Oltenia (whether of Strehaia or Craiova) for ca.
The Crane family is a fictional family on the NBC/DirecTV soap opera Passions.
Crichton Castle is a ruined castle situated at the head of the River Tyne, near the village of Crichton, Midlothian, Scotland.
The Kingdom of Croatia (Regnum Croatiae; Hrvatsko kraljevstvo or Kraljevina Hrvatska) entered a personal union with the Kingdom of Hungary in 1102, after a period of rule of kings from the Trpimirović and Svetoslavić dynasties and a succession crisis following the death of king Demetrius Zvonimir.
The Crow Terrace Poetry Trial (or Crow Terrace Poetry Case, 烏臺詩案) was a trial on charges including treason and lèse majesté that occurred in the year 1079 of Song dynasty era in Chinese history.
The Crown of Castile was a medieval state in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and, some decades later, the parliaments of the kingdoms of Castile and León upon the accession of the then Castilian king, Ferdinand III, to the vacant Leonese throne. It continued to exist as a separate entity after the personal union in 1469 of the crowns of Castile and Aragon with the marriage of the Catholic Monarchs up to the promulgation of the Nueva Planta decrees by Philip V in 1715. The Indies, Islands and Mainland of the Ocean Sea were also a part of the Crown of Castile when transformed from lordships to kingdoms of the heirs of Castile in 1506, with the Treaty of Villafáfila, and upon the death of Ferdinand the Catholic. The title of "King of Castile" remained in use by the Habsburg rulers during the 16th and 17th centuries. Charles I was King of Aragon, Majorca, Valencia, and Sicily, and Count of Barcelona, Roussillon and Cerdagne, as well as King of Castile and León, 1516–1556. In the early 18th century, Philip of Bourbon won the War of the Spanish Succession and imposed unification policies over the Crown of Aragon, supporters of their enemies. This unified the Crown of Aragon and the Crown of Castile into the kingdom of Spain. Even though the Nueva Planta decrees did not formally abolish the Crown of Castile, the country of (Castile and Aragon) was called "Spain" by both contemporaries and historians. "King of Castile" also remains part of the full title of Felipe VI of Spain, the current King of Spain according to the Spanish constitution of 1978, in the sense of titles, not of states.
Crown Prince Hyomyeong (18 September 1809 – 25 June 1830), born Yi Yeong, or Lee Yeong, and posthumously called King Munjo, was a prince of the Joseon Dynasty.
The Crusade of Varna was an unsuccessful military campaign mounted by several European monarchs to check the expansion of the Ottoman Empire into Central Europe, specifically the Balkans between 1443 and 1444.
Cui Cha (崔詧) (died 689) was briefly a chancellor of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, during the first reign of Emperor Ruizong.
Cui Riyong 崔日用 (673–722), formally Duke Zhao of Qi 齊昭公, was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty and Wu Zetian's Zhou Dynasty, briefly serving as a chancellor during the reign of Emperor Ruizong.
Cui Shi (崔湜; 671–713), courtesy name Chenglan (澄瀾), was a Chinese writer and politician.
John of England has been portrayed many times in fiction, generally reflecting the overwhelmingly negative view of his reputation.
Saint Cunibert, Cunipert, or Kunibert (c. 60012 November c. 663) was the ninth bishop of Cologne, from 627 to his death.
Saint Cunigunde of Luxembourg, OSB (c. 975 – 3 March 1040 at Kaufungen), also called Cunegundes, Cunegunda, and Cunegonda and, in Latin, Cunegundis or Kinigundis, was Empress of the Holy Roman Empire by marriage to Holy Roman Emperor Saint Henry II.
Cunincpert (also Cunibert or Cunipert) was king of the Lombards from 688 to 700.
The were powerful Japanese feudal lords who, until their decline in the early Meiji period, ruled most of Japan from their vast, hereditary land holdings.
Dalai Lama (Standard Tibetan: ཏཱ་ལའི་བླ་མ་, Tā la'i bla ma) is a title given to spiritual leaders of the Tibetan people.
Archbishop Damaskinos Papandreou (3 March 1891 – 20 May 1949) was the archbishop of Athens and All Greece from 1941 until his death.
The Danish order of precedence is a symbolic hierarchy of Danish officials used to direct protocol.
The unnamed daughter of Emperor Xiaoming of Northern Wei (12 February 528 – ?) was briefly the emperor of Northern Wei (386–534), a Xianbei dynasty that ruled Northern China from the late fourth to the early sixth century AD.
The Daughters of Providence of Paris were members of a Catholic religious congregation for women in 17th-century France.
David ben Joseph Coen Bakri (born about 1770; died Feb. 4, 1811) was a financier and chief of the Algerian Jews.
David Cunningham (c. 1540–1600) was a 16th-century Scottish prelate and diplomat.
David de Lindsay the younger, also called David Lindsay of the Byres (died 1279), was a 13th-century Scottish knight and crusader.
David I or Dauíd mac Maíl Choluim (Modern: Daibhidh I mac Chaluim; – 24 May 1153) was a 12th-century ruler who was Prince of the Cumbrians from 1113 to 1124 and later King of the Scots from 1124 to 1153.
Dawit II (ዳዊት), also known as Wanag Segad (wanag sagad, 'to whom lions bow'), better known by his birth name Lebna Dengel (ልብነ ድንግል; 1501 – September 2, 1540), was nəgusä nägäst (1508–1540) of the Ethiopian Empire.
Dayfa Khatun (ضيفة خاتون; died 1242) was the regent of Aleppo from 26 November 1236 to 1242 during the minority of her grandson An-Nasir Yusuf's reign.
In the history of Spain, the década moderada ("moderate decade") was the period from May 1844 to July 1854, during which the Moderate Party continuously held power.
Döme Sztójay (5 January 1883 – 22 August 1946) was a Hungarian soldier and diplomat of Serb origin, who served as Prime Minister of Hungary in 1944, during World War II.
De Witt is the name of an old Dutch patrician and regenten family.
The following events occurred in December 1944.
The following events occurred in December 1967.
Decimus Burton (30 September 1800 – 14 December 1881) was one of the foremost English architects of the 19th century.
Deep Space Nine (DS9; previously Terok Nor) is a fictitious space station, and is the eponymous primary setting of the American science fiction television series Star Trek: Deep Space Nine which aired from 1993 to 1999.
The Deliberative Council of Princes and Ministers, also known as the Council of Princes and High Officials and Assembly of Princes and High Officials, or simply as the Deliberative Council, was an advisory body for the emperors of the early Qing dynasty (1636–1912).
Empress Deng Mengnü (鄧猛女) (died 165), also briefly known as Liang Mengnü (梁猛女) then as Bo Mengnü (薄猛女), was an empress during Han Dynasty.
Deng Sui (鄧綏) (AD 81–121), formally Empress Hexi (和熹皇后, literally "the moderate and pacifying empress") was an empress during the Han dynasty of Chinese history.
Denmark–Norway (Danish and Norwegian: Danmark–Norge or Danmark–Noreg; also known as the Oldenburg Monarchy or the Oldenburg realms) was an early modern multi-national and multi-lingual real unionFeldbæk 1998:11 consisting of the Kingdom of Denmark, the Kingdom of Norway (including Norwegian overseas possessions the Faroe Islands, Iceland, Greenland, et cetera), the Duchy of Schleswig, and the Duchy of Holstein.
Maharajadhiraj Mirza Maharao Shri Deshalji II Sahib Bahadur (b 1814- d 1860) (reign: 1819-1860) was the Rao of Cutch belonging to Jadeja dynasty, who ascended the throne of Princely State of Cutch upon deposition of his father Bharmalji II by British.
Dewa Agung Istri Kanya (died 1868) was queen regnant of Bali from 1814 to 1850; she was known as the "Virgin Queen of Klungkung." Her father and co-regent was Dewa Agung Putra I. Her mother was Gusti Ayu Karang.
Di Renjie (630 – August 15, 700), courtesy name Huaiying (懷英), formally Duke Wenhui of Liang (梁文惠公), was an official of Tang and Zhou dynasties, twice serving as chancellor during the reign of Wu Zetian.
Diane de Poitiers (3 September 1499 – 25 April 1566) was a French noblewoman and a prominent courtier at the courts of king Francis I and his son, King Henry II of France.
Didda (floruit 1003), was the ruler of Kashmir from 958 CE to 1003 CE, first as a Regent for her son and various grandsons, and from 980 as sole ruler and monarch.
Diederik Jansz Graeff, also Dirk Jansz Graeff, Lord of the manor Vredenhof (Amsterdam 1532 – Jul 27 1589), first illustrious member of the De Graeff family, was a rich merchant, ship-owner and politician. Diederik Graeff was also the founder of a regent dynastie of the Dutch Golden Age and the short time of the First Stadtholderless Period that retained power and influence for centuries and produced a number of ministers. He was the first Mayor of Amsterdam from the De Graeff family.
Dilaram Khanum (دلارام خانم, also spelled Del Aram or Delaram; died c. 1647) was a Safavid crown princess of Georgian origin.
Diogo Antônio Feijó (10 August 1784 – 10 November 1843) was a Brazilian politician and catholic priest.
Diogo of Portugal (1425–1443) was a Portuguese royal prince, who briefly served as Constable of Portugal and Master of the Order of Santiago.
The Disasters of the Partisan Prohibitions (黨錮之禍) refers to two incidents in which a number of Confucian scholars who served as officials in the Han imperial government and opposed to powerful eunuchs, and the university students in the capital Luoyang who supported them (collectively referred to by the eunuchs as "partisans" (黨人, dangren), were imprisoned. Some were executed; some were released but lost their civil rights. The first incident (in 166) was largely bloodless, but the second incident (in 169), which came after the Confucian scholars Dou Wu (the father of Empress Dowager Dou) and Chen Fan were defeated by eunuchs in a physical confrontation, saw a large number of the partisans lose their lives. The restrictions on civil liberties imposed on the surviving partisans were not lifted until 184 when Emperor Ling was concerned that the partisans would join the Yellow Turban Rebellion.
Mubarak Khan Lasharie or more popular as Darya Khan Lasharie (دريا خان لاشاری.), was a famous general of Samma Dynasty of Sindh, a powerful statesman and regent at the court of Samma ruler Jam Feroz whose deeds of valour are sung all over Sindh to this day.
Domhnall II, Earl of Mar (1293 – 11 August 1332) was Regent of Scotland for just over a week during the minority of David II, King of Scotland.
Princess Dorothea of Denmark (29 June 1546 – 6 January 1617) was the Duchess of Brunswick-Lüneburg from 1561 until 1592 as the consort of Duke William the Younger.
Dost Mohammad Khan (c. 1657–1728) was the founder of the Bhopal State in central India.
Dou Huaizhen (died July 29, 713), known by his courtesy name Dou Congyi (竇從一) during the second reign of Emperor Zhongzong (r. 705–710), posthumously renamed Du Huaizhen (毒懷貞), was an official of the Chinese Tang dynasty and Wu Zetian's Zhou dynasty, serving as a chancellor during the reigns of Emperor Ruizong and Emperor Xuanzong.
Empress Dou Miao (died 172), formally Empress Huansi (literally, "the diligent and deep-thinking empress"), was an empress during the Han Dynasty.
Dou Wei (died 618), courtesy name Wenwei, formally Duke Jing of Yan'an, was a Sui dynasty official who, after the founding of the Tang dynasty in 618, briefly served as a chancellor until his death later that month.
Dou Wu (died 168), courtesy name Youping (游平), was a Han Dynasty politician who was known as a Confucian scholar and served as a low-level official during the reign of Emperor Huan until his daughter Dou Miao was elevated from imperial consort to empress, which caused him to be promoted, eventually to become one of the most important imperial officials when his daughter became empress dowager and regent for Emperor Ling.
A double monastery (also double house) is a monastery combining a separate community of monks and one of nuns, joined in one institution.
The Douglases of Mains are a branch of the Clan Douglas, related to the Lords of Douglas through Archibald I, Lord of Douglas.
Doune Castle is a medieval stronghold near the village of Doune, in the Stirling district of central Scotland.
Drahomíra of Stodor (Drahomíra ze Stodor; – died after 934 or 936) was Duchess consort of Bohemia from 915 to 921, wife of the Přemyslid duke Vratislaus I. She also acted as regent of the Duchy of Bohemia from 921 to 924 during the minority of her son Wenceslaus.
Du Huangchang (杜黃裳) (738 or 739Du Huangchang's biographies in the Old Book of Tang and New Book of Tang disagree as to his age at death — the Old Book of Tang gave his age at death as 70, while the New Book of Tang gave it as 69. Compare Old Book of Tang, with New Book of Tang,. – October 12, 808), courtesy name Zunsu (遵素), formally Duke Xuan of Bin (邠宣公) or Duke Xuanxian of Bin (邠宣獻公), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, serving as a chancellor during the reigns of Emperor Shunzong and Emperor Xianzong.
Duan Ning (段凝) (died November 8, 928?Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 276..), né Duan Mingyuan (段明遠), known as Li Shaoqin (李紹欽) during the reign of Emperor Zhuangzong of Later Tang (Li Cunxu), was a general of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period states Later Liang and Later Tang.
Dom Duarte Nuno, Duke of Braganza (23 September 1907 – 24 December 1976) was the claimant to the defunct Portuguese throne, as both the Miguelist successor of his father, Miguel, Duke of Braganza, and later as the head of the only Brigantine house, after the death of the last Legitimist Braganza, King Manuel II of Portugal.
The title duc de Brancas may refer to a number of hereditary office-holders under the Ancien Régime of France.
Sophia Frederica of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (24 August 1758 – 29 November 1794) was a Princess and Duchess of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, and by marriage Hereditary Princess of Denmark and Norway.
Duchies in Sweden have been allotted since the 13th century to powerful Swedes, almost always to princes of Sweden (only in some of the dynasties) and wives of the latter.
The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia (Ducatus Curlandiæ et Semigalliæ, Księstwo Kurlandii i Semigalii, Herzogtum Kurland und Semgallen, Kurzemes un Zemgales hercogiste) was a duchy in the Baltic region that existed from 1561 to 1569 as a vassal state of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and from 1569 to 1726 to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, incorporated into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth by Sejm in 1726, On 28 March 1795, it was annexed by the Russian Empire in the Third Partition of Poland.
The Duchy of Prussia (Herzogtum Preußen, Księstwo Pruskie) or Ducal Prussia (Herzogliches Preußen, Prusy Książęce) was a duchy in the region of Prussia established as a result of secularization of the State of the Teutonic Order during the Protestant Reformation in 1525.
Dugu Qieluo or Dugu Jialuo (544 – September 10, 602), formally Empress Wenxian (文獻皇后), was an empress of the Chinese Sui dynasty.
A duke (male) or duchess (female) can either be a monarch ruling over a duchy or a member of royalty or nobility, historically of highest rank below the monarch.
Duke George of Oldenburg (9 May 1784 – 27 December 1812) was a younger son of Peter I, Grand Duke of Oldenburg and his wife Duchess Frederica of Württemberg.
Duke John Albert of Mecklenburg (Herzog Johann Albrecht zu Mecklenburg; given names John Albert Ernest Constantine Frederick Henry; 8 December 1857 – 16 February 1920) was a member of the House of Mecklenburg-Schwerin who served as the regent of two states of the German Empire.
Duke of Coimbra (Duque de Coimbra) was an aristocratic Portuguese title with the level of royal dukedom, that is, associated with the Portuguese royal house, created in 1415, by King John I of Portugal to his 2nd male son, Infante Pedro.
Duke of Northumberland is a noble title that has been created three times in English and British history, twice in the Peerage of England and once in the Peerage of Great Britain.
Duke of Orléans (Duc d'Orléans) was a title reserved for French royalty, first created in 1344 by Philip VI in favor of his son Philip of Valois.
Dunbar is a coastal town in East Lothian on the south-east coast of Scotland, approximately east of Edinburgh and from the English border north of Berwick-upon-Tweed.
Dune Messiah is a science fiction novel by Frank Herbert, the second in his ''Dune'' series of six novels.
The Dutch States Army (Staatse leger) was the army of the Dutch Republic.
Dyveke Sigbritsdatter or Dyveke Willomsdatter, (1490 – 21 September 1517), in Denmark normally known as "Dyveke"; in modern Dutch "duifje" means "little dove"), was known as the mistress to Christian II of Denmark. Dyveke was a "commoner", the daughter of the Dutch merchant Sigbrit Willoms, who lived in Bergen in Norway. Dyveke became the mistress to Christian II of Denmark in 1507 or 1509. They met in Bergen, and Christian took Dyveke with him to Oslo, where he was regent, and to Copenhagen, when he became king in 1513. Their relationship has been the inspiration of many poets but in fact little is known about it. The mother of Dyveke, Sigbrit, acted as an advisor to the king, which was much disliked, especially by the nobility, and every effort was therefore made to separate Dyveke and Christian, which would ensure the departure also of Sigbrit from the court. Whether Dyveke herself had any political influence is unknown. Though Christian married Isabella of Austria and had her crowned in 1515, he refused to end his relationship with Dyveke. This created tension between him and his brother-in-law, the future Emperor Charles V. In 1516, the Emperor demanded that Dyveke and her mother would be sent away, but Christian refused. Dyveke died in the summer of 1517, possibly because of a poisoning. She was suspected to have been poisoned by cherries. This death led to the execution of the nobleman Torben Oxe, but his guilt has never been proven and both an initiative by the court of the Emperor Maximilian I or even an accidental poisoning have been suggested as an explanation. Her mother Sigbrit went on to become Christian II's financial advisor. Nothing is recorded for Sigbrit after 1523, one assumption has her imprisoned for witchcraft, dying in 1532.
The Earldom of Pembroke is a title in the Peerage of England that was first created in the 12th century by King Stephen of England.
The early life of Pedro II of Brazil covers the period from his birth on 2 December 1825 until 18 July 1841, when he was crowned and consecrated.
East Rochester Junior-Senior High School (ERHS) is a public high school serving 596 students in the seventh through twelfth grade in East Rochester in the U.S. state of New York and is part of the East Rochester Union Free School District.
Eberhard III (c. 885 – 2 October 939), a member of the Conradine dynasty, was Duke of Franconia, succeeding his elder brother, King Conrad I, in December 918.
Ecgberht (or Egbert) (died 4 July 673) was a King of Kent (sometimes called Egbert I) who ruled from 664 to 673, succeeding his father Eorcenberht.
Echmarcach mac Ragnaill (died 1064/1065) was a dominant figure in the eleventh-century Irish Sea region.
The Han dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD) of ancient China experienced contrasting periods of economic prosperity and decline.
The Edict of Paris of Chlothar II, the Merovingian king of the Franks, promulgated 18 October 614 (or perhaps 615), is one of the most important royal instruments of the Merovingian period in Frankish history and a hallmark in the history of the development of the Frankish monarchy.
An edict of toleration is a declaration, made by a government or ruler and states, that members of a given religion will not be persecuted for engaging in their religious practices and traditions.
Edinburgh Castle is a historic fortress which dominates the skyline of the city of Edinburgh, Scotland, from its position on the Castle Rock.
Edith Alderman Deen (28 February 1905 – 3 January 1994) was an American Christian writer.
Edmund Kalikst Eugeniusz Charaszkiewicz (Poniec, 14 October 1895 – 22 December 1975, London) was a Polish military intelligence officer who specialized in clandestine warfare.
Eduard Georg Wilhelm, Duke of Anhalt (Herzog Eduard Georg Wilhelm von Anhalt) (18 April 1861 – 13 September 1918) was a German prince of the House of Ascania and the penultimate ruler of the Duchy of Anhalt from April to September 1918.
Edward Alured Draper (22 October 1776 in Oxfordshire, United Kingdom – 22 April 1841 in Rivière Noire, Mauritius) was a military officer in the British Army and civil servant in Mauritius.
Edward I (died November 1336), was the Count of Bar from 1302 to his death.
Edward II (25 April 1284 – 21 September 1327), also called Edward of Carnarvon, was King of England from 1307 until he was deposed in January 1327.
Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset (c. 1500 – 22 January 1552) was Lord Protector of England during part of the Tudor period from 1547 until 1549 during the minority of his nephew, King Edward VI (1547–1553).
Edward VI (12 October 1537 – 6 July 1553) was King of England and Ireland from 28 January 1547 until his death.
Edward VIII (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David; 23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972) was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Empire, and Emperor of India, from 20 January 1936 until his abdication on 11 December the same year, after which he became the Duke of Windsor.
Duarte (31 October 1391 – 9 September 1438), known in English as Edward and called the Philosopher (o Rei-Filósofo) or the Eloquent (o Eloquente), was King of Portugal and the Algarve and Lord of Ceuta from 1433 until his death.
In Dutch and English historiography the Dutch struggle for independence from the Spanish Crown in the 16th and 17th century was long known as the Eighty Years' War.
Einsatzgruppe Serbia (EG Serbia), initially named Einsatzgruppe Yugoslavia (EG Yugoslavia), was a German Schutzstaffel (SS) grouping in the German-occupied territory of Serbia during World War II.
Princess Ekateriné Dadiani (ეკატერინე დადიანი; née Chavchavadze; March 19, 1816August 13, 1882) was a prominent 19th-century Georgian aristocrat and the last ruling princess of the Western Georgian Principality of Mingrelia.
El Ministerio del Tiempo, or The Ministry of Time, is a Spanish fantasy television series created by Javier and Pablo Olivares and produced by Onza Partners and Cliffhanger for Televisión Española.
Elénor-François-Élie, marquis de Moustier (15 March 1751, Paris - 1 February 1817, Versailles) was a French nobleman, army officer, and diplomat.
Eleanor of Aquitaine (Aliénor d'Aquitaine, Éléonore,; 1124 – 1 April 1204) was queen consort of France (1137–1152) and England (1154–1189) and duchess of Aquitaine in her own right (1137–1204).
Eleanor of Navarre (Leonor and Leonor) (2 February 1426 – 12 February 1479), was the regent of Navarre from 1455 to 1479, then briefly the queen regnant of Navarre in 1479.
Eleanor of Portugal (18 September 1434 – 3 September 1467) was Empress of the Holy Roman Empire.
Eleanor of Toledo (Italian: Eleonora di Toledo (1522 – 17 December 1562), born Doña Leonor Álvarez de Toledo y Osorio, was a Spanish noblewoman who was Duchess of Florence from 1539, after Margaret of Austria. Although, Eleanor is often referred to as the Grand Duchess of Tuscany, she predeceased the creation of the Grand Duke of Tuscany. She is credited with being the first modern first lady, or consort. She served as regent of Florence during the absence of her spouse.
Elena de Galantha (24 November 1890 – 5 January 1986) was a Austro-Hungarian histologist.
Elena Vasilyevna Glinskaya (Елена Васильевна Глинская; c. 1510 – 4 April 1538 (13 April 1538), Moscow) was a Russian regent.
Elgin Cathedral is a historic ruin in Elgin, Moray, north-east Scotland.
Elisabeth Marie of Oels (11 May 1625 – 17 March 1686) was the last member of the House of Poděbrady and a regent of the Duchy of Oels.
Elisabeth of Bavaria (25 July 187623 November 1965) was Queen consort of the Belgians as the spouse of King Albert I, and a Duchess in Bavaria by birth.
Elisabeth of Bavaria (– 9 October 1273), a member of the House of Wittelsbach, was Queen consort of Germany from 1246 to 1254 by her marriage to King Conrad IV of Germany.
Elisabeth of France (22 November 1602 – 6 October 1644) was Queen consort of Spain (1621 to 1644) and Portugal (1621 to 1640) as the first spouse of King Philip IV of Spain.
Pauline Elisabeth Ottilie Luise zu Wied (29 December 1843 – 2 March 1916) was the Queen consort of Romania as the wife of King Carol I of Romania, widely known by her literary name of Carmen Sylva.
Elisabetta Gonzaga (1471–1526) was a noblewoman of the Italian Renaissance, renowned for her cultured and virtuous life.
Lady Elizabeth de Bohun, Countess of Arundel, Countess of Surrey (c. 1350 – 3 April 1385) was a member of the Anglo-Norman Bohun family, which wielded much power in the Welsh Marches and the English government.
Elizabeth Gordon, Countess of Huntly (fl. 1566), was a Scottish noblewoman and the wife of George Gordon, 4th Earl of Huntly, Scotland's leading Catholic magnate during the reign of Mary, Queen of Scots.
Elizabeth of Bosnia (– January 1387) was queen consort and later regent of Hungary and Croatia, as well as queen consort of Poland.
Saint Elizabeth of Hungary, T.O.S.F. (Heilige Elisabeth von Thüringen, Árpád-házi Szent Erzsébet; 7 July 1207 – 17 November 1231), also known as Saint Elizabeth of Thuringia or Saint Elisabeth of Thuringia, was a princess of the Kingdom of Hungary, Landgravine of Thuringia, Germany, and a greatly venerated Catholic saint who was an early member of the Third Order of St. Francis, by which she is honored as its patroness.
Elizabeth the Cuman (1244-1290) was the Queen consort of Stephen V of Hungary.
Ella Enchanted is a 2004 fantasy romantic comedy film directed by Tommy O'Haver and written by Karen McCullah Lutz and Kirsten Smith loosely based on Gail Carson Levine's 1997 novel of the same name.
Elvira of Sicily (died in 1231) was a member of the House of Hauteville who claimed the throne of the Kingdom of Sicily.
Emilie Antonia of Oldenburg-Delmenhorst (15 June 1614 in Delmenhorst – 4 December 1670 in Rudolstadt), was regent of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt from 1646 to 1662.
Emma of Waldeck and Pyrmont (2 August 1858 – 20 March 1934) was Queen consort of the Netherlands and Grand Duchess consort of Luxembourg by marriage to King-Grand Duke William III.
Emperor Ai of Jin (341 – March 30, 365), personal name Sima Pi (司馬丕), courtesy name Qianling (千齡), was an emperor of the Eastern Jin Dynasty (265-420).
Emperor An of Jin (382–419), personal name Sima Dezong (司馬德宗), was an emperor of the Eastern Jin Dynasty (265-420) in China.
Emperor Xixia Chongzong of Western Xia (西夏崇宗) (1084–1139), or Li Qianshun (李乾順), was a Tangut emperor of Western Xia (one of the four kingdoms that made up China, along with Song dynasty, Liao dynasty and Jin dynasty) from 1086 until 1139.
Emperor Dezong of Tang (27 May 742 – 25 February 805), personal name Li Kuo, was an emperor of the Chinese Tang Dynasty and the oldest son of his father Emperor Daizong.
Emperor Fei of Northern Qi ((北)齊廢帝) (545–561), personal name Gao Yin (高殷), courtesy name Zhengdao (正道), posthumously Prince Mindao of Ji'nan (濟南閔悼王), was briefly an emperor of the Northern Qi.
Emperor Gao of Southern Qi ((南)齊高帝; 427–482), personal name Xiao Daocheng (蕭道成), courtesy name Shaobo (紹伯), nickname Doujiang (鬥將)) was the founding emperor of the Chinese dynasty Southern Qi. He served as a general under the preceding dynasty Liu Song's Emperor Ming and Emperor Houfei. In 477, fearful that the young, cruel Emperor Houfei would kill him, assassinated Emperor Houfei and seized power, eventually taking the throne in 479 to start Southern Qi.
Emperor Gaozong of Tang (21 July 628 – 27 December 683), personal name Li Zhi, was the third emperor of the Tang dynasty in China, ruling from 649 to 683 (although after January 665 much of the governance was in the hands of his second wife Empress Wu, later known as Wu Zetian).
Emperor Gaozu of Tang (8 April 566 – 25 June 635), born Li Yuan, courtesy name Shude, was the founder of the Tang Dynasty of China, and the first emperor of this dynasty from 618 to 626.
was the 68th emperor of Japan,Imperial Household Agency (Kunaichō): according to the traditional order of succession.
Emperor He of Southern Qi ((南)齊和帝) (488–502), personal name Xiao Baorong (蕭寶融), courtesy name Zhizhao (智昭), was the last emperor of the Chinese dynasty Southern Qi.
was the 73rd emperor of Japan,Imperial Household Agency (Kunaichō): according to the traditional order of succession.
Emperor Huai of Jin (284 – March 14, 313), personal name Sima Chi (司馬熾), courtesy name Fengdu (豐度), was an emperor of the Jin Dynasty (265-420).
Emperor Hui of Jin (259 - January 8, 307), personal name Sima Zhong (司馬衷), courtesy name Zhengdu (正度), was the second emperor of the Jin Dynasty (265-420).
Emperor Jianwen of Jin (320 – September 12, 372), personal name Sima Yu (司馬昱), courtesy name Daowan (道萬), was an emperor of the Eastern Jin Dynasty (265-420) in China.
Emperor Jing of Northern Zhou ((北)周靜帝) (573–581), personally name né Yuwen Yan (宇文衍), later Yuwen Chan (宇文闡), was the last emperor of the Xianbei dynasty Northern Zhou.
Emperor Jingzong of Tang (July 22, 809 – January 9, 827), personal name Li Zhan, was an emperor of the Tang Dynasty of China.
Emperor Ming of Jin (299 – 18 October 325), personal name Sima Shao (司馬紹), courtesy name Daoji (道畿), was an emperor of the Eastern Jin Dynasty (265-420).
Emperor Ming of Liu Song ((劉)宋明帝) (9 December 439 – 10 May 472), personal name Liu Yu (劉彧), courtesy name Xiubing (休炳), nickname Rongqi (榮期), was an emperor of the Chinese dynasty Liu Song.
Emperor Ming of Northern Zhou ((北)周明帝) (534–560), personal name Yuwen Yu (宇文毓), nickname Tongwantu (統萬突), was an emperor of the Xianbei dynasty Northern Zhou, although at the start of his reign he used the alternative title "Heavenly Prince" (Tian Wang).
Emperor Mu of Jin (343 – July 10, 361), personal name Sima Dan (司馬聃), courtesy name Pengzi (彭子), was an emperor of the Eastern Jin Dynasty (265-420).
was the 62nd emperor of Japan,Imperial Household Agency (Kunaichō): according to the traditional order of succession.
The Emperor or Empress of All Russia ((pre 1918 orthography) Императоръ Всероссійскій, Императрица Всероссійская, (modern orthography) Император Всероссийский, Императрица всероссийская, Imperator Vserossiyskiy, Imperatritsa Vserossiyskaya) was the absolute and later the constitutional monarch of the Russian Empire.
The Emperor or Huangdi was the secular imperial title of the Chinese sovereign reigning between the founding of the Qin dynasty that unified China in 221 BC, until the abdication of Puyi in 1912 following the Xinhai Revolution and the establishment of the Republic of China, although it was later restored twice in two failed revolutions in 1916 and 1917.
Emperor Ruizong of Tang (22 June 662 – 13 July 716), personal name Li Dan, also known at times during his life as Li Xulun, Li Lun, Wu Lun, and Wu Dan, was the fifth and ninth emperor of Tang Dynasty.
Emperor Shang of Han (early 105 – 21 September 106) was an infant emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty and the fifth emperor of the Eastern Han.
Emperor Shang (695 or 698 – September 5, 714), also known as Emperor Shao (少帝), personal name Li Chongmao, was an emperor of the Tang Dynasty of China, ruling briefly in 710. Li Chongmao was the youngest son of Emperor Zhongzong, born to one of Zhongzong's concubines. As of 710, Empress Wei and her daughter Li Guo'er the Princess Anle were exceedingly powerful, but Li Guo'er was unable to convince Emperor Zhongzong to have her created crown princess. Empress Wei, meanwhile, wanted to become Empress Regnant like her mother-in-law, Emperor Zhongzong's mother Wu Zetian. Traditional historians believed that she and Li Guo'er poisoned Emperor Zhongzong in July 710 although it may have been a stroke or heart attack that killed Emperor Zhongzong. Empress Wei then arranged for Li Chongmao, then the Prince of Wen, to succeed Emperor Zhongzong as emperor, hoping to control the young teenager as empress dowager and regent. Empress Dowager Wei's plans, however, were foiled when Empreror Zhongzong's sister Princess Taiping and nephew Li Longji the Prince of Linzi launched a coup less than a month after Emperor Shang's enthronement. Both Empress Wei and Li Guo'er were killed during the coup, and on July 25 the young emperor was forced to cede the imperial throne to Li Longji's father Li Dan the Prince of Xiang, a former emperor (as Emperor Ruizong). Li Chongmao, who had been emperor for only 17 days, was reverted to a princely rank and sent away from the capital Chang'an. He died four years later without having returned to the capital. Immediately after his death, Li Longji, who had by then succeeded his father Emperor Ruizong (as Emperor Xuanzong), restored Li Chongmao's imperial dignity and gave him the posthumous name Shang which literally means "died at an early age." Li Chongmao is also known in histories as Emperor Shao, which literally means "the young emperor." Most traditional historians did not consider him as a legitimate emperor and do not include him in the list of emperors of the Tang dynasty, although modern historians usually do.
Emperor Shunzong of Tang (761 – February 11, 806), personal name Li Song, was an emperor of the Chinese Tang Dynasty.
Emperor Suzong of Tang (19 October 711 – 16 May 762; r. 756 – 762), personal name Li Heng, né Li Sisheng (李嗣升), known as Li Jun (李浚) from 725 to 736, known as Li Yu (李璵) from 736 to 738, known briefly as Li Shao (李紹) in 738, was an emperor of the Tang dynasty and the son of Emperor Xuanzong.
Emperor Taizong of Tang (28January 598 10July 649), previously Prince of Qin, personal name Li Shimin, was the second emperor of the Tang dynasty of China, ruling from 626 to 649.
Emperor Wen of Liu Song ((劉)宋文帝, (Liu) Song Wen-di) (407 – 16 March 453), personal name Liu Yilong (劉義隆), nickname Che'er (車兒), was an emperor of the Chinese dynasty Liu Song.
Emperor Wenxuan of (Northern) Qi ((北)齊文宣帝) (526–559), personal name Gao Yang (高洋, Wade–Giles: Kao Yang), courtesy name Zijin (子進), was the first emperor of the Northern Qi.
Emperor Wu of Chen (陳武帝) (503–559), personal name Chen Baxian (陳霸先), courtesy name Xingguo (興國), nickname Fasheng (法生), was the first emperor of the Chen dynasty of China.
Emperor Wu of Liang (梁武帝) (464–549), personal name Xiao Yan (蕭衍), courtesy name Shuda (叔達), nickname Lian'er (練兒), was the founding emperor of the Liang Dynasty of Chinese history.
Emperor Wu of Northern Zhou ((北)周武帝) (543–578), personal name Yuwen Yong (宇文邕), nickname Miluotu (禰羅突), was an emperor of the Xianbei dynasty Northern Zhou.
Emperor Wucheng of Northern Qi ((北)齊武成帝) (537–569), personal name Gao Zhan (高湛 which can also romanized as Gao Dan), nickname Buluoji (步落稽), was an emperor of Northern Qi.
Emperor Xianzong of Tang (17 March 778Old Book of Tang, vol. 14. – 14 February 820; r. 805 – 820), personal name Li Chun, né Li Chun (李淳), was an emperor of the Chinese Tang Dynasty.
Emperor Xiaoming of Northern Wei ((北)魏孝明帝) (510 – March 31, 528), personal name Yuan Xu (元詡), was an emperor of the Xianbei dynasty Northern Wei (386–535).
Emperor Xiaowu of Jin (362–396), personal name Sima Yao (司馬曜), courtesy name Changming (昌明), was an emperor of the Eastern Jin Dynasty (265–420) in China.
Emperor Xiaozhao of Northern Qi ((北)齊孝昭帝) (535–561), personal name Gao Yan (高演), courtesy name Yan'an (延安), was an emperor of Northern Qi.
Emperor Xizong of Tang (June 8, 862 – April 20, 888), né Li Yan, later name changed to Li Xuan (changed 873), was an emperor of the Tang dynasty of China.
Emperor Xuan of Chen (陳宣帝) (530–582), personal name Chen Xu (陳頊), courtesy name Shaoshi (紹世), nickname Shili (師利), was an emperor of the Chen dynasty of China.
Emperor Xuan of Northern Zhou ((北)周宣帝) (559–580), personal name Yuwen Yun (宇文贇), courtesy name Qianbo (乾伯), was an emperor of the Xianbei dynasty Northern Zhou.
Emperor Xuanzong of Jin (18 April 1163 – 14 January 1224), personal name Wudubu, sinicised names Wanyan Xun and Wanyan Congjia, was the eighth emperor of the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty, which ruled northern China between the 12th and 13th centuries.
Emperor Xuanzong of Tang (8 September 685 – 3 May 762), also commonly known as Emperor Ming of Tang or Illustrious August, personal name Li Longji, also known as Wu Longji from 690 to 705, was the seventh emperor of the Tang dynasty in China, reigning from 713 to 756 C.E. His reign of 43 years was the longest during the Tang dynasty.
Emperor Yuan of Jin (276 – 3 January 323), personal name Sima Rui (司馬睿), courtesy name Jingwen (景文), was an emperor of the Jin Dynasty and the first of the Eastern Jin.
Emperor Zhao of Han (94 BC – 5 June 74 BC), born Liu Fuling, was the emperor of the Western Han dynasty from 87 to 74 BC.
Emperor Zhaozong of Tang (March 31, 867 – September 22, 904), né Li Jie, name later changed to Li Min and again to Li Ye, was the penultimate emperor of the Tang Dynasty of China.
Empress Cheonchu (also known as The Iron Empress) is a 2009 South Korean period television series based on the title character, an actual historical figure and her lifelong struggle to protect the country her ancestors built.
Empress dowager (also dowager empress or empress mother) (hiragana: こうたいごう) is the English language translation of the title given to the mother or widow of a Chinese, Japanese, Korean or Vietnamese emperor.
Empress Dowager Cixi1 (Manchu: Tsysi taiheo; 29 November 1835 – 15 November 1908), of the Manchu Yehenara clan, was a Chinese empress dowager and regent who effectively controlled the Chinese government in the late Qing dynasty for 47 years from 1861 until her death in 1908.
Empress (Dowager) Feng (馮皇后) (442–490), formally Empress (Dowager) Wenming (文明皇后, literally "the civil and understanding empress") was an empress of the Chinese/Xianbei dynasty Northern Wei.
Empress Dowager Gou (苟太后, personal name unknown) was an empress dowager of the Chinese/Di state Former Qin.
Empress Dowager Guo (郭太后, personal name unknown) (died June 25, 848http://www.sinica.edu.tw/ftms-bin/kiwi1/luso.sh?lstype.
Empress Dowager Hu (胡太后, personal name unknown) (died 17 May 528), formally Empress Ling (靈皇后, literally "the unattentive empress"), was an empress dowager of the nomadic dynasty Northern Wei (515-528).
Empress Kezuhun (可足渾皇后, personal name unknown) (fl. 4th century) was an empress consort and empress dowager of the Chinese/Xianbei state Former Yan.
Empress Xiaodingjing (28 January 1868 – 22 February 1913), better known as Empress Dowager Longyu, personal name Jingfen, was the Empress Consort of the Guangxu Emperor, the penultimate emperor of the Qing dynasty and imperial China.
Empress Dowager Wang Baoming (王寶明) (455–512), formally Empress An (安皇后, literally "the peaceful empress"), semi-formally Empress Dowager Xuande (宣德太后), was an empress dowager of the Chinese dynasty Southern Qi.
Empress Gao Ying (高英, personal name recorded on her tomb) (died 518) was an empress of the Chinese/Xianbei dynasty Northern Wei.
Empress He (died 189), personal name unknown, posthumously known as Empress Lingsi, was an empress of the Eastern Han dynasty.
Empress Liu (劉皇后, personal name unknown) (318–349) was an empress of the Chinese/Jie state Later Zhao.
Empress Lu (陸皇后, personal name unknown) was briefly an empress of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty in 710.
Empress Matilda (c. 7 February 110210 September 1167), also known as the Empress Maude, was the claimant to the English throne during the civil war known as the Anarchy.
Empress Myeongseong or Empress Myung-Sung (19 October 1851 – 8 October 1895), known informally as Queen Min, was the first official wife of Gojong, the twenty-sixth king of Joseon and the first emperor of the Korean Empire.
Empress Wang (王皇后, personal name unknown) (died 724) was an empress of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty.
Empress Yuan (元皇后, personal name unknown) was an empress of the Chinese dynasty Northern Qi, known at times semi-formally as Empress Shuncheng (順成皇后) (due to her residence being Shuncheng Palace).
The end of the Han dynasty refers to the period of Chinese history from 189 to 220 AD, which roughly coincides with the tumultuous reign of the Han dynasty's last ruler, Emperor Xian.
, or Engaku-ji (円覚寺), is one of the most important Zen Buddhist temple complexes in Japan and is ranked second among Kamakura's Five Mountains.
The English invasion of Scotland of August 1400 was the first military campaign undertaken by Henry IV of England after deposing the previous king, his cousin Richard II.
Enno II of East Frisia (1505 - 24 September 1540 in Emden) was the son of Edzard I of East Frisia.
Enrique de Aragón y Pimentel, known as el Infante Fortuna (Calatayud, 25 July 1445 – Castelló d'Empúries, 2 July 1522), was Count of Ampurias becoming Count later 1st Duke of Segorbe.
Epigonos of Telmessos (Επίγονου του Τελμησσόυ., flourished 3rd century BC), also known as Epigonos was a Greek Prince from Asia Minor.
The team dressage event, part of the equestrian program at the 2004 Summer Olympics, used the results of the first round of the individual dressage to award rankings.
Erasme Louis, Baron Surlet de Chokier (27 November 1769 – 7 August 1839), born in Liège, was a Belgian politician and, before the accession of Leopold I to the Belgian throne, was the first Regent of Belgium.
Eric I Abelsøn (died 27 May 1272) was a Danish nobleman.
Eric of Pomerania KG (1381 or 1382 – 24 September 1459) was the ruler of the Kalmar Union from 1396 until 1439, succeeding his adoptive mother, Queen Margaret I. He is numbered Eric III as King of Norway (1389–1442), Eric VII as King of Denmark (1396–1439) and Eric XIII as King of Sweden (1396–1434, 1436–39).
Ermengard of Italy, also Ermengarda, Ermengarde, or Irmingard (852/855 – 897) was a queen and regent of Provence.
Ermengol (or Armengol) II (died 1038), called the Pilgrim, was the Count of Urgell from 1011 to his death.
Ernst, Count of Lippe-Biesterfeld (Ernst Kasimir Friedrich Karl Eberhard; 9 June 1842 – 26 September 1904) was the head of the Lippe-Biesterfeld line of the House of Lippe.
Ernst Wilhelm Friedrich Carl Maximilian, 7th Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg (13 September 1863 – 11 December 1950), was a German aristocrat and Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg.
Erzhu Rong (爾朱榮) (493 – November 1, 530), courtesy name Tianbao (天寶), formally Prince Wu of Jin (晉武王), was a general of the Chinese/Xianbei dynasty Northern Wei.
Eskender (or Alexander, እስክንድር iskindir) (15 July 1471 – 7 May 1494) was Emperor (nəgusä nägäst) (1478–1494) of Ethiopia (throne name Kwestantinos II Ge'ez ቈስታንቲኖስ qʷastāntīnōs or Constantine II), and a member of the Solomonic dynasty.
Estoril is a town and a former civil parish in the municipality of Cascais, Portugal, on the Portuguese Riviera.
Until the end of the Ethiopian monarchy in 1974, there were two categories of nobility in Ethiopia.
The Ethiopian coup d'état of 1928 was an attempt by supporters of Empress Zewditu to rid her of the heir apparent and Crown Prince, Ras Tafari Makonnen.
Doña María Eugenia Ignacia Augustina de Palafox y KirkPatrick, 16th Countess of Teba, 15th Marchioness of Ardales (5 May 1826 – 11 July 1920), known as Eugénie de Montijo, was the last Empress Consort of the French (1853–70) as the wife of Napoleon III, Emperor of the French.
Eumenes of Cardia (Εὐμένης; c. 362 – 316 BC) was a Greek general and scholar.
The term eunuch (εὐνοῦχος) generally refers to a man who has been castrated, typically early enough in his life for this change to have major hormonal consequences.
Euphemia of Sicily (1330–1359) was regent of Sicily from 1355 until 1357 during the minority of her brother, King Frederick the Simple.
The European Route of Historic Theatres is a holiday route and European Cultural Route, that runs through many European countries.
Given textual and archaeological evidence, it is thought that thousands of Europeans lived in Imperial China during the period of Mongol rule.
Eurydice (Εὐρυδίκη., was a Greek Princess who was of Macedonian and Thessalian descent. She was the first daughter and second child born to the diadochus who was King of Thrace, Asia Minor and Macedonia, Lysimachus from his first wife the Queen consort, Nicaea of Macedon. Eurydice had one older brother called Agathocles and a younger sister called Arsinoe. Her paternal grandfather was Agathocles of Pella a nobleman who was a contemporary to King Philip II of Macedon who reigned 359 BC-336 BC, while her maternal grandfather was the powerful Regent Antipater. Eurydice was named in honor of her maternal aunt Eurydice of Egypt, another daughter of Antipater, who was one of the wives of the Greek Pharaoh Ptolemy I Soter. The name Eurydice, is a dynastic name of the Argead dynasty (see Eurydice-Historical women). The name also reveals her relations to the Argead dynasty as her maternal grandfather and her maternal great-uncle Cassander were distant collateral relatives to the Argead dynasty. At an unknown date, Lysimachus renamed the city Smyrna to Eurydiceia in honor of Eurydice, an innovation that did not last long. Lysimachus issued coinage depicting Eurydice on the obverse as a veiled woman, although Eurydice never owned nor had any control of the city. Little is known on her life prior to marrying. Lysimachus gave Eurydice to marry her maternal cousin Antipater II, the son of the rulers of Macedonia, Cassander and Thessalonike. Eurydice’s marriage to Antipater II, thereby extended into the next generation the historical link between Thrace and Macedonia. In her life, Eurydice was a participant in the never ending conflict over control of Macedonia in the generations after the death of Alexander the Great. Antipater II was co-King of Macedonia from 297 BC-294 BC with his brother Alexander V and through marriage, she became a Queen consort. On the death of her maternal uncle Kassander, his wife Thessalonike divided the kingdom into two: one part to be ruled by Antipater ’s youngest brother Alexander V and his wife Lysandra and the other part to be ruled by Antipater and Eurydice. Antipater wanted the whole kingdom to rule for himself and had his mother killed. Alexander V appealed to Pyrrhus and Demetrius I Poliorcetes for help and protection from his older brother. Pyrrhus did in exchange of two Upper Macedonian cantons. When Demetrius I arrived with his troops he had Alexander V murdered and drove out Antipater and Eurydice out of Macedonia. Demetrius I then made himself master of Macedonia. Eurydice and Antipater returned to her father and his wife Arsinoe II. Lysimachus made peace with Demetrius I, which resulted in Antipater quarrelling with Lysimachus about his Macedonian inheritance and Lysimachus had put Antipater to death. Eurydice siding with her cousin-husband was put into prison by her father and probably died there.
Eurydice (Greek: Εὐρυδίκη – from ευρύς eurys, "wide" and δίκη dike, "right, custom, usage, law; justice", literally "wide justice") was an ancient Greek queen from Macedon, wife of king Amyntas III of Macedon.
Eurydice (Greek Εὐρυδίκη) was a Queen of Egypt by marriage to Ptolemy I Soter.
Eutharic Cilliga (Latin: Flavius Eutharicus Cillica) was an Ostrogothic prince from Iberia (modern-day Spain) who, during the early 6th century, served as Roman Consul and "son in arms" (filius per arma) alongside the Byzantine emperor Justin I. He was the son-in-law and presumptive heir of the Ostrogoth king Theoderic the Great but died in AD 522 at the age of 42 before he could inherit Theoderic's title.
The Faculty of Law, Thammasat University (คณะนิติศาสตร์ มหาวิทยาลัยธรรมศาสตร์) is an administrative agency of the Thai Government, being an academic faculty attached to Thammasat University, Ministry of Education.
Fahd bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques (فهد بن عبد العزيز آل سعود; 16 March 1921 – 1 August 2005) was King of Saudi Arabia from 1982 to 2005.
Faisal II (Arabic: الملك فيصل الثاني Al-Malik Fayṣal Ath-thānī) (2 May 1935 – 14 July 1958) was the last King of Iraq.
Fàn Lübing (范履冰) (died March 26, 690) was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, serving as chancellor during the first reign of Emperor Ruizong.
Fanya Gottesfeld Heller (October 14, 1924 – October 31, 2017) was a noted Holocaust survivor, author and philanthropist.
Farah Pahlavi, née Diba (فرح پهلوی; born 14 October 1938) is the widow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and the exiled shahbanu (empress) of Iran.
Farhud (الفرهود) refers to the pogrom or "violent dispossession" carried out against the Jewish population of Baghdad, Iraq, on June 1–2, 1941, immediately following the British victory in the Anglo-Iraqi War.
The University of Wisconsin–Madison College of Agricultural and Life Sciences offers the one- or two-year Farm and Industry Short Course (FISC) program to high school graduates interested in farming or one of Wisconsin’s many other agricultural industries.
Abu'l Muzaffar Muin ud-din Muhammad Shah Farrukh-siyar Alim Akbar Sani Wala Shan Padshah-i-bahr-u-bar (Shahid-i-Mazlum), or Farrukhsiyar (20 August 1685 – 19 April 1719), was the Mughal emperor from 1713 to 1719 after he murdered Jahandar Shah.
A favourite or favorite (American English) was the intimate companion of a ruler or other important person.
Félix Houphouët-Boigny (18 October 1905 – 7 December 1993), affectionately called Papa Houphouët or Le Vieux (The Old One), was the first President of Ivory Coast (1960 to 1993), serving for more than three decades until his death.
Führer Directive No.
The Feast of Orthodoxy (also knowns as the Sunday of Orthodoxy or the Triumph of Orthodoxy) is celebrated on the first Sunday of Great Lent (six Sundays before Pascha) in the liturgical calendar of the Eastern Orthodox Church and of the Byzantine Rite Eastern Catholic Churches.
The following events occurred in February 1911.
The following events occurred in February 1964.
Consort Feng Xiaolian (馮小憐) (died 581?) was an imperial consort of the Chinese dynasty Northern Qi.
Fyodor (Theodore) I Ivanovich (Фёдор I Иванович) or Feodor I Ioannovich (Феодор I Иоаннович); 31 May 1557 – 16 or 17 January (NS) 1598), also known as Feodor the Bellringer, was the last Rurikid Tsar of Russia (1584–1598). Feodor's mother died when he was three, and he grew up in the shadow of his father, Ivan the Terrible. A pious man of retiring disposition, Feodor took little interest in politics, and the country was effectively administered in his name by Boris Godunov, the brother of his beloved wife Irina. His childless death left the Rurikid dynasty extinct, and spurred Russia's descent into the catastrophic Time of Troubles. In Russian documents, Feodor is sometimes called blessed (Блаженный). He is also listed in the "Great Synaxaristes" of the Orthodox Church, with his feast day on January 7 (OS).
Ferdinand I (Ferdinand Viktor Albert Meinrad; 24 August 1865 – 20 July 1927), nicknamed Întregitorul ("the Unifier"), was King of Romania from 10 October 1914 until his death in 1927.
Ferdinand I (12 January 1751 – 4 January 1825), was the King of the Two Sicilies from 1816, after his restoration following victory in the Napoleonic Wars.
Ferdinand II (Ferrando, Ferran, Errando, Fernando) (10 March 1452 – 23 January 1516), called the Catholic, was King of Sicily from 1468 and King of Aragon from 1479 until his death.
Dom Ferdinand II (Portuguese: Fernando II) (29 October 1816 – 15 December 1885) was a German prince of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha-Koháry, and King of Portugal jure uxoris as the husband of Queen Maria II, from the birth of their son in 1837 to her death in 1853.
Prince Ferdinand Philippe of Orléans (3 September 1810 – 13 July 1842) was the eldest son of Louis Philippe d'Orléans, Duke of Orléans (the future King Louis Philippe I) and Maria Amalia of Naples and Sicily.
Ferdinand the Holy Prince (Fernando o Infante Santo; 29 September 1402 – 5 June 1443), sometimes called the "Saint Prince" or the "Constant Prince", was an infante of the Kingdom of Portugal.
Father Ferdinand Verbiest (9 October 1623 – 28 January 1688) was a Flemish Jesuit missionary in China during the Qing dynasty.
Charles Marie Ferdinand Walsin Esterhazy (16 December 1847 – 21 May 1923) was an officer in the French Army from 1870 to 1898.
Ferdinand (24 March 1188 – 27 July 1233; Portuguese: Fernando, French and Dutch: Ferrand) reigned as jure uxoris Count of Flanders and Hainaut from his marriage to Countess Joan, celebrated in Paris in 1212, until his death.
Ferenc Farkas de Kisbarnak (Hungarian: vitéz kisbarnaki Farkas Ferenc; May 27, 1892 – April 14, 1980) was Chief Scout of the Hungarian Boy Scouts, commanding officer of the Royal Ludovica Military Academy, the country's officer training school, and General of the Hungarian VI Army Corps during World War II.
Ferenc Szálasi (6 January 1897 – 12 March 1946) was the leader of the fascist Arrow Cross Party – Hungarist Movement, the "Leader of the Nation" (Nemzetvezető), being both Head of State and Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Hungary's "Government of National Unity" (Nemzeti Összefogás Kormánya) for the final six months of Hungary's participation in World War II, after Germany occupied Hungary and removed Miklós Horthy by force.
The Fernandine Wars (from Spanish and Portuguese Guerras Fernandinas) were a series of three conflicts (1369–70, 1372–73, 1381–82) between the Kingdom of Portugal under King Ferdinand I and the Crown of Castile under King Henry II.
Dom Fernando de Noronha (Burgos, c. 1380 — Ceuta, 2 or 3 June 1445) was a 15th-century Castilian-Portuguese nobleman.
Dom Fernando I of Braganza (1403 – 1 April 1478) was the 2nd Duke of Braganza and the 1st Marquis of Vila Viçosa, among other titles.
Ferry Carondelet (also Ferricus Carondelet) (1473 – 27 June 1528) was a Habsburg diplomat, advisor to Margaret of Austria and abbot at Montbenoît.
The Finnish Civil War was a conflict for the leadership and control of Finland during the country's transition from a Grand Duchy of the Russian Empire to an independent state.
The First Anglo-Maratha War (1775–1782) was the first of three Anglo-Maratha wars fought between the British East India Company and Maratha Empire in India.
The First Anglo-Sikh War was fought between the Sikh Empire and the East India Company between 1845 and 1846.
The First Barons' War (1215–1217) was a civil war in the Kingdom of England in which a group of rebellious major landowners (commonly referred to as barons) led by Robert Fitzwalter and supported by a French army under the future Louis VIII of France, waged war against King John of England.
The Mexican Empire (Imperio Mexicano) was a short-lived monarchy and the first independent post-colonial state in Mexico.
In the history of Christianity, the first seven ecumenical councils, include the following: the First Council of Nicaea in 325, the First Council of Constantinople in 381, the Council of Ephesus in 431, the Council of Chalcedon in 451, the Second Council of Constantinople in 553, the Third Council of Constantinople from 680–681 and finally, the Second Council of Nicaea in 787.
The First Stadtholderless Period or Era (1650–72; Eerste Stadhouderloze Tijdperk) is the period in the history of the Dutch Republic in which the office of a Stadtholder was absent in five of the seven Dutch provinces (the provinces of Friesland and Groningen, however, retained their customary stadtholder from the cadet branch of the House of Orange).
The First Vienna Award was a treaty signed on November 2, 1938, as a result of the First Vienna Arbitration.
The flag and the coat of arms of Johor are state symbols of Johor, Malaysia.
The flag of Brunei has a centered crest of Brunei on a yellow field cut by black and white diagonal stripes (parallelograms at an angle).
The Flag of Portugal (Bandeira de Portugal) is a rectangular bicolour with a field unevenly divided into green on the hoist, and red on the fly.
In the period 1482–1492, the cities of Flanders revolted twice against their Habsburg overlord, Archduke Maximilian of Austria.
Forcade (de), also written Fourcade (de), Forcada (de), Forquade (de), Forquada (de), Forcade (de la), Fourcade (de la), Laforcade (de) and Lafourcade (de) belongs to the nobility of GuyenneChaix d'Est-Ange (1922), Tome 18, p. 310 and Gascony,Chaix d'Est-Ange (1922), Tome 18, p. 313 in France, and of the Kingdom of Prussia.
The Foreign policy of the Russian Empire covers Russian foreign relations down to 1917.
Fort de Chartres was a French fortification first built in 1720 on the east bank of the Mississippi River in present-day Illinois, it was used as an administrative center for the province.
The Kingdom of France in the Middle Ages (roughly, from the 9th century to the middle of the 15th century) was marked by the fragmentation of the Carolingian Empire and West Francia (843–987); the expansion of royal control by the House of Capet (987–1328), including their struggles with the virtually independent principalities (duchies and counties, such as the Norman and Angevin regions) that had developed following the Viking invasions and through the piecemeal dismantling of the Carolingian Empire and the creation and extension of administrative/state control (notably under Philip II Augustus and Louis IX) in the 13th century; and the rise of the House of Valois (1328–1589), including the protracted dynastic crisis of the Hundred Years' War with the Kingdom of England (1337–1453) compounded by the catastrophic Black Death epidemic (1348), which laid the seeds for a more centralized and expanded state in the early modern period and the creation of a sense of French identity.
Painting of Cardinal RappaccioliIdentity of subject not confirmed; may be Paolo Emilio Rondinini by Giovanni Battista Salvi da Sassoferrato. Francesco Angelo Rappaccioli (1608 – 15 May 1657) was an Italian Catholic Cardinal.
Francis I (François Ier de Lorraine) (23 August 1517 – 12 June 1545) was Duke of Lorraine from 1544–1545.
Francis I (Franz Stefan, François Étienne; 8 December 1708 – 18 August 1765) was Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany, though his wife effectively executed the real powers of those positions.
Francis II (François II) (19 January 1544 – 5 December 1560) was a King of France of the House of Valois-Angoulême from 1559 to 1560.
Francisco Elías de Tejada y Spínola Gómez (1917-1978) was a Spanish scholar and a Carlist politician.
Francisco Espoz Ilundáin (17 June 1781 – 24 December 1836), being better known as Francisco Espoz y Mina, was a Spanish guerrilla leader and general.
Francisco Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892 – 20 November 1975) was a Spanish general who ruled over Spain as a military dictator from 1939, after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War, until his death in 1975.
Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros, O.F.M. (1436 – 8 November 1517), known as Ximenes de Cisneros in his own lifetime, and commonly referred to today as simply Cisneros, was a Spanish cardinal, religious figure, and statesman.
Franciscus Junius the Elder (born François du Jon, 1 May 1545 – 13 October 1602) was a Reformed scholar, Protestant reformer and theologian.
Francoist Spain (España franquista) or the Franco regime (Régimen de Franco), formally known as the Spanish State (Estado Español), is the period of Spanish history between 1939, when Francisco Franco took control of Spain after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War establishing a dictatorship, and 1975, when Franco died and Prince Juan Carlos was crowned King of Spain.
Frank Herbert's Children of Dune is a three-part science fiction miniseries written by John Harrison and directed by Greg Yaitanes, based on Frank Herbert's novels Dune Messiah (1969) and Children of Dune (1976).
Frank Lester Greene (February 10, 1870December 17, 1930) was a United States Representative and Senator from Vermont.
The Frankfurt Parliament (Frankfurter Nationalversammlung, literally Frankfurt National Assembly) was the first freely elected parliament for all of Germany, elected on 1 May 1848 (see German federal election, 1848).
Franz I, Prince of Liechtenstein, born Franz de Paula Maria Karl August (28 August 1853 – 25 July 1938), was the Prince of Liechtenstein between 1929 and 1938.
Franz Joseph von Schlik of Bassano and Weisskirchen (Prague, 23 May 1789 – Vienna, 17 March 1862) was an Count and general in the Austrian Empire.
Frederic Collin Walcott (February 19, 1869April 27, 1949) was a United States Senator from Connecticut.
Frederick Augustus I (full name: Frederick Augustus Joseph Maria Anthony John Nepomuk Aloysius Xavier; Friedrich August Josef Maria Anton Johann Nepomuk Alois Xavier; Fryderyk August Józef Maria Antoni Jan Nepomucen Alojzy Ksawery Wettyn; 23 December 1750 – 5 May 1827) was a member of the House of Wettin who reigned as Elector of Saxony from 1763 to 1806 (as Frederick Augustus III) and as King of Saxony from 1806 to 1827.
Frederick Christian II, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg (28 September 1765 in Augustenburg – 14 June 1814 in Augustenburg) was a Danish prince and feudal magnate.
Frederick Francis IV (9 April 1882 – 17 November 1945) was the last Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and regent of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
Frederick I (Frederick Wilhelm Ludwig) (9 September 1826 – 28 September 1907) was the sovereign Grand Duke of Baden reigning from 1856 to 1907.
Frederick I of Baden (1249 – October 29, 1268), a member of the House of Zähringen, was Margrave of Baden and of Verona, as well as claimant Duke of Austria from 1250 until his death.
Frederick II (1090 – 6 April 1147), called the One-Eyed, was Duke of Swabia from 1105 until his death, the second from the Hohenstaufen dynasty.
Frederick II (26 December 1194 – 13 December 1250; Fidiricu, Federico, Friedrich) was King of Sicily from 1198, King of Germany from 1212, King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 and King of Jerusalem from 1225.
Frederick II (or III) (13 December 1272 – 25 June 1337) was the regent (from 1291) and subsequently King of Sicily from 1295 until his death.
Frederick III (1240 – 31 December 1302) was the Duke of Lorraine from 1251 to his death.
Frederick III (1020 – 1033) was the Count of Bar and Duke of Upper Lorraine from the death of his father, Frederick II, in 1026 or 1027 to his own death.
Frederick III (21 September 1415 – 19 August 1493), was Holy Roman Emperor from 1452 until his death.
Frederick IV (1382 – 24 June 1439), also known as Frederick of the Empty Pockets (Friedrich mit der leeren Tasche), a member of the House of Habsburg, was Duke of Austria from 1402 until his death.
Frederick IX (Christian Frederik Franz Michael Carl Valdemar Georg; 11 March 1899 – 14 January 1972) was King of Denmark from 1947 to 1972.
Frederick Magnus I, Count of Solms-Laubach (1521 – 13 January 1561 in Laubach) was regent of Solms-Laubach from 1522 to 1548, and the ruling Count of Solms-Laubach from 1548 until his death.
Frederick Tuta (1269 – 16 August 1291), a member of the House of Wettin, was Margrave of Landsberg from 1285 and Margrave of Lusatia from 1288 until his death.
Frederick V (Friedrich V.; 26 August 1596 – 29 November 1632) was the Elector Palatine of the Rhine in the Holy Roman Empire from 1610 to 1623, and served as King of Bohemia from 1619 to 1620.
Frederick VI (Danish and Norwegian: Frederik; 28 January 17683 December 1839) was King of Denmark from 13 March 1808 to 3 December 1839 and King of Norway from 13 March 1808 to 7 February 1814, making him the last king of Denmark-Norway.
Frederick, Hereditary Prince of Denmark (Frederik; 11 October 1753 – 7 December 1805) was heir presumptive to the thrones of Denmark and Norway.
Boniface IV Frederick (died July 1055) was the only son of Boniface III of Tuscany and Beatrice of Bar.
Frederikke Benedichte Dannemand, born as Bente Frederikke Mortensdatter Andersen Rafsted (6 August 1790 – 23 December 1862) is known in history as the royal mistress of King Frederick VI of Denmark.
The French colonization of the Americas began in the 16th century, and continued on into the following centuries as France established a colonial empire in the Western Hemisphere.
"Friday's Child" is a second season episode of the American science fiction television series Star Trek.
Friedrich Casimir of Hanau (born 4 August 1623 in Bouxwiller; died: 30 March 1685 in Hanau) was a member of the Hanau-Lichtenberg branch of the House of Hanau.
Friedrich Count of Lippe-Biesterfeld (Friedrich Karl Oskar Heinrich Graf und Edler Herr zur Lippe-Biesterfeld; 10 May 1852 Mechernich - 15 August 1892) was Count of Lippe-Biesterfeld.
Friedrich Günther, Prince of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt (6 November 1793 – 28 June 1867) was a sovereign prince of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt.
The Front Palace crisis or the Front Palace incident (วิกฤตการณ์วังหน้า) (Wang Na crisis) was a political crisis that took place in the Kingdom of Siam from 28 December 1874 to 24 February 1875 (93 of the Rattanakosin Era).
Frozen is a 2013 American 3D computer-animated musical fantasy film produced by Walt Disney Animation Studios and released by Walt Disney Pictures.
Fu Youyi (傅遊藝) (died August 24, 691), known as Wu Youyi (武遊藝) during the reign of Wu Zetian, was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty and Wu Zetian's Zhou Dynasty, serving as a chancellor briefly after she took the throne in 690.
Fuad II (II.; born 16 January 1952 as Prince Ahmad Fuad) is a member of the Egyptian Muhammad Ali dynasty.
, descending from the Nakatomi clan and through them Ame-no-Koyane-no-Mikoto, was a powerful family of regents in Japan.
was a Japanese statesman.
Fujiwara no Morozane (Japanese language: 藤原 師実 ふじわらの もろざね) (1042 – March 14, 1101) was a regent of Japan and a chief of the Fujiwara clan during the late Heian period.
was the eldest son of the Japanese regent (Kampaku) Fujiwara no Tadazane and a member of the politically powerful Fujiwara clan.
(992–1074), son of Michinaga, was a Japanese Court noble.
Fujiwara no Yoritada (藤原 頼忠; 924–989), the second son of Saneyori, was a kugyo (high-ranked Japanese noble) who served as regent for Emperor En'yū and Emperor Kazan.
, also known as Somedono no Daijin or Shirakawa-dono, was a Japanese statesman, courtier and politician during the Heian period.
Further Austria, Outer Austria or Anterior Austria (Vorderösterreich, formerly die Vorlande (pl.)) was the collective name for the early (and later) possessions of the House of Habsburg in the former Swabian stem duchy of south-western Germany, including territories in the Alsace region west of the Rhine and in Vorarlberg.
Fyodor Leontiyevich Shaklovity (Bryansk -, Moscow) was a Russian diplomat best known as a staunch adherent of the regent Sophia Alekseyevna, who had promoted him from a regular scrivener to a member of the Boyar Duma and okolnichy.
Gabriel de Gramont (1486–1534) was a French Roman Catholic bishop and cardinal.
Gadifer Shorthose (Gadifier Shartoise) was the English mayor of Bordeaux from 1434 until 1451.
Gaeta (Caiēta, Ancient Greek: Καιέτα) is a city and comune in the province of Latina, in Lazio, central Italy.
General Gagan Singh (Nepali: गगन सिंह) was a Nepalese General.
Gagik II (Գագիկ Բ; c. 1025 - May 5/November 24, 1079) was the last Armenian king of Bagratuni dynasty.
Aelia Galla Placidia (388 – 27 November 450), daughter of the Roman emperor Theodosius I, was regent to Valentinian III from 423 until his majority in 437, and a major force in Roman politics for most of her life.
The Great Gandersheim Conflict (Gandersheimer Streit) was a conflict between the Archbishops of Mainz and the Bishops of Hildesheim concerning the jurisdiction over Gandersheim Abbey.
Ganga puja is a religious festival of the northeastern state of Tripura in India.
Gao Anagong (高阿那肱) (died November 18, 580.Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 174.) was an official of the Chinese dynasty Northern Qi.
Gāo Jiǒng (died August 27, 607 courtesy name Zhaoxuan (昭玄), alternative name Min (敏))) known during the Northern Zhou period by the Xianbei name Dugu Jiong (独孤颎/獨孤熲), was a key official and general of the Chinese Sui Dynasty. He was a key advisor to Emperor Wen of Sui and instrumental in the campaign against rival the Chen Dynasty, allowing Sui to destroy Chen in 589 and reunify China. In 607, he offended Emperor Wen's son Emperor Yang of Sui (Yang Guang) by criticizing Emperor Yang's large rewards to Tujue's submissive Qimin Khan and was executed by Emperor Yang. Quoting Arthur Wright, Author Hengy Chye Kiang calls Gao Jiong "'a man of practical statecraft" recalling the great Legalist statesmen. His influence saw the replacement of Confucians with officials of "Legalist" outlook favouring centralization.
Gao Pian (821?-September 24, 887.Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 257.), courtesy name Qianli (千里), formally the Prince of Bohai (渤海王), was a general of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty.
Gao Yanzong (高延宗) (died 577), often known by his princely title of Prince of Ande (安德王), was an imperial prince of the Chinese dynasty Northern Qi who briefly claimed imperial title in 577 for three days as his cousin, the emperor Gao Wei fled in the face of an attack by rival Northern Zhou.
Gao Yun (390–487), courtesy name Bogong (伯恭), formally Duke Wen of Xianyang (咸陽文公), was an official during the reigns of five emperors of the Chinese/Xianbei dynasty Northern Wei.
Gao Zhao (高肇) (died 515), courtesy name Shouwen (首文), was a high-level official of the Chinese/Xianbei dynasty Northern Wei.
García Íñiguez I (Latin: Garsea Enneconis, Basque: Gartzea Eneko; c. 805 – 882), also known as García I was the second King of Pamplona from 851-2 until his death.
García II Sánchez (Basque: Gartzia Antso, French: Garsie-Sanche le Tors or le Courbé, Gascon: Gassia Sans, Latin: Garsia Sancius Corvum, died circa 930), called the Bent, was the duke of Gascony from sometime before 887 to his death.
García Jiménez was (sub- or co-)king of a part of Pamplona in the late 9th century.
García Sánchez (died 1029) was the last independent count of Castile from 1017 to his death.
The Garden Ring, also known as the "B" Ring (Садо́вое кольцо́, кольцо́ "Б"; transliteration: Sadovoye Koltso), is a circular ring road avenue around central Moscow, its course corresponding to what used to be the city ramparts surrounding Zemlyanoy Gorod in the 17th century.
Garsenda (Garsende de Sabran; c. 1180 – c. 1242) was the Countess of Provence as the wife of Alfonso II from 1193 and the Countess of Forcalquier in her own right from 1209.
Garut is a town in the West Java province of Indonesia and is the capital of the Garut Regency.
Gaspare Spatuzza (Palermo, April 8, 1964), is a Sicilian mafioso from the Brancaccio quarter in Palermo.
Gausfred III (died 1164) was the count of Roussillon from 1113 until his death.
Género chico (literally, "little genre") is a Spanish genre of short, light plays with music.
Géza II (II.; Gejza II; Gejza II; 113031 May 1162) was King of Hungary and Croatia from 1141 to 1162.
Güyük (or Kuyuk; translit h) (c. March 19, 1206 – April 20, 1248) was the third Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, the eldest son of Ögedei Khan and a grandson of Genghis Khan.
Gemignani is an Italian surname, which can be equally written as Geminiani, Gimignani or Giminiani; it belongs to an Italian noble family, whose origins are dated back to medieval Tuscany, and especially in the town of Lucca.
Geoffrey of Sergines, sometimes known as Geoffroy of Sargines (c. 1205 – April 1269), was a French knight who served as seneschal and regent of the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
Count Georg Friedrich von Hohenlohe-Neuenstein-Weikersheim (September 5, 1569 – July 7, 1645) was an officer and an amateur poet.
Georg of Limburg, count of Limburg (died 1552), son of Adolf of Limburg, count of Limburg.
George Buchanan (Seòras Bochanan; February 1506 – 28 September 1582) was a Scottish historian and humanist scholar.
George Gordon, 4th Earl of Huntly (1514 – 28 October 1562) was a Scottish nobleman.
George Hay, 7th Earl of Erroll (– 30 January 1573) was a Scottish nobleman and politician.
George II (Γεώργιος Βʹ, Geórgios II; 19 July 1890 (NS) – 1 April 1947) reigned as King of Greece from 1922 to 1924 and from 1935 to 1947.
George Martinuzzi, O.S.P. (born Juraj Utješinović, also known as György Martinuzzi, Brother György, Georg Utiessenovicz-Martinuzzi or György Fráter Fráter György; 1482 – 16 December 1551), was a Croatian nobleman, Pauline monk and Hungarian statesman who supported King John Zápolya and his son, King John Sigismund Zápolya.
George Thatcher (April 12, 1754 – April 6, 1824) was an American lawyer, jurist, and statesman from the Maine district of Massachusetts.
Georg Wilhelm, Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe (20 December 1784 – 21 November 1860) was a Count and later Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe.
George XII (გიორგი XII, Giorgi XII), sometimes known as George XIII (November 10, 1746 – December 28, 1800), of the House of Bagrationi, was the second and last King of the Kingdom of Kartli and Kakheti (eastern Georgia) from 1798 until his death in 1800.
Georgios Zoitakis (Γεώργιος Ζωιτάκης, January 1910 – 21 October 1996) was a Greek Army general and regent of Greece from 13 December 1967 to 21 March 1972, during the period of the military regime of the Colonels.
Countess Géraldine Margit Virginia Olga Mária Apponyi de Nagy-Appony (6 August 1915 – 22 October 2002) was the Queen consort of King Zog I of Albania and the mother of Leka I, Crown Prince of Albania.
The German destroyer Z2 Georg Thiele was one of four Type 1934-class destroyers built for the German Navy (Kriegsmarine) during the mid-1930s.
Gerrit de Graeff (I.) van Zuid-Polsbroek (February 27, 1711 in Amsterdam – November 10, 1752) was a member of the De Graeff – Family from the Dutch Golden Age.
Gerrit de Graeff (III.) van Zuid-Polsbroek (February 24, 1766, Amsterdam – December 16, 1814) was a member of an influential regent family of Amsterdam, who have played an important role in the Dutch Golden Age.
Gertrude of Merania (1185 – 28 September 1213) was Queen of Hungary as the first wife of Andrew II from 1205 until her assassination.
Ghadana of Armenia (fl. 135) was Queen of Caucasian Iberia by marriage to Pharasmanes II, and regent during the minority of her grandson Pharasmanes III in 135.
Ghazi bin Faisal (غازي ابن فيصل Ġāzī bin Fayṣal) (2 May 1912 – 4 April 1939) was the King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq from 1933 to 1939 having been briefly Crown Prince of the Kingdom of Syria in 1920.
Gheorghe Asachi (surname also spelled Asaki; March 1, 1788 – November 12, 1869) was a Moldavian, later Romanian prose writer, poet, painter, historian, dramatist and translator.
Gheorghe G. Mironescu, commonly known as G. G. Mironescu (January 28, 1874 – October 8, 1949), was a Romanian politician, member of the National Peasants' Party (PNȚ), who served as Prime Minister of Romania for two terms.
Ghulam Muhammad Ghouse Khan (1824 – 7 October 1855) was the 12th and last Nawab of the Carnatic.
Giambattista Altieri (20 June 1589 – 26 November 1654) was an Italian Catholic Cardinal.
Gianstefano Ferrero (1474–1510) (called the Cardinal of Bologna) was an Italian Roman Catholic bishop and cardinal.
Dr Gilbert Rule (1629 (approx) – 1701) was a nonconformist divine and the Principal of Edinburgh University from 1690 to 1701.
Gerard I (Girard in French and Catalan, Gerardo in Spanish), called Guinard, was the count of Roussillon from 1102 to his murder in 1113.
Maharani Girraj Kaur, CI was the ruling Jat Maharani of princely state Bharatpur (1900–1918) and successor of Maharaja Ram Singh, whose ruling powers were suspended on 10 August 1900 after the murder of one of his personal servants.
Gisela Agnes of Rath (9 October 1669 in Kleinwülknitz, now part of Köthen – 12 March 1740 in Nienburg) was Duchess of Anhalt-Köthen by marriage from 1692.
Gisela of Swabia (11 November 990 – 14 February 1043), a member of the Conradiner dynasty, was Queen consort of Germany from 1024 to 1039 and Empress consort of the Holy Roman Empire from 1027 to 1039 by her third marriage with Emperor Conrad II.
Gismonda is a Greek melodrama in four acts by Victorien Sardou that premiered in 1894 at the Théâtre de la Renaissance.
Gisulf I (died 706) was the duke of Benevento from 689, when his brother Grimoald II died.
Gisulf I (also Gisulph, Gisolf, Gisulfo, Gisolfo, Gisulphus, or Gisulfus) (May 930 – November or December 977) was the eldest son of his father, Guaimar II, and his second wife Gaitelgrima.
The Glyndŵr Rising, Welsh Revolt or Last War of Independence was an uprising of the Welsh between 1400 and 1415, led by Owain Glyndŵr, against the Kingdom of England.
God's Wife of Amun (Egyptian: ḥm.t nṯr n ỉmn) was the highest-ranking priestess of the Amun cult, an important religious institution in ancient Egypt.
Gonario II (also spelled Gonnario or Gunnari; died between 1180 and 1190) was the giudice of Logudoro (a kingdom in Sardinia) from the death of his father to his own abdication in 1154.
Gondal State was one of the eight first class princely states of Kathiawar Agency, Bombay Presidency in British India.
Gonzalo Menéndez (or Gonçalo Mendes) (fl. 950–997) was a Count of Portugal in the Kingdom of León.
The Gosashi tomb is supposedly the resting place of Empress Jingū, who ruled Japan as a regent.
Gostun of the Ermi clan was a regent over the Bulgars for 2 years.
Gotebald (or Gotebold) was the Patriarch of Aquileia during the middle of the eleventh century (1049–1063).
The earliest government of Macedonia was established by the Argead dynasty of Macedonian kings some time during the period of Archaic Greece (8th–5th centuries BC).
The Han dynasty (202 BC – 220 AD) of ancient China was the second imperial dynasty of China, following the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC).
A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the executive branch of a non-sovereign or sub-national level of government, ranking under the head of state.
Govi, Govigama is the largest and the most influential caste in Sri Lanka.
Uthrittathi Thirunal Gowri Parvathi Bayi (1802–1853) was the Regent of the Indian state of Travancore who succeeded her sister Maharani Gowri Lakshmi Bayi from 1815 till her regency was relinquished in favour of her nephew, Maharajah Swathi Thirunal, in 1829.
Grand Duke Kirill (Cyril) Vladimirovich of Russia, (Кирилл Владимирович Рома́нов; Kirill Vladimirovich Romanov; – 12 October 1938) was a son of Grand Duke Vladimir Alexandrovich of Russia, a grandson of Emperor Alexander II and a first cousin of Nicholas II, Russia’s last Tsar.
The Grand Duke's Official Birthday (Célébration publique de l'anniversaire du souverain), also known as Luxembourgish National Day (Fête nationale luxembourgeoise, Lëtzebuerger Nationalfeierdag), is celebrated as the annual national holiday of Luxembourg.
Grand empress dowager (also grand dowager empress or grand empress mother) was a title given to the grandmother, or a woman from the same generation, of the Chinese, Japanese, Korean and Vietnamese emperors.
Grand Empress Dowager Shangguan (上官太皇太后) (personal name unknown) (89 BC(?) – 37 BC), also known as Empress Shangguan (上官皇后), Empress Xiaozhao (孝昭皇后) and Empress Dowager Shangguan (上官太后), was an Empress, Empress Dowager and Grand Empress Dowager during Han Dynasty and wife to Emperor Zhao.
is a gothic horror ''shōjo'' (targeted towards girls) manga series written and illustrated by Kaori Yuki.
Grand Prince of Kiev (sometimes Grand Duke of Kiev) was the title of the Kievan prince and the ruler of Kievan Rus' from the 10th to 13th centuries.
Grandi non immerito was a papal bull issued by Pope Innocent IV on 24 July, 1245, that effectively removed Sancho II of Portugal from the throne, replacing him with his brother and heir Afonso, Count of Boulogne, in the capacity of regent.
Gravina in Puglia (Barese: Gravéine; Silvium; translit) is a town and comune of the Metropolitan City of Bari, Apulia, southern Italy.
Great Royal Wife, or alternatively, Chief King's Wife (Ancient Egyptian: ḥmt nswt wrt), is the term that was used to refer to the principal wife of the pharaoh of Ancient Egypt, who served many official functions.
A constitutional referendum was held in Greece on 15 November 1968.
Parliamentary elections were held in Greece on 16 December 1923.
Gregor Vorbarra is the Emperor of the Barrayaran Imperium in the science fiction series Vorkosigan Saga by American writer Lois McMaster Bujold.
Grimoald I (or Grimuald) (c. 610 – 671 CE) was duke of Benevento (647–662) and king of the Lombards (662–671).
Guadalupe Victoria (29 September 1786 – 21 March 1843), born José Miguel Ramón Adaucto Fernández y Félix, was a Mexican general and political leader who fought for independence against the Spanish Empire in the Mexican War of Independence. He was a deputy in the Mexican Chamber of Deputies for Durango and a member of the Supreme Executive Power following the downfall of the First Mexican Empire. After the adoption of the Constitution of 1824, Victoria was elected as the first President of the United Mexican States. As President he established diplomatic relations with the United Kingdom, the United States, the Federal Republic of Central America, and Gran Colombia. He also abolished slavery, founded the National Museum, promoted education, and ratified the border with the United States of America. He decreed the expulsion of the Spaniards remaining in the country and defeated the last Spanish stronghold in the castle of San Juan de Ulúa. Victoria was the only president who completed his full term in more than 30 years of an independent Mexico. He died in 1843 at the age of 56 from epilepsy in the fortress of Perote, where he was receiving medical treatment. On 8 April of the same year, it was decreed that his name would be written in golden letters in the session hall of the Chamber of Deputies.
The Guadeloupe Fund (Guadeloupefonden) was established by Sweden's Riksdag of the Estates in 1815 for the benefit of Crown Prince and Regent Charles XIV John of Sweden, (Swedish:Karl XIV Johan) also known as Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte, and his heirs.
Guaimar I (also Waimar, Gaimar, or Guaimario) (c. 855 – 901) was the prince of Salerno from 880, when his father entered the monastery of Monte Cassino in August.
Guaimar IV (c. 1013 – 2, 3 or 4 June 1052) was Prince of Salerno (1027–1052), Duke of Amalfi (1039–1052), Duke of Gaeta (1040–1041), and Prince of Capua (1038–1047) in Southern Italy over the period from 1027 to 1052.
Guaratinguetá is a municipality in the state of São Paulo in Brazil.
The Gudovac massacre was the mass killing of around 190 Bjelovar Serbs by the Croatian nationalist Ustaše movement on 28 April 1941, during World War II.
Gugsa Araya Selassie (1885 – 28 April 1932) was an army commander and a member of the royal family of the Ethiopian Empire.
Gugsa Wale's rebellion of 1930 was a rebellion raised by ''Ras'' Gugsa Wale and by supporters of Empress Zewditu to rid her of the Crown Prince and heir apparent, Negus Tafari Makonnen.
Gugsa Welle (1875 – 31 March 1930), also known as Gugsa Wale, Gugsa Wolie and Gugsa Wele (cited as ras Gugsà Oliè in Italian books and encyclopedias), was an army commander and a member of the Royal family of the Ethiopian Empire.
Guigues V (c. 1125 – 29 July 1162) was the Count of Albon and Grenoble from 1142 until his death.
Guigues VIII de la Tour-du-Pin (1309 – 28 July 1333) was the Dauphin of Vienne from 1318 to his death.
Cathédrale Notre-Dame d'Embrun.Guillaume IX d’Hugues (died 27 October, 1648) was archbishop of Embrun from November 16, 1612 - October 27, 1648 and a diplomat for the French King.
Guillaume Dubois (6 September 1656 – 10 August 1723) was a French cardinal and statesman.
Guo Daiju (郭待舉) was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, serving as a chancellor during the reign of Emperor Gaozong as well as the regency of Emperor Gaozong's wife Empress Wu (later known as Wu Zetian) over their sons Emperor Zhongzong and Emperor Ruizong.
Guo Yuanzhen (郭元振; 656–713), formal name Guo Zhen (郭震) but went by the courtesy name of Yuanzhen, was an official, general, and diplomat of Tang and Zhou China, serving as a chancellor during the reigns of Emperor Ruizong and Emperor Xuanzong.
Guo Zhengyi (郭正一) (died September 10, 689) was an official of the Chinese Tang Dynasty, serving as a chancellor during the reign of Emperor Gaozong and the regency of Emperor Gaozong's wife Empress Wu (later known as Wu Zetian) over their son Emperor Zhongzong.
Gustav III (– 29 March 1792) was King of Sweden from 1771 until his assassination in 1792.
This is a History of Sweden from 1772 through 1809, more known as the Gustavian era of Kings Gustav III and Gustav IV, as well as the reign of King Charles XIII of Sweden.
Gustav II Adolf (9 December 1594 – 6 November 1632, O.S.), widely known in English by his Latinised name Gustavus Adolphus or as Gustav II Adolph, was the King of Sweden from 1611 to 1632 who is credited for the founding of Sweden as a great power (Stormaktstiden).
Gusti Ayu Karang was a regent in Indonesia from 1809 to 1814.
Gusti Ayu Oka Kaba-Kaba was regent of Mengwi, a principality in East Bali, from 1770/80-1807.
Guttorm Sigurdsson (Old Norse: Guthormr Sigurðarson; 1199 – 11 August 1204) was the King of Norway from January to August 1204, during the Norwegian civil war era.
Guy de Montfort (died 31 January 1228) was the younger son of Simon III de Montfort and Amicia, sister of Robert FitzPernel, Earl of Leicester.
Guy IV (Guido or Wido; assassinated 897) was the Duke of Spoleto and Camerino from 889 and Prince of Benevento from 895.
Guy of Lusignan (c. 1150 – 18 July 1194) was a French Poitevin knight, son of Hugh VIII of the Lusignan dynasty.
Guy's Cliffe (variously spelled with and without an apostrophe and a final "e") is a hamlet on the River Avon and the Coventry Road between Warwick and Leek Wootton in Warwickshire, England, near Old Milverton.
Guy (also Guido or Wido; raised Leo; called the Philosopher) (died 3 February 929) was the son of Adalbert II of Tuscany with Bertha, daughter of Lothair II of Lotharingia.
Gwanghae-gun or Prince Gwanghae (3 June 1575 – 7 August 1641; reigned 1608–1623) was the fifteenth king of the Joseon dynasty.
Gyaltsab is a Tibetan word meaning "regent".
György Lukács de Erzsébetváros (10 September 1865 – 28 September 1950) was a Hungarian politician, who served as Minister of Religion and Education between 1905 and 1906.
Count Gyula István Cseszneky de Milvány et Csesznek, (Nagymajor, Austria-Hungary, 28 June 1914 – Brazil, after 1970) was a Hungarian aristocrat, poet, cavalry officer, who took part in the Hungarian reannexation of Northern Transylvania, served as aide-de-camp to King Tomislav II of Croatia.
Haakon Haakonsson (c. March/April 1204 – 16 December 1263) (Old Norse: Hákon Hákonarson; Norwegian: Håkon Håkonsson), sometimes called Haakon the Old in contrast to his son with the same name, and known in modern regnal lists as Haakon IV, was the King of Norway from 1217 to 1263.
Haakon VI of Norway (Håkon, Håkan; 1340–1380), also known as Håkan Magnusson, was King of Norway from 1343 until his death and King of Sweden between 1362 and 1364.
Haberdashers' Adams is a grammar school for boys aged 11–18 and girls 16-18, located in Newport, Shropshire, offering day and boarding education.
Habsburg Spain refers to the history of Spain over the 16th and 17th centuries (1516–1700), when it was ruled by kings from the House of Habsburg (also associated with its role in the history of Central Europe).
Hafiz Rahmat Khan Barech (1723 – April 1774) was Regent of Rohilkhand in North India, from 1749 to 1774.
Haile Selassie I (ቀዳማዊ ኃይለ ሥላሴ, qädamawi haylä səllasé,;, born Ras Tafari Makonnen, was Ethiopia's regent from 1916 to 1930 and emperor from 1930 to 1974.
Hailu Tekle Haymanot, KBE (1868–1950), also named Hailu II of Gojjam, was an army commander and a member of the nobility of the Ethiopian Empire.
The Barony of Halton, in Cheshire, England, comprised a succession of 15 barons who held under the overlordship of the County Palatine of Chester ruled by the Earl of Chester.
Nawab Sayyid Hamid Ali Khan Bahadur GCSI GCVO GCIE (31 August 1875–20 June 1930) was Nawab of the princely state of Rampur from 1889 to 1930.
Finland Cadet school was the common name for the Fredrikshamn cadet school during the period 1819–1901.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
Han Hong (韓弘) (765 – January 19, 823), formally Duke Yin of Xu (許隱公), was a general of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, who also served as a chancellor during the reigns of Emperor Xianzong and Emperor Xianzong's son Emperor Muzong.
Han Xizai (韓熙載) (902 – August 31, 970Spring and Autumn Annals of the Ten Kingdoms,..), courtesy name Shuyan (叔言), was an official of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period states Wu and Southern Tang, who was known for his writing and calligraphy skills.
The County of Hanau-Münzenberg was a territory within the Holy Roman Empire.
Prince Hans of the Southern Isles, also known as Hans Westergaard, is a fictional character from Walt Disney Animation Studios' 53rd animated film, Frozen.
Hao Chujun (607–681), formally Duke of Zengshan (甑山公), was an official and general of the Chinese Tang Dynasty, serving as chancellor during the reign of Emperor Gaozong.
Harald II of Denmark (died 1018) was King of Denmark from 1014 until his death in 1018.
Harald V (born 21 February 1937) is the King of Norway, having ascended the throne following the death of his father on 17 January 1991.
Harbottle Castle is a ruined medieval castle situated at the west end of the village of Harbottle, Northumberland, England west-north-west of Rothbury overlooking the River Coquet.
The Harelle (from ''haro'') was a revolt that occurred in the French city of Rouen in 1382 and followed by the Maillotins Revolt a few days later in Paris, as well as numerous other revolts across France in the subsequent week.
Harold I (1016 – 17 March 1040), also known as Harold Harefoot, was King of England from 1035 to 1040.
Hatshepsut (also Hatchepsut; Egyptian: ḥꜣt-šps.wt "Foremost of Noble Ladies"; 1507–1458 BCE) was the fifth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt.
The was a short civil war fought in order to resolve a dispute about Japanese Imperial succession.
The in the history of Japan was a family who controlled the hereditary title of shikken (regent) of the Kamakura shogunate between 1203 and 1333.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
Hedvig Sophia Augusta of Sweden (26 June 1681 – 22 December 1708), Duchess of Holstein-Gottorp, was the eldest child of Charles XI of Sweden and Ulrike Eleonore of Denmark.
Hedwig of Gudensberg, also known as Hedwig of Hesse (1098–1148) was German regent: she served as regent of Thuringia during the minority of her son Louis II from 1140.
Hedwige of Saxony (also Hedwig, Hadwig von Sachsen; – after 958), a member of the Ottonian dynasty, was Duchess consort of the Franks by her marriage to the Robertian duke Hugh the Great.
Heikki Heikinpoika Vaanila (1630–1709) (Hindrick Hindersson) was a Finnish farmer and parliamentarian from Vaanila village in Lohja, Uusimaa.
Heinrich Carl von Schimmelmann (13 July 1724 – 16 February 1782) was a German merchant, forgerer and banker during the Seven Years' War, speculating heavily on currency debasement in close association with his business partner Abel Seyler.
Helen (Jelena/Јелена; 1345- after 18 March 1399), also known by the name Gruba (Груба), ruled the Kingdom of Bosnia from September 1395 until late April or early May 1398.
Helena Angelina Komnene (Ἑλένη Ἀγγελίνα Κομνηνή) was a daughter of the Greek sebastokrator John I Doukas, ruler of Thessaly in ca.
Helena of Serbia (Јелена/Jelena, Ilona; b. after 1109 – after 1146) was Queen of Hungary as the wife of King Béla II, who reigned from 1131 to 1141.
Henri d'Orléans, Count of Paris, Duke of France (Henri Philippe Pierre Marie d'Orléans; born 14 June 1933), is head of the House of Orléans, and one of the current pretenders to the defunct French crown as Henry VII.
Henry Carey, 1st Baron Hunsdon KG (4 March 1526 – 23 July 1596), was an English nobleman and courtier.
Henry Courtenay, 1st Marquess of Exeter, 2nd Earl of Devon (c. 1498 – 9 December 1538), KG, PC, feudal baron of Okehampton, feudal baron of Plympton, of Tiverton Castle, Okehampton Castle and Colcombe Castle all in Devon, was a grandson of King Edward IV, nephew of the queen consort, Elizabeth of York and a first cousin of King Henry VIII.
Henry de Lacy, 3rd Earl of Lincoln, Baron of Pontefract (c.1251 – February 1311) was an English nobleman and confidant of King Edward I 'Longshanks'.
Henry French Hollis (August 30, 1869July 7, 1949) was a United States Senator from New Hampshire, and regent of the Smithsonian Institution.
Henry I of Cyprus, nicknamed the Fat (Henri de Lusignan; 3 May 1217 – 18 January 1253 at Nicosia) was King of Cyprus from 1218 to 1253.
Henry the Fat (Basque: Henrike I.a, Gizena, French: Henri le Gros, Spanish: Enrique el Gordo) (c. 1244 – 22 July 1274) was King of Navarre (as Henry I) and Count of Champagne and Brie (as Henry III) from 1270 until his death.
Henry II (Henri II; 31 March 1519 – 10 July 1559) was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 31 March 1547 until his death in 1559.
Henry II the Pious (Henryk II Pobożny) (1196 – 9 April 1241),*Cawley, Charles; Foundation for Medieval Genealogy, Medieval Lands Project; Silesia v3.0; Dukes of Breslau (Wrocław) and Lower Silesia 1163–1278 (Piast) (Chap 4); Heinrich II Duke of Lower Silesia; retrieved May 2015.
Henry II (Heinrich II; Enrico II) (6 May 973 – 13 July 1024), also known as Saint Henry, Obl. S. B., was Holy Roman Emperor ("Romanorum Imperator") from 1014 until his death in 1024 and the last member of the Ottonian dynasty of Emperors as he had no children.
Henry II of Brandenburg-Stendal, nicknamed Henry the Younger or Henry the Child (Heinrich das Kind; – July 1320) was the last Margrave of Brandenburg from the House of Ascania.
Henry IV of France's wives and mistresses played a significant role in the politics of his reign.
Henry IV, Count of Holstein-Rendsburg (1397 – 28 May 1427) was Count of Holstein-Rendsburg and Duke of Schleswig from 1404 until his death.
Henry IV (Heinrich IV; 11 November 1050 – 7 August 1106) became King of the Germans in 1056.
Henry of Castile (March 1230 – 8 August 1303), called the Senator (el Senador), was a Castilian infante, the fourth son of Ferdinand III of Castile by his first wife, Beatrice of Swabia.
Henry the Younger of Poděbrady (also: Henry the Younger of Münsterberg; Heinrich der Jüngere von Podiebrad or Heinrich d. J. von Münsterberg; Hynek Poděbrady or Hynek z Minstrberka; 18 May 1452, Prague – 1 July 1492, Poděbrady) was an Imperial Count and Count of Glatz.
Henry VI (6 December 1421 – 21 May 1471) was King of England from 1422 to 1461 and again from 1470 to 1471, and disputed King of France from 1422 to 1453.
Henry VI, Part 1, often referred to as 1 Henry VI, is a history play by William Shakespeare, possibly in collaboration with Christopher Marlowe and Thomas Nashe, believed to have been written in 1591 and set during the lifetime of King Henry VI of England.
Henry VI, Part 2 (often written as 2 Henry VI) is a history play by William Shakespeare believed to have been written in 1591 and set during the lifetime of King Henry VI of England.
Cardinal Henry (Henrique; 31 January 1512 – 31 January 1580) was King of Portugal and the Algarves and a cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church.
Hermann II (28 March 1222 in Creuzburg – 3 January 1241) was the Landgrave of Thuringia and the son of Louis IV, Landgrave of Thuringia, and Saint Elizabeth of Hungary.
Hermano José Braamcamp de Almeida Castelo-Branco, 5th Lord, 2nd Baron, 1st Viscount and 1st Count of Sobral, 5th Lord of the Majorat of Sobral, 3rd Lord of the Majorat of Luz, ComC (16 September 1775 – 2 February 1846), Chief of the Name and Arms of da Cruz Sobral, was a Portuguese nobleman and politician.
Herschweiler-Pettersheim is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Kusel district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
Hertford Castle was a Norman castle situated by the River Lea in Hertford, the county town of Hertfordshire, England.
Heungseon Daewongun (흥선대원군, 興宣大院君, 21 December 1820 – 22 February 1898), also known as the Daewongun (대원군, 大院君), Guktaegong (국태공, 國太公, "The Great Archduke") or formally Heungseon Heonui Daewonwang (흥선헌의대원왕, 興宣獻懿大院王) and also known to contemporary western diplomats as Prince Gung, was the title of Yi Ha-eung, regent of Joseon during the minority of Emperor Gojong in the 1860s and until his death a key political figure of late Joseon Korea.
Hieronymus van Busleyden (Dutch: Jeroen van Busleyden; French: Jérôme de Busleyden) (c.1470 – 27 August 1517) was a patron of learning and a humanist from the Habsburg Netherlands.
High commissioner is the title of various high-ranking, special executive positions held by a commission of appointment.
Highness (abbreviation HH, oral address Your Highness) is a formal style used to address (in second person) or refer to (in third person) certain members of a reigning or formerly reigning dynasty.
was a shamaness-queen of Yamataikoku in Wa (ancient Japan).
was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from 25 December 1926, until his death on 7 January 1989.
His Dark Materials is an epic trilogy of fantasy novels by Philip Pullman consisting of Northern Lights (1995) (published as The Golden Compass in North America), The Subtle Knife (1997), and The Amber Spyglass (2000).
His Imperial Majesty's Own Chancery or H.I.M. Own Chancery began as personal chancery of Pavel I and grew into a kind of regent's office, run by Count Arakcheyev from 1815 and until the death of Alexander I of Russia.
The history of Argentina can be divided into four main parts: the pre-Columbian time or early history (up to the sixteenth century), the colonial period (1530–1810), the period of nation-building (1810-1880), and the history of modern Argentina (from around 1880).
The history of Bali covers a period from the Paleolithic to the present, and is characterized by migrations of people and cultures from other parts of Asia.
According to the epic Mahābhārata, Bareilly region (Panchala) is said to be the birthplace of Draupadi, who was also referred to as 'Panchali' (one from the kingdom of Panchāla) by Kṛṣṇā (Lord Krishna).
The city of Beijing has a long and rich history that dates back over 3,000 years.
The history of Belgrade dates back to at least 7000 BC.
After the fall of Tiwanaku empire, the many Aymara Lake Titicaca were conquered by the Inca empire.
The history of Brazil starts with indigenous people in Brazil.
The history of Brunei concerns the settlements and societies located on the north coast of the island of Borneo; the influence of Indianised kingdoms and empires for much of its history.
The history of Bucharest covers the time from the early settlements on the locality's territory (and that of the surrounding area in Ilfov County) until its modern existence as a city, capital of Wallachia, and present-day capital of Romania.
The city of Budapest was officially created on 17 November 1873 by the merging of the neighboring cities of Pest, Buda and Óbuda, with smaller outskirt towns amalgamated into Greater Budapest in 1950.
The history of Christianity in Ukraine dates back to the earliest centuries of the apostolic church and according to Radziwiłł Chronicle Saint Andrew has ascended on hills of the future city of Kiev.
The history of feminism is the chronological narrative of the movements and ideologies aimed at equal rights for women.
The first written records for the history of France appeared in the Iron Age.
The nation of Georgia (საქართველო sakartvelo) was first unified as a kingdom under the Bagrationi dynasty by the King Bagrat III of Georgia in the 8th to 9th century, arising from a number of predecessor states of the ancient kingdoms of Colchis and Iberia.
The history of Hawaii describes the era of human settlements in the Hawaiian Islands.
This article is about the history of Hesse.
Hungary is a country in Central Europe whose history under this name dates to the Early Middle Ages, when the Pannonian Basin was conquered by the Hungarians (Magyars), a semi-nomadic people who had migrated from Eastern Europe.
Sound Transit's Link light rail in Washington State consists of two lines, Central Link and Tacoma Link.
The history of Lisbon, the capital city of Portugal, revolves around its strategic geographical position at the mouth of the Tagus, the longest river in the Iberian Peninsula.
The kingdom of Macedonia was an ancient state in what is now the Macedonian region of northern Greece, founded in the mid-7th century BC during the period of Archaic Greece and lasting until the mid-2nd century BC.
The history of Marrakesh, a city in southern Morocco, stretches back nearly a thousand years.
The oldest traces of human occupation in Paris, discovered in 2008 near the Rue Henri-Farman in the 15th arrondissement, are human bones and evidence of an encampment of hunter-gatherers dating from about 8000 BC, during the Mesolithic period.
The period of rule by the Piast dynasty between the 10th and 14th centuries is the first major stage of the history of the Polish nation.
The Kingdom of Portugal in the 15th century was the first European power to begin building a colonial empire.
From the restoration of the House of Braganza in 1640 until the end of the reign of the Marquis of Pombal in 1777, the kingdom of Portugal was in a period of transition.
The history of the kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves, from the First Treaty of San Ildefonso and the beginning of the reign of Queen Maria I in 1777, to the end of the Liberal Wars in 1834, spans a complex historical period in which several important political and military events led to the end of the absolutist regime and to the installation of a constitutional monarchy in the country.
The Kingdom of Portugal under the House of Braganza was a constitutional monarchy from the end of the Liberal Civil War in 1834 to the Republican Revolution of 1910.
Protestantism originated from work of several theologians starting in the 12th century, although there could have been earlier cases of which there is no surviving evidence.
The history of Scandinavia is the history of the geographical region of Scandinavia and its peoples.
The history of Spain dates back to the Middle Ages.
Spain in the 19th century was a country in turmoil.
History of Thailand concerns the history of the Thai people, who originally lived in southwestern China, migrated into mainland Southeast Asia over a period of many centuries.
The history of Thailand from 1932 to 1973 was dominated by military dictatorships which were in power for much of the period.
The Bahmani Sultanate, or Bahmanid Empire, was a Muslim state of the Deccan Plateau in southern India between 1347 and 1527 and was one of the great medieval kingdoms.
This history of the Byzantine Empire covers the history of the Eastern Roman Empire from late antiquity until the Fall of Constantinople in 1453 AD.
The Constitution of the United Kingdom has evolved over a long period of time beginning in the predecessor states to the United Kingdom and continuing to the present day.
The land now known as Brazil was claimed by the Portuguese for the first time on 23 April 1500 when the Navigator Pedro Álvares Cabral landed on its coast.
The Han dynasty (206 BCE – 220 CE), founded by the peasant rebel leader Liu Bang (known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu),From the Shang to the Sui dynasties, Chinese rulers were referred to in later records by their posthumous names, while emperors of the Tang to Yuan dynasties were referred to by their temple names, and emperors of the Ming and Qing dynasties were referred to by single era names for their rule.
The Isle of Wight is rich in historical and archaeological sites, from prehistoric fossil beds with dinosaur remains, to dwellings and artefacts dating back to the Bronze Age, Iron Age, and Roman periods.
The history of the Netherlands is the history of seafaring people thriving on a lowland river delta on the North Sea in northwestern Europe.
The history of the Philippines from 1521 to 1898, also known as the Spanish colonial period, a period that spans during the Captaincy General of the Philippines located in the collection of Islands in Southeast Asia that was colonized by Spain known as 'Las Islas Filipinas', once under New Spain until Mexican independence which gave Madrid direct control over the area.
History of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569–1648) covers a period in the history of Poland and Lithuania, before their joint state was subjected to devastating wars in the middle of the 17th century.
The Song dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝; pinyin: Sòng cháo; 960–1279) of China was a ruling dynasty that controlled China proper and southern China from the middle of the 10th century into the last quarter of the 13th century.
Transylvania is a historical region in central and northwestern Romania.
HMS Cockchafer was a Royal Navy.
Holy Cross Academy is an independent Junior/Senior private high school located in Vernon, Oneida County, New York, with an Oneida mailing address.
Honório Hermeto Carneiro Leão, Marquis of Paraná (11 January 1801 – 3 September 1856) was a politician, diplomat, judge and monarchist of the Empire of Brazil.
The Honorary Medal for Charitable Assistance (Erepenning voor Menslievend Hulpbetoon) was created at 18 June 1822 and is after the Military William Order the oldest decoration for bravery in the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
Honoré IV (17 May 1758 – 16 February 1819) was Prince of Monaco and Duke of Valentinois from 12 March 1795 to 16 February 1819.
was a daimyō (feudal lord) in Shimōsa Province, and top government advisor and official in the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan.
Hou Sizhi (侯思止) (died 693) was a secret police official during the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty and Wu Zetian's Zhou Dynasty.
House law or House laws (Hausgesetze) are rules that govern a royal family or dynasty in matters of eligibility for succession to a throne, membership in a dynasty, exercise of a regency, or entitlement to dynastic rank, titles and styles.
The House of Astiruwa was the last known dynasty of rulers of Carchemish.
The House of Capet or the Direct Capetians (Capétiens directs, Maison capétienne), also called the House of France (la maison de France), or simply the Capets, ruled the Kingdom of France from 987 to 1328.
The House of Guise was a French noble family, partly responsible for the French Wars of Religion.
The House of Harcourt is a Norman family, descended from the Viking Bernard the Dane and named after its seigneurie of Harcourt in Normandy.
The House of Lusignan was a royal house of French origin, which at various times ruled several principalities in Europe and the Levant, including the kingdoms of Jerusalem, Cyprus, and Armenia, from the 12th through the 15th centuries during the Middle Ages.
The House of Mecklenburg, also known as Nikloting, is a North German dynasty that ruled until 1918 in the Mecklenburg region, being among the longest-ruling families of Europe.
The House of Medici was an Italian banking family and political dynasty that first began to gather prominence under Cosimo de' Medici in the Republic of Florence during the first half of the 15th century.
Montmorency, pronounced, is one of the oldest and most distinguished noble families in France.
The 4th House of Orléans, sometimes called House of Bourbon-Orléans (Maison de Bourbon-Orléans) to distinguish it, is the fourth holder of a surname previously used by several branches of the Royal House of France, all descended in the legitimate male line from the dynasty's founder, Hugh Capet.
The House of Saud (Āl Suʻūd) is the ruling royal family of Saudi Arabia.
Schwarzburg is one of the oldest noble families of Thuringia.
Schwarzenberg is a Czech (Bohemian) and German (Franconian) aristocratic family, and it was one of the most prominent European noble houses.
The House of Vijaya (also known as the Vijayan dynasty and sometimes referred to as the "Great Dynasty") was the first recorded Sinhalese royal dynasty that ruled over the island, Sri Lanka.
Hsawnghsup was one of the outlying Shan princely states in what is today Burma.
Huaiyi (懷義) (died December 25, 694), né Feng Xiaobao (馮小寶), sometimes referred to as Xue Huaiyi (薛懷義), was a Buddhist monk who was known for being the lover of Wu Zetian, the only woman to be commonly recognized as "emperor" in the history of China.
Huan Wen (桓溫) (312–373), courtesy name Yuanzi (元子), formally Duke Xuanwu of Nan Commandery (南郡宣武公), was a general of the Jin Dynasty (265-420).
Huan Xuan (桓玄) (369 – 19 June 404), courtesy name Jingdao (敬道), nickname Lingbao (靈寶), formally Emperor Wudao of Chu (楚武悼帝), was a Jin Dynasty (265-420) warlord who briefly took over the imperial throne from Emperor An of Jin and declared his own state of Chu in 403, but was defeated by an uprising led by the general Liu Yu in 404 and killed.
Hugh I (Hugues; 1194/1195 – January 10, 1218) succeeded to the throne of Cyprus on April 1, 1205 underage upon the death of his elderly father Aimery, King of Cyprus and Jerusalem.
Hugh the Abbot (died 12 May 886) was a member of the Welf family, a son of Conrad I of Auxerre and Adelaide.
Hugues de Lionne (11 October 1611 – 1 September 1671) was a French statesman.
Humphrey Stafford, 1st Duke of Buckingham, 6th Earl of Stafford, (1402 – 10 July 1460) was an English nobleman and a military commander in both the Hundred Years' War and in the Wars of the Roses.
The Hundred Days' Reform was a failed 104-day national, cultural, political, and educational reform movement from 11 June to 22 September 1898 in late Qing dynasty China.
The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Plantagenet, rulers of the Kingdom of England, against the House of Valois, over the right to rule the Kingdom of France.
The Hungarian Revolution of 1848 ("1848–49 Revolution and War") was one of the many European Revolutions of 1848 and closely linked to other revolutions of 1848 in the Habsburg areas.
This article is about the history of Hungary from October 1918 to November 1940.
During World War II, the Kingdom of Hungary was a member of the Axis powers.
Huo Guang (died 68 BC), courtesy name Zimeng (子孟), was a Western Han politician who was a rare example in Chinese history of a powerful official who deposed an emperor for the good of the state rather than to usurp the throne.
Husain Ali Khan Bahadur was Nawab of Banganapalle between 1769 and 1783.
Husi Chun (斛斯椿) (495–537), courtesy name Fashou (法壽), formally Prince Wenxuan of Changshan (常山文宣王), was a general and official of the Chinese/Xianbei state Northern Wei and Northern Wei's branch successor state Western Wei.
Hussein bin Talal (الحسين بن طلال, Al-Ḥusayn ibn Ṭalāl; 14 November 1935 – 7 February 1999) reigned as King of Jordan from 11 August 1952 until his death.
Hussein bin Abdullah (حسين بن عبد الله, Ḥusayn ibn ʿAbdullāh; born 28 June 1994) is the heir apparent of King Abdullah II of Jordan.
The Hyde family of Denchworth in the English county of Berkshire (now Oxfordshire) were a landed family from at least the Norman period to the late modern era.
Hyderabad State was an Indian princely state located in the south-central region of India with its capital at the city of Hyderabad.
Hynce (also: Hynek or Hyncík) Ptáček of Pirkstein (also: Pirkštejn, Pirkenstein, Birkenstein, Pürkstein or Bürgstein) (born: 1404; died: 27 August 1444 in Rataje nad Sázavou) was a Czech nobleman, the highest Hofmeister and Münzmeister of the Kingdom of Bohemia and regent of Bohemia's royal cities.
Hynek Krušina of Lichtenburg (also: Henry Kruschina of Lichtenburg, in Hynek Krušina IV.; 1392 – 4 March 1454, Kłodzko (Kladsko, Glatz)) was a Hussite commander and governor and lien holders of the County of Kladsko, the Duchy of Münsterberg and the city of Ząbkowice Śląskie (Frankenstein).
Ibrahim Pasha (Kavalalı İbrahim Paşa, 1789 – November 10, 1848) was the eldest son of Muhammad Ali, the Wāli and unrecognised Khedive of Egypt and Sudan.
Idhomene Jovan Kosturi (1873 – 5 November 1943), also known as Idhomeno Kosturi, was an Albanian politician, regent and once acting Prime Minister of Albania.
Ikbal Hanimefendi (İkbal Hanımefendi; 22 October 1876 – 10 February 1941), originally a Circassian slave brought to Egypt, became the Khediva consort of Egypt from 1895 to 1900 as the first wife of Abbas Hilmi II Pasha, the last Khedive of Egypt and Sudan.
Ileni Hagos (c. 1805 – 1851) was an important leader of the Tigrayans during the nineteenth century.
The Ínclita Geração (often translated in English as "Illustrious Generation" or "Marvelous Generation") is a term commonly used by Portuguese historians to refer to a group of 15th-century infantes (princes) of the House of Aviz, specifically the sons of King John I of Portugal and his wife Philippa of Lancaster (daughter of John of Gaunt): the future king Edward of Portugal; the future regent Peter of Coimbra; Prince Henry the Navigator; the constable John of Reguengos; and the martyr Ferdinand the Holy Prince.
In Shia Islam, the imamah (إمامة) is the doctrine that the figures known as imams are rightfully the central figures of the ummah; the entire Shi'ite system of doctrine focuses on the imamah.
Imperial Cathedral (Kaiserdom) is the designation for a cathedral linked to the Imperial rule of the Holy Roman Empire.
The imperial election of 1440 was an imperial election held to select the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.
Leul Ras Imru Haile Selassie, CBE (Amharic: ዕምሩ፡ኃይለ፡ሥላሴ; 23 November 1892 – 15 August 1980) was an Ethiopian noble, soldier, and diplomat.
Inchkeith (from the Innis Cheith) is an island in the Firth of Forth, Scotland, administratively part of the Fife council area.
The Independence of Brazil comprised a series of political and military events that occurred in 1821–1824, most of which involved disputes between Brazil and Portugal regarding the call for independence presented by the Brazilian Empire.
Indonesian National Route 20 is a major road in East Java, Indonesia.
D. Infanta Adelgundes, Duchess of Guimarães (10 November 1858 – 15 April 1946) was the fifth child and fourth daughter of Miguel of Portugal and his wife Adelaide of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg.
Infanta Ana de Jesus Maria of Portugal (Mafra, 23 October 1806 – Rome, 22 June 1857) was a Portuguese infanta and youngest daughter of King John VI and his wife, Carlota Joaquina of Spain.
Infanta Marie Anne of Portugal (Maria Ana; 13 July 1861 – 31 July 1942) was Grand Duchess of Luxembourg as the wife of Grand Duke Guillaume IV and the country's regent in the name of their daughter, Grand Duchess Marie-Adélaïde.
Infante Enrique, 1st Duke of Seville (Infante Enrique María Fernando Carlos Francisco Luis de Borbón y Borbón-Dos Sicilias, Duque de Sevilla; 17 April 182312 March 1870), was an Infante of Spain and a member of the Spanish branch of the House of Bourbon.
The Infantes of Aragon (Spanish: Los Infantes de Aragón) is an appellation commonly used by Spanish historians to refer to a group of 15th-century infantes (princes) of the House of Trastámara, specifically the sons of King Ferdinand I of Aragon and his wife Eleanor of Alburquerque.
Ingrid Ylva of Bjelbo (born c. 1180s, died c. 1250–1255), was a Swedish noblewoman, the wife of Magnus Minnesköld of Bjälbo and the mother of regent Birger Jarl.
Ingunde, Ingund, Ingundis or Ingunda, (born in 567/568), was the eldest child of Sigebert I, king of Austrasia, and his wife Brunhilda, daughter of King Athanagild of the Visigoths.
An interregnum (plural interregna or interregnums) is a period of discontinuity or "gap" in a government, organization, or social order.
An interregnum queen is ideally the Great Royal Wife of a former Egyptian pharaoh, according to a 1932 report.
The interrex (plural interreges) was literally a ruler "between kings" (Latin inter reges) during the Roman Kingdom and the Roman Republic.
The institution of interrex existed in the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, whose ruling classes liked to view their Republic (Rzeczpospolita) or Commonwealth as an heir to Roman republican traditions.
Ion Antonescu (– June 1, 1946) was a Romanian soldier and authoritarian politician who, as the Prime Minister and Conducător during most of World War II, presided over two successive wartime dictatorships.
Ion Heliade Rădulescu or Ion Heliade (also known as Eliade or Eliade Rădulescu;; January 6, 1802 – April 27, 1872) was a Wallachian, later Romanian academic, Romantic and Classicist poet, essayist, memoirist, short story writer, newspaper editor and politician.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
The Iraqi Army, officially the Iraqi Ground Forces, is the ground force component of the Iraqi Armed Forces, having been active in various incarnations throughout the 20th and 21st centuries.
Irene of Athens (Εἰρήνη ἡ Ἀθηναία; 752 – 9 August 803 AD), also known as Irene Sarantapechaina (Εἰρήνη Σαρανταπήχαινα), was Byzantine empress consort by marriage to Leo IV from 775 to 780, Byzantine regent during the minority of her son Constantine VI from 780 until 790, and finally ruling Byzantine (Eastern Roman) empress from 797 to 802.
Isabeau of Bavaria (or Isabelle; also Elisabeth of Bavaria-Ingolstadt; c. 1370 – 24 September 1435) was born into the House of Wittelsbach as the eldest daughter of Duke Stephen III of Bavaria-Ingolstadt and Taddea Visconti of Milan.
Isabella Appiani (1577 – 10 November 1661) was Princess of Piombino from 1611 until 1628.
Isabella d'Este (19 May 1474 – 13 February 1539) was Marchesa of Mantua and one of the leading women of the Italian Renaissance as a major cultural and political figure.
Isabella of Angoulême (Isabelle d'Angoulême,; c. 1186/1188 – 4 June 1246) was queen consort of England as the second wife of King John from 1200 until John's death in 1216.
Isabella of Austria (18 July 1501 – 19 January 1526), also known as Elizabeth, Archduchess of Austria and Infanta of Castile and Aragon, was Queen of Denmark, Sweden and Norway as the wife of King Christian II.
Isabella of Cyprus, also known as Isabelle de Lusignan (born before March, 1216 or after 1216 – 1264), was regent of the Kingdom of Jerusalem from 1263 until 1264.
Isabella of France (1295 – 22 August 1358), sometimes described as the She-Wolf of France, was Queen of England as the wife of Edward II, and regent of England from 1326 until 1330.
Isabella (1400 – 28 February 1453) was suo jure Duchess of Lorraine, from 25 January 1431 to her death in 1453.
Isbul (Исбул) (fl. 820s–830s) was the kavhan, or first minister, of the First Bulgarian Empire during the reigns of Omurtag, Malamir and Presian I. Appointed to the kavhan office under Omurtag, Isbul was a regent or co-ruler of the underage Malamir and his successor Presian.
Isbul Point (нос Исбул, ‘Nos Isbul’ \'nos is-'bul\) is a narrow rocky point projecting 600 m from the coast of Ray Promontory into Svishtov Cove in the northwest extremity of Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica.
Ismet Popovac (died 21 August 1943) was a Bosnian Muslim lawyer and physician who led a Muslim Chetnik militia known as the Muslim People's Military Organization (MNVO) in Bosnia and Herzegovina during World War II.
Isobel of Huntingdon (1199–1251), also known as Isobel the Scot, was the daughter of David of Scotland, 8th Earl of Huntingdon, grandson of David I of Scotland, and Matilda of Chester.
Israel Kibirige Ssebunya (1 May 1946 – 8 October 2008) was a Ugandan cytogeneticist, agricultural researcher, academic and politician.
Count István Bethlen de Bethlen (8 October 1874, Gernyeszeg – 5 October 1946, Moscow) was a Hungarian aristocrat and statesman and served as Prime Minister from 1921 to 1931.
István Horthy de Nagybánya (9 December 1904 – 20 August 1942) was Hungarian Regent Admiral Miklós Horthy's eldest son, a politician, and, during World War II, a fighter pilot.
The Italian campaign of 1524–25 was the final significant action of the Italian War of 1521–26.
The Italian War of 1521–26, sometimes known as the Four Years' War, was a part of the Italian Wars.
Ittocorre Gambella was the regent of the Giudicato of Logudoro between 1127 and sometime before 1140.
Prince Ivan Andreyevich Khovansky (Ива́н Андре́евич Хова́нский) was a Russian boyar who led the Streltsy during the Moscow Uprising of 1682, alternatively known as the Khovanshchina.
Ivan Pereira (Born 1 June 1964) is an Indian bishop, currently the 3rd Bishop of Roman Catholic Diocese of Jammu–Srinagar.
Ivan V Alekseyevich (Russian: Иван V Алексеевич, &ndash) was a joint Tsar of Russia (with his younger half-brother Peter I) who co-reigned between 1682 and 1696.
Grand Prince Ivan V of Ryazan (Ivan Ivanovich, Иван Иванович Рязанский) (1496 – 1533 or 1534) was the last nominally independent ruler of Ryazan Principality.
Ivan VI Antonovich of Russia (Ioann Antonovich; Иоанн VI; Иоанн Антонович; –) was Emperor of Russia in 1740–41.
Ivanhoe is a 1952 British-American film in Technicolor, directed by Richard Thorpe and produced by Pandro S. Berman for MGM.
Lij Iyasu, or Iyasu V (ኢያሱ፭ኛ, the Ethiopian version of Joshua), also known as Lij Iyasu (ልጅ ኢያሱ; 4 February 1895 – 25 November 1935), was the designated but uncrowned Emperor of Ethiopia (1913–16).
Jacob ben Machir ibn Tibbon (יעקב בן מכיר ׳ן תיבון), of the Ibn Tibbon family, also known as Prophatius.
Field Marshal and Count Jacob Pontusson De la Gardie (Reval, 20 June 1583 – Stockholm, 22 August 1652) was a statesman and a soldier of the Swedish Empire.
Jacob, Banner Lord of Wassenaer, Lord Obdam, Hensbroek, Spanbroek, Opmeer, Zuidwijk and Kernhem (1610, The Hague – 13 June 1665 off Lowestoft) was a Dutch Lieutenant-Admiral, and supreme commander of the confederate Dutch navy.
Jacquemart de Hesdin (1355 – c. 1414) was a French miniature painter working in the International Gothic style.
Jaime del Burgo Torres (1912 – 2005) was a Spanish official, writer and a Carlist activist.
Jakarta, officially the Special Capital Region of Jakarta (Daerah Khusus Ibu Kota Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia.
James Douglas, 4th Earl of Morton (c. 1516 – 2 June 1581, aged 65) was the last of the four regents of Scotland during the minority of King James VI.
James Douglas, 7th Earl of Douglas, 1st Earl of Avondale (1371 – 24 March 1443), latterly known as James the Gross, and prior to his ennoblement as James of Balvenie, was a late mediaeval Scottish magnate.
James Dunbar FRSE FSAS LL.D. (born 1742, died 28 May 1798) was a British philosophical writer.
James Hamilton, 1st Earl of Arran and 2nd Lord Hamilton (c. 1475–1529) was a Scottish nobleman, naval commander and first cousin of James IV of Scotland.
James Hamilton, Duke of Châtellerault and 2nd Earl of Arran (c. 1516 – 22 January 1575), was a regent for Mary, Queen of Scots.
James Hay O. Cist.
James I (Jacques de Lusignan; 1334 – September 9, 1398) was regent of the Kingdom of Cyprus for his infant nephew King Peter II from 1369. When Peter died in 1382, James became King of Cyprus. James was also titular King of Armenian Cilicia and Jerusalem 1382–1398. James was the third son of Hugh IV of Cyprus and Alix of Ibelin, and became king upon the death of his nephew Peter II. Before becoming a king, he had other offices and was known for his resistance against the Genoese invasion against Cyprus.
James III (also Jaume or Jaime; 5 April 1315 – 25 October 1349), called the Rash or the Unfortunate, was King of Majorca from 1324 to 1344.
James Stewart, Earl of Moray (c. 1500–1544) was the illegitimate son of James IV of Scotland and his mistress Janet Kennedy.
James Stewart, the Black Knight of Lorne (c.1399–c.1451) was a Scottish nobleman.
James V (10 April 1512 – 14 December 1542) was King of Scotland from 9 September 1513 until his death, which followed the Scottish defeat at the Battle of Solway Moss.
James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625.
James Willis Patterson (July 2, 1823May 4, 1893) was an American politician and a United States Representative and Senator from New Hampshire.
James Stewart, Duke of Rothesay (22 May 1540 – 21 April 1541) was a short-lived heir to the throne of the Kingdom of Scotland.
Jan Očko z Vlašimi (died 1380; Jan VIII as the Bishop of Olomouc), from the family of the House of Vlašim, was the second Archbishop of Prague (1364–1378).
Jan Standonck (or Jean Standonk; 16 August 1453 – 5 February 1504) was a Flemish priest, Scholastic, and reformer.
Janet Beaton, Lady of Branxholme and Buccleugh (1519–1569) was an aristocratic Scottish woman and a mistress of James Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell.
Jansenism was a Catholic theological movement, primarily in France, that emphasized original sin, human depravity, the necessity of divine grace, and predestination.
Francisco Javier de Burgos y del Olmo (October 22, 1778, Motril—January 22, 1848, Madrid) was a Spanish jurist, politician, journalist, and translator.
Jayasthitimalla (or Jayasthiti Malla) (जयस्थिति मल्ल) was a 14th-century king of Nepal belonging to the Malla dynasty.
Jägerhorn af Spurila is a noble family, registered with number 114 in the Swedish House of Nobility and number 5 in the Finnish House of Nobility.
Józef Kasparek (1915–2002) was a Polish lawyer, historian and political scientist.
József Vass (25 April 1877 – 8 September 1930) was a Hungarian politician, who served as Minister of Religion and Education between 1920 and 1922.
Jean Bilhères de Lagraulas or Jean Villier de la Grolaie, or Groslaye etc., also called the Cardinal of Saint-Denis (died 1499), was a French Roman Catholic abbot, bishop and from 1493 cardinal.
Jean II Carondelet (1469 in Dôle – 7 February 1545 in Mechelen), was a Burgundian cleric, politician, jurist and one of the most important advisors to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor.
Jean de La Baume (dead after 25 January 1435) was a Marshal of France from 1422.
Jean de Laforcade, Seigneur de La Fitte-Juson, aka Jean de Laforcade, Seigneur de La Fitte-SuzonEtcheverry, p. 6 (sic), aka Jean de La Forcade,Haag, La France Protestante, Tome V, p. 304 Haag, La France Protestante, Tome VII, p. 532 aka Jean de La Fourcade, aka Jean de la Fourcade, aka Jean de Lafourcade,AD64, E 2002AD64, B 3084 aka Jean de Laforcade,AD64, C 1542AD64, E 2012AD64, E 2015AD64, E 2022AD64, 1 J 298/2 aka Jean de Fourcade (* About 1555, presumably in Auvillar; † about 1639, in hamlet of Montclaris, in Sigalens, Gascony), was the son of Protestant nobleman Jean de Laforcade, Seigneur de La Fitte, and a descendant of the noble family of Forcade of Béarn in Navarre.
Jean Lemaire de Belges (c. 1473c. 1525) was a Walloon poet and historian who lived primarily in France.
Jean-Jacques Olier, S.S. (20 September 1608 – 2 April 1657) was a French Catholic priest and the founder of the Sulpicians.
Jean-Joseph Paul Augustin, 1er Marquis Dessolles (3 July 1767 – 3 November 1828) was a French soldier and statesman.
Jeanne d'Albret (Basque: Joana Albretekoa; Occitan: Joana de Labrit; 16 November 1528 – 9 June 1572), also known as Jeanne III, was the queen regnant of Navarre from 1555 to 1572.
Jelena Šubić (died 1378) was a member of the Bribir branch of the Šubić noble family who ruled the Banate of Bosnia as regent from 1354 until 1357.
Jelena Balšić (Јелена Балшић; 1365/1366 – 1443), also known as Jelena Lazarević, was a medieval Serbian noblewoman, daughter of Lazar of Serbia.
Jeremias II Tranos (c. 1536 – September 1595) was Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople three times between 1572 and 1595.
Ji Chuna (died July 24, 710) was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, serving as a chancellor during the reign of Emperor Zhongzong and Emperor Zhongzong's son Emperor Shang.
Jia Nanfeng (賈南風) (257–300), nickname Shi (時), was a Chinese empress consort.
Jiang Wei's Northern Expeditions refer to a series of eleven military campaigns launched by the state of Shu Han against its rival state, Cao Wei, between 240 and 262 CE during the Three Kingdoms period in China.
Jijabai Shahaji Bhosale आदरणीय राजमाता जिजाबाई शहाजीराजे भोसले (12 January 1598 – 17 June 1674), sometimes referred to as Rajmata Jijabai or even simply Jijai, Jijau was the mother of Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, founder of Maratha Empire.
Jill Talbot Derby served from 1988 to 2006 as an elected Regent for the Nevada System of Higher Education, serving three terms as Board Chair.
James Lee Kessler, Hebrew Union College, 12 March 1997, Retrieved on 2012-03-13.
Jin Midi (134–86 BC) (courtesy name Wengshu (翁叔), formally Marquess Jing of Du (秺敬侯), was a prominent official of the Chinese Han Dynasty of Xiongnu ethnicity. He served as coregent early in the reign of Emperor Zhao of Han.
Jinpyeong of Silla (567? – 632, reign 579 – 632) was the 26th king of the Silla Dynasty, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea.
Joachim Frederick (27 January 1546 – 18 July 1608), of the House of Hohenzollern, was Prince-elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg from 1598 until his death.
Joan Beaufort (c. 1404 – 15 July 1445) was the Queen of Scotland from 1424 to 1437 as the spouse of King James I of Scotland.
Joan de Geneville, 2nd Baroness Geneville, Countess of March, Baroness Mortimer (2 February 1286 – 19 October 1356), also known as Jeanne de Joinville, was the daughter of Sir Piers de Geneville and Joan of Lusignan.
Joan I of Navarre (14 January 1273 – 31 March/2 April 1305) (Basque: Joana I.a Nafarroakoa) was queen regnant of Navarre and ruling countess of Champagne from 1274 until 1305; she was also queen consort of France by marriage to Philip IV of France.
Joan II (Jeanne; 28 January 1312 – 6 October 1349) was Queen of Navarre from 1328 until her death.
Joan of Arc (Jeanne d'Arc; 6 January c. 1412Modern biographical summaries often assert a birthdate of 6 January for Joan, which is based on a letter from Lord Perceval de Boulainvilliers on 21 July 1429 (see Pernoud's Joan of Arc By Herself and Her Witnesses, p. 98: "Boulainvilliers tells of her birth in Domrémy, and it is he who gives us an exact date, which may be the true one, saying that she was born on the night of Epiphany, 6 January"). – 30 May 1431), nicknamed "The Maid of Orléans" (La Pucelle d'Orléans), is considered a heroine of France for her role during the Lancastrian phase of the Hundred Years' War and was canonized as a Roman Catholic saint.
Joan of Artois, Countess of Foix, Viscountess of Béarn (French: Jeanne d'Artois; 1289 – after 24 March 1350), was a French noblewoman, and the wife of Gaston I de Foix, Count of Foix, Viscount of Béarn.
Joan of Bar (died in 1361, London) was a French-English noble.
Joan of France (Jeanne de France, Jeanne de Valois; 23 April 1464 – 4 February 1505), was briefly Queen of France as wife of King Louis XII, in between the death of her brother, King Charles VIII, and the annulment of her marriage.
Jeanne de Ponthieu, dame d'Épernon, Countess of Vendôme and of Castres (Jeanne de Ponthieu, dame d'Épernon, comtesse de Vendôme et de Castres, before 1336 – 30 May 1376) was a French noblewoman, the youngest daughter of Jean II de Ponthieu, Count of Aumale.
Joaquín Baleztena Ascárate (1883 - 1978) was a Spanish Carlist politician.
Joaquim José Inácio, Viscount of Inhaúma (1 August 1808 – 8 March 1869), was a naval officer, politician and monarchist of the Empire of Brazil.
Jobert of Syria (also known as Gilbert, Josberto, or Joubert) was the seventh Grand Master of the Knights Hospitaller in Syria from 1172 to his death, which is thought to have occurred in 1177.
Jocelyn (original Latin: Canzolinus, Italianised as Gozzelino) was an Italo-Norman officer serving Roger II of Sicily.
Johan I of East Frisia (1506–1572) was a member of the house of Cirksena and a non-reigning Count of East Frisia and later imperial governor of Limburg.
Johann Friedrich Struensee (5 August 1737 – 28 April 1772) was a German doctor.
Johann II (Johann Maria Franz Placidus; 5 October 1840 – 11 February 1929), also known as Johann II the Good (Johann II der Gute), was the Prince of Liechtenstein between 1858 and 1929.
Johann VII of Mecklenburg (7 March 1558 – 22 March 1592) (sometimes called Johann V, and usually translated to John VII or John V) was a Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin.
Johannes Enschedé Jr. (16 November 1750 in Haarlem – 29 July 1799 in Haarlem)P.C. Molhuysen en P.J. Blok (red.), (Dutch) Johannes Enschedé (2) was a Haarlem regent and collector.
John B. Tsu (1 December 1924 – 26 February 2005) was a Chinese academic and lobbyist for Asians in the United States.
John Casimir, Count Palatine of Simmern (German: Johann Casimir von Pfalz-Simmern) (7 March 1543 – Brockhaus Geschichte Second Edition) was a German prince and a younger son of Frederick III, Elector Palatine.
John II (Johann II.; 2 August 1455 – 9 January 1499) was Elector of Brandenburg from 1486 until his death, the fourth of the House of Hohenzollern.
Sir John Ponsonby Conroy, 1st Baronet, KCH (21 October 1786 – 2 March 1854) was a British army officer who served as comptroller to the Duchess of Kent and her young daughter, Princess Victoria, the future Queen of the United Kingdom.
John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland (1504Loades 2008 – 22 August 1553) was an English general, admiral, and politician, who led the government of the young King Edward VI from 1550 until 1553, and unsuccessfully tried to install Lady Jane Grey on the English throne after the King's death.
John Dunstaple (or Dunstable, c. 1390 – 24 December 1453) was an English composer of polyphonic music of the late medieval era and early Renaissance periods.
John Erskine, Earl of Mar (died 28 October 1572), regent of Scotland, was a son of John, 5th Lord Erskine, who was guardian of King James V and afterwards of Mary, Queen of Scots.
John Ewart (January 31, 1788 – September 18, 1856) was a Canadian architect and businessman.
Johann Frederick III, also known as Johann Frederick the Younger (16 January 1538 in Torgau – 21 October 1565 in Jena) was German nobleman.
The Most Rev. Dr. John Hamilton (3 February 1512 – 6 April 1571), Scottish prelate and politician, was an illegitimate son of James Hamilton, 1st Earl of Arran.
John Hunyadi (Hunyadi János, Ioan de Hunedoara; 1406 – 11 August 1456) was a leading Hungarian military and political figure in Central and Southeastern Europe during the 15th century.
John I (15–20 November 1316), called the Posthumous, was King of France and Navarre, as the posthumous son and successor of Louis X, for the five days he lived in 1316.
John I (Johann I.) (born ca. 1140; died July 15, 1212 in Trier) was Archbishop of Trier from 1190 to 1212 and the first also to bear the title of Elector.
John I (1340 or February 1346 – 23 September 1390) was the Duke of Lorraine from 1346 to his death.
John II Comyn, Lord of Badenoch and Lord of Lochaber (c.1242 – 1302) or John "the Black", also known as Black Comyn, a Scottish nobleman, was a Guardian of Scotland, and one of the six Regents for Margaret, Maid of Norway.
John II (Jean II; 26 April 1319 – 8 April 1364), called John the Good (French: Jean le Bon), was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1350 until his death.
John II (died between 994 and 998), called the Accursed (Maledictus), son of Lampert of Spoleto, was the count of the palace of Salerno in 980 and acting regent for Prince Pandulf II.
John II (died 1270/2), also known as Je(h)an de Nesle and by the sobriquet le Bon et le Bègue ("the Good and the Stammerer"), was the tenth Count of Soissons, succeeding his father Ralph the Good, in 1235.
John III Palaeologus (c. 1362 – 25 August 1381) was the Margrave of Montferrat from 1378 to his death.
John IV Doukas Laskaris (or Ducas Lascaris) (Ἰωάννης Δ΄ Δούκας Λάσκαρις, Iōannēs IV Doukas Laskaris) (December 25, 1250 – c. 1305) was emperor of Nicaea from August 18, 1258, to December 25, 1261.
John IV (died April or August 1012) was the eldest son of John III of Gaeta who was appointed co-duke in 991 while still young (he was a minor even in 994).
John IV, Lord of Arkel (also known as Jan Herbaren of Arkel; d. 5 May 1360) was Lord of Arkel from 1326 until his death.
John Knox (– 24 November 1572) was a Scottish minister, theologian, and writer who was a leader of the country's Reformation.
John Maxwell, 4th Lord Maxwell (died 9 September 1513) was a Scottish nobleman and patriarch of the Border Family / House / Clan of Maxwell.
John of Brienne (1170 – 27 March 1237), also known as John I, was King of Jerusalem from 1210 to 1225 and Latin Emperor of Constantinople from 1229 to 1237.
John of Ibelin (c. 1179 – 1236), called the Old Lord of Beirut, was a powerful crusader noble in the 13th century, one of the best known representatives of the influential Ibelin family.
John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford, KG (20 June 138914 September 1435), was a medieval English nobleman, soldier, and statesman.
John of Lusignan (or Jean de Lusignan) (c. 1329 or 1329/1330–1375), regent of the Kingdom of Cyprus and titular Prince of Antioch.
John of Poitiers-Lusignan (Jean; died 7 August 1343) was constable and later regent of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia.
John Paul Nazarius (1556–1645) was an Italian Dominican theologian.
John Randolph, 3rd Earl of Moray (130617 October 1346) was an important figure in the reign of David II of Scotland, and was for a time joint Regent of Scotland.
John Sharpenstein Hager (March 12, 1818March 19, 1890) was an American politician from the U.S. state of California.
John Sargent Pillsbury (July 29, 1827 – October 18, 1901) was an American politician, businessman, and philanthropist.
Sir John Scott (– 7 October 1533) was the eldest son of Sir William Scott of Scot's Hall.
John Stewart, 4th Earl of Atholl (died 25 April 1579) was a Scottish noble.
John Stewart, Duke of Albany (1481 or 14842 July 1536 in Mirfleur, France) was Regent of the Kingdom of Scotland, Duke of Albany in peerage of Scotland and Count of Auvergne and Lauraguais in France.
John Tiptoft, 1st Earl of Worcester KG (8 May 1427 – 18 October 1470) was an English nobleman and scholar, Lord High Treasurer, Lord High Constable and Deputy Governor of Ireland.
John V (died 1042/53) was the son and successor of Sergius IV as Duke of Naples from 1034 until his death.
Dom John V (Portuguese: João V; 22 October 1689 – 31 July 1750), known as the Magnanimous (Portuguese: o Magnânimo) and the Portuguese Sun King (Portuguese: o Rei-Sol Português), was a monarch of the House of Braganza who ruled as King of Portugal and the Algarves during the first half of the 18th century.
John Van Schaick Lansing Pruyn (June 22, 1811 – November 21, 1877) was a United States Representative from New York during the latter half of the American Civil War and the early days of Reconstruction.
John VI (Portuguese: João VI; –), nicknamed "the Clement", was King of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves from 1816 to 1825.
John VII Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Ιωάννης Ζ' Παλαιολόγος, Iōannēs Z' Palaiologos; 1370 – 22 September 1408) was Byzantine Emperor for five months in 1390.
John of Sweden, Duke of Östergötland (in Swedish Johan) (18 April 1589 at Uppsala Castle – 5 March 1618 at Bråborg Castle in Östergötland) was a Swedish royal dynast.
Jon Svaleson Smør (c. 1420–1483) was a Norwegian knight, riksråd and regent.
José de Salamanca y Mayol, 1st Marquis of Salamanca and Grandee of Spain (23 May 1811, Málaga – 21 January 1883, Madrid) was a Spanish nobleman, politician and businessman.
José María Queipo de Llano y Ruiz de Saravia, 7th Count of Toreno, GE, OCIII, OIC (25 November 1786 – 16 September 1843), was a nineteenth-century Spanish politician and historian, who was Prime Minister of Spain.
José Mariano de Salas (11 May 1797 – 24 December 1867) was a Mexican general and politician who served twice as interim president of Mexico (1846 and 1859).
Josef Ludwig, Graf von Armansperg (Κόμης Ιωσήφ Λουδοβίκος Άρμανσπεργκ; 28 February 1787 – 3 April 1853) served as the Interior and Finance Minister (1826–1828) and Foreign and Finance Minister (1828–1831) under King Ludwig I of Bavaria in the government of Bavaria.
Joseph Ferdinand Leopold of Bavaria (28 October 1692 – 6 February 1699) was the son of Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria (1679–1705, 1714–1726) and his first wife, Maria Antonia of Austria, daughter of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor, maternal granddaughter of King Felipe IV of Spain.
Joseph Lovering (25 December 1813–18 January 1892) was an American scientist and educator.
Joseph Patrick Hurley (January 21, 1894 – October 30, 1967) was an American prelate of the Roman Catholic Church.
Josias, Hereditary Prince of Waldeck and Pyrmont (Josias Georg Wilhelm Adolf Erbprinz zu Waldeck und Pyrmont) (13 May 1896 – 30 November 1967) was the heir apparent to the throne of the Principality of Waldeck and Pyrmont and a general in the SS.
Jovan Avakumović (1 January 1841 – 3 August 1928) was a lawyer, politician, and Prime Minister of Serbia.
Jovan Cico Kosturi (1831-1924), also known as Jovan Kosturi, was a prominent figure involved in the Albanian National Awakening.
Juan Nepomuceno Almonte (May 15, 1803 – March 21, 1869) was a 19th-century Mexican official, soldier and diplomat.
Juan Bravo Murillo (24 June 1803 – 11 February 1873) was a Spanish politician, jurist and economist.
Juan Pardo de Tavera (1472–1545) was a cardinal (from 1531) and was Archbishop of Toledo and Primate of Spain (1534–1545), Grand Inquisitor of Spain (1539–1545), Archbishop of Santiago de Compostela (1524–1534), Bishop of Osma (1523–1524), and Bishop of Ciudad Rodrigo (1514–1523).
Judith of Swabia (Sváb Judit, Judyta Szwabska; Summer 1054 – 14 March ca. 1105?), a member of the Salian dynasty, was the youngest daughter of Emperor Henry III from his second marriage with Agnes of Poitou.
Judith (925 – 29 June after 985), a member of the Luitpolding dynasty, was Duchess consort of Bavaria from 947 to 955, by her marriage with Duke Henry I. After her husband's death, she acted as regent of Bavaria during the minority of her son Henry the Wrangler.
Juliana of Hesse-Darmstadt (14 April 1606 in Darmstadt – 15 January 1659 in Osterode am Harz) was the wife of Count Ulrich II of East Frisia and was regent for her minor son Enno Louis from 1648 to 1651.
Juliana (Juliana Louise Emma Marie Wilhelmina; 30 April 1909 – 20 March 2004) was Queen of the Netherlands from 1948 until her abdication in 1980.
Julius, Count of Lippe-Biesterfeld (Julius Peter Hermann August Graf und Edler Herr zur Lippe-Biesterfeld; 2 April 1812 – 17 May 1884) was Count of Lippe-Biesterfeld from 1840 to 1884 and father of Ernest II, regent of the Principality of Lippe.
This day is the midpoint of a common year because there are 182 days before and 182 days after it in common years, and 183 before and 182 after in leap years.
The Aphelion, the point in the year when the Earth is farthest from the Sun, occurs around this date.
Kaahumanu (March 17, 1768 – June 5, 1832) ("the feathered mantle") was queen consort and acted as regent of the Kingdom of Hawaiokinai as Kuhina Nui.
Kalnciems is a village in the Jelgava municipality of Latvia.
Kalu Rinpoche (1905 – May 10, 1989) was a Buddhist lama, meditation master, scholar and teacher.
Kamehameha III (born Kauikeaouli) (March 17, 1814 – December 15, 1854) was the third king of the Kingdom of Hawaii from 1825 to 1854.
The Kangxi Emperor (康熙; 4 May 165420 December 1722), personal name Xuanye, was the fourth emperor of the Qing dynasty, the first to be born on Chinese soil south of the Shanhai Pass near Beijing, and the second Qing emperor to rule over that part of China, from 1661 to 1722.
Karbhari (roughly translated as "Chief Administrator) was the title of senior officials in some Indian Princely States - particularly the Maharashtra Gujarat Bhosle legacies Tanjore, Kolhapur and Satara.
Karl Eusebius, Prince of Liechtenstein (11 April 1611 – 5 April 1684) was the Prince of Liechtenstein.
Karlberg Palace is a palace by the Karlberg Canal in Solna Municipality in Sweden, adjacent to Stockholm's Vasastaden district.
Countess Karoline Friederike Cäcilie Klothilde von Wartensleben (6 April 1844 in Mannheim – 10 July 1905 in Detmold) was a German noblewoman.
Kassia or Kassiani (805/810 - before 865) was an Eastern Roman abbess, poet, composer, and hymnographer.
Katarina Konstantinović (Serbian Cyrillic; Катарина Константиновић; 1848–1910) was a Serbian noblewoman and a descendant of the Obrenović dynasty as the daughter of Princess Anka Obrenović.
Kösem Sultan (كوسم سلطان) (1589 – 2 September 1651) – also known as Mahpeyker SultanDouglas Arthur Howard, The official History of Turkey, Greenwood Press,, p. 195 (Māh-peyker) – was one of the most powerful women in Ottoman history.
Princess Kalani Ahumanu i Kaliko o Iwi Kauhipua o Kīnau, also known as Elizabeth Kīnau (c. 1805 – April 4, 1839) was Kuhina Nui of the Kingdom of Hawaiokinai as Kaahumanu II, Queen regent and Dowager Queen.
Kedungbanteng is a sub-district located in part of eastern of Tegal, Central Java, Indonesia.
Kelantan (Jawi: کلنتن;, Kelantanese: Kelate) is a state of Malaysia.
The Sultan of Kelantan is the constitutional head of Kelantan state in Malaysia.
The Kensington System was a strict and elaborate set of rules designed by Victoria, Duchess of Kent, along with her attendant, Sir John Conroy, concerning the upbringing of the Duchess's daughter, the future Queen Victoria.
Kepahiang is a regency in Bengkulu.
Kerubiel /Also: Cherubiel, Cerubiel/ (The Flames Which Dance Around the Throne of God) is the name of an angel in the apocryphal Book of Enoch.
Ashi Kesang Choden (born 21 May 1930) is the Queen Grandmother of Bhutan.
Ketapang or Tau-pang in Teochew is the capital city of Ketapang Regency (Kabupaten Ketapang), one of the regencies of West Kalimantan province on the island of Borneo in Indonesia.
Kievan Rus' (Рѹ́сь, Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ, Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia) was a loose federationJohn Channon & Robert Hudson, Penguin Historical Atlas of Russia (Penguin, 1995), p.16.
Kiggala Sewannaku Mukaabya Kasungubu (died 1494) was Kabaka of the Kingdom of Buganda.
Kilham is a hamlet and civil parish in the English county of Northumberland, located west of Wooler, east of Kelso, south west of Berwick upon Tweed and north west of Morpeth.
Kim Jong-un (born 8 January 1983) is a North Korean politician serving as leader of North Korea since 2011 and Leader of the Workers' Party of Korea since 2012.
Sir Kinahan Cornwallis (19 February 1883 – 3 June 1959) was a British administrator and diplomat best known for being an advisor to King Faisal and for being the British Ambassador to the Kingdom of Iraq during the Anglo-Iraqi War.
The King of Nepal, traditionally known as the Mahārājādhirāja i.e. King of Kings, it can also be translated as "Sovereign Emperor" (श्री ५ महाराजधिराज), was Nepal's head of state and monarch from 1768 to 2008.
The King of the Romanians (Romanian: Regele Românilor) or King of Romania (Romanian: Regele României), was the title of the monarch of the Kingdom of Romania from 1881 until 1947, when Romania was proclaimed the Romanian People's Republic following Michael I's forced abdication.
King Zhaoxiang of Qin (325–250 BC), or King Zhao of Qin (秦昭王), born Ying Ji, was the king of Qin from 307 BC to 250 BC.
The King's Feast (Koningsfeest, Fête du Roi, Festtag des Königs) has been celebrated in Belgium on November 15 since 1866.
The Kingdom of Bavaria (Königreich Bayern) was a German state that succeeded the former Electorate of Bavaria in 1805 and continued to exist until 1918.
The Kingdom of Bulgaria (Царство България, Tsarstvo Bǎlgariya), also referred to as the Tsardom of Bulgaria and the Third Bulgarian Tsardom, was a constitutional monarchy in Eastern and Southeastern Europe, which was established on 5 October (O.S. 22 September) 1908 when the Bulgarian state was raised from a principality to a kingdom.
The Kingdom of Etruria (Regno di Etruria) was a kingdom between 1801 and 1807 which made up a large part of modern Tuscany.
The Kingdom of Finland (Suomen kuningaskunta; Konungariket Finland) was an abortive attempt to establish a monarchy in Finland following Finland's independence from Russia.
The Kingdom of Georgia (საქართველოს სამეფო), also known as the Georgian Empire, was a medieval Eurasian monarchy which emerged circa 1008 AD.
The Kingdom of Hawaiʻi originated in 1795 with the unification of the independent islands of Hawaiʻi, Oʻahu, Maui, Molokaʻi, and Lānaʻi under one government.
The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the twentieth century (1000–1946 with the exception of 1918–1920).
In the Late Middle Ages, the Kingdom of Hungary, a country in Central Europe, experienced a period of interregnum in the early 14th century.
The Kingdom of Hungary (Hungarian: Magyar Királyság), also known as the Regency, existed from 1920 to 1946 as a de facto country under Regent Miklós Horthy.
The Kingdom of Iceland (Konungsríkið Ísland; Kongeriget Island) was a constitutional monarchy, a sovereign and independent country that was established by the Act of Union with Denmark signed on 1 December 1918.
The Kingdom of Poland (Królestwo Polskie), also known informally as the Regency Kingdom of Poland (Królestwo Regencyjne), was a proposed puppet state of the German Empire during World War I.The Regency Kingdom has been referred to as a puppet state by Norman Davies in Europe: A history; by Jerzy Lukowski and Hubert Zawadzki in A Concise History of Poland; by Piotr J. Wroblel in Chronology of Polish History and Nation and History; and by Raymond Leslie Buell in Poland: Key to Europe ("The Polish Kingdom... was merely a pawn ").
The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.
The Kingdom of Romania (Regatul României) was a constitutional monarchy in Southeastern Europe which existed from 1881, when prince Carol I of Romania was proclaimed King, until 1947, when King Michael I of Romania abdicated and the Parliament proclaimed Romania a republic.
The Kingdom of Saxony (Königreich Sachsen), lasting between 1806 and 1918, was an independent member of a number of historical confederacies in Napoleonic through post-Napoleonic Germany.
The Kingdom of Sicily (Regnum Siciliae, Regno di Sicilia, Regnu di Sicilia, Regne de Sicília, Reino de Sicilia) was a state that existed in the south of the Italian peninsula and for a time Africa from its founding by Roger II in 1130 until 1816.
The Kingdom of Tahiti was founded by paramount chief Pōmare I, who, with the aid of English missionaries and traders, and European weaponry, unified the islands of Tahiti, Moʻorea, Tetiaroa, Mehetia and at its peak included the Tuamotus, Tubuai, Raivavae and other islands of eastern Polynesia.
The Kingdom of Upatissa Nuwara (sometimes referred to as Vijitapura) was the second administrative center in ancient Sri Lanka.
The kings of Alba Longa, or Alban kings (Latin: reges Albani), were a series of legendary kings of Latium, who ruled from the ancient city of Alba Longa.
Klaus is a seven-issue comic book mini-series published in 2015 and 2016 by Boom! Studios. It was created by writer Grant Morrison and artist Dan Mora. The comic is styled as an origin story, based on the re-imagining of Santa Claus as a superhero. A sequel series, Klaus and the Witch of Winter was released beginning in December 2016 followed by Klaus and the Crisis in X-Masville in December 2017.
Kokushi can refer to.
Kolhapur State or Kolhapur Maratha Kingdom (1710–1949) was a Maratha princely State of British India, under the Deccan Division of the Bombay Presidency, and later the Deccan States Agency.
Kong Xun (孔循) (884New History of the Five Dynasties, vol. 43.-April 4, 931Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 277..), known early in his life as Zhao Yinheng (趙殷衡), also having used surnames of Li (李) and Zhu (朱) early in life, was an official of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period states Later Liang and Later Tang.
Konrad I of Masovia (Konrad I Mazowiecki) (ca. 1187/88 – 31 August 1247), from the Polish Piast dynasty, was the sixth Duke of Masovia and Kujawy from 1194 until his death as well as High Duke of Poland from 1229 to 1232 and again from 1241 to 1243.
Kosta Protić (Коста Протић; 29 September 1831 – 4 June 1892) was the first Serbian General and the Chief of the Serbian General Staff.
Kota Pagatan (other names: Pagattan/Pegattan) is a town located in the regency of Kusan Hilir, Tanah Bumbu, Tanah Bumbu, Kalimantan Selatan province, Indonesia.
The Kragujevac massacre was the mass murder of between 2,778 and 2,794 mostly Serb men and boys in Kragujevac by German soldiers on 21 October 1941.
The Kraljevo massacre was the mass murder of approximately 2,000 residents of the central Serbian city of Kraljevo by the Wehrmacht between 15 and 20 October 1941, during World War II.
Rajmata Krishna Kumari was the last reigning Maharani of Marwar-Jodhpur (1947–1949), a state of Rathores.
Kronan, also called Stora Kronan, was a Swedish warship that served as the flagship of the Swedish Navy in the Baltic Sea in the 1670s.
Kuhina Nui was a powerful office in the Kingdom of Hawaiokinai from 1819 to 1864.
, also known as Fujiwara no Yoritsune, was the fourth shōgun of the Kamakura shogunate of Japan.
Kundun is a 1997 epic biographical film written by Melissa Mathison and directed by Martin Scorsese.
Kunigunda Rostislavna (1245 – 9 September 1285; Czech: Kunhuta Uherská or Kunhuta Haličská) was Queen consort of Bohemia and its Regent from 1278 until her death.
Kurwai State was a princely state of British India under the Bhopal Agency and centered on Kurwai town.
La Dori, overo Lo schiavo reggio (Doris, or The Royal Slave) is a tragi-comic opera in a prologue and three acts composed by Antonio Cesti to a libretto by Giovanni Filippo Apolloni.
La reine de Chypre (The Queen of Cyprus) is an 1841 grand opera in five acts composed by Fromental Halévy to a libretto by Jules-Henri Vernoy de Saint-Georges.
Lady Agnes Stewart (fl. 1549) was a Scottish noble.
Lady Kʻabʻal Xook or Lady Xoc was a Maya Queen consort of Yaxchilan and is considered to have been one of the most powerful and prominent women in Maya civilization.
Lai Junchen (Chinese: 來俊臣) (died April 28, 697) was a secret police official during the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty and Wu Zetian's Zhou Dynasty, whose ability to interrogate and falsely implicate officials of crimes made him a subject of fear and hatred.
Lakhajirajsinhji II (17 December 1885 – 2 February 1930) was the ruler of the Indian princely state of Rajkot from April 1890 until his death, holding the title Thakore Saheb.
Lambert (c. 880 – 15 October 898) was the King of Italy from 891, Holy Roman Emperor, co-ruling with his father from 892, and Duke of Spoleto and Camerino (as Lambert II) from his father's death in 894.
The Lamian War, or the Hellenic War (323–322 BC) was fought by a coalition of Greek cities including Athens and the Aetolian League against Macedon and its ally Boeotia.
The Lao Kingdom of Lan Xang Hom Khao (ຮົ່ມຂາວ;; "Million Elephants and White Parasols") existed as a unified kingdom from 1354 to 1707.
Landenulf II (died 993) succeeded his brother Landulf VI as Prince of Capua in 982 and ruled until his assassination.
Marie Louise of Hesse-Kassel (7 February 1688 – 9 April 1765) was a Dutch regent, Princess of Orange by marriage to John William Friso, Prince of Orange, and regent of the Netherlands during the minority of her son and her grandson.
The Landi were a noble family from Piacenza, now in Reggio-Emilia, in central Italy.
The Lands of Schlawe and Stolp (Länder Schlawe und Stolp) or Land of Słupsk-Sławno (Ziemia Słupsko-Sławieńska) are a historical region in Pomerania, centered on the towns of Sławno (Schlawe) and Słupsk (Stolp) in Farther Pomerania, in present-day Poland.
The official name "Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen" ("a Szent Korona Országai") denominated the Hungarian territories of Austria-Hungary during the totality of the existence of the latter (30 March 1867 – 16 November 1918).
The Lao Royal Family was the ruling family of the Kingdom of Laos from 1904 to 1975 and the group of close relatives of the monarch of the Kingdom of Laos.
The Laplace affair or the French Incident was a military intervention by the Kingdom of France to end the persecution of Catholics in the Kingdom of Hawaii, which had been promoted by Protestant ministers.
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.
Lauriston Castle stands on a clifftop site near the Aberdeenshire village of St Cyrus and just over a mile inland from the North Sea coast of Scotland.
Sir Lakshman Singh KCSI GCIE (7 March 1908 – 6 June 1989) was the last ruling Maharawal (Maharaja) of the princely state of Dungarpur from 1918 to 1989, a former MP in the Rajya Sabha and speaker of the Rajasthan Legislative Assembly from July 1977 to June 1979.
Giovanni Battista Libero Badaró (1798 – November 21, 1830) was an Italian Brazilian physician, botanist, journalist and politician.
The Lüshi Chunqiu, also known in English as Master Lü's Spring and Autumn Annals, is an encyclopedic Chinese classic text compiled around 239 BC under the patronage of the Qin Dynasty Chancellor Lü Buwei.
Emperor Lý Anh Tông (1136–1175) of Đại Việt (literally Great Viet), was the sixth ruler of the later Lý Dynasty, from 1138 until his death in 1175.
Le Canard enchaîné (English: The Chained Duck or The Chained Paper, as "canard" is French slang meaning "newspaper"), is a satirical weekly newspaper in France.
Leek Wootton is a village in Warwickshire, England, roughly one mile from Kenilworth and two miles from Warwick.
The Lei Áurea (Golden Law), adopted on May 13, 1888, was the law that abolished slavery in Brazil.
Leith (Lìte) is an area to the north of the city of Edinburgh, Scotland, at the mouth of the Water of Leith.
Lenaert Jansz de Graeff (Amsterdam 1530/35 – before 1578), was a member of the family De Graeff and the son of Jan Pietersz Graeff, a rich cloth merchant from Amsterdam. Lenaert Jansz de Graeff was one of the leaders of the Protestant Reformation at Amsterdam, friend of Henry, Count of Bréderode, the "Grote Geus", and perhaps ident with "Monseigneur de Graeff", a captain of the Sea Beggars during the Capture of Brielle.
Leonard of Veroli (Leonardo da Veroli, died 1281) was the chancellor to and close adviser of William II Villehardouin, Prince of Achaea.
Leopold I (Léopold Ier; German and Leopold I; 16 December 1790 – 10 December 1865) was a German prince who became the first King of the Belgians following the country's independence in 1830.
Leopold II of Lippe (Paul Alexander Leopold; 6 November 1796 – 1 January 1851) was the sovereign of the Principality of Lippe.
Leopold III (3 November 1901 – 25 September 1983) reigned as the fourth King of the Belgians from 1934 until 1951, when he abdicated in favour of the heir apparent, his son Baudouin.
Kgosi Leruo Tshekedi Molotlegi (born in 1968) is the 36th kgosi, or king, of the Royal Bafokeng Nation.
Leuschner Observatory, originally called the Students' Observatory, is an observatory jointly operated by the University of California, Berkeley and San Francisco State University.
Li Changfu (李昌符) (d. July 24, 887.Old Book of Tang, vol. 19, part 2) was a warlord of the late Tang dynasty, who ruled Fengxiang Circuit (鳳翔, headquartered in modern Baoji, Shaanxi) from 884 to 887.
Li Chengqi (679 – January 5, 742), known as Wu Chengqi during the reign of his grandmother Wu Zetian and as Li Xian after 716, formally Emperor Rang (literally, "the emperor who yielded"), was an imperial prince of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty who served as crown prince during the first reign of his father Emperor Ruizong who yielded that position to his younger brother Li Longji (Emperor Xuanzong) during Emperor Ruizong's second reign.
Li Chong (李沖) (died September 22, 688), formally the Prince of Langye (琅邪王), posthumously known during Wu Zetian's reign as Hui Chong (虺沖), was an imperial prince of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty.
Li Chongfu (李重福) (680?It is unclear whether Li Chongfu was Emperor Zhongzong's second son, as asserted by Old Book of Tang, vol. 86, as his brother Li Chongrun, described as the first son, was said to have been born in 682, while Li Chongfu died at age 30 when he was killed in 710 -- which would make his birth date 680, two years before Li Chongzhao's. The New Book of Tang avoided the issue by not giving birth ordinals to either Li Chongzhao or Li Chongfu. See New Book of Tang, vol. 81. If Li Chongfu was indeed Emperor Zhongzong's second son, he could not be born any earlier than 682. – September 10, 710) was an imperial prince of the Chinese Tang Dynasty.
Li coronemenz Looïs, or Le coronement Looïs is an anonymous twelfth-century Old French chanson de geste.
Li Daozong (李道宗) (603?-656?Historical accounts indicate that Li Daozong died at the age of 53, and died during the journey to his place of exile after he was exiled in 653, without reaching the place of exile. That appears to be some evidence that he died in 653, but is not conclusive. See Old Book of Tang, vol. 60. Meanwhile, the New Book of Tang mentioned that he was 16 in 619, and therefore these dates are used here.), courtesy name Chengfan (承範), was an imperial prince of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty.
Li Delin (李德林), courtesy name Gongfu (公輔), formally either Duke Wen of Anping (安平文公) (according to the Book of Sui) or Viscount Wen of Cheng'an (成安文子) (according to the Zizhi Tongjian), was an official of the Chinese dynasties Northern Qi, Northern Zhou, and Sui Dynasty.
Li Deyu (787 – January 26, 850 Old Book of Tang, vol. 174.), courtesy name Wenrao (文饒), formally the Duke of Wei (衛公), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, serving as a chancellor during the reigns of brothers Emperor Wenzong and Emperor Wuzong and (briefly) their uncle Emperor Xuānzong.
Li Duozuo (died August 7, 707), formally the Prince of Liaoyang (遼陽王), was an ethnically Mohe general of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty and Wu Zetian's Zhou Dynasty.
Li Ezi (536–588), later Buddhist nun name Changbei (常悲), was an empress dowager of the Chinese/Xianbei dynasty Northern Zhou.
Li Fengji (758 – February 27, 835), courtesy name Xuzhou (虛舟), formally Duke Cheng of Zheng (鄭成公) or Duke Cheng of Liang (涼成公), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, serving as a chancellor during the reigns of Emperor Xianzong, Emperor Xianzong's son Emperor Muzong, and grandson Emperor Jingzong.
Li Jiancheng (589 – July 2, 626, formally Crown Prince Yin (literally, "the hidden crown prince"), nickname Pishamen (Sanskrit:Vaiśravaṇa), was the first crown prince of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty. He was the oldest son of the founding emperor Emperor Gaozu (Li Yuan) and the crown prince after the founding of the dynasty in 618. Li Jiancheng was murdered by his younger brother, Li Shimin, the Prince of Qin during Xuanwu Gate indident in 626. All of Li Jiancheng's sons were executed and excluded from imperial clan. After Li Shimin took the throne, Li Jiancheng was posthumously created the Prince of Xi (息隐王). Later, he was buried with ceremonies due an imperial prince. In 642, Li Jiancheng's crown prince title was restored as the crown Prince of Yin (隐太子).
Li Jiao, courtesy name Jushan (巨山), formally the Duke of Zhao (趙公), was an official of the Chinese Tang Dynasty and Wu Zetian's Zhou Dynasty, serving as chancellor during the reigns of Wu Zetian, her sons Emperor Zhongzong and Emperor Ruizong, and her grandson Emperor Shang.
Li Jing (571 – July 2, 649), courtesy name Yaoshi, posthumously known as Duke Jingwu of Wei (also spelled as Duke of Wey), was a Chinese general who lived in the early Tang dynasty and was most active during the reign of Emperor Taizong.
Li Jingchen (李景諶) was briefly a chancellor of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, during the first reign of Emperor Ruizong.
Li Lingrong (李陵容) (died 400), formally Empress Dowager Xiaowuwen (孝武文太后, literally "the filial, martial, and civil empress dowager") was an empress dowager during Jin Dynasty (265-420).
Li Mi (582–619), courtesy name Xuansui (玄邃), pseudonym Liu Zhiyuan (劉智遠), was the leader of a rebel movement against the rule of the Chinese Sui dynasty.
Li Rizhi (李日知) (died 715) was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty and Wu Zetian's Zhou Dynasty, serving as a chancellor during the reign of Emperor Ruizong.
Li Rong (李溶) (812-February 12, 840),The Epitaph of Prince An formally the Prince of An (安王), was an imperial prince of the Chinese Tang dynasty, being a son of Emperor Muzong.
Li Shiji (594The Old Book of Tang indicated that Li Shiji was 75 at the time of his death, while the New Book of Tang indicated that Li Shiji was 85 at the time of his death. Compare Old Book of Tang, vol. 67 with New Book of Tang, vol. 93. The Zizhi Tongjian, while not explicitly stating that Li Shiji was 75 at the time of his death, appeared to follow the Old Book of Tang by quoting Li Shiji as stating that he was satisfied with living almost to 80. See Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 201. (The New Book of Tang, containing apparently the same quote, had a slightly different version that had Li Shiji stating that he was satisfied with living over 80.) – December 31, 669), courtesy name Maogong, posthumously known as Duke Zhenwu of Ying, was a Chinese general who lived in the early Tang dynasty.
Li Siyuan (李嗣源, later changed to Li Dan (李亶) Many Chinese emperors changed their given names to rarely encountered characters to alleviate the burden of the populace who must observe naming taboo.) (10 October 867 – 15 December 933), also known by his temple name Mingzong (明宗), was the second emperor of imperial China's short-lived Later Tang during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, reigning from 926 until his death.
Li Sujie (李素節) (646 – June 24, 690), formally the Prince of Xu (許王), was an imperial prince of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty.
Li Yiyan (李義琰) (died 688) was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, serving as a chancellor during the reign of Emperor Gaozong.
Li Yuanji (李元吉) (603 – July 2, 626), formally Prince La of Chao (巢剌王), more commonly known by the title of Prince of Qi (齊王), nickname Sanhu (三胡), was an imperial prince of the Chinese Tang Dynasty.
Li Yun (李熅) (died 887), imperial princely title Prince of Xiang (襄王), was a pretender to the throne of the Tang dynasty, who briefly, under the support of the warlord Zhu Mei, claimed the Tang imperial throne for two months in 886-887 at the capital Chang'an, in competition with Emperor Xizong.
Li Zhen (李貞) (627 - October 12, 688), formally Prince Jing of Yue (越敬王), posthumously known during Wu Zetian's reign as Hui Zhen (虺貞), was an imperial prince of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty who, along with his son Li Chong rose against Wu Zetian, then empress dowager and regent, as they feared that she was about to slaughter the Tang imperial Li clan.
Liang Ji (梁冀) (died 159), courtesy name Bozhuo (伯卓), was a politician and military commander of Han Dynasty China.
Liang Na (116–150), formally Empress Shunlie (順烈皇后, literally "the kind and achieving empress"), was an empress during the Han Dynasty.
Liang Qichao (Cantonese: Lèuhng Kái-chīu; 23 February 1873 – 19 January 1929), courtesy name Zhuoru, art name Rengong, was a Chinese scholar, journalist, philosopher, and reformist who lived during the late Qing dynasty and the early Republic of China.
The Liao dynasty (Khitan: Mos Jælud), also known as the Liao Empire, officially the Great Liao, or the Khitan (Qidan) State (Khitan: Mos diau-d kitai huldʒi gur), was an empire in East Asia that ruled from 907 to 1125 over present-day Mongolia and portions of the Russian Far East, northern China, and northeastern Korea.
The Liberal Rebellions of 1842 were a series of rebellions that took place in the Brazilian states of Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Minas Gerais in response to actions taken by Emperor Dom Pedro II to unify power under the central government and limit the powers of the states.
Lieutenant General of New France was the military post that governed early New France (including the early colonies in Acadia and Quebec) from 1598 until 1627.
The line of succession to the Mecklenburg thrones was an ordered list of people eligible to succeed to the grand ducal thrones of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
The Orléanist claimant to the throne of France is Prince Henri, Count of Paris, Duke of France.
Linghu Defen (582–666), formally Duke Xian of Pengyang (彭陽憲公), was an official of the Chinese dynasties Sui Dynasty and Tang Dynasty.
Linghu Tao, courtesy name Zizhi (子直), formally the Duke of Zhao (趙公), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty.
, officially the, (name), or simply known as City, is a settlement_text in the province of,. According to the, it has a population of people.
Lipek Pageh is a village in West Sumatra.
George R. R. Martin's A Song of Ice and Fire novels feature a sizable cast of characters.
This list refers to inhabitants of Ancient Epirus.
This is a list of assassinations which took place on the continent of Europe.
The list of Babylon 5 characters contains major and minor characters from the entire Babylon 5 universe.
This is a list of Belgian monarchs from 1831 when the first Belgian king, Leopold I, ascended the throne, after Belgium seceded from the Kingdom of the Netherlands during the Belgian Revolution of 1830.
This list records the bishops of the Roman Catholic diocese of Verden (Bistum Verden), a suffragan of the Archbishopric of Mentz, who were simultaneously rulers of princely rank (prince-bishop) in the Prince-Bishopric of Verden (Hochstift Verden; est. 1180 and secularised in 1648), a state of imperial immediacy within the Holy Roman Empire.
This is a list of the royal consorts of the rulers of Bohemia.
This is a list of Brazilian regents, a regent, from the Latin regens "one who reigns", is a person selected to act as head of state (ruling or not) because the ruler is a minor, not present, or debilitated.
This is a list of Bulgarian regents, a regent, from the Latin regens "one who reigns", is a person selected to act as head of state (ruling or not) because the ruler is a minor, not present, or debilitated.
This is a list of the queen consorts of the major kingdoms that existed in present-day Myanmar.
This is a list of kings and queens of the Kingdom and Crown of Castile.
Here follows a list of college sports team nicknames.
Count of Vendôme, and, later, Duke of Vendôme, were French titles of nobility.
This is a chronological list of coups d'état and coup attempts, from ancient times to the present.
This is a list by country of coups d'état and coup attempts, in chronological order.
This is a list of reigning constituent monarchs, including traditional rulers and governing constitutional monarchs.
This is a list of reigning constituent monarchs, including traditional rulers and governing constitutional monarchs.
A pretender is an aspirant or claimant to a monarchy that either has been abolished or suspended, or is occupied by another.
A monarch is the head of a monarchy, a form of government in which a state or polity is ruled by an individual who normally rules for life or until abdication, and typically inherits the throne by birth.
S. M. Stirling's ''Emberverse'' series of novels features several major and minor characters.
The emperors of the Han dynasty were the supreme heads of government during the second imperial dynasty of China; the Han dynasty (202 BC – 220 AD) followed the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and preceded the Three Kingdoms (220–265 AD).
This is a list of fictional Monarchs – characters who appear in fiction as the monarch of a fictional or real country.
This is a list of fictional princesses that have appeared in various works of fiction.
This is a list of the monarchs of Finland until it became a republic in 1919; that is, the Kings of Sweden with Regents and Viceroys of the Kalmar Union, the Grand Dukes of Finland, a title used by most Swedish monarchs, up to the two-year Regent period following the independence in 1917, with a brief flirtation with a truly domestic monarchy.
The Franks were originally led by dukes (military leaders) and reguli (petty kings).
This is a list of the women who have been Queens consort of the Frankish people.
This is a list of the women who have been queens consort or empresses consort of the French monarchy.
When India became independent, Hari Singh was the Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir.
The government of Portuguese India started in 1505, six years after the discovery of the sea route to India by Vasco da Gama, with the nomination of the first Viceroy Francisco de Almeida, then settled at Kochi.
This is a list of Greek regents (αντιβασιλείς, sing.), a regent, from the Latin regens "one who reigns", is a person selected to act as head of state (ruling or not) because the ruler is a minor, not present, or debilitated.
Protocol holds that a head of state takes precedence over all other officials, and that heads of state rank in the order that they took office.
This article lists the heads of state of Iran since establishment of the Iran's modern Nation-State on 1501 AD.
This article lists the heads of state of Sudan since the country's independence in 1956.
This is a list of characters from Philip Pullman's His Dark Materials trilogy and its successor, the Book of Dust trilogy.
Holy Roman Empress or Empress of the Holy Roman Empire is the title given to the consort (wife) or regent of the Holy Roman Emperor.
The following is a list of Icelandic flags.
The following list of Indian monarchs is one of several lists of incumbents.
This is the list of episodes of the Gerry Anderson television series Joe 90, made for the British production company ITC Entertainment and first broadcast between 1968 and 1969 on ATV Midlands.
This list of kings of Sparta details the important rulers of the Greek city-state of Sparta in the Peloponnesus.
This is a list of Latin words with derivatives in English (and other modern languages).
In the reign of Ordoño I of Asturias (850–866), the kingdom began to be known as that of León.
A total number of 84 kings from the Ningthouja dynasty ruled the Kingdom of Kangleipak presently Manipur state of Republic of India from 1445 BC to 1955 CE.
Monarchs of the Muhammad Ali dynasty reigned over Egypt from 1805 to 1953.
Monarchy referendums are referendums on the abolition or restoration of monarchy and on the rules of succession.
Khatun means Queen, Emperor's consort and high-ranking noblewoman in Mongolian (Khatan in modern Mongolian).
This is a list of the biological mothers of Ottoman sultans.
The Neo-Hittite states are sorted according to their geographical position.
The U.S. state of Louisiana is divided into 64 parishes (French: paroisses) in the same manner that 48 other states of the United States are divided into counties, and Alaska is divided into boroughs.
This list contains famous or notable people who were either born, residents, or otherwise closely associated with the City of Edinburgh, Scotland.
This is a list of notable people with a strong connection with the town of Reading in the English county of Berkshire.
The Dutch Golden Age was a period in Dutch history, roughly equivalent to the 17th century, in which Dutch trade, science and art were top ranking in the world.
This is a list of the duchies and dukes of Pomerania.
The President of Finland is Finland's head of state.
This is a list of Queens who have ruled as Queen in many countries (Separate queens for separate countries).
This is the list of regencies and cities of Indonesia.
A regent is a person selected to act as head of state (ruling or not) because the ruler is a minor, not present, or debilitated.
This list encompasses all rulers and leaders of what is today Ukraine, from ancient to modern times.
The Asantehene is the absolute monarch of the Kingdom of Ashanti, its cultural region Ashantiland, and of the Ashanti (or Asante) people's ethnic group.
This is a list of rulers of Iceland, ruling from 1262 to 1944.
The land of Provence has a history quite separate from that of any of the larger nations of Europe.
This is a list of rulers of island of Taiwan.
Oyo, Oyo State, is the seat of the line of the rulers of Oyo.
This is a list of people associated with the modern Russian Federation, the Soviet Union, Imperial Russia, Russian Tsardom, the Grand Duchy of Moscow, and other predecessor states of Russia.
This is a list of all reigning monarchs in the history of Russia.
This list of Russian saints includes the saints canonized by the Russian Orthodox Church and the Russian saints canonized by other Orthodox Churches.
Saints in the Russian Orthodox Church are confirmed by canonization which lists the decedent into the Community of Saints.
This is a list of encyclopedic persons (students, alumni, faculty, staff, or academic affiliates) associated with California State University, Sacramento (Sacramento State).
This is a list of Serbian regents, a regent (намесник/namesnik), from the Latin regens "one who reigns", is a person selected to act as head of state (ruling or not) because the ruler is a minor, not present, or debilitated.
The List of shipwrecks in the 1720s includes some ships sunk, wrecked or otherwise lost during the 1720s.
A monarch is the person who heads a monarchy, normally ruling for life, or until abdication or deposition.
This is a list, in alphabetical order within categories, of notable hispanic people of Spanish heritage and descent born and raised in Spain, or of direct Spanish descent.
This is a list of Spanish regents, a regent, from the Latin regens "one who reigns", is a person selected to act as head of state (ruling or not) because the ruler is a minor, not present, or debilitated.
This article lists characters of Star Trek in their various canonical incarnations.
The Sultans of Zanzibar were the rulers of the Sultanate of Zanzibar, which was created on 19 October 1856 after the death of Said bin Sultan, who had ruled Oman and Zanzibar as the Sultan of Oman since 1804.
This is a list of Swedish monarchs, that is, the Kings and ruling Queens of Sweden, including regents and viceroys of the Kalmar Union, up to the present time.
The following is a list of notable alumni, non-graduates, lecturers, professors and administrators affiliated with the Thammasat University (TU).
A list of fictional characters featured in Robin Jarvis's novel series, The Deptford Mice.
Please observe, that this list is meant to contain only the first woman to hold of a political office, not all the female holders of that office.
This is a list of last monarchs of the Americas.
This is a list of The Smurfs characters appearing in the original comics series, television series, Smurfs Bubble Story game and the 2011 movie (as well as its sequels).
The following is a list of Transylvanian personalities.
This is a list of fictional characters in the television series Warehouse 13.
This is a list of armed conflicts involving Brazil since its inception during the Brazilian War of Independence.
During World War II a number of countries were conquered and controlled.
This is a list of flags that were used by and in Yugoslavia.
This is a list of Yugoslav regents.
The literary inquisition or speech crime refers to official persecution of intellectuals for their writings in China.
Liu Bian (176 – 6 March 190), also known as Emperor Shao of Han and the Prince of Hongnong, was the 13th emperor of the Eastern Han dynasty in China.
Liu Cong (died 318), courtesy name Xuanming, nickname Zai, formally Emperor Zhaowu of Han (Zhao), was an emperor of the Xiongnu state Han Zhao.
Liu Jingxian (劉景先) (died 689), né Liu Qixian (劉齊賢), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, serving as chancellor late in the reign of Emperor Gaozong and the subsequent regency of Emperor Gaozong's wife Empress Dowager Wu (later known as Wu Zetian) over their sons Emperor Zhongzong and Emperor Ruizong.
Liu Wenjing (568–619), courtesy name Zhaoren, formally the Duke of Lu, was a statesman and one-time Chancellor of the Tang dynasty.
Liu Yao (died 329), courtesy name Yongming, was the final emperor of the Xiongnu state Han Zhao.
Liu Yikang (劉義康) (409–451), nickname Chezi (車子), was an imperial prince of the Chinese dynasty Liu Song.
Liu Yizhi (劉禕之) (631 – June 22, 687), courtesy name Ximei (希美), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, serving as chancellor during the first reign of Emperor Ruizong.
Liu Youqiu (劉幽求) (655 – December 6, 715), formally Duke Wenxian of Xu (徐文獻公), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty and Wu Zetian's Zhou Dynasty, serving as a chancellor during the reigns of Emperor Ruizong and Emperor Xuanzong.
Liu Yuan (劉淵) (died 310), courtesy name Yuanhai (元海), formally Emperor Guangwen of Han (Zhao) (漢(趙)光文帝) was the founding emperor of the Xiongnu state Han Zhao in 308.
Liutprand (died after 759) was the duke of Benevento from the death of his father Gisulf II in 751 until his own deposition.
Llanvair Discoed (Llanfair Is Coed) is a small village in Monmouthshire, south-east Wales, 6 miles west of Chepstow and 10 miles east of Newport.
Lobamba is the traditional, spiritual, and legislative capital city of Swaziland, seat of the Parliament,.
Loch Leven Castle is a ruined castle on an island in Loch Leven, in the Perth and Kinross local authority area of Scotland.
The Lohara dynasty were Hindu rulers of Kashmir between 1003 and approximately 1320.
Long Island School for the Gifted (LISG) is a private school (pre-kindergarten to 9th grade) for gifted children located in South Huntington, New York in Suffolk County.
The Lord Chancellor, formally the Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, is the highest ranking among those Great Officers of State which are appointed regularly in the United Kingdom, nominally outranking even the Prime Minister.
The Lord High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland is the British Sovereign's personal representative to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland (the Kirk), reflecting the Church's role as the national church of Scotland, and the Sovereign's role as protector and member of that Church.
Lord Protector (pl. Lords Protectors) is a title that has been used in British constitutional law for the head of state.
When the Viking chieftain Rollo obtained via the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte the territories which would later make up Normandy, he distributed them as estates among his main supporters.
The Lordship of Meath was an extensive seigniorial liberty in medieval Ireland that was awarded to Hugh de Lacy by King Henry II of England by the service of fifty knights and with almost royal authority.
Lorenzo Burrows (March 15, 1805 in Groton, New London County, Connecticut – March 6, 1885 in Albion, Orleans County, New York) was an American merchant, banker and politician.
Lorenzo Lauri (15 October 1864 – 8 October 1941) was an Italian Cardinal of the Catholic Church who served as Major Penitentiary from 1927 and Camerlengo from 1939 until his death and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1926.
Loretta of Sponheim (born ca. 1300; died 1346) was a countess of the noble house of Sponheim-Starkenburg.
Lorković–Vokić plot (Urota Lorković-Vokić) was an attempt initiated by the Minister of Interior, Mladen Lorković and Minister of Armed Forces, Ante Vokić, to form a coalition government with the Croatian Peasant Party (HSS), abandon the Axis powers and align the Independent State of Croatia with the Allies with help of the Croatian Home Guard.
Molcie Lou Halsell Rodenberger (September 21, 1926 – April 9, 2009) was a Texas author, educator, professor, and journalist.
Louis Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Enghien (duc d'Enghien pronounced) (Louis Antoine Henri; 2 August 1772 – 21 March 1804) was a relative of the Bourbon monarchs of France.
Louis Armand de Bourbon (10 November 1695 – 4 May 1727) was Prince of Conti, from 1709 to his death, succeeding his father, François Louis de Bourbon.
Louis de Rouvroy, Duke of Saint-Simon (16 January 16752 March 1755), was a French soldier, diplomat and memoirist.
Louis François Joseph de Bourbon or Louis François II, Prince of Conti (1 September 1734 – 13 March 1814), was the last Prince of Conti, scion of a cadet branch of the House of Bourbon, whose senior branches ruled France until 1848.
Louis François de Bourbon, or Louis François I, Prince of Conti (13 August 1717 – 2 August 1776), was a French nobleman, who was the Prince of Conti from 1727 to his death, following his father, Louis Armand II de Bourbon.
Louis Günther I, Count of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt (27 June 1581 in Rudolstadt – 4 November 1646 in Rudolstadt) was the ruling Count of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt from 1612 until his death.
Louis Günther II, Count of Schwarzburg-Ebeleben (2 March 1621 – 20 July 1681) was the ruling count of Schwarzburg-Ebeleben from 1642 until his death.
Louis Günther II of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt (also known as Louis Günther IV), (22 October 1708 in Rudolstadt – 29 August 1790, Rudolstadt) was the ruling prince of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt from 1767 until his death.
Louis Henri de Bourbon, Duke of Bourbon, or Louis Henri I, Prince of Condé (18 August 1692 – 27 January 1740), was head of the Bourbon-Condé cadet branch of the France's reigning House of Bourbon from 1710 to his death, and served as prime minister to his kinsman Louis XV from 1723 to 1726.
Louis I (Luis Felipe; 25 August 1707 – 31 August 1724) was King of Spain from 15 January 1724 until his death in August the same year.
Louis I (23 July 1339 – 20 September 1384) was the second son of John II of France and the founder of the Angevin branch of the French royal house.
Louis I of Orléans (13 March 1372 – 23 November 1407) was Duke of Orléans from 1392 to his death.
Louis II, sometimes called the Younger (825 – 12 August 875), was the King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor from 844, co-ruling with his father Lothair I until 855, after which he ruled alone.
Louis II (1283×94 – 1348×49), of the House of Savoy, was the Baron of Vaud from 1302 until his death.
Louis IX (25 April 1214 – 25 August 1270), commonly known as Saint Louis, was King of France and is a canonized Catholic and Anglican saint.
Louis of France (21 or 24 February 1244 – 11 January 1260) was the eldest son of King Louis IX of France and his wife Margaret of Provence.
The Venerable Louis of Granada, OP (1504 – 31 December 1588), was a Dominican friar who was noted as theologian, writer and preacher.
Louis Philip (German: Ludwig Philipp) (23 November 1602 – 6 January 1655) was the Count Palatine of Simmern-Kaiserslautern from 1610 until 1655.
Louis Philippe I (6 October 1773 – 26 August 1850) was King of the French from 1830 to 1848 as the leader of the Orléanist party.
Louis Philippe Joseph d'Orléans (13 April 17476 November 1793), most commonly known as Philippe, was born at the Château de Saint-Cloud.
Louis the Blind (880 – 5 June 928) was the king of Provence from 11 January 887, King of Italy from 12 October 900, and briefly Holy Roman Emperor, as Louis III, between 901 and 905.
Louis the Pious (778 – 20 June 840), also called the Fair, and the Debonaire, was the King of the Franks and co-Emperor (as Louis I) with his father, Charlemagne, from 813.
Louis VIII the Lion (Louis VIII le Lion; 5 September 1187 – 8 November 1226) was King of France from 1223 to 1226.
Louis William, Margrave of Baden-Baden (8 April 1655 – 4 January 1707) was the ruling Margrave of Baden-Baden in Germany and chief commander of the Imperial army.
Louis XIII (27 September 1601 – 14 May 1643) was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1610 to 1643 and King of Navarre (as Louis II) from 1610 to 1620, when the crown of Navarre was merged with the French crown.
The Louis XIII style or Louis Treize was a fashion in French art and architecture, especially affecting the visual and decorative arts.
Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.
The French Revolution was a period in the history of France covering the years 1789 to 1799, in which republicans overthrew the Bourbon monarchy and the Roman Catholic Church in France perforce underwent radical restructuring.
Louis XVII (27 March 1785 – 8 June 1795), born Louis-Charles, was the younger son of King Louis XVI of France and Queen Marie Antoinette.
Louis XVIII (Louis Stanislas Xavier; 17 November 1755 – 16 September 1824), known as "the Desired" (le Désiré), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1814 to 1824, except for a period in 1815 known as the Hundred Days.
Louis, Duke of Burgundy and later Dauphin of France (16 August 1682 – 18 February 1712) was the eldest son of Louis, Grand Dauphin, and father of Louis XV, and briefly heir to the throne from his father's death in April 1711 to his own death 10 months later.
Louis the Child (Ludovico or Luigi; 4 February 1338 – 16 October 1355) was King of Sicily (also known as "Trinacria") from 15 September 1342 until his death.