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Fannā (Panāh) Khusraw (فنا خسرو), better known by his laqab of ʿAḍud al-Dawla (عضد الدولة, "Pillar of the Dynasty") (September 24, 936 – March 26, 983) was an emir of the Buyid dynasty, ruling from 949 to 983, and at his height of power ruling an empire stretching from Makran as far to Yemen and the shores of the Mediterranean Sea.
Ayam are Kuwaiti citizens of Iranian origin, who migrated to Kuwait over the last couple of hundred years.
ʿAli Akbar Khata'i (modern Ali Ekber Hıtai; fl. ca. 1500-1516) was an early 16th-century Middle Eastern or Central Asian traveler and writer.
-abad is a suffix that forms part of many west, central and south Asian city names originally derived from the Persian language term (آباد), meaning "cultivated place" (village, city, region), and commonly attached to the name of the city's founder or patron.
A 250 Years Old Person (انسان 250 ساله) is a book by Ali Khamenei, supreme leader of Islamic Republic of Iran.
A Clean Break: A New Strategy for Securing the Realm (commonly known as the "Clean Break" report) is a policy document that was prepared in 1996 by a study group led by Richard Perle for Benjamin Netanyahu, the then Prime Minister of Israel.
A History of God is a book by Karen Armstrong.
A History of the World in 100 Objects was a joint project of BBC Radio 4 and the British Museum, comprising a 100-part radio series written and presented by British Museum director Neil MacGregor.
"A New Beginning" is the name of a speech delivered by United States President Barack Obama on 4 June 2009, from the Major Reception Hall at Cairo University in Egypt.
A Shiʼi-Sunni dialogue also translated as The Right Path is a book written by the Lebanese Shiʼa Muslim cleric and religious authority Abd al-Husayn Sharaf al-Din al-Musawi in Arabic as al-Murājaʿāt (Arabic: المراجعات), then it has been translated to more than ten languages including English.
Allen James Reimer (August 10, 1942 – August 28, 2010) was a Canadian Mennonite theologian who held a dual academic appointment as Professor of Religious Studies and Christian Theology at Conrad Grebel University College, a member college of the University of Waterloo, and at the Toronto School of Theology, a consortium of divinity schools federated with the University of Toronto.
Şerif Cırık (17 November 1939 — 17 May 2002), also known as Mahzuni Şerif, was a folk musician, ashik, composer, poet, and author from Turkey.
Abu Sa'id Aban ibn Taghlib ibn Rubah al-Kindi (died 758 AD/141 AH) was a famous Shia Muslim scholar, Quranic reciter, jurisprudence, exegetist and traditionalist.
The Abaqati family (or Khandān-e-Abaqāat) is one branch of the Kintoori Sayyids.
Natik Abbas Hasan al-Bayati is an Iraqi Shiite Turkmen politician and a member of the Iraqi National Assembly.
Abbas al Moussawi عباس الموسوي; 26 October 1952 – 16 February 1992) was an influential Lebanese Shia cleric, co-founder and Secretary General of Hezbollah. He was killed by the Israel Defense Forces in 1992.
Ayatollah Sayyed Abbas Almohri (1915–1988) (آية الله سيد عباس المهري) was one of the first Kuwaiti Shia scholars based in Kuwait.
Abbas Amanat (عباس امانت) (born November 14, 1947) is William Graham Sumner Professor of History at Yale University.
Abbas Amir-Entezam (عباس امیرانتظام, born 18 August 1932, Tehran) was the spokesman and deputy prime minister in the Interim Cabinet of Mehdi Bazargan in 1979.
Syedna Abbas Bin Mohammad was 15th Dai of Taiyabi Musta‘lī Bohra Islam(Death: 8th Shawwal al-Mukarram 779H/ 6th Feb 1378AD, Hisne Af’ida, next to Al Maḩārīq, Sanaa, Hamdan, Yemen).
Abbas Fallahi Babajan (عباس فلاحی باباجان; born 1966) is an Iranian politician.
Grand Ayatollah Sayyid Abbas Hosseini Kashani (1931 – July 18, 2010) (السید عباس حسيني کاشانی) was an Iranian Twelver Shi'a Marja.
Shāh Abbās the Great or Shāh Abbās I of Persia (شاه عباس بزرگ; 27 January 157119 January 1629) was the 5th Safavid Shah (king) of Iran, and is generally considered the strongest ruler of the Safavid dynasty.
Al-Abbas ibn Ali (العباس بن علي, عباس فرزند علی), also Qamar Banī Hāshim (the moon of Banu Hashim) (born 4th Sha‘bān 26 AH – 10 Muharram 61 AH; approximately May 15, 647 – October 10, 680), was the son of Imam Ali, the first Imam of Shia Muslims and the fourth Caliph of Sunni Muslims, and Fatima bint Hizam, commonly known as Mother of the Sons ('أم البنين'). Abbas is revered by Shia Muslims for his loyalty to his half-brother Hussein, his respect for the Households of Muhammad, and his role in the Battle of Karbala. Abbas is buried in the Shrine of Abbas in Karbala, Karbala Governorate, Iraq, where he was martyred during the Battle of Karbala on the day of Ashura. He was praised for his "handsome looks".
Abbas Ibrahim Hijazi (Arabic: عباس إبراهيم حجازي) was a commander of Hezbollah.
Ayatollah Abbas Ka'bi Nasab (Persian: آیت الله عباس کعبی) is an Iranian Twelver Shi'a cleric who was born in Ahwaz in 1962 in a religious family.
Abbas Mirza Mosque (Աբաս Միրզայի մզկիթ (Abas Mirzayi mzkit'), مسجد عباس میرزا, Abbas Mirzə məscidi) was a nineteenth-century Shia mosque in Yerevan, Armenia.
Grand Ayatollah Sayyid Abbas Modaresi Yazdi (Persian: السيد عباس مدرسي يزدي) (born 1945) is an Iranian Twelver Shi'a Marja.
Engineer Abbas Noyan (عباس نویان) is a citizen of Afghanistan and a former representative to the Wolesi Jirga, the lower house of its national legislature.
Abbas Qomi (عباس قمی) also known as Muhaddith Qomi (محدث قمی) was a Shia scholar, historian, and hadith narrator.
Abbas Sheibani (عباس شیبانی; born 1931) is an Iranian physician, university professor and politician.
Abbas-Ali Amid Zanjani (30 March 1937 – 30 October 2011) was an Iranian politician and cleric.
Abbasid architecture developed in the Abbasid Caliphate between 750 and 945, primarily in its heartland of Mesopotamia.
The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
The Abbasid Revolution refers to the overthrow of the Umayyad Caliphate (661–750 CE), the second of the four major Caliphates in early Islamic history, by the third, the Abbasid Caliphate (750–1258 CE).
Abd al-Aziz bin Abdul-Lateef al-Badri (1929 – 1969) was an Iraqi Islamic scholar.
Abd al-Aziz bin Muhammad bin al-Siddiq al-Ghumari (عبد العزيز بن الصديق; November 1920 in Tangier – November 6, 1997, in Tangier) was a Muslim scholar from Morocco.
Ayatollah Seyed ‘Abd al-Husayn Mousavi Najafi Lari (آیت الله سید عبدالحسین موسوی نجفی لاری) was born 1226 SH, Najaf.
Abd al-Husayn Sharaf al-Din al-Musawi (عبدالحسين شرف الدين الموسوي) was a Shi'a twelver Islamic scholar.
Abd Al-Karim Qasim Muhammed Bakr Al-Fadhli Al-Zubaidi (عبد الكريم قاسم) (21 November 1914 – 9 February 1963), was a nationalist Iraqi Army brigadier who seized power in the 14 July Revolution, wherein the Iraqi monarchy was eliminated.
Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (عبد الملك ابن مروان ‘Abd al-Malik ibn Marwān, 646 – 8 October 705) was the 5th Umayyad caliph.
Abd al-Rahim Ahmad Ali al-Hasini is an Iraqi politician and secretary-general of the Shia Islamist Islamic Virtue Party, which is based in Basra.
Abd-Allah ibn Abd-Allah ibn Ubayy (عبدالله بن عبدالله أبي) was the son of Abd-Allah ibn Ubayy and a companion of Muhammad.
Abd-Allah ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah (d. 161 AH; 776 CE), also known as Abu Hashim was a member of the Banu Hashim clan of the Quraish tribe in Mecca.
Abdullah ibn Umm-Maktum (عبد الله بن أم مكتوم) (died 636) was a companion of Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Abdāl (lit: substitutes, but which can also mean "generous" and "noble") is a term used in Islamic metaphysics and Islamic mysticism, both Sunni and Shiite, to refer to a particularly important group of God's saints.
Abdal-Latif Mirza,(c. 1420 – 9 May 1450) was the great-grandson of Central Asian emperor Timur.
Abdallah al-Ghalib Billah (1517 – 22 January 1574, reigned 1557–74) was the second Saadian sultan of Morocco.
Abdallah Mazandarani (عبدالله مازندرانی) (AD 1840–1912; AH 1256–1330) was a Shia Marja' and a leader of the constitutional movement against the Qajar dynasty.
Abdel Amir Abbud Rahima was Minister of Agriculture in the cabinet appointed by the Interim Iraq Governing Council in September 2003.
Abdel-Karim Mahoud al-Mohammedawi was a member of the Interim Iraq Governing Council created following the United States's 2003 invasion of Iraq.
Staff Lieutenant General Abdul-Wahab al-Saadi (عبد الوهاب الساعدي) is the second-in-command of Iraqi Counter-Terrorism Service (ICTS).
Abdol Majid Mirza Eyn-ed-Dowleh (1845 – 2 November 1927) Qajar prince and Prime Minister, was the eldest son of Prince Soltan Ahmad Mirza Azod Al-Duleh and grandson of Fat'h Ali Shah Qajar.
Ayatollah Abdol-Hamid Masoumi-Tehrani is an Iranian cleric based in Tehran, Iran.
Abdolali Bazargan (عبدالعلی بازرگان; born 14 August 1943 in Tehran, Iran) is an Iranian liberal politician, writer and intellectual who is current deputy leader of Freedom Movement of Iran. He was one of five major figures in the Green Movement to author a manifesto calling for the resignation of Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad in 2009.
Abdolhossein Teymūrtāsh (عبدالحسین تیمورتاش; 1883–1933) was an influential Iranian statesman who served as the first Minister of Court of the Pahlavi Dynasty from 1925 to 1932, and is credited with playing a crucial role in laying the foundations of modern Iran in the 20th century.
Abdollah Javadi-Amoli (عبدالله جوادی آملی) is an Iranian Twelver Shi'a Marja.
Abdollah Ramezanzadeh (عبدالله رمضانزاده), is an Iranian academic, writer and politician.
Abdolmoghim Nasehi (عبدالمقیم ناصحی) is an Iranian Shia cleric and conservative politician who is a former member of the City Council of Tehran and was head of its cultural commission.
Molla Abdul Rahim Damavandi (1737-1757) was an Iranian shia philosopher and one of the leading of Zahabiyyah Tarighah.
Imam Abdul Alim Musa (born 1945 as Clarence Reams) is a Muslim American activist and director of Masjid Al-Islam in Washington, D.C. He is a member of the Institute of Contemporary Islamic Thought (ICIT) and a well-known speaker around the world.
Sheikh Abdul Amir al-Jamri (شيخ عبدالأمير الجمري; 1 March 1938 – 18 December 2006) was one of the most prominent Shia clerics and opposition leaders in Bahrain.
Abdul Aziz al-Hakim (سید عبد العزيز الحكيم; 1952 – 26 August 2009) was an Iraqi theologian and politician and the leader of Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq, a party that has approximately 5% support in the Iraqi Council of Representatives.
Shāh Abdul Azīz Hotak (died 1717) (عبد العزیز هوتک) was the second ruler of the Ghilji Hotak dynasty of Kandahar, in what is now the modern state of Afghanistan.
Sheikh Abdul Hossein Amini (عبدالحسین امینی) was a Shia scholar, traditionist, theologian and jurist. His magnum opus is Al-Ḡadīr fi’l-Ketāb wa’l-Sonna wa’l-Adab.
Syedna Abdul Husain Husamuddin (died: 27 Zilhaj 1308 AH/1891 AD, Jamnagar, India) was the 48th Da'i of Dawoodi Bohra.
Abdul Hussayn Jivaji (also known as Malak) was the founder of the Atba-i-Malak branch of Mustaali Ismaili Shi'a Islam.
Abdul Kadir (1952 – 28 June 2018) was Guyanese politician who was a member of Guyana's parliament, the National Assembly and mayor of Guyana's second-largest city, Linden, from 1994 to 1996.
Abdul Karim Luaibi Bahedh (born 1959) is an Iraqi politician who served as the minister of oil of Iraq between December 2010 and 8 September 2014.
Abdul Latif Berry (عبد اللطيف بري) (also Sheikh Abdul Latif Berry).
Syedna Abdul Muttalib was 14 the Dai of Bohra(Taiyabi Musta‘lī) Islam(Death: 24 Rajabul Asab 755 H.-1354 A.D.,Zimarmar-Yemen).
Abdul Qadir Ebrahimji was the founder of the Atba-i-Malak Vakil branch of Mustaali Ismaili Shi'a Islam.
Abdul Rahman Ibn Abdul Aziz as-Sudais (ʻAbd ar-Rahman ibn ʻAbd al-Aziz as-Sudais; born 10 February 1960 in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia) is the Imam of the Grand Mosque in Mecca, Saudi Arabia; the President of the General Presidency for the Affairs of the Two Holy Mosques; a renowned qāriʾ (reciter of the Qur'an); and was the Dubai International Holy Qur'an Award's "Islamic Personality Of the Year" in 2005.
Abdul Razzaq al-Mahdi (عبد الزراق المهدي) is a Syrian Islamist cleric who is actively involved fighting in the Syrian Civil War against the Syrian government.
Grand Ayatollah Hajj Sheikh Abdolkarim Haeri Yazdi (عبدالکریم حائری یزدی; عبد الكريم الحائري اليزدي) (1859 — 30 January 1937) was a Twelver Shia Muslim cleric and marja.
Seyyed Abdul-Karim Mousavi Ardebili (عبدالکریم موسوی اردبیلی, 28 January 1926 – 23 November 2016) was an Iranian reformist politician and Twelver shi'a marja.
Sayyid Abdul Majid al-Khoei ((السيد عبد المجيد الخوئي) (Arabic), 16 August 1962 – 10 April 2003) was a Twelver Shia cleric and the son of Ayatollah Al-Udhma Sayyid Abul Qasim al-Khoei.
Sayyid Abdul-Malik Badreddin al-Houthi (عبد الملك بدر الدين الحوثي.) is a leader of the Zaidi revolution movement Ansar Allah (Houthis).
Sheikh Abdul-Satar al-Bahadli is a senior Iraqi Shia cleric and confederate of Muqtada al-Sadr.
Abdulhadi Abdulla Hubail al-Khawaja (عبد الهادي عبد الله حبيل الخواجة) is a Bahraini-Danish human rights activist.
Abdulhussain Abdulredha (عبد الحسين عبد الرضا) (15 July 1939 – 11 August 2017) was a Kuwaiti actor.
Abduljalil Abdulla al-Singace (عبدالجليل عبدالله السنكيس) (52-year-old) is a Bahraini engineer, blogger, and human rights activist.
Sheikh Abdulkarim Zanjani (1887 – 1968) was a Shiite man.
Abdullah Abdullah (Dari/Pashto: عبدالله عبدالله, born September 5, 1960) is an Afghan politician, serving as Chief Executive of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan since September 2014.
Abdullah bin Saleh al Samahiji (1675–1722) (عبد الله بن صالح السماهيجي) was a Bahraini Shia Islamic scholar who lived during the Safavid period.
Abdullah al-Aftah ibn Ja'far al-Sadiq (d.766 CE / 149 A.H.) was the eldest surviving son of Ja'far al-Sadiq (after al-Sadiq’s death) and the full-brother of Isma'il ibn Jafar.
Abu Muḥammad ʿAlī / ʿAbd Allāh al-Mahdi Billah (873 – 4 March 934) (أبو محمد عبد الله المهدي بالله), was the founder of the Ismaili Fatimid Caliphate, the only major Shi'a caliphate in Islam, and established Fatimid rule throughout much of North Africa, Hejaz, Palestine and the Levant.
Syedna Abdullah Fakhruddin was the 16th Dai of Taiyabi Musta‘lī Dawoodi Bohra Islam(Death: 9th Ramadan al-Moazzam 809H/ 16 Feb 1407AD, Zimarmar-Yemen).
Abdullah Gan, is a mountainous region of Afghanistan.
Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib (عبدالله بن عبد المطلب) (c.546–570) was the father of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Ibn Ǧibrīn or Abdullah ibn Abdulrahman ibn Jibreen (عبد الله بن عبد الرحمن بن جبرين) (1933-13 July 2009) was a Saudi-based cleric and a member of the powerful Senior Clerics Association International Herald Tribune and Permanent Committee for Islamic Research and Issuing Fatwas in Saudi Arabia.
Abdullah ibn Sabaʾ al-Ḥimyarī (or ibn Sabāʾ, also sometimes called ibn al-Sawdāʾ, ibn Wahb, or ibn Ḥarb) was a dubious 7th-century figure in Islamic history who is often associated with a group of followers called the Sabaʾiyya (سبئية).
Abdullah II bin Al-Hussein (عبد الله الثاني بن الحسين., ʿAbdullāh ath-thānī ibn Al-Ḥusayn, born 30 January 1962) has been King of Jordan since 1999.
Abdullah Kadhem Ruaid is a former Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party official in the Dujail region is Iraq, and the father of Mizher Abdullah Roweed Al-Musheikhi.
Grand Ayatollah Sayyed Abdullah Al-Musawi Al-Shirazi (February 25, 1892 – September 29, 1984) was a Grand Ayatollah of Twelver Shi'a Islam.
Abdullah bin Abdulaziz Al Saud (عبدالله بن عبدالعزيز آل سعود,, Najdi Arabic pronunciation:; 1 August 1924 – 23 January 2015) was King of Saudi Arabia and Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques from 2005 to his death in 2015.
Abdullah Pasha ibn Ali (commonly referred to simply as Abdullah Pasha; 1801–?) was the Ottoman governor (wali) of Sidon Eyalet between May 1820 and May 1832, with a nine-month interruption in 1822–23.
Syed Abdur-Razzaq Nurul-Ain was a Sufi saint.
Abdussalam Akhundzadeh — fifth Sheikh ul-Islam of the Caucasus.
Syedna Abduttayyeb Zakiuddin (death: 2 Rabi-ul-Awwal 1041 AH /1633 AD, Birth: 8th Safar-ul-Muzaffar 972 AH), Ahmedabad, India) was the 29th Da'i al-Mutlaq (Absolute Missionary) of the Dawoodi Bohra. Dawoodi Bohras claim that he was the successor to the 28th Dai Syedna Sheikh Aadam Safiuddin to the religious post amid succession dispute which resulted in the formation of the Alavi Bohra sect who consider Shamshuddin Ali ibn Ibrahim as the successor to the post of Dai al Mutlaq. Ali was the grandson of the 28th Dawoodi Bohra Dai Syedna Sheikh Aadam Safiuddin.
Syedna Abduttayyeb Zakiuddin Bin Badruddin (died: 4 Safar 1200 AH/ 1787 AD, Burhanpur, India) was the 41st Da'i al-Mutlaq (Absolute Missionary) of the Dawoodi Bohra sect of Musta‘lī Islam.
Syedna Abduttayyeb Zakiuddin II was 35th Dai of Dawoodi Bohra (Death: 12 Zilkad 1110/1692A.D. Jamnagar,India).
Abid Ali Abid (Urdu/Persian: سید عابد علی عابد) was an Urdu and Persian poet and educator who was born on 17 September 1906 in Hamadan, Iran and died in Peshawar, Pakistan on 20 January 1971.
Abid Ali Nazish (2 January 1972 – 25 January 2012) was a Pakistani/Afghan actor from the Ethnic group Hazara.
Abol-Fath Khan Zand (ابوالفتح خان زند Abol-Fatḥ Khān Zand; 1755/17561787) was the third Shah of the Zand dynasty, ruling from March 6, 1779, until August 22, 1779.
Sayyed Abu’l-Qāsem Kāšāni (سید ابوالقاسم کاشانی; November 19, 1882 – March 14, 1962) was an Iranian politician and Shia Marja.
Ayatollah Abolghasem Khazali Boroujerdi (ابولقاسم خزعلی بروجردی, 21 March 1925 – 16 September 2015) was a hardline Iranian politician, fundamentalist Shi'i cleric and a founding member of Haghani school with close ties with Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and Saeed Jalili.
Abolghasem Salavati (ابوالقاسم صلواتی; born 16 July 1967) is the head of the 15th branch of the Islamic Revolutionary Court in Tehran, Iran.
Abortion in Iran has been the subject of internal controversy for many years.
The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as Abrahamism, are a group of Semitic-originated religious communities of faith that claim descent from the practices of the ancient Israelites and the worship of the God of Abraham.
Abrar Hussain (February 9, 1961 – June 16, 2011) was professional Pakistani welterweight and Light-middleweight boxer.
Al-Awwam bin Mohammad bin Yusuf Al-Zajaj (Arabic: العوام بن محمد بن يوسف الزَجاج), known as Abu al-Bahlul (Arabic: ابو البهلول، Father of Al-Bahlul) was a Shiite member of the Abdul Qays tribe in Bahrain who overthrew Ismaili Qarmatian rule in the islands around 1058.
Qaeda Quwet Abu Fadl al-Abbas (QQAFA; قائدة قوة أبو الفضل العباس Qa‘īda Quwa ‘Ābū al-Faḍl al-‘Abbās), or the Abu al-Fadl al-Abbas Forces, is a Shiite militia operating in Iraq, formed following the June 2014 during ISIL advances.
Abu Al-Khaseeb (sometimes spelled Abu Al-Khasib) is a town in Abu Al-Khaseeb District, Basra Governorate, southern Iraq.
Abu al-Qasim al-Khoei (أبو القاسم الخوئي; سید ابوالقاسم خوئی) (November 19, 1899 – August 8, 1992) was an Iranian Shia cleric and one of the most influential Twelver Shia Islamic scholars (marja'), and the predecessor to Ali al-Sistani.
Abū Bakr aṣ-Ṣiddīq ‘Abdallāh bin Abī Quḥāfah (أبو بكر الصديق عبد الله بن أبي قحافة; 573 CE23 August 634 CE), popularly known as Abu Bakr (أبو بكر), was a senior companion (Sahabi) and—through his daughter Aisha—the father-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Abu Bakr became the first openly declared Muslim outside Muhammad's family.Muhammad Mustafa Al-A'zami (2003), The History of The Qur'anic Text: From Revelation to Compilation: A Comparative Study with the Old and New Testaments, p.26, 59. UK Islamic Academy.. Abu Bakr served as a trusted advisor to Muhammad. During Muhammad's lifetime, he was involved in several campaigns and treaties.Tabqat ibn al-Saad book of Maghazi, page no:62 He ruled over the Rashidun Caliphate from 632 to 634 CE when he became the first Muslim Caliph following Muhammad's death. As caliph, Abu Bakr succeeded to the political and administrative functions previously exercised by Muhammad. He was commonly known as The Truthful (الصديق). Abu Bakr's reign lasted for 2 years, 2 months, 2 weeks and 1 day ending with his death after an illness.
Abū Bakr al-Baghdadi (أبو بكر البغدادي; born Ibrahim Awad Ibrahim al-Badri إبراهيم عواد إبراهيم علي محمد البدري السامرائي in 1971) is the leader of the Salafi jihadist militant terrorist organisation known as the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL),Rewards for Justice – Retrieved 25 January 2017 which controls territory in several countries.
Abu Bakr Muhammad bin Yahya al-Suli (أبو بكر محمد بن يحيى الصولي) (born: 266–267 A.H/ 880 A.D in Gorgan - died: 334–335 A.H/ 946 A.D in Basra) (aged 68-69. lunar calendar) was a nadim (boon companion) of successive Abbasid caliphs.
Ismail Hafidh Al-Lami — known as "Abu Deraa" (Arabic: أبو درع, "Father of the Shield") — is an Iraqi Shia warlord whose men have been accused of terrorizing and killing Sunnis.
Abū Dharr al-Ghifari al-Kinani (أبو ذر الغفاري الكناني.), also Jundab ibn Junādah (جُنْدَب ابْنِ جُنَادَة), was the fourth or fifth person converting to Islam, and a Muhajirun.
Al-Harith ibn Abi’l-ʿAlaʾ Saʿid ibn Hamdan al-Taghlibi (932–968), better known by his nom de plume of Abu Firas al-Hamdani (أبو فراس الحمداني), was an Arab prince and poet.
Abu Hatim Ṭayyib Ziyā'u d-Dīn (August 6, 1932 – May 23, 2015), full name Saiyedna Abu Haatim Taiyeb Ziyauddin Saheb and personal name Taiyyeb, Ayyubali with kunya (agnomen) "Abu Haatim", was the 44th Dā‘ī al-Muṭlaq, "the absolute or unrestricted missionary", of the Alavi Bohra, a minority group of Ismā‘īlī Shī‘ah Muslims.
Abū Ḥanīfa al-Nuʿmān b. Thābit b. Zūṭā b. Marzubān (أبو حنيفة نعمان بن ثابت بن زوطا بن مرزبان; c. 699 – 767 CE), known as Abū Ḥanīfa for short, or reverently as Imam Abū Ḥanīfa by Sunni Muslims, was an 8th-century Sunni Muslim theologian and jurist of Persian origin,Pakatchi, Ahmad and Umar, Suheyl, “Abū Ḥanīfa”, in: Encyclopaedia Islamica, Editors-in-Chief: Wilferd Madelung and, Farhad Daftary.
Abu Hashim Muhammad bin Abdul Rahman al-Ibrahim was the third leader of Ansar al-Islam, an Islamic militant group operating in Iraq.
Abū Hurayrah al-Dawsiyy al-Zahrāniyy (أبو هريرة الدوسي الزهراني‎; 603–681), often spelled Abu Hurairah, was one of the sahabah (companions) of Muhammad and, according to Sunni Islam, the most prolific narrator of hadith.
Abu 'Isa (also known as Ovadiah, Ishaq ibn Ya'qub al-Isfahani, Isaac ibn Jacob al-Isfahani) was a self-proclaimed Jewish prophet sometime in the 8th century AD in Persia and the leader of a short-lived revolt.
Abu Ishaq Ibrahim, also known by his honorific title of Umdat al-Dawla ("Mainstay of the Empire"), was a Buyid prince, who was the youngest son of the Buyid ruler Mu'izz al-Dawla.
Abu Ja'far Muhammad (ابو جعفر محمد), was the ruler of the Bavand dynasty from an unknown date until his capture and defeat by the Kakuyids in 1027.
Hashim al-Shaykh (هاشم الشيخ), also known by his nom de guerre Abu Jaber Shaykh (أبو جابر الشيخ) is a rebel commander during the Syrian Civil War who is a senior leader of Tahrir al-Sham.
Abu Kalijar Marzuban (died October 1048) was the Buyid amir of Fars (1024–1048), Kerman (1028–1048) and Iraq (1044–1048).
Abu l-Hasan al-Isfahani (ابوالحسن الاصفهانی) was a Shia scholar and Marja'.
Abu Mahdi al-Muhandis (real name Jamal Jafaar Mohammed Ali Ebrahimi) is an Iraqi military commander who heads the Popular Mobilisation Committee (Al-Hashd Al-Sha'abi), which is active against the Islamic State.
Abū Manṣūr Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. Maḥmūd al-Samarḳandī (853-944 CE; محمد بن محمد بن محمود أبو منصور ماتریدی سمرقندی حنفی), often referred to as Abū Manṣūr al-Māturīdī for short, or reverently as Imam Māturīdī by Sunni Muslims, was a Sunni Hanafi jurist, theologian, and scriptural exegete from ninth-century Samarkand who became the eponymous codifier of one of the principal orthodox schools of Sunni theology, the Maturidi school, which became the dominant theological school for Sunni Muslims in Central Asia and later enjoyed a preeminent status as the school of choice for both the Ottoman Empire and the Mughal Empire.
Abu Mansur Fulad Sutun (ابو منصور فولاد ستون, died 1062) was the last Buyid amir of Fars, ruling more or less continuously from 1048 until his death.
Abu Mikhnaf (died 774) (Lut ibn Yahya ibn Sa'id ibn Mikhnaf Al-Kufi) (لوط ابن يحيٰ ابن سعيد ابن مِخنَف الكوفي) was a classical Muslim historian from the 8th century.
Ziyad ibn Abdullah ibn Yazid ibn Mu'awiyah,Al-Tabari, ed.
Abu Musab al-Zarqawi (أبو مصعب الزرقاوي,, Abu Musab from Zarqa;; October 20, 1966 – June 7, 2006), born Ahmad Fadeel al-Nazal al-Khalayleh (أحمد فضيل النزال الخلايلة), was a Jordanian jihadist who ran a paramilitary training camp in Afghanistan.
The Abu Musallam incident was an event where a large group 3000 people, including Salafist Muslims, killed a small group of Shias in their home in a suburb of Cairo on June 23 2013.
Abu Muslim Abd al-Rahman ibn Muslim al-Khorasani or al-Khurasani (أبو مسلم عبد الرحمن بن مسلم الخراساني born 718-19 or 723-27, died in 755), born Behzādān Pūr-i Vandād Hormoz (بهزادان پور ونداد هرمزد), was a Persian general in service of the Abbasid dynasty, who led the Abbasid Revolution that toppled the Umayyad dynasty.
Abu Mustafa al-Sheibani (born 1959 in al-Nasiriyah) also known as Hamid Thajil Warij al-Attabi or Hamid al-SheibaniUnited States Department of the Treasury is an Iraqi Shi'a leader who commands his own insurgent group and smuggling network known as the Sheibani Network, which became one of the Iraqi Special Groups.
Hamid Dawud Mohamed Khalil al-Zawi (حميد داود محمد خليل الزاوي, died 18 April 2010) — known as Abu Hamza al-Baghdadi, and Abu Omar al-Qurashi al-Baghdadi, Wimmera News.
Sa'id ibn Malik Sinan al-Khazraji al-Khudri (سعد بن مالك بن سنان الخزرجي الخدري) (kunya: Abu Sa'id) was an Ansari from the original inhabitants of Medina and one of the younger companions of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
The Abu Sayda bombing was a chlorine car bombing attack that occurred on 15 May 2007, in an open-air market in the Iraqi Diyala Governorate village of Abu Sayda.
Abū Ṭālib ibn ‘Abd al-Muṭṭalib (ابو طالب بن عبد المطلب), was the leader of Banu Hashim, a clan of the Qurayshi tribe of Mecca in the Hijaz, Arabian Peninsula.
Abu Theeb is the pseudonym of a leader of a Sunni group taking part in the Iraqi insurgency, operating north of Baghdad.
Abu Turab or Father of Soil, is a title attributed to Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib, the first Shia Caliph and Imam, and the fourth Sunni Caliph.
Abu Ubaida, Obaida, or Ubaydah (أبو عبيدة; 728–825) Ma’mar ibn ul-Muthanna was an early Muslim scholar of Arabic philology.
Abū 'Ubayd ibn Mas'ūd ibn 'Amr ibn 'Umayd ibn 'Awf al-Thaqafī (also al-Thaqīfī) (أبو عبيد بن مسعود بن عمرو بن عمير بن عوف الثقفی), or simply Abu Ubayd (أبو عبيد), was a commander in the army of the Rashidun Caliphate.
Abū Yazīd Mukhallad ibn Kayrād al-Nukkari (أبو يزيد مخلد بن كيراد; 873 - 19 August 947), nicknamed Ṣāhib al-Himār "Possessor of the donkey", was a Ibadi Berber of the Banu Ifran tribe who led a rebellion against the Fatimid Caliphate in Ifriqiya (modern Tunisia and eastern Algeria) starting in 944.
Abu Zayd al-Hilali (أبو زيد الهلالي) is a 1947 Egyptian film that portrays the life of the tenth-century Arabic leader and hero Abu Zayd al-Hilali.
Abu'l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad ibn Mūsā ibn al-Ḥasan ibn al-Furāt, a member of the Banu'l-Furat family, was a senior fiscal administrator for the Abbasid Caliphate and eventually head of the fiscal administration under the caliphs al-Mu'tadid and al-Muktafi, until his death in 904.
Abu'l-Fath an-Nasir ad-Dailami (died 1053) was an imam of the Zaidi state in Yemen who ruled from c. 1038 to 1053.
Abu'l-Hasan Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Musa ibn al-Hasan ibn al-Furat (855 – 18 July 924) was a senior official of the Abbasid Caliphate who served three times as vizier under Caliph al-Muqtadir.
Abu'l-Hasan Mihyar al-Daylami (died 1037) was an Arabic-language poet of Daylamite origin during the Buyid period.
In Twelver Shia Islam, Abul Hasan Ali ibn Muhammad al-Samarri(939 AD) was the fourth and last of The Four Deputies appointed by the twelfth and final Imam, Muhammad al-Mahdi, while he was in the Minor Occultation.
Abul Qasim Husayn ibn Ruh Nawbakhti (died 937 or 938 AD) was the third of the four deputies appointed by twelfth Shia Imam Muhammad al-Mahdi while he was in the Minor Occultation.
Abul-Aish Ahmad ibn Al-Qassim Gannoun (Arabic: أبو العيش أحمد بن القاسم كنون) was the twelfth Idrisid ruler and sultan of Morocco.
Abusaid Shokhumorov (Tajik: Абусаид Шохуморов) (1955–1999) was a famous Pamiri, Tajik scholar in the history and philosophy of Pamiri Ismailism.
Abuzar Brigade, (لواء أبوزر Liwa' 'Abuzr), (لشکر ابوذر), literally also known as Abuzar Division, or Abuzar Brigade is an Afghan Shia brigade that voluntarilly fought for Iranian side in the Iran–Iraq War in (1980–1988).
Turkey's application to accede to the European Economic Community, the predecessor of the European Union (EU), was made on 14 April 1987.
Achomi (Ajami or Achami) (Larestani: اَچُمی), also known as Ajami, Lari or Larestani (Persian: لارستانی), is an Iranian language spoken in the south of Iran, mostly in Fars Province by Achomi people, a Shia and Sunni Persian ethnic group Cities that speak this dialect include Lar, Juyom, Evaz, Gerash, Khonj, Bastak, Khour, Kowreh, Fedagh, along with many others.
Achomi or Ajami people also incorrectly known as Lari or Larestani people (or Khodmooni), are a Persian ethnic group who inhabit primarily in Southern Fars, and Hormozgan Province, Iran.
The Adab Educational Complex (موقوفه ی فرهنگی ادب) is a private school in the Lavizan neighborhood of Tehran, Iran.
Adalah (عدالة) means justice and denotes The Justice of God.
Adam (ʾĀdam; Adám) is the name used in the opening chapters of the Book of Genesis for the first man created by God, but it is also used in a collective sense as "mankind" and individually as "a human".
There are additional Shia doctrines besides the Theology of Twelvers and the Aspects of the Religion.
The Aden Protectorate (محمية عدن) was a British protectorate in southern Arabia which evolved in the hinterland of the port of Aden and in the Hadramaut following the conquest of Aden by Great Britain in 1839, and it continued until the 1960s.
The Aden unrest refers to an ongoing conflict between Islamist factions, such as al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula, and Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant's Yemen Branch, against the loyalists of president Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi.
Al-Adhamiyah (الأعظمية, al-aʿẓamiyyah; BGN: Al A‘z̧amīyah), also Azamiya, is a neighborhood and east-central district of the city of Baghdad, Iraq.
The adhan, athan, or azaan (أَذَان) (also called in Turkish: Ezan) is the Islamic call to worship, recited by the muezzin at prescribed times of the day.
Adib Boroumand (or Adīb Burūmand) (ادیب برومند; 11 June 1924 – 13 March 2017) was an Iranian poet, politician, and lawyer.
Adil Abdul-Mahdi al-Muntafiki (عادل عبد المهدي المنتفكي) is an Iraqi Shi'a politician, economist, and was one of the Vice Presidents of Iraq from 2005 to 2011.
Adil al-Kalbani عادل الكلباني is a former Imam of the Mecca Great Mosque.
The Adil Shahi or Adilshahi, was a Shia Muslim dynasty, founded by Yusuf Adil Shah, that ruled the Sultanate of Bijapur, centred on present-day Bijapur district, Karnataka in India, in the Western area of the Deccan region of Southern India from 1489 to 1686.
Adnan al-Zurufi was the US-appointed governor of Najaf Governorate appointed May 2004.
Adnan Sayyed Hussein (born 27 February 1954) is a Lebanese political scientist, academic and politician who served as minister of state for social affairs in the cabinet led by Prime Minister Saad Hariri.
Afghan Americans are Americans of Afghan descent or Americans who originated from Afghanistan.
Afghan Canadians are Canadians with ancestry from Afghanistan.
This article covers the Afghan history between 28 April 1992, the day that a new interim Afghan government was supposed to replace the Republic of Afghanistan of President Mohammad Najibullah, and the Taliban's conquest of Kabul establishing the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan on 27 September 1996.
This article covers the Afghan history between the Taliban's conquest of Kabul and their establishing of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan on 27 September 1996, and the U.S. and U.K. invasion of Afghanistan on 7 October 2001: a period that was part of the Afghan civil war that had started in 1989, and also part of the war (in wider sense) in Afghanistan that had started in 1978.
The Afghan Interim Administration (AIA), also known as the Afghan Interim Authority, was the first administration of Afghanistan after the fall of the Taliban regime and was the highest authority of the country from 22 December 2001 until 13 July 2002.
Afghanistan–Iran relations were established in 1935 during King Zahir Shah's reign and the Pahlavi dynasty of Persia.
Afghans in Iran are mostly refugees who have fled wars in Afghanistan since the April 1978 Saur Revolution in Kabul.
Afghans in the United Kingdom include British citizens and non-citizen residents born in, or with ancestors from, Afghanistan.
Afqa (افقا; also spelled Afka) is a village and municipality located in the Jbeil District of the Mount Lebanon Governorate, northeast of Beirut in Lebanon.
The Afrasiyab or Chalavi dynasty was a small Iranian Shia dynasty of Mazandaran and flourished in the late medieval, pre-Safavid period; it is also called the Kia dynasty.
African immigration to the United States refers to immigrants to the United States who are or were nationals of modern African countries.
Afro-Iranians (ایرانیان آفریقاییتبار) are people of Black African descent residing in Iran.
Afro-Iraqis are an ethnic group that is descended from people of Zanj heritage in Iraq.
The Afshar Operation was a military operation in Afghanistan that took place on February 11-12, 1993 during the Afghan Civil War (1992-96).
The Afsharid dynasty (افشاریان) were members of an Iranian dynasty that originated from the Turkic Afshar tribe in Iran's north-eastern province of Khorasan, ruling Persia in the mid-eighteenth century.
The following is an incomplete timeline of events that followed the Bahraini uprising of 2011 from January to August 2012.
The following is an incomplete timeline of events that followed the Bahraini uprising of 2011 from July to December 2011.
The aftermath of the Houthi takeover in Yemen refers to developments following the Houthis' takeover of the Yemeni capital of Sana'a and dissolution of the government, which eventually led to a civil war and the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen.
The Aga Khan Case was an 1866 court decision in the High Court of Bombay by Justice Sir Joseph Arnould that established the authority of the first Aga Khan, Hasan Ali Shah, as the head of the Bombay Khoja community.
The Aga Khan Development Network (AKDN) is a network of private, non-denominational development agencies founded by the Aga Khan, which work primarily in the poorest parts of Asia and Africa.
Aga Khan I (آغا خان اوّل|Āghā Khān-i Awwal or آقا خان اوّل|Āqā Khān-i Awwal|), was the title accorded to Hasan Ali Shah (حسن علی شاه|Ḥasan ‘Alī Shāh|) (1804 – 1881), the governor of Kirman, 46th Imam of the Nizari Ismaili Muslims, and prominent Muslim leader in Iran and later in the Indian subcontinent.
Aga Khan II (آقا خان دوّم; Āghā Khān-i Duvvum or, less commonly but more correctly آقا خان دوّم Āqā Khān-i Duvvum), was the title of Aqa Ali Shah (آقا علی شاه Āqā ‘Alī Shāh; b. 1830 in Mahallat, Iran; d. August 1885 in Pune, India), the 47th Imam of the Nizari Ismaili Muslims.
Sir Sultan Muhammed Shah, Aga Khan III (2 November 187711 July 1957) was the 48th Imam of the Nizari Ismaili religion.
Prince Shah Karim Al Hussaini, Aga Khan IV, (شاه كريم الحسيني، الآغاخان الرابع; شاه کریم حسینی، آقاخان چهارم; شاه کریم حسینی، آغاخان چهارم; Aga Khan is also transliterated as Aqa Khan and Agha Khan; born 13 December 1936) is the 49th and current Imam of Nizari Ismailism, a denomination of Isma'ilism within Shia Islam consisting of an estimated 10-15 million adherents (10—12% of the world's Shia Muslim population).
Aga Syed Mohammad Baqir Kirmani r.a. (Urduآغا سید محمد باقر کرمانی) was a religious cleric who came from Kirman, Iran in Kashmir to spread the message of Islam.
Aga Syed Mohammad Fazlullah Al-Moosavi Al-Safavi (1947-2018) was a Kashmiri Shia Scholar and cleric.
Ayatullah Aga Syed Mustafa Al-Moosavi Al-Safvi (2 February 1924 – 21 August 2002) widely known as Aga Sahab (آغا صاحب) was a Kashmiri Shia Muslim cleric, Islamic Jurist, Islamic scholar, philanthropist and former President of Anjuman-e-Sharie Shiyaan Jammu and Kashmir.
Ayatullah Aga Syed Yousuf Al-Moosavi Al- safvi (1904 – 29 August 1982) (آغا سید یوسف الموسوی الصفوی)was a Kashmiri religious scholar and leader of Shia Muslims.
Agha Bozorg mosque (مسجد آقا بزرگ Masjed-e Āghā Bozorg) is a historical mosque in Kashan, Iran.
Grand Ayatollah Sheikh Mohammed Mohsen Razi (محمد محسن بن علي بن محمد رضا الطهراني النجفي) popularly known as Agha (Aqa) Bozorg Tehrani (b. 11 Rabi-I 1293 - d. 13 Zul-Hijjah 1389 AH /b. 7 April 1876 - d.20 February 1970), was born in Tehran.
Agha Hasan Abedi (آغا حسَن عابِدی), (14 May 1922 – 5 August 1995) was a Pakistani banker and philanthropist who founded the Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI) in 1972.
The Agha Nour mosque (مسجد آقانور) is a mosque located in Isfahan, Iran.
Agha Shahi (آغا شا ﮨی; 25 August 1920 – 6 September 2006), ''NI'', was a Pakistani career Foreign service officer who was the leading civilian figure in the military government of former President General Zia-ul-Haq from 1977 to 1982.
Agha Syed Hamid Ali Shah Moosavi is the patron-in-chief of the supreme Shia ullama board and president of Tehrik-e-Nafaz-e-Fiqah-e-Jafaria (تحریکِ نفاذِ فقہ), the Shiite-law implementation movement.
Agha Zia Addin Araghi (آقا ضیاء الدین عراقی) was an eminent Shia jurist, Usuli and Mujtahid during the flourishing the Usul Fiqh in Ja'fari school in Shia after Muhammad Baqir Behbahani.
The Aghlabids (الأغالبة) were an Arab dynasty of emirs from Banu Tamim, who ruled Ifriqiya, nominally on behalf of the Abbasid Caliph, for about a century, until overthrown by the new power of the Fatimids.
The Ahbans Khanzada are a Muslim community found in the state of Uttar Pradesh in India.
Ahl al-Bayt (أهل البيت, اهلِ بیت), also Āl al-Bayt, is a phrase meaning, literally, "People of the House" or "Family of the House".
The Ahl al-Bayt World Assembly (مجمع جهانی اهل البیت.) is an international non-governmental organization (INGO) that was established by a group of Shiite elites under the supervision of the great Islamic authority of the Shiites in 1990 to identify, organize, educate and support the followers of Ahl al-Bayt.
Ahl al-Kisa' (Ahl al-Kisā'), or the People of the Cloak, refers to the Islamic prophet, Muhammad; his daughter, Fatimah; his cousin and son-in-law Ali; and his two grandsons Hassan and Husayn.
Ahl-e-Bait TV, an Islamic, Shia TV channel, was founded by Hassan Allahyari in 2009.
Ahlebait TV is a Shia Muslim TV channel based in the United Kingdom.
The Ahlul Bayt Assembly of Canada is a federation of Shi'a Muslim organizations in Canada and includes 80 Shi'a Islamic centres and mosques in the country.
The Ahlul Bayt Islamic Centre is the main Shia Islamic centre in Ireland and is situated at Milltown Bridge, Dublin.
Ahlulbayt Television Network is the first exclusively English-language Shia Islamic television channel.
Ahmad bin Muhammad bin al-Siddiq al-Ghumari was a Muslim traditionist and scholar of Hadith from Morocco.
Ahmad al-Hassan, full name Ahmad bin Ismail bin Saleh bin Hussain bin Salman (احمد بن اسماعيل بن صالح بن الحسين بن سلمان, born in Basra, Iraq) is the leader of the Shia Iraqi movement Ansar of Imam al-Mahdi who claims to be the savior of mankind.
Ahmad al-Muhajir (أحمد المهاجر,,; 260-345 AH or 873-956 CE) also known as Al-Imām Aḥmad bin ʻIsa was an Imam Mujtahid and the progenitor of Ba 'Alawi sada group which is instrumental in spreading Islam to India, Southeast Asia and Africa.
Sayyid Ahmad Alamolhoda (also Alam Olhoda or Alam al-Hoda; احمد علمالهدی) is an Iranian Shia Islamic cleric who has been described as "senior" and "conservative" and "hardline." His rank has been given both as Hojjatoleslam and Ayatollah.
Ahmad Ansari Gerashi (احمد انصاری گراشی) known as Sheikh Ahmad (شیخاحمد), was an Iranian merchant, benefactor and international investor.
Grand Ayatollah Ahmad Azari-Qomi-Bigdeli (1925–1999) was an Iranian cleric.
Ahmad bin Yahya Hamidaddin (June 18, 1891 – September 19, 1962) was the penultimate king of the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen, who reigned from 1948 to 1962.
Ahmad Fatfat (أحمد فتفت) (born 28 March 1953) is a Lebanese politician from Danniyeh (Sîr ed Dannîyé), North Lebanon.
Ahmad Ghabel (also Ahmad Qabel) Born: 1954, Torbat-e Jam Died: October 22, 2012, Mashhad was a Hojjatoleslam Shia Muslim cleric, an Iranian theologian seminary lecturer, researcher, and author.
Grand Ayatollah Sayyid Ahmad Hassani Baghdadi (Arabic: السيد احمد الحسني البغدادي) (born 1944) is an Iraqi Twelver Shi'a Marja.
Ahmad Huseinzadeh (Əhməd Hüseynzadə) — third Sheikh ul-Islam of the Caucasus, son of Mahammadali Huseinzadeh, maternal uncle of Ali bey Huseynzade.
Abū Muḥammad Aḥmad ibn ʿAlī, known as Ibn Aʿtham al-Kūfī (أبو محمد أحمد بن أعثم الكوفي) (d. AH 314, AD 926-927 A.D) was a Muslim historian.
Ahmad ibn Muhammad Ardabili (احمد بن محمد اردبیلی) was a Shia Grand Ayatollah of jurisprudence.
Ayatollah Ahmad Jannati (احمد جنتی, born 23 February 1927) is an Iranian Shi'i cleric and a conservative politician.
Ahmad Kasravi (29 September 1890 – 11 March 1946; احمد کسروی) was a notable Iranian linguist, historian, nationalist and reformer.
Ahmad Keshvari (احمد کشوری; July 1953 – 7 December 1980) was a AH-1J SeaCobra pilot in the Army Aviation (''Havanirooz'') of Iran.
Sayyid Ahmad Khomeini (سید احمد خمینی;‎ 15 March 1946 – 16 March 1995) was the younger son of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini and father of Hassan Khomeini.
Prince Ahmad Mirza Azd es-Saltaneh (1891-1939), was the last son of Nasser al-Din Shah and princess Turan es-Saltaneh and full brother of Zahra Khanom Tadj es-Saltaneh.
Ahmad Moballeghi is professor of Qom Seminary at Kharij level, member of Assembly of Experts and the president of the Majlis Islamic Studies Center in the Islamic Parliament in Qom.
Ahmad Salek (احمد سالک) is an Iranian Shia cleric and conservative politician who currently represents Isfahan in the Parliament of Iran.
Ahmad Shāh Qājār (احمد شاه قاجار; 21 January 1898 – 21 February 1930) was Shah of Persia (Iran) from 16 July 1909 to 15 December 1925, and the last ruling member of the Qajar dynasty.
Ahmad Tejan Sillah is a Sierra Leonean Shia Muslim scholar and Islamic preacher.
Ahmad Vahidi (احمد وحیدی, born 27 June 1958) is an Iranian military commander of the Revolutionary Guards.
Ahmadiyya (officially, the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community or the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama'at; الجماعة الإسلامية الأحمدية, transliterated: al-Jamā'ah al-Islāmiyyah al-Aḥmadiyyah; احمدیہ مسلم جماعت) is an Islamic religious movement founded in Punjab, British India, in the late 19th century.
Ahmadu Bello University (ABU) is a federal government research university in Zaria, Kaduna State.
Ahmed Shya'a al-Barak (sometimes spelled Ahmad) was a member of the Interim Iraq Governing Council, created following the United States's 2003 invasion of Iraq and dissolved in June 2004.
Ahmed Hasan Ali Al-Gubbanchi is an Iraqi intellectual, born in Najaf in 1958, who focuses on developing a "Civil Islam" which is consistent with human rights, justice and modern circumstances, addressing the problems of traditional Islamic thought as he thinks that the literal interpretation of Quran leads to the incapability of Islam to get use of modern development and achievements, which leads, in turn, to the end of Islam, he sees every Islamic thought as a mere opinion on Islam and that the Islamic scripture had to comply with the historic situations of the ancient society of the prophet Mohammed, therefore it can not be considered literally, he considers Sharia alterable depending on the society, time and place, one of the evidence to support that is the Quran verses themselves whose orders have been changed at the time of the prophet which is called Naskh.
Ahmed Al-Jarallah (Born 1942.Sabin M. Shukri. The International who's who of the Arab world, Volume 2. 1984. p. 265. Full name Ahmad Abdel Aziz Al-Jarallah) is a Kuwaiti journalist, author, and the editor-in-chief of the Kuwaiti newspapers Arab Times and Al-Seyassah and owner of the weekly magazine Al-Hadaf.
Ahmed Al-Waeli Al-Laithi Al-Kinani (1928–2003) (الدكتور الشيخ أحمد الوائلي الليثي الكناني.) was a prominent Shi'a Islamic cleric, who preached the Islamic thoughts through books and lectures.
Ahmed bin Abdulaziz (احمد بن عبد العزيز آل سعود) (born 1942) is a member of House of Saud who served as deputy minister of interior of Saudi Arabia from 1975 to 2012 and briefly as minister of interior in 2012.
Prince Ahmed bin Fahd bin Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud (born 9 September 1986) is the third grandson of the King of Saudi Arabia Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud.
Ahmed Abdel Hadi Chalabi (أحمد عبد الهادي الجلبي; 30 October 1944 – 3 November 2015) was an Iraqi politician, a founder of the Iraqi National Congress (INC) and the President of the Governing Council of Iraq (37th Prime Minister of Iraq) He was interim Minister of Oil in Iraq in April–May 2005 and December 2005 – January 2006 and Deputy Prime Minister from May 2005 to May 2006.
Syedna Ahmad ibn Mubarak was the 7th Dai al Mutlaq of Taiyabi Musta‘lī Bohra Islam (Death: 22 Rabi-ul awwal, 627AH/ 1230 AD, Hamadan, Yemen).
Ahmed Ismael Hassan al-Samadi, also known as Ahmed Ismail Hassan and incorrectly identified as Ahmed Ismail Abdulsamad, (1990 – 31 March 2012) was a Bahraini citizen journalist and videographer who died after covering anti-government protests of the Formula One Gand Prix in Salmabad, Bahrain, where he was shot in the thigh and later died from the gunshot wound.
Ahmed Kousay Altaie (22 July 1965 - c. 2008) was a United States Army soldier, who was captured in October 2006 in Baghdad and later executed by his captors.
Ahmed Raza Khan (Arabic: أحمد رضا خان, Persian: احمد رضا خان, احمد رضا خان., अहमद रज़ा खान), commonly known as Ahmed Raza Khan Barelwi, Ahmed Rida Khan in Arabic, or simply as "Ala-Hazrat" (14 June 1856 CE or 10 Shawwal 1272 AH – 28 October 1921 CE or 25 Safar 1340 AH), was an Islamic scholar, jurist, theologian, ascetic, Sufi, and reformer in British India, and the founder of the Barelvi movement.
Ahmed Ali Abdullah Saleh Al-Sanhani Al-Humairi (أحمد علي عبد الله صالح السنحاني الحميري; born July 25, 1972) is the eldest son of former Yemeni president Ali Abdullah Saleh, and was a commander of approx.
Ahmed Shibani is a senior aide to radical Shia cleric Muqtada al-Sadr, whose political movement plays a key role in Iraq's power-sharing coalition.
Ahmed Subhy Mansour (أحمد صبحي منصور; born March 1, 1949) is an Egyptian American activist, whose website describes him as an Islamic scholar with expertise in Islamic history, culture, theology, and politics.
Ahmet Ağaoğlu, also known as Ahmed bey Agayev (Əhməd bəy Ağayev; 1869–1939) was a prominent Azerbaijani and Turkish politician, publicist and journalist.
Ahmet Davutoğlu (born 26 February 1959) is a Turkish academic, politician and former diplomat who was the Prime Minister of Turkey and leader of the Justice and Development Party (AKP) from August 2014 to May 2016.
The Ahrar al-Najran (ʾAḥrār an-Najrān, "Free Ones of the Najran") movement is an alleged secessionist group in southern Saudi Arabia that arose in response to the Saudi-led intervention in the Yemeni civil war that started in 2015.
Harakat Ahrar al-Sham al-Islamiyya (lit), commonly referred to as Ahrar al-Sham, is a coalition of multiple Islamist and Salafist units that coalesced into a single brigade and later a division in order to fight against the Syrian Government led by Bashar al-Assad during the Syrian Civil War.
Ahwazi Arabs are an Arab community in Iran which resides mostly in the resource rich Khuzestan Province in southwestern Iran, bordering Iraq.
The Aimaq Hazaras (Hazara-e-kala-e-nau, Hazara-e-qala-e-naw, Sunni Hazara) are the Aimaq's subtribe of Hazara origin, however they are Sunni Muslims and other Hazaras are Shia Muslims. The Aimaq Hazara consists of 38 subtribes. The Aimaq Hazara and Taimuri peoples are the most Mongoloid of the Aimaqs. The Aimaq people live in traditional Afghan black tents but the Aimaq Hazara and Taimuri are semi-nomadic who live in yurts covered with felt.
The Aimaq (ایماق), also transliterated as Aimak or Aymaq, are a collection of Persian-speaking nomadic and semi-nomadic tribes.
Ain Al-Tamur District is a district of Karbala Governorate, central Iraq.
Air Afrique was a Pan-African airline, that was mainly owned by many West African countries for most of its history.
‘Ā’ishah bint Abī Bakr (613/614 – 678 CE;عائشة بنت أبي بكر or عائشة, transliteration: ‘Ā’ishah, also transcribed as A'ishah, Aisyah, Ayesha, A'isha, Aishat, Aishah, or Aisha) was one of Muhammad's wives.
Aitit is a village located in South Lebanon north of Qana.
Aitzaz Hasan Bangash Shaheed (اعتزاز حسن, born 1997 - died 7 January 2014 Hangu) was a Pakistani school boy from Hangu District in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province who died while preventing a suicide bomber from entering his school of 2,000 students at Ibrahimzai village of Hangu, on 6 January 2014.
Ajam of Bahrain or Iranian Bahrainis (ایرانیان بحرین; عجم البحرین) are an ethnic group in Bahrain composed of Shia Bahraini citizens of non-Arab Iranian national background (mainly Persian and Lur Persians). There is also a substantial community of Sunni citizens of Persian descent, although they do not self-identify as Ajam. The Ajam are mostly bilingual in Persian and Arabic, though speak Persian as their first tongue.
Ajam of Iraq are Iraqi citizens of Persian Iranian national background or descent.
The Ajuran Sultanate (Dawladdii Ajuuraan, الدولة الأجورانيون), also spelled Ajuuraan Sultanate, and often simply as Ajuran, was a Somali empire in the medieval times that dominated the Indian Ocean trade.
Abu'l-Fath Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar (15 October 1542– 27 October 1605), popularly known as Akbar I, was the third Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1556 to 1605.
Major General Akbar Khan, DSO (1912 - 1993), also known as Mohammed Akbar Khan, was a Pakistan Army officer who is most known as the Brigadier-in-Charge in Kashmir on the Pakistan side in Indo-Pakistani War of 1947.
Akbar Nikzad (اکبر نیکزاد, born 1969 in Ardabil) is an Iranian politician, and the Governor of Ardabil Province and Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Province since 2011 to 2013 the Government of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad.
In Twelver Shia Islam, Akhbar refers to the transmitting of hadith, which are traditions regarding the actions and teachings of Muhammad, and his twelve successors.
Akhbar Al Khaleej (in Arabic أخبار الخليج meaning The Gulf News) is a Bahraini pro-government daily with an Arab nationalist slant.
The Akhbaris (اخباري) are Twelver Shia Muslims who reject the use of reasoning in deriving verdicts, and believe Quran and hadith (sayings of Prophet Muhammad and Twelve Shia Imams) as the only source of law.
Mohammad Kazem Khorasani or Akhund-e Khorasani (محمد کاظم خراسانی, (1839-1911)) was Twelver Shi'a Marja, politician, philosopher, reformer.
The Akkari-Laban dossier (ملف عكّاري لبن) is a 43-page document which was created by a group of Danish Muslim clerics from multiple organizations set out to present their case and ask for support in the Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy.
Akkum (أكوم, also spelled Akoum, also known as Ayn al-Safa) is a village in central Syria, administratively part of the Homs Governorate, located southwest of Homs and immediately north and south of the border with Lebanon.
The Al-‘Abbās Mosque or Masjid al-‘Abbās (مسجد الامام العباس) is the mausoleum of ‘Abbās ibn ‘Alī and historical building, located across from the Imām Husayn Mosque in Karbalā, Iraq.
Al Arab (in Arabic العرب meaning The Arabs) was the first Arabic daily following the independence of Qatar.
The Al Asalah Islamic Society (جمعية الأصالة الإسلامية) is the main Salafist political party in Bahrain, with four MPs after 2006's general election (down from seven MPs elected in 2002).
The Al ash-Sheikh (آل الشيخ),Using the term the Al ash-Sheikh family is a pleonasm as the word Al already means family.
Al Bada (البدع) is a locality in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE).
The Al Bander report refers to an alleged political conspiracy by certain government officials in Bahrain to foment sectarian strife and marginalize the majority Shia community in the country.
Al Forat Network (قناة الفرات الفضائية) is a satellite television network in Iraq.
Al Ghaybeh (Persian:الغیبه) is a theological book on the subject of occultation of the Twelfth Shia Imam, namely Imam Muhammad al Mahdi.
Al Hawza or al Hauza was an Arabic language weekly newspaper in Iraq.
Sura Al-Imran (آل عمران, Sūratu Āl 'Imrān, "The Family of Imran") is the 3rd chapter of the Qur'an with two hundred verses.
Al Jawf (الجوف) is a governorate of Yemen.
Al Jazeera (translit,, literally "The Island", though referring to the Arabian Peninsula in context), also known as JSC (Jazeera Satellite Channel), is a state-funded broadcaster in Doha, Qatar, owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network.
Al Kauthar fi Tafsir Al Quran is a Shi'a Muslim tafsir or an exegesis of the Quran written and compiled by the renowned Shia Scholar Mohsin Ali Najafi.
Al Khawalid (الخوالد the Khawālid; literally "the Khālids"), also spelled Al Khawaled, is a branch of the House of Khalifa, the ruling family of Bahrain.
Al Mayadeen (Arabic: الميادين; italic) is a pan-Arabist satellite television channel launched on 11 June 2012 in Beirut, Lebanon.
Al Muntazir Schools, named after the Shia Twelfth Imam, is a collection of non-government schools, providing excellent education from pre-school to A-levels, in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
Al-Wefaq National Islamic Society (جمعية الوفاق الوطني الإسلامية; transliterated: Jam'īyat al-Wifāq al-Waṭanī al-Islāmīyah), or Al-Wefaq for short, is a Bahraini political party.
The Al-Ahrar Bloc (Kotlat Al-Ahrar or Liberal Bloc) is an Iraqi Shia Islamist political coalition formed for the 2014 Iraqi parliamentary election.
Jisr al-'Ā'immah (جسر الأئمة, Al-Aimmah Bridge, literally "Bridge of the Imams") is a bridge over the river Tigris in the Iraqi capital of Baghdad.
Al Amali or the Dictations is a theological, religious and historical book written by Shaykh Mufid.
'''Al Amali''' (الامالي) means "book of dictations".
Abū ʿAlī Manṣūr al-Āmir bi'Aḥkāmi’l-Lāh (منصور الآمر بأحكام الله‎; 31 December 1096 – 7 October 1130 (Tuesday 3 Dhu'l-Qadah 524 AH) was the tenth Fatimid Caliph (1101–1130) and the 20th Isma'ili Imam of the Musta'li sect of Shia Islam. Like his father al-Musta'li (1094–1101), al-Amir was controlled by the regent al-Afdal Shahanshah (1094–1121) and had little influence in political matters. However, after the assassination of al-Afdal in 1121 AD he managed to gain control of government. His reign was marred by the loss of Tyre to the Crusaders as well as by the continuation of the schism between the Nizari and the Mustaali. This conflict climaxed in the assassination of al-Amir on Tuesday, October 7, 1130 (3rd Dhu al-Qi'dah, 524 AH).
Aqrabiyah (العقربية, also spelled Akrabieh or Aqrabieh; also known as al-Buwaydah al-Gharbiyah) is a village in central Syria, administratively part of the Homs Governorate, located southwest of Homs and immediately east and north of the border with Lebanon.
Al-Ashraf Qansuh Al-Ghuri (الأشرف قانصوه الغوري) was the second-to-last of the Mamluk Sultans.
Al ‘Askarī Shrine or the ‘Askariyya Shrine (aas) is a Shī‘ah Muslim holy site in the Iraqi city of Sāmarrā from Baghdad.
Al-Atabat Al-Aliyat (Arabic: العتبات العالیات) literally means the sublime thresholds.
Al-Awamiyah, also spelled Awamia, (العوامية) is a town situated in the Al-Qatif region in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia.
Al-Awjam (also written Al Awjām, Al Ājām, or Ajam al Qatif) is a small city located in the Eastern Province of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia on the Arabic Gulf.
Al-Azhar Mosque (جامع الأزهر, الأزهر, "mosque of the most resplendent") is an Egyptian mosque in Islamic Cairo.
The Al-Azhar Shia Fatwa, known in Arabic as The Shaltoot Fatwa (فتوى شلتوت), is an Islamic fatwa issued in 1959 on the topic of Shi'a–Sunni relations by Sunni scholar Shaikh Mahmood Shaltoot.
Al-Azhar University (1,, "the (honorable) Azhar University") is a university in Cairo, Egypt.
Abu Mansur Nizar al-Aziz Billah, commonly known as al-Aziz (10 May 955 – 14 October 996) (أبو منصور نزار العزيز بالله) was the fifth Caliph of the Fatimid Caliphate (975–996).
Al-Bab (الباب / ALA-LC: al-Bāb) is a city, de-jure administratively belonging to the Aleppo Governorate of the Syrian Arab Republic.
Verse (ayah) 256 of Al-Baqara is a well-known verse in the Islamic scripture, the Qur'an.
Al-Bayan Fi Tafsir al-Quran (The Elucidation of the Exegesis of The Qur'an and sometimes entitled The Prolegomena to the Quran) is a tafsir by the Shiite scholar Abu al-Qasim al-Khoei.
Al-Bu Badri is a notable Arab tribe in Iraq, predominantly based in Samarra, Diyala and Baghdad.
Al-Burhan fi Tafsir al-Quran or Kitab al-Burhan fi Tafsir al-Quran, popularly known as Tafsir al-Burhan (تفسير البرهان), is a Shi'a Muslim tafsir (or exegesis of the Quran) written by Syed Hashim bin Sulaiman bin Ismail al Husaini al Bahrani.
Al-Chemor (pronounced as Ach-Chmorr, Shammar, Shamir or Shummar in Arabic الشمرّ and "fennel" in English) is an ancient noble clan from Lebanon.
On 30 May 2017, an ice cream parlor in Karrada district of Baghdad, Iraq was attacked by an ISIS suicide bomber, killing at least 26 people.
Al-Farabi (known in the West as Alpharabius; c. 872 – between 14 December, 950 and 12 January, 951) was a renowned philosopher and jurist who wrote in the fields of political philosophy, metaphysics, ethics and logic.
Al-Fayhaa TV is an independent Arabic television channel broadcasting from Suleymaniyah, Iraq and is owned by Mohammad Al-Tay.
Al-Fu'ah (الفوعة, also spelled al-Fouaa and al-Fo'ua) is a town in northern Syria, administratively part of the Idlib Governorate, located northeast of Idlib.
Al Ghadir (الغدير في الكتاب والسنة والأدب) (that is "The Ghadir in the Book, the Sunnah, and Literature") is a 20-volume book written by the Iranian Shia scholar Abd Al Husayn Amini.
Al-Hadi ila’l-Haqq Yahya (859 – August 19, 911) was a religious and political leader on the Arabian Peninsula.
Al-Hadi Sharaf ad-Din (1820 - June 8, 1890) was a claimant for the Zaidi imamate of Yemen in the years 1878-1890, acting in opposition to the Ottoman occupiers of the country.
Abu’l-Maymūn ‘Abd al-Majīd ibn Muḥammad ibn al-Mustanṣir al-Ḥāfiz li-Dīn-Allāh (c. 1076 – 8 October 1149) was the eleventh Caliph of the Fāṭimids (r. 1130–1149) Al-Ḥāfiz assumed the Caliphate as the cousin of the murdered al-Āmir (1101–1130).
Al-Hajjam al-Hasan ibn Muhammad ibn al-Qasim (الحجام الحسن بن محمد بن القاسم) was the tenth Idrisid ruler and sultan of Morocco.
Abū ʿAlī Manṣūr (13 August 985 – 13 February 1021), better known by his regnal title al-Ḥākim bi-Amr Allāh (الحاكم بأمر الله; literally "Ruler by God's Command"), was the sixth Fatimid caliph and 16th Ismaili imam (996–1021).
Abu Abd-Allah Muhammad ibn Abd-Allah al-Hakim al-Nishapuri (أبو عبدالله محمد بن عبدالله الحاكم النيسابوري) (933 - 1014), and also known as Ibn al-Bayyiʿ.
The Al-Hannanah Mosque (Masjid al-Ḥannānah) is a mosque in Iraq.
Abu Hatim al-Harith ibn Surayj ibn Yazid ibn Sawa ibn Ward ibn Murra ibn Sufyan ibn Mujashi (أبو حاتم الحارث بن سريج) was an Arab leader of a large-scale social rebellion against the Umayyad Caliphate in Khurasan and Transoxiana.
Al-Ḥasan ibn ʻAlī al-Barbahārī was a Muslim theologian from Iraq.
Al-Hasan II ibn Al-Qassim Guennoun (الحسن الثاني بن القاسم كنون) was the thirteenth and the last Idrisid ruler and sultan of Morocco.
Al-Hayat (الحياة meaning "The life") is one of the leading daily pan-Arab newspapers, with a circulation estimated over 200,000.
Jamāl ad-Dīn Hasan ibn Yusuf ibn 'Ali ibn-i Mûtahhar al-Hilli (جمال الدين الحسن بن يوسف الحلي), also known as al-Allamah al-Hilli (العلامة الحلي, "the sage from Hilla"),Tehrani, Aga Buzurg, Tabaqat 'Alam il-Shi'ah, v.5 p.52 (Arabic) born December 15, 1250 CE (19 Ramadan 648 AH), died December 18, 1325, was a Twelver Shia theologian and mujtahid.
Muhammad bin al-Ḥasan b. Ali b. al-Ḥusayn al-ʿĀmili al-Mashghari (محمد بن الحسن بن علي بن الحسين العاملي المشغري), commonly known as Al-Ḥurr Al-ʿĀmili (الحر العاملي) (1033/1624 - 1104/1693), was a muhaddith and a prominent Twelver Shi’a scholar.
Husayni (الحسيني also spelled Husseini) is the name of a prominent Palestinian Arab clan formerly based in Jerusalem, which claims descent from Husayn ibn Ali (the son of Ali).
The Al-Hussain Mosque (مسجد الإمام الحسين; جامع سيدنا الحسين.) is a mosque built in 1154 (alternative transliterations include Husayn, Hussain, Husayn, and Hussayn; also, the mosque's name is prefixed by the honorific title Sayyidna).
The Arabic Shiite reform journal al-ʿIrfān (Arabic: العرفان; DMG: al-ʿIrfān; English: "Knowledge") was founded in Beirut by Aḥmad ʿĀrif az-Zain (1884-1960) in 1909.
Al-Istibsar (اَلاِْسْتِبْصار فیما اختلف من الأخبار; Al-Istibsar fi ma ukhtulif fihi min al-akhbar) is a Hadith collection, by the famous Twelver Shia Hadith scholar Abu Jafar Muhammad Ibn Hassan Tusi, commonly known as Shaykh Tusi.
Al-Jafr is a mystical Shia holy book compiled, according to Shia belief, by Ali and inherited by him from Muhammad.
According to Shia sources Al-Jamia (Also called al-Jami’a, al-Jámi'a, al-Jami'ah, al-Jamea, al-Jami‘, al-Jami, or al-Jama) (meaning “the encyclopedia” or “the comprehensive”).
The Al-Kadhimiya Mosque (مَـسـجـد الـكَـاظـمـيّـة) is a shrine located in the Kādhimayn suburb of Baghdad, Iraq.
Al-Kawthar TV is a Tehran-based Arabic-language television channel.
Abu ʿAbd-Allāh al-Ḥusayn ibn Ḥamdān al-Jonbalānī al-Khaṣībī (الحسين بن حمدان الخصيبي), mostly known as al-KhaṣībīMustafa Öz, Mezhepler Tarihi ve Terimleri Sözlüğü (History of Madh'habs), Ensar Publications, İstanbul, 2011.
Abu Bakr Ahmad ibn `Ali ibn Thabit ibn Ahmad ibn Mahdi al-Shafi`i, commonly known as al-Khatib al-Baghdadi (الخطيب البغدادي) or "the lecturer from Baghdad" (10 May 1002 – 5 September 1071; 392 AH-463 AH), was a Sunni Muslim scholar and historian.
The Al-Khilani Mosque (جامع الخلاني) is a historic mosque in Baghdad, Iraq where preserves the tomb and shrine of Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Uthman, who is also known as al-Khilani.
Al-Khulafa Mosque (جامع الخلفاء) is a historic mosque in Baghdad, Iraq, dates back to the Abbasid era.
Sūrat al-Layl (الليل, “The Night”) is the ninety-second sūrah (chapter) of the Qur'an, containing twenty-one āyāt (verses).
Al-Lawatia (اللواتية, sing. Lawati) is an ethnocultural group primarily based in the province of Muscat, Oman.
Al-lohūf ʿalā qatla’l-ṭofūf (أللُّهوف عَلى قتلَىِ الطّفوف) also known as Lohūf (لُهوف) is one of the widely known books written by Twelver hadith scholar Ebn Tawus (ابن طاووس, Ebn Ṭāwūs.) on the life and martyrdom of Imam Hussain.The book is one of the most renowned Maqtal among Shias.
Abu al-Abbas al-Maʾmūn ibn Hārūn al-Rashīd (أبو العباس المأمون; September 786 – 9 August 833) was the seventh Abbasid caliph, who reigned from 813 until his death in 833.
Al-Mahdi Muhammad bin Ahmed (October 27, 1637 – August 2, 1718), also known as Ṣāḥib al-Mawāhib, was an Imam of Yemen who ruled in 1689–1718.
Abū Muḥammad al-Ḥasan ibn Yūsuf al-Makzūn al-Sinjārī, better known simply as al-Makzun al-Sinjari (المكزون السنجاري) (b. 1188 or 1193 — d. 1240), was a paramount military, religious and literary figure in Alawite history and tradition.
Abu Nasr Khusrau Firuz (ابونصر خسرو فیروز, died 1058 or 1059), better known by his laqab of Al-Malik al-Rahim (الملک الرحیم, "the merciful king") was the last Buyid amir of Iraq (October 1048 – 1055).
Al-Malikiyya (المالكية) was a Palestinian village located in the Jabal Amil region.
Al-Manar (Arabic:المنار al-Manār;English: the beacon) is a Lebanese satellite television station affiliated with Hezbollah, 21 November 2008, Ya Libnan broadcasting from Beirut, Lebanon.
Al-Mansur or Abu Ja'far Abdallah ibn Muhammad al-Mansur (95 AH – 158 AH (714 AD– 6 October 775 AD); أبو جعفر عبدالله بن محمد المنصور) was the second Abbasid Caliph reigning from 136 AH to 158 AH (754 AD – 775 AD)Axworthy, Michael (2008); A History of Iran; Basic, USA;.
Al-Mansur al-Qasim (November 13, 1559 – February 19, 1620), with the cognomen al-Kabir (the Great), was an Imam of Yemen, who commenced the struggle to liberate Yemen from the Ottoman occupiers.
Al-Mansur al-Qasim al-Iyyani (922? – July 11, 1003) was an imam of the Zaidi state in Yemen who briefly reestablished a comprehensive Zaidi realm in the years 999–1002.
Abu Tahir Ismail al-Mansur Billah (913 – 19 March 953) was the third Caliph of the Fatimid Caliphate in Ifriqiya (r. 946-953).
Al-Masih ad-Dajjal (المسيح الدجّال, "the false messiah, liar, the deceiver") is an evil figure in Islamic eschatology.
Al-Masriyah (المصرية) is a village in central Syria, administratively part of the Homs Governorate, located southwest of Homs and immediately north and south of the border with Lebanon.
Al-Mazra'a (المزرعة) is a village in northern Syria located west of Homs in the Homs Governorate.
List of the Martyr al-Mehraab and the Independent Forces, (قائمة شهيد المحراب والقوى المستقلة), commonly known as the al-Mehraab Martyr List was a Shi'a Islamist, Iraqi political coalition formed for the Iraqi governorate elections, 2009 by the Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq.
Al Menbar National Islamic Society (جمعية المنبر الوطني الإسلامي, literally "Islamic National Tribune") is the political wing of the Al Eslah Society in Bahrain.
Al-Meshkhab is an Iraqi city and capital of the Al-Meshkhab district situated in the Najaf Governorate, 35 km south of Najaf and 230 km south west of Baghdad.
Al-Meshkhab is a district located in Najaf Governorate.
Al- Muʻizz ibn Bādīs; 1008–1062) was the fourth ruler of the Zirids in Ifriqiya, reigning from 1016 to 1062.
Abu Tamim Maad al-Muizz li-Dinillah (26 September 932 – 19 December 975) (lit), also spelled as al-Moezz, was the fourth Fatimid Caliph and 14th Ismaili imam, and reigned from 953 to 975.
Abu'l-Abbas Ahmad ibn Talha al-Muwaffaq (854 or 861 – 5 April 902), better known by his regnal name al-Mu'tadid bi-llah (المعتضد بالله, "Seeking Support in God") was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 892 until his death in 902.
Abu’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad ibn Jaʿfar (ca. 842 – died 15 October 892), better known by his regnal name al-Muʿtamid ʿAlā ’llāh ("Dependent on God"), was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 870 to 892.
Abū Isḥāq Muḥammad ibn Hārūn al-Rashīd (أبو إسحاق محمد بن هارون الرشيد; October 796 – 5 January 842), better known by his regnal name al-Muʿtaṣim bi’llāh (المعتصم بالله, "he who seeks refuge in God"), was the eighth Abbasid caliph, ruling from 833 to his death in 842.
Mubarrad or Mobarrad, full name Abū-l ‘Abbās Maḥommed ibn Yazīd ul-Azdī, (March 25, 826 in Basra – October, 898 in Baghdad) was an Arab grammarian.
Abū Muḥammad ʿAlī ibn Aḥmad (أبو محمد علي بن أحمد; 877/878 – 13 August 908), better known by his regnal name al-Muktafī bi-llāh (المكتفي بالله, "Content with God Alone"), was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 902 to 908.
Al-Muntafiq (المنتفق) is a large Arab tribal confederation of southern and central Iraq.
Abu Ja'far Muhammad (أبو جعفر محمد; November 837 – 7 June 862), better known by his regnal title al-Muntasir bi-llah (المنتصر بالله, "He who triumphs in God") was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 861 to 862, during the "Anarchy at Samarra".
Abu’l-Faḍl Jaʿfar ibn Ahmad al-Muʿtaḍid (أبو الفضل جعفر بن أحمد المعتضد) (895 – 31 October 932 CE), better known by his regnal name al-Muqtadir bi-llāh (المقتدر بالله, "Mighty in God"), was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 908 to 932 CE (295–320 AH), with the exception of a brief deposition in favour of al-Qahir in 928.
Al-Murtada Muhammad (891? - 1 May 922) was the second imam of the Zaidi state of Yemen, who ruled from 911 to 912 and was a respected religious scholar.
Abū'l-Qāsim Aḥmad al-Musta‘lī bil-Lāh (16 September 1094 – 12 December 1101, أبو القاسم أحمد المستعلي بالله) was the ninth Fatimid caliph, and believed by the Musta'li sect of Isma'ilism to be the nineteenth Imam.
Al-Mustanjid (المستنجد بالله) (1124 – 20 December 1170) was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 1160 to 1170. He was the son of previous Caliph al-Muqtafi. One of al-Muqtafi's wives, al-Mustanjid's stepmother, wanted her own son to succeed. She gained over many amirs to her side, and had their slave-girls armed with daggers to kill the new caliph. Al-Mustanjid discovered the plot and placed the rebel son and mother in prison. Around this time, Fatimid dynasty was at last extinguished, having lasted for 260 years. Their conqueror, Saladin, though himself an orthodox Muslim, initially didn't proclaim the Sunni faith in the midst of a people still devoted to the tenets and practice of the Shi'a sect. But he soon found himself able to do so; and thus the spiritual supremacy of the Abbasids again prevailed, not only in Syria, but throughout Egypt and all its dependencies. There is little else to say than that this caliph continued to occupy a more or less independent position, with a vizier and courtly surroundings, and supported by only a small force sufficient for an occasional local campaign.
Al-Mutahhar (January 3, 1503 - November 9, 1572) was an imam of the Zaidi state of Yemen who ruled from 1547 to 1572.
Abu’l-Faḍl Jaʿfar ibn Muḥammad al-Muʿtaṣim bi’llāh (جعفر بن محمد المعتصم بالله; March 822 – 11 December 861), better known by his regnal name al-Mutawakkil ʿAlā ’llāh (المتوكل على الله, "He who relies on God") was an Abbasid caliph who reigned in Samarra from 847 until 861.
Al-Mutawakkil Ahmad bin Sulayman (1106–1171) was an imam of the Zaidi state in Yemen who revived the polity after a long interregnum, wielding power in 1138–1171.
Abū ʾl-Qāsim al-Faḍl ibn al-Muqtadir (914 – September/October 974), better known by his regnal name of al-Mutīʿ li-ʾllāh (المطيع لله, "obedient to God"), was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 946 to 974.
The al-Nabi Mosque (مسجد النبی قزوین – Masjed al-Nabi, also known as: مسجد سلطانى – Masjed-e Soltani) is a famous mosque in Qazvīn.
Al-Nabi Sheeth (also spelled Nabi Chit; Arabic: النبي شيت) is a village in the Bekaa Valley of Lebanon.
Al-Nahda (النهضة / ALA-LC: an-Nahḍah; Arabic for "awakening" or "renaissance") was a cultural renaissance that began in the late 19th and early 20th centuries in Egypt, then later moving to Ottoman-ruled Arabic-speaking regions including Lebanon, Syria and others.
Al-Nas (قناة الناس) (meaning "The People Channel") was an Egyptian television station founded in January 2006 and broadcast from Cairo until Deposition of Mohammed Morsi.
Al-Nasir li-Din Allah (6 August 1158 – 5 October 1225) (الناصر لدين الله) was the 34th Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 1180 until his death.
Al-Nasr (النصر; Arabic for "Victory") was a Hazara militant group, opposed to the leftist Afghan government during the 1980s After the Revolutionary Council of Islamic Unity of Afghanistan, Al-Nasr was the elite militant group.
Hasan bin Mousa Al-Nawbakhty (الحسن بن موسى النوبختي.) was a Shia Muslim scholar, lived in the 3rd and 4th Hijri century.
Al-Nihayah (Arabic: النهایة) is one of the greatest juridical books among Shia.
An-Nukhailah Mosque is a historic mosque in the town of Al Kifl, Iraq.
The Masjid al-Nuqtah (مسجد النقطة - Mosque of the Drop) is a mosque located on Mount Jawshan in Aleppo, Syria.
Al-Nusra Front or Jabhat al-Nusra (جبهة النصرة.), known as Jabhat Fateh al-Sham (جبهة فتح الشام, transliteration: Jabhat Fataḥ al-Šām) after July 2016, and also described as al-Qaeda in Syria or al-Qaeda in the Levant, was a Salafist jihadist organization fighting against Syrian government forces in the Syrian Civil War.
Al-Qāʾim (القائم "He Who Arises") is a messiah-like figure in Shia Islam, sometimes referred to as the Mahdi, but distinctly of a Shiʿa tradition.
Abu'l-Qasim Muhammad ibn al-Mahdi (أبو القاسم محمد بن المهدي القائم بأمر الله; April 893 – 17 May 946), better known by his regnal name al-Qa'im bi-Amr Allah or bi-Amri 'llah (القائم بأمر الله, "He who carries out God's orders"), was the second caliph of the Fatimid Caliphate in Ifriqiya and ruled from 934 to 946.
Al-Qaeda (القاعدة,, translation: "The Base", "The Foundation" or "The Fundament" and alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qæda and sometimes al-Qa'ida) is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national organization founded in 1988.
Al-Qaeda involvement in the Middle East includes Iraq, Israel, Palestine, Lebanon and Yemen.
Al-Qadisiyah Governorate (translit) is one of the governorates of Iraq.
Abul-Qasim al-Hussein bin Mufaddal bin Muhammad, better known as Raghib Isfahani (ابوالقاسم حسین ابن محمّد الراغب الاصفهانی), was an eleventh-century Muslim scholar of Qur'anic exegesis and the Arabic language.
Al-Rasool Al-A'dham Mosque (Arabic: مسجد الرسول الاعظم) is a mosque located in Bankstown, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
Al-Rifai district is an Iraqi district located in the Dhi Qar Governorate, 80 km north of Nasiriyah and 300 km south of Baghdad.
Al-Risalah al-Dhahabiah (الرسالة الذهبیة,; "The Golden Treatise") is a medical dissertation on health and remedies attributed to Ali ibn Musa al-Ridha (765–818), the eighth Imam of Shia.
The Risalat al-Huquq (رسالة الحقوق,; "Treatise of Rights") is a work attributed to Ali ibn al-Husayn the fourth Imam of the Shia except for his relatively short sayings and letters.
Al-Sadr Online is the official website of the High Board for Media of Al-Sadr's Office.
Al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya (الصحیفه السجادیه,; "Scripture of Sajjad") (صحیفۀ امام سجاد,; "Scripture of Imam Sajjad") is a book of supplications attributed to Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin, the great-grandson of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.
The Al-Sahlah Mosque or Masjid al-Sahlah (مسجد السهلة) is one of the primary significant mosques in the city of Kufa, Iraq.
The Mosque of Al Salih Tala'i (مسجد الصالح طلائع) is a late Fatimid-era mosque commissioned by the vizir Tala'i ibn Ruzzik in 1160.
Al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah is an Islamic book written by the Muslim scholar Ibn Hajar Al-Haytami, it covers many areas such as how to send greetings upon the Prophet Muhammad.
Al-Sayeda Zainab Mosque is a historic mosque in Cairo, Egypt, and constitutes one of the most important and biggest mosques in the history of Egypt.
Al-Sayyed Mohsen al-Amin (b.1284/1867-d.1371/1952) was a Shia scholar, biographer, traditionist, and jurist.
Al-Shaghour (الشاغور) is a municipality and a neighborhood located in the old walled city of Damascus, Syria, south and east of the Old City, and east of al-Midan.
Tāj al-Dīn Abū al-Fath Muhammad ibn `Abd al-Karīm ash-Shahrastānī (1086–1153 CE), also known as Muhammad al-Shahrastānī, was an influential Persian historian of religions, a historiographer, Islamic scholar, philosopher and theologian.
Al-Shamiya (الشامية) is a city in Al-Shamiya District, Al-Qādisiyyah Governorate, Iraq.
Abul-Hasan Muhammad ibn Al-Husayn Al-Musawi known in Arabic as al-Sharif al-Radi (الشريف الرضي) and in Persian as Sharif Razi (شريف رضی) or Seyyed Razi (سید رضی) was a Shi'ite Muslim scholar and poet, who was born in 359 AH/970 CE in Baghdad and died in the year 406/1015 in his hometown.
Al-Shatrah (also known as Shatrat al-Muntafiq) is a town in southern Iraq, located northeast of Nasiriyah.
Abu 'Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn al-Nu'man al-'Ukbari al-Baghdadi, known as al-Shaykh al-Mufid and Ibn al-Mu'allim (c.9481022 CE), was a prominent Twelver Shia theologian.
Al-Shu'ala is a lower middle class district of Baghdad, Iraq.
Al-Shuaibiyah Mosque (جامع الشعيبية) also known as al-Omari (الجامع العمري), al-Tuteh (جامع التوتة) and al-Atras mosque (جامع الأتراس), is the oldest mosque in Aleppo, Syria.
Al-Suwaira (الصويرة) is city in Al-Suwaira District, Wasit Governorate, Iraq.
The name Tabari or al-Tabari means simply "from Tabaristan", an Iranian province corresponding to parts of modern Iranian province of Mazandaran.
Tafasir Al Quran (Persian: تفاسیر قرآن) are collections of books as commentaries on Quran written by Mulla Sadra.
Al-Thabitiyah (الثابتية) is a village in the Homs Governorate in central Syria, just east of Homs.
The Yamani or al-Yamani (الیمانی) is a pre-messianic figure in Shia Islamic eschatology, who is prophesied to appear to the people to guide them to the right path prior to the arrival of Muhammad al-Mahdi, the ultimate savior of Muslims before the arrival of Jesus who will be the saviour of mankind from the Shia viewpoint and the final Imam of the Twelve Imams.
The Fatima Al-Zahra Mosque is a mosque located in Arncliffe a suburb of Sydney, Australia.
Al-Zahraa (الزهراء) is a town in northern Syria, administratively part of the A'zaz District of Aleppo Governorate, located northwest of Aleppo.
Al-Zubair District is a district in Basra Governorate, Iraq.
Al-Zurzuriyah (الزرزورية) is a village in northern Syria located west of Homs in the Homs Governorate.
Alaeddin Boroujerdi (born 1950) is a member of Iranian parliament and former Chairman for the Committee for Foreign Policy and National Security of the Islamic Consultative Assembly of Iran.
Alam can be an Arabic surname or it can also mean flag, sign, or world.
Alamut (الموت, meaning "eagle's nest") was a mountain fortress located in Alamut region in the South Caspian province of Daylam near the Rudbar region in Persia, approximately 100 km (60 mi) from present-day Tehran.
The Alavi Bohras (علوي بھرۃ) are a Taiyebi Musta'alavi Isma'ili Shi'i Muslim community from Gujarat, India.
The Alawis, also rendered as Alawites (علوية Alawiyyah/Alawīyah), are a syncretic sect of the Twelver branch of Shia Islam, primarily centered in Syria.
Aleppo (ﺣﻠﺐ / ALA-LC) is a city in Syria, serving as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most-populous Syrian governorate.
Aleppo Governorate (محافظة حلب / ALA-LC: Muḥāfaẓat Ḥalab /) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.
The Aleppo offensive (October–December 2015) was an operation that started on 16 October when the Syrian Army launched a large-scale strategic offensive south of Aleppo.
Aletejah TV(Arabic; قناة الاتجاه الفضائية) is an Iraqi channel.
The History of the Shī‘ah Imāmī Alevī Ṭarīqah or The History of the Alevism is that of a community of Shia Muslims of Anatolia and neighbouring regions.
Aleviler is an idiom to characterize the Zaydids of Tabaristan, Daylam and Gilan; the Bātinī-IsmāʿīlīsBalcıoğlu, Tahir Harimî, Türk Tarihinde Mezhep Cereyanları - The course of madh'hab events in Turkish history (Preface and notes by Hilmi Ziya Ülken), Ahmet Sait Press, 271 pages, Kanaat Publications, Istanbul, 1940.
Alevism (Alevîlik or Anadolu Alevîliği/Alevileri, also called Qizilbash, or Shī‘ah Imāmī-Tasawwufī Ṭarīqah, or Shīʿah-ī Bāṭen’īyyah) is a syncretic, heterodox, and local tradition, whose adherents follow the mystical (''bāṭenī'') teachings of Ali, the Twelve Imams, and a descendant—the 13th century Alevi saint Haji Bektash Veli.
Alfaz in the principles of Islamic jurisprudence (Persian:الفاظ در علم اصول فقه) is a preliminary subject concerned with analysis of verbals and concepts due to acquiring religious judgments and sharia.These issues often deal with subjects in the fields of philosophy of language and semantics.
Algerian–Iranian relations refer to the relationship between the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria and the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Ali (ʿAlī) (15 September 601 – 29 January 661) was the cousin and the son-in-law of Muhammad, the last prophet of Islam.
Ali (علي) is a male Arabic name derived from the Arabic root ʕ-l-w, which literally means "high", "elevated" or "champion".
Ali Abbaspoor Tehrani Fard (علی عباسپور طهرانی فرد.) is an Iranian Politician, Academic, Nuclear Scientist and Professor at Sharif University of Technology.
Ali Adil Shah I (1558–1579) was the fifth Sultan of Bijapur Sultanate. On the day of his coronation Ali abandoned the Sunni practices and reintroduced the Shi’ah Khutbah and other practices. The Persian doctors of religion were granted full freedom to preach the Shi’ah doctrine and were paid by the State for their missionary activities. The new Sultan restored back to power the afaqis while relegating the Deccanis to a position of insignificance. He subverted all the dogmatic experiments which his father had practiced.
Ayatollah Seyed Ali Akbar Ghoreishi (علی اکبر قریشی, was born 1928 in Bonab, East Azerbaijan) is an Iranian Shiite cleric, author and politician.
Ali Akbar Mohtashamipour or Mohtashami (سید علیاکبر محتشمیپور; born 1947) is a Shia cleric who was active in the 1979 Iranian Revolution and later became interior minister of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Ali Akbar Parvaresh (علی اکبر پرورش‎; 1942 – 27 December 2013) was an Iranian politician.
Ali Akbar Shiroodi (علیاکبر شیرودی) was one of the pilots who had the highest number of flights in the world.
Ali-Akbar Siasi PhD (Ali-Akbar Siyāsĩ; 1896 – 27 May 1990) was a notable and important Iranian intellectual, psychologist and politician during the 1930s and 1960s, serving as the country's education and foreign minister, chancellor of University of Tehran, minister of state without portfolio.
Ali Mohammad Al-Hussein Ali Al-Adeeb is an Iraqi politician and a senior member of the Islamic Dawa Party.
‘Ali al-Akbar ibn Al-Husayn (علي الأكبر ابن الحسين), or simply "Ali al-Akbar," was the son of Al-Husayn ibn ‘Ali, the third Shi‘ite Imam, and Umme Layla.
‘Abdullah ‘Ali al-Asghar ibn Al-Husayn (09 Rajab 60 AH – 10 Muharram 61 AH (10 October 680 CE)), or simply ‘Ali Asghar ("Younger ‘Ali"), was the youngest child of Al-Husayn (son of ‘Ali, grandson of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad and the third Imam) and Rubab bint Imra’ al-Qays.
Alī ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Alī (علي بن محمد بن علي; 828-868 C.E.) commonly called Ali al-Hadi and Alī an-Naqī was known as al-Hadi. He was the tenth of the Twelve Imams after his father Muhammad al-Jawad and before his son Hasan al-Askari. He remained in Medina teaching until the age of 30 when he was summoned to Samarra by the Abbasid caliph Al-Mutawakkil. There he was treated roughly by the caliph and his successors until, according to Shiite accounts, he was poisoned through intrigue of Al-Mu'tazz the Abbasid caliph, in 254/868, and was buried in Samarra.
Sayyid Ali al-Hakim (born 1964) is a high-ranking Shiite Ayatollah in Najaf, Iraq.
Ali al-Kourani (علي الكوراني) is a Lebanese Shia cleric.
'Alī ibn Mūsā ar-Riḍā (علي ابن موسى الرّضا), also called Abu al-Hasan, Ali al-Reza (29 December 765 – 23 August 818) or in Iran (Persia) as Imam Reza (امام رضا), was a descendant of the Prophet Muhammad and the eighth Shi'ite Imam, after his father Musa al-Kadhim, and before his son Muhammad al-Jawad.
Al-Sayyid Ali al-Husseini al-Sistani (السيد علي الحسيني السيستاني), or Sayyed Ali Hosseini Sistani (سید علی حسینی سیستانی), commonly known as Ayatollah Sistani in the Western world (born August 4, 1930 in Mashhad), is an Iranian Shia marja in Iraq and the head of many of the seminaries (Hawzahs) in Najaf.
Ali bin Muhammad bin Ali al-Sulayhi was the founder and sultan of the Sulayhid dynasty in Yemen.
Ali Mehdi Jawad Aldabbagh (born 18 July 1955) is an Iraqi engineer, businessman and politician who served as government spokesman until November 2012.
Ali Alilu (علی علیلو; born 1961) is an Iranian politician.
Ali Abdul-Amir Allawi (born 1947) is an Iraqi politician who was Minister of Trade and Minister of Defense in the cabinet appointed by the Interim Iraq Governing Council from September 2003 until 2004, and subsequently Minister of Finance in the Iraqi Transitional Government between 2005 and 2006.
Mir Ali-Asghar Al-Mousavi (میر علیاصغر الموسوی; born 1954) is an Iranian diplomat and reformist politician.
Grand Ayatollah Ali Asghar Mazandarani (1826–1911) was an Iranian cleric originally from Amirkola.
Grand Ayatollah Ali Asghar Rahimi Azad (Persian: علی اصغر رحیمی آزاد) (born 1939) is an Iranian Twelver Shi'a Marja.
Ali-Asghar Sherdost (علیاصغر شعردوست; born in 1962) is an Iranian writer, diplomat and politician.
Ali Asghar Soltanieh (علیاصغر سلطانیه, born 1 October 1950) was Iran's ambassador to the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna.
Ali Bakhtiar (علی بختیار), born in 1973, is an Iranian politician who is currently representative of Golpayegan and Khvansar (electoral district) in the Parliament of Iran.
Ali Bey, Prince of Dulkadir, was a former governor of Dulkadir, appointed by the Ottoman sultan Selim I. After resisting threats to his authority, he fell under suspicion of treason by Selim and was removed as governor in 1522.
Syedna Ali Bin Hanzala was 6th Dai of Taiyabi Musta‘lī Bohra Islam(Death: 22 Rabi-ul awwal, 626AH/ 1229 AD, Hamadan, Yemen).
Syedna Ali Bin Syedna Hatim was 4th Dai of Taiyabi Musta‘lī Bohra Islam (died 25 Zilqad, 605 AH/30 May 1209 A.D., Sanna-Yemen).
Syedna Ali ibn Mohammed al-Waleed was 5th Dai of Taiyabi Musta‘lī Bohra Islam(Death: 27th Shabaan ul-kareem, 612 H/ 20th Dec. 1215 AD, Aghmuur, Hiraaz -Yemen).
Ali Daeem Ali (born 1940) served as an Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party official in Dujail in 1982, when he is accused of involvement in the executions of 148 Shia Muslims in the area.
Ali Darabi (علی دارابی), is an Iranian sociologist, researcher, professor and media executive.
Ali Dawai Lazem (علي دواي لازم) is the current Governor of Maysan Province.
Ali Fadel al-Misir is an Iraqi politician who was the Governor of Baghdad Province from December 2004 to January 2005.
Ali Faik al-Ghabban was Minister of Youth and Sports in the cabinet appointed by the Interim Iraq Governing Council in September 2003 and in the Iraqi Interim Government.
Ali Golzadeh Ghafouri (14 May 1923 – 1 January 2010) (علی گلزاده غفوری) was an Iranian Shia cleric and religious progressive politician.
Ali Hassan Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (علي حسن عبد المجيد التكريتي; 1941? – 25 January 2010) was a Ba'athist Iraqi Defense Minister, Interior Minister, military commander and chief of the Iraqi Intelligence Service.
Ali Hassan Ibrahim (Arabic: علي حسن ابراهيم, born in 1993 – died 18 January 2015) was a commander of Hezbollah He was killed in 2015 at Israeli-occupied Golan Heights, Quneitra Governorate, Syria during the Syrian War by Israel.
Grand Ayatollah Sayyid Ali Hassani Baghdadi (Arabic: السيد علي الحسني البغدادي) (born 1954) is an Iraqi Twelver Shi'a Marja.
Ali Hussain Sibat is a Lebanese national and former host of the popular call-in show that aired on satellite TV across the Middle East.
Ali I (Persian: علی), was the ruler of the Bavand dynasty from 1118 to 1142.
Ali ibn Babawayh Qummi (died 939) was a Twelver Shi'a scholar from the time of the Ghaybat al-Sughra.
Ali ibn Husayn (علي بن الحسين) known as Zayn al-Abidin (the adornment of the worshippers) and Imam al-Sajjad (The Prostrating Imam), was the fourth Shia Imam, after his father Husayn, his uncle Hasan, and his grandfather Ali.
Abu al-Hasan Ali Ibn Ibrāhim al-Qummi was a 10th century Shi'a commentator and jurist of Persian origin.
Ali ibn Mahziar al-Ahvazi (Persian:علی ابن مهزیار اهوازی) was an early and prominent Shia religious jurisprudence, narrator and scholar.
Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Idris (علي بن محمد بن إدريس) was the fourth Idrisid sultan of Morocco.
Ali ibn Umar (علي بن عمر) was the seventh Idrisid ruler and sultan of Morocco.
Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn Yaqteen ibn Musa al-Baghdadi (742–798) (Persian:ابوالحسن علی بن یقطین بن موسی البغدادی) was a close companion of Imam Musa al-Kadhim, a Shia narrator, jurist, and mutakallim.
Except for Muhammad, there is no one in Islamic history about whom as much has been written in Islamic languages as Ali.
The majority of Islamic commentators do not believe that Ali is mentioned explicitly in the Quran.
Sayyid Ali Hosseini Khamenei (سید علی حسینی خامنهای,; born 17 July 1939) is a ''marja'' and the second and current Supreme Leader of Iran, in office since 1989.
Ali bin Abdurrahman al-Habshi, better known as Habib Ali of Kwitang or Habib Ali Kwitang (على بن عبدالرحمن الحبشى,; born in Jakarta, 20 April 1870 CE - died in Jakarta, October 13, 1968 CE) was one of the leading Islamic clerics and preachers in Jakarta in the 20th century.
Ali Malakouti (علی ملکوتی, born in Qom from Azerbaijanis family Moslem Malakouti) is an Iranian Shiite cleric and politician.
Ali Mansur, also known as Mansur ul-Mulk, (1886 – 8 December 1974 in Tehran) was a Prime Minister of Iran.
Ali Mardan Khan Bakhtiari (Luri/Alī-Mardān Khān-e Bakhtīārī) was the Bakhtiari supreme chieftain (ilkhani) of the Chahar Lang branch, and major contender for supremacy in western Iran after the death of Nader Shah in 1747.
Ali Akbar Feyz Aleni (علیاکبر فیض آلنی; 2 December 1921 – 30 July 2007), more known as Ali Meshkini, was an Iranian hardline cleric and politician.
Padeshah Ali Mirza Safavi succeeded his father Haydar Safavi as leader of the Safaviyya, a Twelver Shi'i militant religious order, in 1488.
Grand Ayatollah Sayyid Ali Mohammad Dastgheib Shirazi (Persian: السيد علیمحمد دستغیب شيرازي) (born 14 March 1935) is an Iranian Twelver Shi'a Marja.
Ali Mohammed Baqir al-Nimr (علي محمد باقر النمر) is a Saudi Arabian political prisoner who as a teenager participated in the Saudi Arabian protests during the Arab Spring.
Ayatollah Ali Mohaqiq Nasab (Persian: آیت الله علی محقق نسب) is a liberal Afghan Shi'ite cleric and a former editor-in-chief of Huqūqi Zan (Women's Rights).
Ayatollah Sayyed Ali Naqi Naqvi (born 26 December 1905 – 18 May 1988) (26 Rajab 1323 AH - 1 Shawal 1408 AH), also known as Naqqan Sahib, was a mujtahid from Lucknow, India who graduated from Najaf, Iraq.
Ali Nikzad (علی نیکزاد, born 1961) is an Iranian conservative politician and academic and a former cabinet minister.
Ali Khalil Kanso, (علي قانصوه), is a Lebanese politician and is minister of state for parliamentary affairs in the second cabinet of Saad Hariri.
Ali Rıza Pasha (sometimes spelled Ali Ridha Pasha) led the Ottoman army in 1831 against the mamluk governor in Baghdad after Dawud Pasha refused to give up his office.
Ali Reza Tavassoli (علیرضا توسلی; 1962 – 28 February 2015) was the Afghan Shia commander of the Fatemiyoun Brigade.
Ali Sultaan Asani (علي سلطان آساڻي; born 1954 in Nairobi, Kenya) is Professor of Indo-Muslim Religion and Cultures and the Director of Prince Alwaleed bin Talal Islamic Studies Program at Harvard University.
Ali Safavi (خواجه علی سیاهپوش) son of Sadr al-Dīn Mūsā and Grand son of Safi-ad-din Ardabili.his birth year unknown but he take leadership of Safaviyya order after his father death 1391.
Grand Ayatollah Sheikh Ali Safi Golpaygani (1913 – 3 January 2010) was an Iranian Twelver Shi'a Marja.
Ali Salman Ahmed Salman (علي سلمان أحمد سلمان) is a Bahraini Twelver Shi'a cleric and the Secretary-General of the Al-Wefaq political society.
Ali Shakouri-Rad (علی شکوریراد) is an Iranian physician and reformist politician.
Syedna Ali Shamshuddin Bin Ibrahim (d. November 13, 1345 or 18 Rajabul Asab 746, Hasne Afida, next to Al Maḩārīq, Sanaa, Hamdan, Yemen) was the 13th Dai of Taiyabi Musta‘lī Bohra Islam.
Ali Shamshuddin Bin Moulai Hasan was 30th Dai of Dawoodi Bohra (Death: 25 Rabi-ul-akhir 1042 AH /1634A.D. Yemen).
Syedna Ali Shamshuddin (death: 21 Zilqad 933 AH /1527 AD), Zabeed, YEMEN, was the 22nd Da'i al-Mutlaq (Absolute Missionary) of the Dawoodi Bohra.
Ali Shariati Mazinani (علی شریعتی مزینانی, 23 November 1933 – 18 June 1977) was an Iranian revolutionary and sociologist who focused on the sociology of religion.
Ali Tabatabai, also known as "Allamah Qadi" (1285–1366 AH; 1869–1947 CE), was an Iranian alim (Islamic scholar) and mystic.
Ali-Ashraf Abdollah Porihoseini (علی اشرف عبداللهپوری حسینی in Persian, born 1961 in Tabriz, East Azerbaijan) is an Iranian economist, politician, vice president of Ministry of Economic Affairs and Finance and president of Iranian Privatization Organization in the cabinet of Hassan Rouhani and former member of Islamic Consultative Assembly from the electorate of Tabriz.
Ali Illahism (علیاللّهی) is a name attributed to a syncretic religion which has been practiced in parts of Iranian Luristan, Pakistan, and India which combines elements of Shia Islam with older religions.
Ali Murad Khan Zand (c. – 1785) the sixth Shah of the Zand dynasty, reigned from March 15, 1781 until February 11, 1785.
Ali-Reza Asgari (علیرضا عسگری, born 1 November 1952) was an Iranian general of the Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps, deputy defense minister, and cabinet member of Iranian President Mohammad Khatami.
Alia Muhammad Baker (also spelled "Baqer") was the chief librarian in the Al Basrah Central Library, Basra, Iraq.
The Alian Kızılbaşī community (in Turkish Alyanlar or Tajiklar), are a Shi`a order, similar to the Sufi Mevlevi, who live in several regions of Bulgaria.
Alibhai Mulla Jeevanjee (1856–1936) was an Indian merchant, politician and philanthropist who went on to play a large role in the development of modern day Kenya during colonial rule.
Alid dynasties of northern Iran or Alâvids.
The Alid revolt of 762–763 or Revolt of Muhammad the Pure Soul was an uprising by the Hasanid branch of the Alids against the newly established Abbasid Caliphate.
The Alids are the dynasties descended from Ali ibn Abi Talib, son-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad (see Family tree of Muhammad and Family tree of Husayn ibn Ali).
Aligarh (formerly Allygurh & Koil) is a city in the Northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh that is famous for lock industries and the administrative headquarters of the Aligarh district.
Aligoudarz (اليگودرز, also Romanized as Alīgūdarz, Aligoodarz; also known as ‘Ali Gudār) is a city and capital of Aligudarz County, Lorestan Province, Iran.
Alimardan Alakbar oglu Topchubashov (Əlimərdan Topçubaşov; May 4, 1863, Tbilisi – November 8, 1934, Paris) was a prominent Azerbaijani politician, foreign minister and speaker of the Parliament of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic.
Alipur Sign Language is an endangered village sign language of India.
Alipur is a Shia Muslim-majority town in Karnataka state of India, It is located off highway SH94, 55 km away from Kempegowda International Airport and 70 km from Bangalore.
Alireza Salimi (علیرضا سلیمی) is an Iranian Shi'a cleric and conservative politician who currently serves as a member of the Iranian Parliament representing Mahalat and Delijan counties.
Alissar Abdel-Halim Caracalla is a Lebanese dance instructor, choreographer and art director.
Alivardi Khan (আলীবর্দী খান, 1671 – 9 April 1756) was the Nawab of Bengal during 1740–1756.
The All India Muslim Personal Law Board (AIMPLB) is a non-government organisation constituted in 1973 to adopt suitable strategies for the protection and continued applicability of Muslim Personal Law in India, most importantly, the Muslim Personal Law (Shariat) Application Act of 1937, providing for the application of the Islamic Law Code of Shariat to Muslims in India in personal affairs.
All India Shia Organisation (A.I.S.O) is a Hyderabad, India based organisation working for the welfare of Shia community and for the protection of Shia wakf properties.
All India Shia Personal Law Board (AISPLB) is an organisation formed in January 2005 to represent the rights of Shia in India.
The All Pakistan Ulema Council is a Muslim organization in Pakistan whose members include Islamic clerics and legal scholars from a range of Islamic traditions.
All-American Muslim is an American reality television series that aired on TLC.
Grand Ayatollah Sayyid Alaaeldeen bin Musa bin Mohammed Ali Almusawi Alghurayfi (Arabic: اية الله العظمى السيد علاء الدين بن موسى بن محمد علي الموسوي الغريفي) (born 1945) is an Iraqi Twelver Shi'a Marja'.
Haji Allahshükür Hummat Pashazade (Allahşükür Hümmət Paşazadə) Sheikh ul-Islam and Grand Mufti of the Caucasus which includes his native Republic of Azerbaijan, Republic of Georgia, and Dagestan, Kabardino-Balkaria, Ingushetia, Chechnya, Karachay–Cherkessia, and Adygea in the Russian Federation.
Allahverdi Dehghani (اللهوردی دهقانی; born 1968) is an Iranian politician.
Allama Hassan Turabi (Urdu: علامہ حسن ترابی) was a Pakistani and prominent Shia Muslim cleric, chief of the main Shiite political party, Tehrik-e-Jafaria Pakistan.
Allamah (علامه, Urdu and), also spelled Allameh and Allama, is an honorary title carried by scholars of Islamic fiqh, jurisprudence, and philosophy.
Allegations of war crimes in the 2006 Lebanon War refer to claims of various groups and individuals, including Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch, and United Nations officials, who accused both Hezbollah and Israel of violating international humanitarian law during the 2006 Lebanon War, and warned of possible war crimes.
Almigdad Mojalli (ca. 1981 – 17 January 2016) was a Yemeni freelance journalist working for the United States media service Voice of America.
The Almoravid dynasty (Imṛabḍen, ⵉⵎⵕⴰⴱⴹⴻⵏ; المرابطون, Al-Murābiṭūn) was an imperial Berber Muslim dynasty centered in Morocco.
Alp Arslan (honorific in Turkish meaning "Heroic Lion"; in آلپ ارسلان; full name: Diya ad-Dunya wa ad-Din Adud ad-Dawlah Abu Shuja Muhammad Alp Arslan ibn Dawud ابو شجاع محمد آلپ ارسلان ابن داود; 20 January 1029 – 15 December 1072), real name Muhammad bin Dawud Chaghri, was the second Sultan of the Seljuk Empire and great-grandson of Seljuk, the eponymous founder of the dynasty.
Abu'l Ghazi Sultan Alqas Mirza (ابوالقاسم قاضی سلطان آل قصبه میرزا), better known as Alqas Mirza (آل قصبه میرزا; b. 15 March 1516 - d. 9 April 1550), was a Safavid prince and the second son of king (shah) Ismail I (r. 1501–1524).
The Amal Movement (or Hope Movement in English, حركة أمل) is a Lebanese political party associated with Lebanon's Shia community.
Amarah (العمارة Al ‘Amārah, also spelled Amara, is a city in south-eastern Iraq, located on a low ridge next to the Tigris River waterway south of Baghdad about 50 km from the border with Iran. It lies at the northern tip of the marshlands between the Tigris and Euphrates. Predominantly Shia Muslim, it had a population of about 340,000 as of 2002 and about 420,000 as of 2005. It is the administrative capital of the Maysan province. A major trading center for the surrounding agricultural area, it is known for woven goods and silverware.
The Amburiq Masjid (مسجد امبوڑک) is a mosque located in Shigar, in the Gilgit-Baltistan region of Pakistan.
The government of Iraq has established a committee to consider a proposed amendment to the Constitution of Iraq.
The AMIA bombing was an attack on the Asociación Mutual Israelita Argentina (AMIA; Argentine Israelite Mutual Association) building.
Amin Sherri (أمين شري) is a Lebanese Shia politician.
Amin Wahbi (امين وهبي) is a Lebanese Shia politician and cardiologist.
Amina Begum Bint al-Majlisi was a female Safavid mujtahideh.
Amina Inloes is an American scholar, researcher, educator, public speaker, translator and a Shi'ite Muslim.
Aminah bint Wahb (آمنة بنت وهب; died 577 AD) was the mother of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
The Amir Chakhmaq Complex (Majmūʿa Meydân Amir Čaqmaq; also Romanized Chakhmaq, Chakmaq, Chakhmagh, Chakmak) is a prominent structure in Yazd, Iran, noted for its symmetrical sunken alcoves.
Amir Mohebbian (امیر محبیان.), (born 23 June 1962 in Tehran, Iran) is an Iranian politician, journalist, professor of university and political analyst.
Amir Omar is the City Councilman for Place 7 in Richardson, Texas.
Amirli (آمرلي; Amirli, Emirli) also spelt Amerli is a town in the Tooz District of Saladin Governorate, near the border with Diyala Governorate, in northern Iraq, about 100 km from the Iranian border.
Amjad Ali Shah (अमजद अली शाह, امجد علی شاہ) (b. c. 1801 – d. 13 February 1847) was the fourth King of Oudh from 7 May 1842 to 13 February 1847.
Amjad Jauhari (امجد جوہری) known as Allama Amjad Jauhari (علامہ امجد جوہری), is an Islamic scholar, religious leader and public speaker from the Shia sect of Islam.
The Amman Message (رسالة عمان) is a statement calling for tolerance and unity in the Muslim world that was issued on 9 November 2004 (27th of Ramadan 1425 AH) by King Abdullah II bin Al-Hussein of Jordan.
Ammar al-Hakim (سید عمار الحكيم) is an Iraqi cleric and politician who led the Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq, from 2009 to 2017.
ʻAmmār ibn Yāsir ibn ʿĀmir ibn Mālik Abū al-Yaqzān (عمار بن یاسر) was one of the Muhajirun in the history of Islam, Islam Times, retrieved on 13 Apr 2014 and, for his dedicated devotion to Islam's cause, is considered to be one of the most loyal and beloved companions of Muhammad and ‘Ali; thus, he occupies a position of the highest prominence in Islam.
Amol (آمل –;; also Romanized as Āmol and Amul) is a city and the administrative center of Amol County, Mazandaran Province, Iran.
The Sadaat Amroha (سادات امروہہ) or Amrohi Syed امروہی سید) are a community of Sayyids, historically settled in the town of Amroha, in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. Many members of the community migrated to Pakistan after independence and settled in Karachi, Sindh.
Amsheet (عمشيت,; also spelled Amchit) is a seaside town and municipality in the Jbeil District of Mount Lebanon Governorate, Lebanon, about 40 km north of Beirut.
An-Nasir Ahmad (died 5 June, 934) was the third imam of the Zaidi state in Yemen.
Sūrat An-Nās (سورة الناس, "Mankind") is the 114th and last sura, or chapter, of the Qur'an, the Muslim holy book.
In the Qur'an, verse 34 of Surah an-Nisa (abbreviated as 4:34) concerns the issue of marital relations in Islam.
Islamic anarchism is based on an interpretation of Islam as "submission to God" which either prohibits or is highly critical of the role of human authority.
In Twelver Shia Islam, the ten Ancillaries of the Faith (Arabic: فروع الدين / furūʿ ad-dīn) are the ten practices that Shia Muslims must perform.
The Andar are a Ghilji Pashtun sub-tribe.
Andhra Muslims or Telugu Muslims is a name given to the Muslims hailing from Andhra Pradesh, India, collectively part of the larger Dakhini Muslims.
Andrew J. Newman is a reader in Islamic Studies and Persian at the University of Edinburgh.
Andrew Simmons is an award-winning broadcast journalist, currently working with Al Jazeera English.
Andrew Paul Bartholemew White (born June 1964) was the vicar of St George's Church, Baghdad, the only Anglican church in Iraq, until his departure, ordered in November 2014 by the Archbishop of Canterbury due to security concerns.
The Anfal genocide was a genocide that killed between 50,000 and 182,000 Kurds.
In Islam, Angels (Arabic: ملاك; plural: ملاًئِكة mala'ikah) are celestial beings, created from a luminious origin by God to perform certain tasks he has given them.
Aniconism is the absence of material representations of the natural and supernatural world in various cultures, particularly in the monotheistic Abrahamic religions.
Aniconism is a proscription in Islam against the creation of images of sentient beings.
In Islam, God has a relationship with animals: according to the Qur'an, they praise Him, even if this praise is not expressed in human language.
Anjudan (انجدان, also Romanized as Anjedān; also known as Andījān, Anjidān, and Injadān) is a village in Amanabad Rural District, in the Central District of Arak County, Markazi Province, Iran.
Anna Khanum (died 9 September 1647; آنا خانم) was the queen consort of Iran as the wife of the Safavid king Safi (r. 1629-1642).
Annangrove is a suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia 42 kilometres north-west of the Sydney central business district in the local government area of The Hills Shire and part of the Hills District region.
Anne Garrels (born July 2, 1951) was a long-time foreign correspondent for National Public Radio in the United States.
Anne Viensouk Keothavong (born 16 September 1983) is a retired British tennis player.
Ansar-e-Hezbollah (lit) is a conservative organization in Iran.
Al-Ansari or simply "Ansari" is a surname found mainly in Arab states of the Persian Gulf and other Arab and South Asian countries.
Anti-Iranian sentiment also known as Anti-Persian sentiment, Persophobia, or IranophobiaRam, H. (2009): Iranophobia: The Logic of an Israeli Obsession, Stanford University Press, refers to feelings and expression of hostility, hatred, discrimination, or prejudice towards Iran (Persia) and its culture, and towards persons based on their association with Iran and Iranian culture.
Anti-Judaism is the "total or partial opposition to Judaism—and to Jews as adherents of it—by persons who accept a competing system of beliefs and practices and consider certain genuine Judaic beliefs and practices as inferior." Anti-Judaism, as a rejection of a particular way of thinking about God, is distinct from antisemitism, which is more akin to a form of racism.
Anti-Shi'ism is the prejudice, hatred of, discrimination or violence directed against Shia Muslims because of their religious beliefs, traditions and cultural heritage.
Anti-terrorism legislation are laws with the purpose of fighting terrorism.
Antinomianism (from the Greek: ἀντί, "against" + νόμος, "law"), is any view which rejects laws or legalism and is against moral, religious, or social norms (Latin: mores), or is at least considered to do so.
Muhammad Hussain Inoki (born on February 20, 1943) is a Japanese professional wrestling and mixed martial arts promoter, politician, and retired professional wrestler and martial artist, best known by his ring name Antonio Inoki.
Apophatic theology, also known as negative theology, is a form of theological thinking and religious practice which attempts to approach God, the Divine, by negation, to speak only in terms of what may not be said about the perfect goodness that is God.
Apostasy (ἀποστασία apostasia, "a defection or revolt") is the formal disaffiliation from, or abandonment or renunciation of a religion by a person.
Apostasy in Islam (ردة or ارتداد) is commonly defined as the conscious abandonment of Islam by a Muslim in word or through deed.
The April 2010 Baghdad bombings were a series of bomb attacks in Baghdad, Iraq that killed at least 85 people over two days.
At least 38 people were killed and 86 others wounded, as a result of two car bombings, in Iraq's capital of Baghdad.
Akik or aqiq means quartz, however usually refers to the chalcedony variant of quartz.
Aqidah (ʿaqīdah, plural عقائد ʿaqāʾid, also rendered ʿaqīda, aqeeda etc.) is an Islamic term meaning "creed" p. 470.
Aqila al-Hashimi (Arabic عقيلة الهاشمي cAqīla al-Hāshimī; 1953 - September 25, 2003) was an Iraqi politician who served on the Iraqi Governing Council.
Abu 'l-Abbas Muhammad ibn Ja'far al-Muqtadir (أبو العباس محمد بن جعفر المقتدر) (December 909 – 23 December 940), usually simply known by his regnal name al-Radi bi-llah (الراضي بالله, "Content with God"), was the 20th Abbasid Caliph, reigning (rather than ruling) in Baghdad from 934 to his death.
Arab Americans (عَرَبٌ أَمْرِيكِيُّونَ or أمريكيون من أصل عربي) are Americans of Arab ethnic, cultural and linguistic heritage or identity, who identify themselves as Arab.
Arab Argentines refers to Argentine citizens or residents whose ancestry traces back to various waves of immigrants, largely of Arab ethnic, cultural and linguistic heritage and/or identity originating mainly from what is now Lebanon and Syria, but also some individuals from the twenty-two countries which comprise the Arab world such as Palestine, Egypt, and Morocco.
Arab Australians refers to Australian citizens or residents with ancestry from the Middle East and North Africa regardless of their ethnic orgins, the majority are not ethnically Arab but numerous people who include Arabs, Kurds, Copts, Druze, Maronites, Assyrians, Berbers, Turkmen and others, the majority are Christian by Faith with minorties being Muslim, Druze, Yazidi and other Faiths.
The Arab European League (Dutch: Arabisch-Europese Liga, AEL) is a Pan-Arabist civil rights movement/organization in Belgium and the Netherlands.
The Arab Federation of Iraq and Jordan was a short-lived country that was formed in 1958 from the union of Iraq and Jordan.
Arab identity is the objective or subjective state of perceiving oneself as an Arab and as relating to being Arab.
Arab Indonesians (عرب إندونيسي), or Hadharem (حضارم; sing., Hadhrami, حضرمي), informally known as Jama'ah, are citizens of Indonesia of Arab, mainly Hadhrami, descent.
Arab League–Iran relations refer to political, economic and cultural relations between the mostly Shia Muslim and ethnically Persian country of Iran (Persia) and the mostly Sunni and ethnically Arab organization Arab League.
Arab nationalism (القومية العربية al-Qawmiyya al-`arabiyya) is a nationalist ideology that asserts the Arabs are a nation and promotes the unity of Arab people, celebrating the glories of Arab civilization, the language and literature of the Arabs, calling for rejuvenation and political union in the Arab world.
The Arab Socialist Action Party – Arabian Peninsula (حزب العمل الاشتراكي العربي ـ الجزيرة العربية Ḥizb al`Amal al Ishtirākiy al-`Arabiy-Al-Jazīra al`Arabiyyah), was an underground oppositional political party in Saudi Arabia.
The Arab Spring (الربيع العربي ar-Rabīʻ al-ʻArabī), also referred to as Arab Revolutions (الثورات العربية aṯ-'awrāt al-ʻarabiyyah), was a revolutionary wave of both violent and non-violent demonstrations, protests, riots, coups, foreign interventions, and civil wars in North Africa and the Middle East that began on 18 December 2010 in Tunisia with the Tunisian Revolution.
The Arab Spring unrests and revolutions unfolded in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, Yemen, Syria and Bahrain, and in the rest of the region, some becoming violent, some facing strong suppression efforts, and some resulting in political changes.
The Arab street (الشارع العربي, ash-shāriʿ al-ʿarabī) is an expression referring to the spectrum of public opinion in the Arab world, often as opposed or contrasted to the opinions of Arab governments.
The Arab world (العالم العربي; formally: Arab homeland, الوطن العربي), also known as the Arab nation (الأمة العربية) or the Arab states, currently consists of the 22 Arab countries of the Arab League.
Arab-Berbers (العرب والبربر; Arabo-berbères) are an ethnic group native to Maghreb, a North African region along the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean.
The Arab–Israeli conflict refers to the political tension, military conflicts and disputes between a number of Arab countries and Israel.
Pakistan–Arab relations refer to foreign relations between Pakistan and the various states of the Arab world which constitute the Arab League.
Arabic influence on the Spanish language overwhelmingly dates from the Muslim rule in the Iberian Peninsula between 711 and 1492.
Arabic literature (الأدب العربي / ALA-LC: al-Adab al-‘Arabī) is the writing, both prose and poetry, produced by writers in the Arabic language.
Arabization or Arabisation (تعريب) describes either the conquest and/or colonization of a non-Arab area and growing Arab influence on non-Arab populations, causing a language shift by their gradual adoption of the Arabic language and/or their incorporation of Arab culture, Arab identity.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Arabs in France are those parts of the Arab diaspora who have immigrated to France, as well as their descendants.
Arabs in Germany are German citizens of Arab descent.
A small but recognizable people with Arab origins have over time settled in the India.
The Arabs in Khorasan are a group of Arabs who immigrated to Khorasan Province, Iran, during the Abbasid Caliphate (750−1513).
Arabs in Pakistan (پاکستان میں عرب) consist of migrants from different countries of the Arab world, especially Egypt, Oman, Iraq, Kuwait, Syria, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Palestine, Jordan and Yemen and have a long history.
Arad (عراد) is a town in Bahrain, located on Muharraq Island.
Arad (ارد, also Romanized as Ard, Erad, Īrad, and Ird) is a city and capital of Arad District, in Gerash County, Fars Province, Iran.
Arasbaran (ارسباران Arasbârân) or Arasbar (ارسبار Arasbâr), also known as "Qaradagh" or "Karadagh" (Qaradağ / قرهداغ, meaning "black mountain"), or "Qaraja dagh" or "Karaja dagh" (Qaracadağ / قراجهداغ, meaning "black mountain"), is a large mountainous area stretching from the Qūshā Dāgh massif, south of Ahar, to the Aras River in East Azerbaijan Province of Iran.
Arba'een (lit), Chehlom (چهلم, چہلم, "the fortieth ") or Qırxı, İmamın Qırxı (امامین قیرخی, "the fortieth of Imam") is a Shia Muslim religious observance that occurs forty days after the Day of Ashura.
The Arba'een Pilgrimage is the world's largest public gathering that is held every year in Iraq.
The architecture of Baku is not characterized by any particular architectural style, having accumulated its buildings over a long period of time.
The Arcs of Descent and Ascent, an ontological circle, are described in Neoplatonism, Islamic and Sufi cosmology, mainly inspired by the works of Ibn al-Arabi.
Ardabil (اردبیل., اردبیل, also Romanized as Ardabīl and Ardebīl) is an ancient city in Iranian Azerbaijan.
Ardashir I (Persian: اردشیر), was the ruler of the Bavand dynasty from 1173 to 1205.
Ardashir Mirza Rukn al-Dawla (1807-1866) was a prince of Persia's Qajar dynasty, and the governor of the Arabistan, Bakhtiaristan and Luristan provinces of Persia.
Arif Hussain Al Hussaini (علامہ عارف حسين الحسينى) (November 25, 1946 - August 5, 1988) was a Shia leader in Pakistan, of the Shia Turi Pashtun tribe.
The Armenians in Lebanon (Լիբանանահայեր lipananahayer, اللبنانيون الأرمن) (Libano-Arméniens) are Lebanese citizens of Armenian descent.
Armin Navabi (born 25 December 1983) is an Iranian-born ex-Muslim atheist and secular activist, author, podcaster and vlogger, currently living in Vancouver, Canada.
Sir Arnold Talbot Wilson (18 July 1884 – 31 May 1940) was the British civil commissioner in Baghdad in 1918–20.
Ali Hasan AlqudaihiAdrian Blomfield (11 June 2012).
Arrow Air Flight 1285 was a McDonnell Douglas DC-8 jetliner that operated as an international charter flight carrying U.S. troops from Cairo, Egypt, to their home base in Fort Campbell, Kentucky, via Cologne, West Germany, and Gander, Canada.
Arsalan Fathipour (ارسلان فتحیپور; born 1965) is an Iranian politician.
Matarci Arslan Mehmed Pasha, also spelled Arslan Muhammad Pasha ibn al-Mataraji (died 1704), was the wali of Tripoli in 1694–1700 and 1702–1703, Damascus in 1701 and Sidon in 1703–1704.
Artem Jijikhia (Dzhidzhikhia; არტემ ჯიჯიხია; Артемий Мурзаканович Джиджихия) (January 2, 1874 – December 31, 1938) was a Georgian military officer who served in the armies of the Russian Empire and Democratic Republic of Georgia.
The arts of Iran are one of the richest art heritages in world history and encompasses many traditional disciplines including architecture, painting, literature, music, weaving, pottery, calligraphy, metalworking and stonemasonry.
Artur Tahir oghlu Rasizade (Artur Tahir oğlu Rasi-zadə; born 26 February 1935) is an Azerbaijani politician who served as the Prime Minister of Azerbaijan from 20 July 1996 until 4 August 2003, and again from 4 November 2003 until 21 April 2018.
Arwa bint Asma (أروى بنت أحمد بن محمد بن جعفر بن موسى الصليحي الإسماعيلية Arwa bint Asma Muḥammad ibn Jaʿfar ibn Mūsá ṣ-Ṣulayḥī al-Ismā'īliyyah, c. 1048–1138, died 22nd Shaban, 532 AH) was the long-reigning ruler of Yemen, firstly as the co-ruler of her first two husbands and then as sole ruler, from 1067 until her death in 1138.
As'ad AbuKhalil (أسعد أبو خليل) (born March 16, 1960) is a Lebanese-American professor of political science at California State University, Stanislaus.
For the Libyan Special Forces see: Al-Saiqa (Libya) As-Sa'iqa (also transliterated as al-Saika, Saeqa, etc., from الصاعقة (lit. storm or thunderbolt (meaning “shock troops”); also known as the Vanguard for the Popular Liberation War) is a Palestinian Ba'athist political and military faction created and controlled by Syria. It is linked to the Palestinian branch of the Syrian-led Ba'ath Party, and is a member of the broader Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), although it is no longer active in the organization. Its Secretary-General is and the president of the political wing of the organization is Dr Mohammed Qais.
Abu al-‘Abbās ‘Abdu'llāh ibn Muhammad al-Saffāḥ, or Abul `Abbas as-Saffaḥ (أبو العباس عبد الله بن محمد السفّاح) (b. 721/722 AD – d. 10 June 754) was the first caliph of the Abbasid caliphate, one of the longest and most important caliphates (Islamic dynasties) in Islamic history.
Asa'ib Ahl al-Haq (AAH; عصائب أهل الحق ‘Aṣayib Ahl al-Haq, "League of Righteous People"), also known as the Khazali Network, is an Iraqi Shi'a paramilitary group active in the Iraqi insurgency and Syrian Civil War. During the Iraq War it was known as Iraq's largest "Special Group" (the Americans' term for Iran-backed Shia paramilitaries in Iraq), and claimed responsibility for over 6,000 attacks on American and Coalition forces. The group is currently fighting against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant as part of the Popular Moblization Forces. The group is funded and trained by Iran's Quds Force., The Guardian, 12 March 2014.
Asaad Abu Gilel al-Taie is the former SCIRI governor of Najaf province, in Iraq.
Asad Ali Khan (1 December 1937 – 14 June 2011) was an Indian musician who played the plucked string instrument rudra veena.
Asad ibn Abdallah ibn Asad al-Qasri (died 738) was a prominent official of the Umayyad Caliphate, serving twice as governor of Khurasan under the Caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik.
Asadollah Asgaroladi is a business magnate in Iran with business interests in exports, banking, real estate and healthcare.
Asadullah Boroujerdi (اسدالله بروجردی) A prominent 19th century Muslim Shia clergy born in the city of Boroujerd.
Asadullah Mamaghani (اسدالله ممقانی) Sheikh Asadullah Mamaghani (Mamaghani) of Clergymen Qajar era is constitutional.
Asaf-ud-Daula (आसफ़ उद दौला, آصف الدولہ) (b. 23 September 1748d. 21 September 1797) was the nawab wazir of Oudh (a vassal of the British) ratified by Shah Alam II, from 26 January 1775 to 21 September 1797, and the son of Shuja-ud-Dowlah.
Hujjat al-IslamAsghar Dirbaz (عسگر دیرباز, born 1959 in Mianeh, East Azerbaijan) is an Iranian Shiite cleric, author and politician.
Ashkelon (also spelled Ashqelon and Ascalon; help; عَسْقَلَان) is a coastal city in the Southern District of Israel on the Mediterranean coast, south of Tel Aviv, and north of the border with the Gaza Strip.
In November 2007, Iranian Defence Minister Mostafa Mohammad-Najjar announced Iran had built a new missile with a range of 2,000 km, the Ashoura missile.
Sayyid Ashraf 'Ali Khan Bahadur (আশরাফ আলী খান; before 1759 – 24 March 1770), was Nawab Nazim of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa.
Ashtian (آشتيان, also Romanized as Āshtīān and Ashtīyan) is a city and capital of Ashtian County, Markazi Province, Iran.
Ashura (عاشوراء, colloquially:; عاشورا; عاشورا; Azerbaijani and Turkish: Aşura Günü or Day of Remembrance), and in Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago 'Hussay' or Hosay, is the tenth day of Muharram in the Islamic calendar.
The Day of Ashura in Morocco has been traditionally a day of celebration and joy.
Ashura processions in Kashmir mark the Day of Ashura commemorating the death of Husayn ibn Ali in the Battle of Karbala.
The Ashurbeyovs or Ashurbeylis are an Azerbaijani noble family, with an extensive history and bloodline.
Ashure (Turkish: aşure; Bulgarian and Macedonian: ашуре; Greek: ασουρές) or Noah's Pudding is a Turkish dessert porridge that is made of a mixture consisting of grains, fruits, dried fruits and nuts.
The Ashurkhana Sayyid Jamshed Ali Khan, also known as the Lohe Ki Kamaan, is an ashurkhana in Hyderabad in Andhra Pradesh, India.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
Asif Ali Zardari (آصف علی زرداری; آصف علي زرداري; born 26 July 1955) is a Pakistani politician and the former co-chairperson of Pakistan People's Party.
Ayatollah Muhammad Asif Mohseni (آیتالله العظمی محمد آصف محسنی) (Sheik Mohseni) (born 1936) is widely considered to be the most powerful Twelver shiite cleric in Afghanistan.
Asmat Begam (died 1621) was the wife of Mirza Ghias Beg, the Prime minister of the Mughal emperor Jahangir, and the mother of Mughal empress Nur Jahan, the power behind the emperor.
The Asr prayer (صلاة العصر, "afternoon prayer") is the afternoon daily prayer recited by practicing Muslims.
The Assaf dynasty (also called Banu Assaf) were a Sunni Muslim and ethnic Turkmen dynasty of chieftains based in the Keserwan region of Mount Lebanon.
Assassination is the killing of a prominent person, either for political or religious reasons or for payment.
Numerous civilians, including men, women, children, government officials, activists, secular intellectuals and clerics have been victims of assassination, terrorism, or violence against noncombatants, over the course of modern Iranian history.
Order of Assassins or simply Assassins (أساسين asāsīn, حشاشین Hashâshīn) is the common name used to refer to an Islamic sect formally known as the Nizari Ismailis.
Muhammad Assem Qanso (عاصم قانصوه, born 1937 in Baalbek) is a Lebanese politician.
The Assembly of Qom Seminary Scholars and Researchers (also Association of Researchers and Teachers of Qom).
Assembly of the Forces of the Imam's Line or Association of Followers of the Imam's Line (مجمع نیروهای خط امام) is an Iranian reformist political group.
The Assyrian independence movement is a movement guided by the Assyrian people for independence in the Assyrian homeland, notably in Northern Iraq.
Assyrian people (ܐܫܘܪܝܐ), or Syriacs (see terms for Syriac Christians), are an ethnic group indigenous to the Middle East.
The Assyrian–Chaldean–Syriac diaspora (Syriac: ܓܠܘܬܐ, Galuta, "exile") refers to Assyrians living in communities outside their ancestral homeland.
Astan Bandar is an annual religious local marsiya khani Majlis organised by the local villagers at the shrine of Aga Syed Mohammad Baqir Kirmani at Wahabpora every year in the month of August or September.
Astara (آستارا, also Romanized as Āstārā) is a city and capital of Astara County, Gilan Province, Iran.
At-Tauhid mosque is an Islamic temple in Floresta neighbourhood of Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Ayatollah Ata'ollah Ashrafi Esfahani (آیتالله عطاءالله اشرفی اصفهانی., 1902–1982) was an Iranian religious leader.
The Ataa Movement, (حركة عطاء), is an Iraqi political party recently established by the head of the Popular Mobilization Forces and Iraqi National Security Adviser Falih Alfayyadh.
The Atba-i-Malak Badar are a branch of Atba-i-Malak Mustaali Ismaili Shi'a Islam.
The Atba-i-Malak jamaat (community) are a branch of Taiyabi Mustaali Ismaili Shi'a Islam that broke off from the mainstream Dawoodi Bohra after the death of the 46th Da'i al-Mutlaq, under the leadership of Abdul Hussain Jivaji in 1891.
The Atba-i-Malak Vakil are a branch of Atba-i-Malak Mustaali Ismaili Shi'a Islam.
Ateghe Sediqi (born Pouran Rajai on 2 September 1943) is an Iranian politician and human rights activist who was the wife of former Iranian President Mohammad-Ali Rajai.
Atiyya ibn Sād ibn Junada (عطية بن سعد بن جنادة) belonged to the Judaila family of the tribe known as Qays and his patronymic appellation was Abdul Hasan according to al-Tabari. Some accounts suggest Atiyya's mother was a Roman slavegirl.
The Atomic Age, also known as the Atomic Era, is the period of history following the detonation of the first nuclear ("atomic") bomb, Trinity, on July 16, 1945, during World War II.
The Attack of Tasooki was a terrorist attack against Iran.
Attacks by Islamic extremists in Bangladesh refers to increased attacks since 2013 on a number of secularist and atheist writers, bloggers, and publishers in Bangladesh and foreigners, and religious minorities such as Hindus, Buddhists, Christians, and Shias.
Abū Ḥamīd bin Abū Bakr Ibrāhīm (c. 1145 – c. 1221; ابو حامد بن ابوبکر ابراهیم), better known by his pen-names Farīd ud-Dīn (فرید الدین) and ʿAṭṭār (عطار, Attar means apothecary), was a 12th-century PersianFarīd al-Dīn ʿAṭṭār, in Encyclopædia Britannica, online edition - accessed December 2012.
The Attarwala are a Muslim community found in the state of Gujarat in India.
Atwar Bahjat (أطوار بهجت‎; 7 June 1976 – 22 February 2006) was an Iraqi journalist.
The August 2008 Dera Ismail Khan suicide bombing took place on 19 August 2008, near the Emergency Ward of District Headquarter Hospital in Dera Ismail Khan, killing 32, including 7 policemen.
The August 2011 Quetta bombing refers to a suicide car bomb attack in Quetta mosque that left 11 Shia Muslims dead and 20 more injured on August 30, 2011.
August 2012 Mansehra Shia massacre refers to the massacre of 25 Shia Muslim residents of Gilgit-Baltistan travelling from Rawalpindi, Punjab to Gilgit, Gilgit Baltistan in Pakistan.
The 2015 Baghdad market truck bombing was a truck bomb attack on August 13, 2015, targeting a Baghdad food market in Sadr City, a predominantly Shi'ite neighborhood.
Muhi-ud-Din Muhammad (محي الدين محمد) (3 November 1618 – 3 March 1707), commonly known by the sobriquet Aurangzeb (اَورنگزیب), (اورنگزیب "Ornament of the Throne") or by his regnal title Alamgir (عالمگِیر), (عالمگير "Conqueror of the World"), was the sixth, and widely considered the last effective Mughal emperor.
Authorization for the Use of Military Force Against the Government of Syria to Respond to Use of Chemical Weapons
The Authorization for the Use of Military Force Against the Government of Syria to Respond to Use of Chemical Weapons is a United States Senate Joint Resolution that would have authorized President Barack Obama to use the American military to intervene in the ongoing Syrian Civil War.
The Autonomous Government of Khorasan was a short-lived military state set up in what is now Iran.
Avraham "Avi" Gabbay (אַבְרָהָם "אָבִי" גַּבַּאי, born 22 February 1967) is an Israeli politician and the current leader of the Israeli Labor Party.
Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.
Avivim (אֲבִיבִים), is a moshav in the far north of Israel, in the Upper Galilee.
Awadh (Hindi: अवध, اوَدھ),, known in British historical texts as Avadh or Oudh, is a region in the modern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh (before independence known as the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh) and a small area of Nepal's Province No. 5.
Awail al Maqalat fi Madhahab al Mukhtarah or Principal theses of selected doctrines (اوائل المقالات), is a Shia doctrinal, theological book written by Shaykh Mufid.
The term Axis of Resistance (محور مقاومت) refers to an anti-Western and anti-Israeli alliance between Iran, Syria, and the Lebanese militant group Hezbollah.
Ayad Allawi (إياد علاوي.; born May 31, 1944) is an Iraqi politician.
Ayat Hassan Mohammed Al-Qurmezi (آيات حسن محمد القرمزي; the surname is also transcribed Al-Qormezi, al-Ghermezi) (born January 1, 1991, Sanad, Bahrain) is a poet and student at the University of Bahrain Teaching Institute in Bahrain.
Ayatullah (or; āyatullāh from llāh "Sign of God") is a high-ranking title given to Usuli Twelver Shī‘ah clerics.
Ayaz Niyazi oghlu Muetaellibov (Ayaz Niyazi oğlu Mütəllibov, Ајаз Нијази оғлу Мүтәллибов; Ajaz Nijazovič Mutalibov, born 12 May 1938, Baku) is an Azerbaijani politician who was the last leader of Soviet Azerbaijan, and the first President of independent Azerbaijan from October 1991 until May 1992.
Ayman Mohammed Rabie al-Zawahiri (أيمن محمد ربيع الظواهري, born June 19, 1951) is the current leader of Al-Qaeda and a current or former member and senior official of Islamist organizations which have orchestrated and carried out attacks in North America, Asia, Africa, and the Middle East.
Aymenn Jawad Al-Tamimi (born 1992/1993) is a British specialist on the Syrian Civil War, Iraqi Civil War and the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant.
Ayn al-Tineh (عين التينة, Ain al-Tineh) is a town in northwestern Syria administratively belonging to the Latakia Governorate, located east of Latakia.
Ayodhya (IAST Ayodhyā), also known as Saketa, is an ancient city of India, believed to be the birthplace of Rama and setting of the epic Ramayana.
The Ayutthaya Kingdom (อยุธยา,; also spelled Ayudhya or Ayodhaya) was a Siamese kingdom that existed from 1351 to 1767.
Áyyār, (عیار Ayyâr, pl. Ayyârân, عيار ʿayyār, pl. ʿayyārūn) refers to a person associated with a class of warriors in Iraq and Iran from the 9th to the 12th centuries.
The Ayyubid dynasty (الأيوبيون; خانەدانی ئەیووبیان) was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origin founded by Saladin and centred in Egypt.
Az Zubayr (الزبير) is a city in and the capital of Al-Zubair District, part of the Basra Governorate of Iraq.
Az-Zahraa Islamic Academy (informally referred to as AZIA) is an independent Pre-school through Grade 7 school in Richmond, BC.
Az-Zaree'a (الذریعة) of Agha Bozorg Tehrani is a book written in 29 volumes.
Azam mosque of Qom (مسجد اعظم قم.), or Masjid -Azam located in Qom, Iran, was built by Seyyed Hossein Borujerdi, grand Shia Marja' next to the Fatima Masumeh Shrine.
Azam Tariq (Urdu: اعظم طارق) محسن اسلام(March 1962, Chichawatni – October 6, 2003) was the leader of the politico-religious organisation Sipah-e-Sahaba Pakistan, a Deobandi organization, which was officially banned by the government of Pakistan in August 2001 for its violence against the Shi'a community.
Āzar Kayvān (b. between 1529 and 1533; d. between 1609 and 1618; the first name sometimes transcribed Adhar), was a Zoroastrian high priest of Estakhr and native of Fars who emigrated to the Patna in Mughal India during the reign of the Emperor Akbar and became the founder of a Zoroastrian school of ishraqiyyun or Illuminationists.
Azerbaijan or Azarbaijan (آذربایجان Āzarbāijān; آذربایجان Azərbaycan), also known as Iranian Azerbaijan, is a historical region in northwestern Iran that borders Iraq, Turkey, the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, Armenia, and the Republic of Azerbaijan.
Azerbaijan–Iran relations are foreign relations between Azerbaijan and Iran.
Azerbaijani Americans (Amerikalı azərbaycanlılar) or Azeri Americans (Amerikalı azərılar) are Americans of the Azerbaijani ancestry from Azerbaijan and Iranian Azerbaijan or people possessing Azerbaijani and the American dual citizenship.
Azerbaijani Canadians (Kanadalı azərbaycanlılar), or Azeri Canadians, are Canadian citizens and permanent residents of ethnic Azerbaijani background, or those who were born in Azerbaijan.
Azerbaijani literature (Azərbaycan ədəbiyyatı) refers to the literature written in Azerbaijani, a Turkic language, which currently is the official state language of the Republic of Azerbaijan and is the first-language of most people in Iranian Azerbaijan.
Azerbaijanis or Azeris (Azərbaycanlılar آذربایجانلیلار, Azərilər آذریلر), also known as Azerbaijani Turks (Azərbaycan türkləri آذربایجان تورکلری), are a Turkic ethnic group living mainly in the Iranian region of Azerbaijan and the sovereign (former Soviet) Republic of Azerbaijan.
Azerbaijanis in Armenia (lit) were once the largest ethnic minority in the country, but have been virtually non-existent since 1988–1991 when most either fled the country or were pushed out as a result of the Nagorno-Karabakh War and the ongoing conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan.
Azerbaijanis in France (Fransa azərbaycanlıları) is a small Azerbaijani diaspora in France, are French citizens and permanent residents of ethnic Azerbaijani background.
Azerbaijanis in Georgia or Georgian Azerbaijanis (Gürcüstan azərbaycanlıları, აზერბაიჯანელები საქართველოში) are Azerbaijani people in Georgia, and are Georgian citizens and permanent residents of ethnic Azerbaijani background.
Currently, there are more than 200,000 Azerbaijanis in (Germany).
Azerbaijanis in Kazakhstan (Qazaxıstan azərbaycanlıları) are part of the Azerbaijani diaspora.
Azerbaijanis in the United Kingdom are a small Azerbaijani diaspora in the United Kingdom, including British citizens and permanent residents of ethnic Azerbaijani background.
Azerbaijanis in Turkey or Turkish Azerbaijanis (Türkiyə azərbaycanlıları) are Azerbaijani people in Turkey, and are Turkish citizens and permanent residents of ethnic Azerbaijani background.
Azerbaijan and Ukraine relations took through centuries and both countries used to be the part of Russian Empire and then Soviet Union.
Azim Hashim Premji (born 24 July 1945) is an Indian business tycoon, investor, and philanthropist, who is the chairman of Wipro Limited.
Aziz Akbarian (عزیز اکبریان; born 1957) is an Iranian politician.
Azra Jafari (عذرا جعفری) was appointed as the first female mayor in Afghanistan by President Hamid Karzai in December 2008.
Öljeitü, Oljeitu, Olcayto or Uljeitu, Öljaitu, Ölziit (Öljeitü Ilkhan, Өлзийт хаан), also known as Muhammad Khodabandeh (محمد خدابنده - اولجایتو, khodābandeh from Persian meaning the "slave of God" or "servant of God"; 1280 – December 16, 1316), was the eighth Ilkhanid dynasty ruler from 1304 to 1316 in Tabriz, Iran.
Şahkulu (Şahqulu — «Servant of the Shah»), also known as Karabıyıkoğlu, (died July 2, 1511) was the leader of the pro-Shia and pro-Safavid uprising in Anatolia – the Şahkulu Rebellion – directed against the Ottoman Empire in 1511.
The Şahkulu rebellion (9 April 1511 – 2 July 1511) was a widespread pro-Shia and pro-Safavid uprising in Anatolia, directed against the Ottoman Empire, in 1511.
Mufti Šefko Effendi Omerbašić (born 9 June 1945) is a Bosniak imam and former president of the Islamic Community in Croatia and Slovenia.
Əsədabad (also, Əsədəbad, Asadabad, and Abas-Abad) is a village and municipality in the Yardymli Rayon of Azerbaijan.
Bohloul Alijani (بهلول علیجانی) is an Iranian meteorologist at Tehran University in Iran.
The Ba'Alawi tariqa (طريقة آل باعلوي), also known as the Tariqa Alawiyya is a Sufi order centered in Hadhramawt, Yemen, but now spread across the Indian Ocean rim along with the Hadhrami diaspora.
The Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party (حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي) was a political party founded in Syria by Michel Aflaq, Salah al-Din al-Bitar, and associates of Zaki al-Arsuzi.
Ba'athism (البعثية, al-Ba'athiyah, from بعث ba'ath, meaning "renaissance" or "resurrection") is an Arab nationalist ideology that promotes the development and creation of a unified Arab state through the leadership of a vanguard party over a progressive revolutionary government.
Ba'athist Iraq, formally the Iraqi Republic, covers the history of Iraq between 1968 and 2003, during the period of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party's rule.
Baalbek, properly Baʿalbek (بعلبك) and also known as Balbec, Baalbec or Baalbeck, is a city in the Anti-Lebanon foothills east of the Litani River in Lebanon's Beqaa Valley, about northeast of Beirut and about north of Damascus.
Baba Ishak, also spelled Baba Ishāq, Babaî, or Bābā’ī, a charismatic preacher, led an uprising of the Turkmen of Anatolia against the Seljuq Sultanate of Rûm well known as Babai Revolt c. 1239 until he was hanged in 1241.
Baba Jan is a leftist political activist in the Gilgit-Baltistan administrative territory of Pakistan who is serving a lifetime sentence He is the former vice-president and now member of the Federal Committee of Awami Workers Party.
Baba Samit was a Shia Sufi tariqa that gained widespread following in medieval Azerbaijan and Turkey.
Babak Dehghanpisheh is a Senior Reporter with Reuters covering the Middle East.
Sayyid Babar Ali Khan Bahadur (বাবর আলী খান; d. 28 April 1810) was the Nawab of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa.
The Babri Masjid (translation: Mosque of Babur) was a mosque in Ayodhya, India.
The Bachgoti Khanzada are a Muslim community found in the state of Uttar Pradesh in India.
Bacchawali Tope (literal translation: The cannon which induces child birth) is a gun, rather cannon which lies in the Nizamat Fort Campus on the garden space between the Nizamat Imambara and the Hazarduari Palace and to the east of the old Madina Mosque in the city of Murshidabad in the Indian state of West Bengal.
Bachir Mustafa Hammoud (1906–1945) (Bacheer Hammoud, Bachir Moustafa Hammoud Al-Choukini Al-Aameli, Bachir Moustafa Jawad Hammoud, Bachir Hammoud Al-Choukini Al-Aameli, Bachir Al-Aameli, Bachir Bin Jawad Bin Moustafa Hammoud) was a Lebanese philosopher, poet and Shī‘ah religious leader.
The Iranian Revolution was a populist, nationalist and Shi'a Islamic revolution that replaced a secular dictatorial monarchy with a theocracy based on "Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists" (or velayat-e faqi.). Its causes – why the last Shah of Iran (Mohammad Reza Pahlavi) was overthrown and why he was replaced by an Islamic Republic – are the subject of historical debate.
Badā' (meaning: "revealing after concealing", or "alteration in the divine will") is a Shia Islamic concept regarding God.
Badarpur is a small village of Shia Jafari Mashayakhi Momin Jamat nearby the Vadnagar city in Mehsana district, in the Indian state of Gujarat.
Baderban (بدربان, also Romanized as Baderbān) is a village in Hojr Rural District, in the Central District of Sahneh County, Kermanshah Province, Iran.
Badr al-Molouk was the first wife of Ahmad Shah Qajar.
The Badr Organization (منظمة بدر Munaẓẓama Badr), previously known as the Badr Brigades or Badr Corps, is an Iraqi political party headed by Hadi Al-Amiri.
Badruddin Ghulam Hussain Miya Khan Saheb was the founder of the Atba-e-Malak Badar branch of Mustaali Ismaili Shi'a Islam.
Badshahi Ashurkhana (Urdu) is a Shia Muslim mourning place, near Charminar in Hyderabad, India.
On 10 June 2014, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIS) killed at least 670 Shia prisoners in an attack on Badush prison.
Baffa is a town and Union Council of Mansehra District in the Khyber-Pukhtoonkhwa, Pakistan.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
Bahaa Al Araji (also transliterated Bahaa al-Aaraji) is an Iraqi politician, who was a member of the Iraqi National Assembly until 2014.
Abu Nasr Firuz Kharshadh (died December 22, 1012), better known by his laqab of Baha' al-Dawla (meaning "Splendour of the State") was the Buyid amir of Iraq (988–1012), along with Fars and Kerman (998–1012).
Bahadur Shah (بہادر شاه اول—) (14 October 1643 – 27 February 1712), also known as Muhammad Muazzam and Shah Alam was the seventh Mughal emperor of India, ruled from 1707 until his death in 1712.
Qutb-ud-Din Bahadur Shah, born Bahadur Khan was a sultan of the Muzaffarid dynasty who reigned over the Gujarat Sultanate, a late medieval kingdom in India from 1526 to 1535 and again from 1536 to 1537.
The Bahá'í Faith (بهائی) is a religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people.
The Bahá'í Faith and related topics have appeared in fiction in multiple forms.
A Bahá'í pilgrimage currently consists of visiting the holy places in Haifa, Acre, and Bahjí at the Bahá'í World Centre in Northwest Israel.
The Bahá'í/Bábí split occurred when most Bábís accepted Bahá'u'lláh as the messiah of the Báb's writings, leading them to become Bahá'ís, and leaving a remnant of Bábís who became known as Azalis.
Bahá'u'lláh (بهاء الله, "Glory of God"; 12 November 1817 – 29 May 1892 and Muharram 2, 1233 - Dhu'l Qa'dah 2, 1309), born Mírzá Ḥusayn-`Alí Núrí (میرزا حسینعلی نوری), was the founder of the Bahá'í Faith.
Bahá'u'lláh was the founder of the Bahá'í Faith.
Bahāʾ al‐Dīn Muḥammad ibn Ḥusayn al‐ʿĀmilī (also known as Sheikh Baha'i, شیخ بهایی) (18 February 1547 – 1 September 1621) was a Shia Islamic scholar, philosopher, architect, mathematician, astronomer and poet who lived in the late 16th and early 17th centuries in Safavid Iran.
Bahiya Al Aradi (بهیة العرادی.) (? – 16 March 2011) was the first woman killed in the Bahraini Uprising.
Bahlūl (بهلول) was the common name of Wāhab ibn Amr (Arabic: واهب ابن عمرو), a companion of Imam Musa al-Kadhim.
Bahlul Hoseini (بهلول حسینی; born 1961) is an Iranian politician.
The Bahmani Sultanate (also called the Bahmanid Empire or Bahmani Kingdom) was a Muslim state of the Deccan in South India and one of the major medieval Indian kingdoms.
Bahrain (البحرين), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain (مملكة البحرين), is an Arab constitutional monarchy in the Persian Gulf.
The administrative reforms of the 1920s were a series of British-led reforms that have laid the foundations of modern Bahrain.
Bahrain's Bloody Thursday (خميس البحرين الدامي) is the name given by protesters in Bahrain to 17 February 2011, the fourth day of their national uprising.
Bahrain Freedom Movement (Arabic: حركة أحرار البحرين الإسلامية, transliterated: Harakat Ahrar al-Bahrayn) is a London-based Bahraini opposition group which has its headquarters in a north London mosque.
The Bahrain Human Rights Watch Society (BHRWS; جمعية مراقبة حقوق الإنسان البحرينية) is a Bahraini human rights organization established in November 2004 which claims to protect housemaids, and to fight for women's rights.
The Bahrain National Dialogue was an initiative instigated by King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa to promote reform and encourage discussion on the governance of Bahrain.
Bahrain Tamarod (also spelled Bahrain Tamarrod; تمرد البحرين; literally "Bahrain Rebellion"), also known as August 14 Rebellion, was a three-day protest campaign in Bahrain that began on 14 August 2013, the forty-second anniversary of Bahrain Independence Day and the two-and-a-half-year anniversary of the Bahraini uprising.
The Bahrain Thirteen are thirteen Bahraini opposition leaders, rights activists, bloggers and Shia clerics arrested between 17 March and 9 April 2011 in connection with their role in the national uprising.
The Bahrain Youth Society for Human Rights (BYSHR) is a human rights organization of Bahrain founded in March 2005 which was active in the Bahraini uprising.
Bahrain–Iran relations are the bilateral relations between the countries of Bahrain and Iran.
Bahrain–Qatar relations are the bilateral relations between the State of Qatar and the Kingdom of Bahrain.
Bahrain – United Kingdom relations are bilateral relations between Kingdom of Bahrain and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
General elections were held in Bahrain on 25 November 2006 for the 40-seat Council of Representatives alongside municipal elections.
General elections were held in Bahrain with the first-round on 23 October 2010, and the second round on 30 October.
General elections were held in Bahrain on 22 November 2014, with a second round on 29 November in constituencies where no candidate received at least 50% of the vote.
The Bahraini opposition refers to a group of political groups who are opposed to the Cabinet of Bahrain government and the ruling monarch of House of Khalifa.
The Bahraini uprising of 2011 was a series of anti-government protests in Bahrain led by the Shia-dominant Bahraini Opposition from 2011 until 2014.
Bahshamiyya (also known as "Ba Hashimiyya") is a school of Mu'tazili thought, rivaling the school of Abd al-Jabbar ibn Ahmad, based primarily on the earlier teaching of Abu Hashim al-Jubba'i, the son of Abu 'Ali Muhammad al-Jubba'i.
The Baiji oil refinery is the largest oil refinery in Iraq and produces a third of the country's oil output.
Bairam Khan also Bayram Khan was an important military commander, later commander-in-chief of the Mughal army, a powerful statesman and regent at the court of the Mughal Emperors, Humayun and Akbar.
Bakriyya or Bakrism (Arabic: البكرية al-bakriyya, adjective form Bakri) is an Islamic term which had been used historically by Shia clerics to refer to the followers of Abu Bakr, and it is still used by many Shia to refer to the Sunnis.
Baku (Bakı) is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region, with a population of 2,374,000.
Baku Governorate (Бакинская губерния, Pre-Reform Russian: Бакинская губернія) was one of the guberniyas of the Caucasus Viceroyalty of the Russian Empire, with its centre in Baku.
Bal Gangadhar Tilak (or Lokmanya Tilak,; 23 July 1856 – 1 August 1920), born as Keshav Gangadhar Tilak, was an Indian nationalist, teacher, social reformer, lawyer and an independence activist.
Balad Ruz District (بلدروز) is a district of Diyala Governorate, Iraq.
Balad (بلد), also transliterated Beled or Belad, is a city in the Salah ad Din Governorate, Iraq, north of the national capital, Baghdad.
The Balawaristan National Front is a minor political party seeking the independence of Northern Area Balawaristan (officially known as the Gilgit-Baltistan) located in Pakistan, as well as Chitral and Kohistan, in neighbouring Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province.
Baldwin I, also known as Baldwin of Boulogne (1060s – 2 April 1118), was the first count of Edessa from 1098 to 1100, and the second crusader ruler and first King of Jerusalem from 1100 to his death.
The Baloch are the majority ethnic inhabitants of the region of Balochistan in Iran.
The Balti are an ethnic group of Tibetan descent with Dardic admixture who live in the Gilgit–Baltistan region of Pakistan and the Kargil region of India.
The Baloch is a Muslim community found in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India.
Ban Ki-moon (born 13 June 1944) is a South Korean politician and diplomat who was the eighth Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 2007 to December 2016.
Bandar bin Sultan (born 2 March 1949) is a member of the House of Saud and was Saudi Arabia's ambassador to the United States from 1983 to 2005.
Banganapalle State was one of the princely states of India during the period of the British Raj.
The Bangash (بنګش), (بنگش) are one of the Karlani Pashtun tribe of the border region of eastern Afghanistan and North Western Pakistan.
Bangil is the name of a district and of a town in the Pasuruan Regency, East Java, Indonesia.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
Bani Khalid (بني خالد) or the Al-Khaldi family, is an Arab tribal confederation.
Banias (بانياس الحولة; בניאס) is the Arabic and modern Hebrew name of an ancient site that developed around a spring once associated with the Greek god Pan.
Banu Asad ibn Khuzaymah (Arabic: بني أسد/ بنو أسد) is an Arab tribe.
The Banu Hilal (Arabic: بنو هلال or الهلاليين) was a confederation of tribes of Arabia from the Hejaz and Najd regions of the Arabian Peninsula that emigrated to North Africa in the 11th century.
The Banu Jumah (بنو جُمح) is a clan of the Quraish tribe.
The Banu Ka'b (بنو كعب) are an Arab nomadic tribe originating in the Najd region of Arabia, who often raided, then settled various areas of southern and central Ottoman Iraq, in cities such as Basra and Nasariyah, and also across the border in the southernmost region of Khuzestan Province of Persia, particularly near the city of Khorramshahr.
Banu Kilab (/ALA-LC: Banū Kilāb) was an Arab tribe that dominated central Arabia during the late pre-Islamic era.
Banu Lam (بنو لام) is an Arab tribe of central Arabia and southern Iraq.
The Banu 'l-Ukhaidhir (بنو الأخيضر) was a dynasty that ruled in Najd and al-Yamamah (central Arabia) from 867 to at least the mid-eleventh century.
Banu Uqayl (بنو عُـقَـيـْل) are an ancient Arab tribe that played an important role in the history of eastern Arabia and Iraq.
Banu Yam (بنو يام) are a large tribe native to Najran Province in Saudi Arabia and the principal tribe of that area.
The Banu'l-Furat were a Shia family of civil functionaries of the Abbasid Caliphate in the late 9th and early 10th centuries, several of whom held the office of vizier.
The Baqir Brigade (Liwa al-Baqir, sometimes also Liwa al-Imam al-Baqir or Fawj al-Imam Baqir), named after Shia Imam Muhammad al-Baqir, is a Syrian loyalist militia originating in the Aleppo Governorate that fights in the Syrian Civil War.
Baqir Jabr Al-Zubeidi (باقر جبر الزبيدي), also known as Bayan Jabr Solagh, is a former commander of the Badr Brigades who served as the Finance Minister of Iraq in the government of Nouri al-Maliki.
Bagher Khān (باقرخان; born 1870 – died November 1916) honorarily titled Sālār-e Melli (Persian: سالار ملی meaning National Chieftain), was one of the key figures in the Iranian Constitutional Revolution.
The Baqt (or Bakt) was a treaty between the Christian state of Makuria and the Muslim rulers of Egypt.
Baqubah (ܒܰܩܽܘܒܰܐ, بعقوبة; BGN: Ba‘qūbah; also spelled Baquba and Baqouba) is the capital of Iraq's Diyala Governorate.
Baraachit (برعشيت.), also spelt Brashit, is a rural town located in the Nabatiye Governorate, in the Bint Jbeil District of southern Lebanon, ca.
Barabanki is a city in the state of Uttar Pradesh in India.
Allegations that Barack Obama secretly practices Islam, or that he is the antichrist of Christian eschatology, have been suggested since he campaigned for the U.S. Senate in 2004 and proliferated after his election as President of the U.S. in 2008.
Bardaisan (ܒܪ ܕܝܨܢ, Bardaiṣān), also known in Arabic as ابن ديصان (Ibn Daisan), also Latinized as Bardesanes, was a Syriac or ParthianProds Oktor Skjaervo.
Bareilly is a city in Bareilly district in the northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.
The Bareilly district belongs to the state Uttar Pradesh in northern India.
Barelvi (بَریلوِی) is a movement following the Sunni Hanafi school of jurisprudence, with over 200 million followers in South Asia.
The Barghawatas (also Barghwata or Berghouata) were a group of Berber tribes on the Atlantic coast of Morocco, belonging to the Masmuda confederacy.
Pīr Sayyid ʿAbd al-Laṭīf Shāh Qādirī Qalandarī, often referred to as Barī Imām or Barī Sarkār, or reverentially as Shaykh Shah ʿAbd al-Laṭīf by Sunni Muslims of the Indian subcontinent, was a 17th-century Sufi ascetic from Punjab who is venerated as the patron saint of Islamabad, Pakistan.
Barry Richard McCaffrey (born November 17, 1942) is a former United States Army officer and current news commentator, professor and business consultant who served on U.S. President Bill Clinton's Cabinet as the Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy.
Barzan Mohamed (17 February 1951 – 15 January 2007), also known as Barazan Ibrahim al-Tikriti, Barasan Ibrahem Alhassen and Barzan Hassan (برزان إبراهيم الحسن التكريتي; Barzan Mohamed), was one of three half-brothers of Saddam Hussein, and a leader of the Mukhabarat, the Iraqi intelligence service.
Basam Ridha Al-Husaini (بسام رضا الحسيني) (born in Iraq c. 1964) is an advisor to Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri Maliki charged with overseeing judicial matters.
Bashar Jaafari, also Ja'afari, (بشار جعفري) (born April 14, 1956) is the current Permanent Representative of the Syrian Arab Republic to the United Nations Headquarters in New York City.
Grand Ayatollah Sheikh Basheer Hussain Najafi (آية الله بشير النجفي) (born 1942) is one of the five Grand Ayatollahs in Iraq.
Bashir Khaleghi (بشیر خالقی) is an Iranian politician and pediatrician.
Bashir Shihab II (also spelt "Bachir Chehab II"; 2 January 1767–1850.) was a Lebanese emir who ruled Lebanon in the first half of the 19th century.
The Basij (بسيج, lit. "The Mobilization"), Niruyeh Moghavemat Basij (نیروی مقاومت بسیج, "Mobilisation Resistance Force"), full name Sāzmān-e Basij-e Mostaz'afin (سازمان بسیج مستضعفین, "The Organization for Mobilization of the Oppressed"), is one of the five forces of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps.
Basilan (Chavacano: Provincia de Basilan; Tausug: Wilaya sin Basilan; Lalawigan sa Basilan) is an island province of the Philippines in the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao.
Basra (البصرة al-Baṣrah), is an Iraqi city located on the Shatt al-Arab between Kuwait and Iran.
The Basra prison incident was an event involving British troops in Basra, Iraq.
Bassem Hamad al-Dawiri (died September 19, 2007) was an Iraqi sculptor and artist.
The Basseri (باسری or باصری) are a Persian nomadic and pastoral tribe of the Fars Province in Iran.
Basim Karbalaei) (born in 1966) (alternatively, Basim Al-Karbalai) is a Shia eulogy (latmiyah) reciter.Al-Adeeb, Dena. From Sacred Ritual to Installation Art: A Personal Testimony, in Ghazoul, Ferial J. (ed.) (No.
Bastak (بستک; also known as Bustak) is a city and capital of Bastak County, Hormozgan Province, Iran.
Basti (Hindi: बस्ती, Urdu: بستی) is a 2003 Indian crime film.
Bathsheba was the wife of Uriah the Hittite and later of David, according to the Hebrew Bible.
Bāṭin (باطن) literally means "inner", "inward", "hidden", etc.
Batiniyya (Bāṭiniyyah) refers to groups that distinguish between an outer, exoteric (zāhir) and an inner, esoteric (bāṭin) meaning in Islamic scriptures.
Batriyya (بترية, adjective form Batri) is a Muslim sect from Zaidiyyah, some Shia clerics may use this term to refer to any shiite mixing the allegiance to the Imams and the allegiance to Abu Bakr and Umar.
The Battle of Aleppo (معركة حلب) was a major military confrontation in Aleppo, the largest city in Syria, between the Syrian opposition (including the Free Syrian Army (FSA) and other largely-Sunni groups, such as the Levant Front and the Al-Qaeda-affiliated Al-Nusra Front) against the government of Bashar al-Assad, supported by Hezbollah, Shia militias and Russia, and against the Kurdish People's Protection Units. The battle began on 19 July 2012 and was part of the ongoing Syrian Civil War. A stalemate that had been in place for four years finally ended in July 2016, when Syrian government troops closed the rebels' last supply line into Aleppo with the support of Russian airstrikes. In response, rebel forces launched unsuccessful counteroffensives in September and October that failed to break the siege; in November, government forces embarked on a decisive campaign that resulted in the recapture of all of Aleppo by December 2016. The Syrian government victory was widely seen as a potential turning point in Syria's civil war. The large scale devastation of the battle and its importance led combatants to name it the "mother of battles" or "Syria's Stalingrad". The battle was marked by widespread violence against civilians, alleged repeated targeting of hospitals and schools (mostly by pro-government Air Forces and to a lesser extent by the rebels), and indiscriminate aerial strikes and shelling against civilian areas. It was also marked by the inability of the international community to resolve the conflict peacefully. The UN special envoy to Syria proposed to end the battle by giving East Aleppo autonomy, but the idea was rejected by the Syrian government. Hundreds of thousands of residents were displaced by the fighting and efforts to provide aid to civilians or facilitate evacuation were routinely disrupted by continued combat and mistrust between the opposing sides. Various claims of war crimes emerged during the battle, including the use of chemical weapons by both Syrian government forces and rebel forces, the use barrel bombs by the Syrian Air Force, the dropping of cluster munitions on populated areas by Russian and Syrian forces, the carrying out of "double tap" airstrikes to target rescue workers responding to previous strikes, summary executions of civilians and captured soldiers by both sides, indiscriminate shelling and use of highly inaccurate improvised artillery by rebel forces. During the 2016 Syrian government offensive, the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights warned that "crimes of historic proportions" were being committed in Aleppo. Fighting also caused severe destruction to the Old City of Aleppo, a UNESCO World Heritage site. An estimated 33,500 buildings have been either damaged or destroyed. After four years of fighting, the battle represents one of the longest sieges in modern warfare and one of the bloodiest battles of the Syrian Civil War, leaving an estimated 31,000 people dead, almost a tenth of the estimated overall war casualties at that time.
The Battle of Basra lasted from 21 March to 6 April 2003 and was one of the first battles of the 2003 invasion of Iraq.
The Battle of Basra began on 25 March 2008, when the Iraqi Army launched an operation (code-named Saulat al-Fursan, meaning Operation Charge of the Knights in Arabic) to drive the Mahdi Army militia out of the southern Iraqi city of Basra.
The Battle of Bhangani (ਭੰਗਾਣੀ ਦਾ ਯੁੱਧ) was fought between Guru Gobind Singh's army and the combined forces of many Rajas of the Sivalik Hills (pahari rajas), on 18 September 1686, at Bhangani near Paonta Sahib.
The Battle of Bint Jbeil was one of the main battles of the 2006 Lebanon War.
The Battle of Chaldiran (جنگ چالدران; Çaldıran Muharebesi) took place on 23 August 1514 and ended with a decisive victory for the Ottoman Empire over the Safavid Empire.
The Battle of Ghazdewan occurred in what is now Uzbekistan in 1512 AD between Babur's Mughal army and invading Uzbek tribes from Central Asia.
The Battle of Haifa Street was a battle fought during January 2007 for the control of Haifa Street, a two-mile-long street in downtown Baghdad, Iraq, pitting American and Iraqi Army forces against various Sunni insurgent forces between January 6 and January 9, 2007 (phase one), and then two weeks later on January 24 when US forces launched a second attempt to clear Haifa Street of insurgents once and for all.
The Battle of Hama was fought some 24 km from the city of Hama in Syria on 29–30 November 903 between the forces of the Abbasid Caliphate and the Qarmatians.
The Battle of Inab, also called Battle of Ard al-Hâtim or Fons Muratus, was fought on 29 June 1149, during the Second Crusade.
The Battle of Karbala took place on Muharram 10, in the year 61 AH of the Islamic calendar (October 10, 680 AD) in Karbala, in present-day Iraq.
The Battle of Karbala began on the night of 27 August 2007 and involved fighting between the Mahdi Army, who provided security for the pilgrims, and police (who were largely members of the Badr Organization) in Karbala, Iraq.
The Battle of Khaybar was fought in the year 628 between Muslims and the Jews living in the oasis of Khaybar, located from Medina in the north-western part of the Arabian peninsula, in modern-day Saudi Arabia.
In the Battle of Lake Huleh on 2 September 1771, the rebel forces of Zahir al-Umar and Nasif al-Nassar routed the army of Uthman Pasha al-Kurji, the Ottoman governor of Damascus, at Lake Huleh in the eastern Galilee.
The Battle of Majar al-Kabir was the result of a growing distrust between the British military and the local people of the south-eastern region of Iraq.
The Battle of Maysalun (معركة ميسلون), also called the Battle of Maysalun Pass or the Battle of Khan Maysalun, was fought between the forces of the Arab Kingdom of Syria and the French Army of the Levant on 24 July 1920 near Khan Maysalun in the Anti-Lebanon Mountains, about west of Damascus.
The Battle of Mosul (2016–2017) (معركة الموصل, Ma‘rakat al-Mawṣil; شەڕی مووسڵ, Şeriy Mûsil) was a major military campaign launched by the Iraqi Government forces with allied militias, the Kurdistan Regional Government, and international forces to retake the city of Mosul from the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), which had seized the city in June 2014.
The Battle of Najaf was fought between United States and Iraqi forces on one side and the Islamist Mahdi Army of Muqtada al-Sadr on the other in the Iraqi city of Najaf in August 2004.
The Battle of Najaf took place on 28 January 2007 at Zarqa (alt. Zarga) near Najaf, Iraq, between Iraqi Security Forces (later assisted by U.S. and UK forces) and fighters, initially thought to be Iraqi insurgents but later reported to be members of the Shia Islam cult Soldiers of Heaven, who had joined a gathering of worshippers — or, by other accounts, a conflict, originally between an Iraqi government forces checkpoint and 200 armed pilgrims, which then expanded to include local residents, the Soldiers of Heaven group, and UK and U.S. forces.
The Battle of Nasiriyah was fought between the US 2nd Marine Expeditionary Brigade and Iraqi forces from the 23rd March to 2nd April 2003 during the US-led invasion of Iraq.
The Battle of Rashaya was a four-day battle fought at the citadel of Rashaya on 20–24 November between Druze rebels and the French Army of the Levant during the Great Syrian Revolt against French Mandatory rule.
The Battle of Sana'a in 2014 marked the advance of the Houthis into Sana'a, the capital of Yemen, and heralded the beginning of the armed takeover of the government that unfolded over the following months.
The Battle of Tal Afar also known as Operation Restoring RightsDenning, Jeffrey, Warrior SOS: Military Veterans' Stories of Faith, Emotional Survival and Living with PTSD, 2015, Cedar Fort, Inc.
The Battle of Tal Afar (2017) was an offensive announced on 20 August 2017 by Iraqi Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi in order to liberate the Tal Afar region from the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL).
The Battle of Tel Hai was fought on 1 March 1920 between Arab irregulars and a Jewish defensive paramilitary force protecting the village of Tel Hai in Northern Galilee.
The Battle of the Camel, sometimes called the Battle of Jamal or the Battle of Bassorah, took place at Basra, Iraq on.
The Battle of the Zab (معركة الزاب) took place on the banks of the Great Zab river in what is now Iraq on January 25, 750. It spelled the end of the Umayyad Caliphate and the rise of the Abbasids, a dynasty that would last (under various influences and with varying power) until the 13th century.
The Battles of Mazar-e Sharif were a part of the Afghan Civil War and took place in 1997 and 1998 between the forces of Abdul Malik Pahlawan and his Hazara allies, Junbish-e Milli-yi Islami-yi Afghanistan, and the Taliban.
The Bavand dynasty (also spelled Bavend), or simply the Bavandids, was an Iranian dynasty that ruled in parts of Tabaristan (Mazandaran) in what is now northern Iran from 651 until 1349, alternating between outright independence and submission as vassals to more powerful regional rulers.
Bayan al-Sa‘ada fi Maqamat al-‘Ibada (Arabic: The Elucidation of Felicity concerning the Stations of Worship) is an exegesis on the Qur'an by Ni'matullāhī Sufi leader Sultan ‘Ali Shah in Arabic.
The Bayat tribe (Bayat tayfası, Bayat boyu, Baýat taýpasy, بیات) is one of the Oghuz tribes in Turkmenistan, Iran, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Iraq, and Syria.
Bayezid II (3 December 1447 – 26 May 1512) (Ottoman Turkish: بايزيد ثانى Bāyezīd-i s̱ānī, Turkish: II. Bayezid or II. Beyazıt) was the eldest son and successor of Mehmed II, ruling as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1481 to 1512.
Bayrami, Bayramiye, Bayramiyya, Bayramiyye, and Bayramilik refer to a Turkish Sufi order (tariqah) founded by Hajji Bayram (Hacı Bayram-ı Veli) in Ankara around the year 1400 as a combination of Khalwatī, Naqshbandī, and Akbarī Sufi Orders.
The Bazighiyya Shia (named for Bazigh ibn Yunus, to whom they were related) was a Ghulat sect of Shia Islam.
The Báb, born Siyyid `Alí Muhammad Shírází (سيد علی محمد شیرازی; October 20, 1819 – July 9, 1850) was the founder of Bábism, and one of the central figures of the Bahá'í Faith.
Bábism (بابیه, Babiyye), also known as the Bayání Faith (Persian:, Bayání), is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion which professes that there is one incorporeal, unknown, and incomprehensible GodBrowne, E.G., p. 15 who manifests his will in an unending series of theophanies, called Manifestations of God (Arabic). It has no more than a few thousand adherents according to current estimates, most of whom are concentrated in Iran.
The Behlim(Belim) are a Muslim Rajput community found mainly in North India.
Behrouz Afkhami (بهروز افخمی; born October 24, 1956) is an Iranian film director and screenwriter.
Beirut I (دائرة بيروت الأولى) was an electoral district in Lebanon.
Beirut II (دائرة بيروت الثانية) was a parliamentary constituency in Lebanon.
Beirut III (دائرة بيروت الثالثة) was an electoral district in Lebanon.
Bekaa I (دائرة البقاع الاولى) is an electoral district in Lebanon, as per the 2017 vote law.
Bektashi Order or Shī‘ah Imāmī Alevī-Bektāshī Ṭarīqah (Tarikati Bektashi; Bektaşi Tarîkatı) is a dervish order (tariqat) named after the 13th century Alevi Wali (saint) Haji Bektash Veli from Khorasan, but founded by Balım Sultan.
Folk religious practices remain in the Bektashiyyah tariqa and certain practices are also found to a lesser extent in Balkan Christianity and non-Bektashi Balkan Islam as well, according to some Western Islamic scholars.
Belief is the state of mind in which a person thinks something to be the case with or without there being empirical evidence to prove that something is the case with factual certainty.
Osama bin Laden took ideological guidance from individuals named Ibn Taymiyya, Ibn al-Qayyim al-Jawziyyah, and Sayyid Qutb.
Beluch or the Baloch of Turkmenistan are a small part of the greater Baloch people who live primarily in Pakistan, Iran and Afghanistan.
Benazir Bhutto (بينظير ڀُٽو; 21 June 1953 – 27 December 2007) was a Pakistani politician who served as Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1988 to 1990 and again from 1993 to 1996.
The Bendahara dynasty is a Malay dynasty, the line of the Bendahara, or grand viziers of Melaka and Johor Sultanates.
Bengali Muslims (বাঙালি মুসলমান) are an ethnic, linguistic, and religious population who make up the majority of Bangladesh's citizens and the largest minority in the Indian states of West Bengal and Assam.
Benjamin Walker (25 November 1913 – 30 July 2013) was the truncated pen name of George Benjamin Walker, who also wrote under the pseudonym Jivan Bhakar.
A bequest is property given by will.
The Berber calendar is the agricultural calendar traditionally used by Berbers.
Berbers or Amazighs (Berber: Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⴻⵏ; singular: Amaziɣ, ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗ) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, primarily inhabiting Algeria, northern Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, northern Niger, Tunisia, Libya, and a part of western Egypt.
Bernard Kouchner (born 1 November 1939) is a French politician and physician.
Beytollah Abdollahi (بیتالله عبداللهی) is an Iranian reformist politician who is currently representative of Ahar and Heris in the Parliament of Iran.
Bibi Khanum (died 1950) was a female (Mujtahideh) from Najaf, Iraq.
The Bibi-Heybat Mosque (Bibiheybət məscidi) is a historical mosque in Baku, Azerbaijan.
Bibi-Ka-Alam or Alam-e-Mubarak is an annual procession during Moharram.
Bichaghchis or Bichaghchi people, (مردم بچاقچی) are a Turkic sub-ethnic group of Turks in Iran, mainly living in Kerman Province.
In Islam, bid‘ah (بدعة; innovation) refers to innovation in religious matters.
The Big Four refers to the four contemporary leading Grand Ayatollahs of Twelver Shia Islam based in the holy city of Najaf in Iraq.
The terms big man, big man syndrome, and bigmanism, within the context of political science, refer to corrupt, autocratic and often totalitarian rule of countries by a single person.
Biḥār al-Anwār (بحار الأنوار, meaning "Seas of Lights") is a comprehensive collection of traditions (ahadith) compiled by the Shi'i Muslim scholar Mulla Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi, known as 'Allama Majlisi (d. 1110/1698).
Bihari Muslims are people originating and tracing descent from the Indian state of Bihar who practice Islam as their religion.
The Bijapur Fort (ವಿಜಾಪುರ ಕೋಟೆ Vijapur kote) is located in the Bijapur city in Bijapur District of the Indian state of Karnataka.
The Bilal Muslim Mission is an international Shi'a twelver organization, established in East Africa on December 25, 1964 through the efforts of Sayyid Saeed Akhtar Rizvi, Hussein Nasser Walji and other dedicated volunteers.
Bima Arya Sugiarto (born 17 December 1972) is an Indonesian politician, who has been mayor of Bogor since 2014.
Bint Jbeil electoral district (دائرة بنت جبيل) was an electoral district in Lebanon.
Biographical evaluation (`Ilm al-Rijāl), literally meaning 'Knowledge of Men' but more commonly understood as the Science of Narration, refers to a discipline of Islamic religious studies within hadith terminology in which the narrators of hadith are evaluated.
Berjis Qadr (बिरजिस क़द्र 20 August 1845 – 14 August 1893) was the son of Wajid Ali Shah, and was last Padshah-e Awadh, Shah-e Zaman Qadr and some of his subjects fought the British's military presence in India in the Indian Rebellion of 1857.
The Birth of Bahá'u'lláh is one of nine holy days in the Bahá'í calendar that is celebrated by Bahá'ís and during which work is suspended.
The Bishwa Ijtema (বিশ্ব ইজতেমা, meaning Global Congregation) is an annual gathering of Muslims in Tongi, by the banks of the River Turag, in the outskirts of Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Black is the darkest color, the result of the absence or complete absorption of visible light.
The Black Sea Raid was an Ottoman naval sortie against Russian ports in the Black Sea on 29 October 1914, supported by Germany, that led to the Ottoman entry into World War I. The attack was conceived by Ottoman War Minister Enver Pasha, German Admiral Wilhelm Souchon and the German foreign ministry.
Iran is a constitutional, Islamic theocracy.
Saudi Arabia's laws are an amalgam of rules from Sharia (mainly the rules formulated by the Hanbali school of jurisprudence but also from other schools of law like the Jafari school), royal decrees, royal ordinances, other royal codes and bylaws, fatwas from the Council of Senior Scholars (Saudi Arabia) and custom and practice.
The United Arab Emirates (UAE) has Islam as its official religion, and the federation regards blasphemy as a very serious matter.
The Blue Mosque (گؤی مسجید., Goy Masjed; مسجد کبود, Masjed-e Kabūd) is a famous historic mosque in Tabriz, Iran.
The Blue Mosque (Կապույտ մզկիթ, Kapuyt mzkit; مسجد کبود Masjed-e Kabud) is an 18th-century Shia mosque in Yerevan, Armenia.
The Islamic State in West Africa (abbreviated as ISWA or ISWAP), formerly known as Jamā'at Ahl as-Sunnah lid-Da'wah wa'l-Jihād (جماعة أهل السنة للدعوة والجهاد, "Group of the People of Sunnah for Preaching and Jihad") and commonly known as Boko Haram until March 2015, is a jihadist militant organization based in northeastern Nigeria, also active in Chad, Niger and northern Cameroon.
This is the detail of terrorist incidents bomb blast in Parachinar.
Bonyads (بنیاد "Foundation") are charitable trusts in Iran that play a major role in Iran's non-petroleum economy, controlling an estimated 20% of Iran's GDP, and channeling revenues to groups supporting the Islamic Republic.
The Book of Fatimah, Mushaf of Fatimah or Fatimah's Mushaf is, according to Shia tradition, a book written for Fatimah, the daughter of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad.
Boria (Jawi: بوريا) is a form of Malay theatre of Indian origin which has through adaptive processes, become the one and only theatre of Malay community in Penang, Malaysia.
Bosra (Buṣrā), also spelled Bostra, Busrana, Bozrah, Bozra and officially known Busra al-Sham (Buṣrā al-Shām, Busra el-Şam)Günümüzde Suriye Türkmenleri.
Bouthaina Shaaban (بثينة شعبان) (born 1953) is a Syrian politician and is currently the political and media adviser to the President of Syria.
Iran-Brazil relations, which are characterized by economic and diplomatic cooperation, are quite friendly.
British Arabs (عرب بريطانيا) are citizens or residents of the United Kingdom that are of Arab ethnic, cultural and linguistic heritage or identity from Arab countries.
British Pakistanis (پاکستانی نژاد برطانوی; also known as Pakistani British people or Pakistani Britons) are citizens or residents of the United Kingdom whose ancestral roots lie in Pakistan.
A number of observers, including the Shah, have written of rumours and allegations that the government of the United Kingdom has secretly supported "mullahs" (Shia clerics) in recent Iranian history, and in particular the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini in his successful overthrow of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi in the Iranian Revolution of 1979.
The Brokpa are a small community of Dard people residing in Jammu and Kashmir region, about northwest of Leh and north of Kargil in Ladakh.
Buddha Goraya / Budha Goraya / Budha Guraya / Urdu: بڈھاگورائیہ is a developing village in Gujranwala District, Punjab, Pakistan.goraya is jat caste.
Bukan (بوکان; also Romanized as Bukān, (Bokan) is the capital of Bukan County, West Azerbaijan Province, Iran, one of 14 cities and towns in the province. As of 2017, its population was estimated to be near 194,846 in 57,000 families, making it the third most populous city of the province. Its distance from the province′s capital is 184 kilometres. Seventy-five percent of the population is settled in the urban area, while 25% live in the rural area (Iran 2012 Census). This population is almost a homogeneous Kurdish-speaking. community. The spoken language in the city is Kurdish, but the language which is used in schools and offices is Farsi, since the official language in Iran is Persian Almost everyone in the city are fluent in Farsi.
Bakhtshooa Gondishapoori (also spelled Bukhtishu and Bukht-Yishu in literature) were Persian or Assyrian Nestorian Christian physicians from the 7th, 8th, and 9th centuries, spanning 6 generations and 250 years.
The House of Bunnag (บุนนาค) was a powerful Siamese noble family of Persian descent of the early Rattanakosin Kingdom of Siam.
The Buratha mosque bombing was a triple suicide bombing that occurred on April 7, 2006, in Baghdad.
Burhan al-Haqq or ((برهان الحق, 'Demonstration of the Truth') is a 1963 (1342 Persian calendar) theological and spiritual work by Nur Ali Elahi dedicated to showing the inner spiritual aims shared by the Quran, Shia Islam and the original teachings and practices of the Ahl-e Haqq order. In 1964, Dr. Simon Weightman wrote a piece titled "The significance of Kitab Burhan al- Haqq". Elahi states that he has left "nothing unsaid", in the books he wrote. "Even if you read Burhan al-Haqq a thousand times, you will find something new in it each time. He also states "know that Burhan al-Haqq cannot be abridged. There are many secrets in my book... It is only after me that people will understand what "Burhan Al-haqq" is." He states that "The higher the level of knowledge rises, the better one will comprehend the scope; the more centuries pass, the more their value will increase. I alone know how much research I have done.".
Burkina Faso is a landlocked country in West Africa.
The Burusho or Brusho, also known as the Hunza people or Botraj, live in Hunza, Nagar, Chitral, and in valleys of Gilgit–Baltistan in northern Pakistan, as well as in Jammu and Kashmir, India.
Busal or Bosal (also written as Bosaal; ﺑﻮﺳﺎﻞ) is a village in the Mandi Bahauddin District of Punjab, Pakistan.
Bushra Khalil (بشرى خليل) is a lawyer from Southern Lebanon.
The Buyid dynasty or the Buyids (آل بویه Āl-e Buye), also known as Buwaihids, Bowayhids, Buyahids, or Buyyids, was an Iranian Shia dynasty of Daylamite origin.
Byblos, in Arabic Jbail (جبيل Lebanese Arabic pronunciation:; Phoenician: 𐤂𐤁𐤋 Gebal), is a Middle Eastern city on Levant coast in the Mount Lebanon Governorate, Lebanon.
The Byzantine–Bulgarian wars were a series of conflicts fought between the Byzantines and Bulgarians which began when the Bulgars first settled in the Balkan peninsula in the 5th century, and intensified with the expansion of the Bulgarian Empire to the southwest after 680 AD.
In the biblical Book of Genesis, Cain and Abel are the first two sons of Adam and Eve.
A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).
Cambay, Kambay or Khambhat was a princely state during the British Raj.
Camp Bucca (سجن بوكا) was a detention facility maintained by the United States military in the vicinity of Umm Qasr, Iraq.
Camp Marlboro was a U.S. Military Camp in Sadr City, Baghdad.
Camp Speicher, officially known as the Tikrit Air Academy and formerly as FOB Speicher, COB Speicher, and Al Sahra Airfield (under Saddam Hussein) is an air installation near Tikrit in northern Iraq.
On 12 June 2014, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) killed at least 1,566 Shia Iraqi Air Force cadets in an attack on Camp Speicher in Tikrit.
Camp War Eagle was the name of the United States Army camp located at the northeast corner of the Baghdad slum known as Sadr City.
Prior to 1955, Canadian Consular and Commercial Affairs in Iran were handled by the British Embassy.
The Canal Hotel Bombing in Baghdad, Iraq, in the afternoon of August 19, 2003, killed at least 22 people, including the United Nations' Special Representative in Iraq Sérgio Vieira de Mello, and wounded over 100.
Cape Malays are an ethnic group or community in South Africa.
Capital punishment in Islam was traditionally regulated by Sharia, the religious law in Islam.
Capital punishment is a legal penalty in Saudi Arabia.
The 1534 capture of Baghdad by Suleiman the Magnificent of the Ottoman Empire from the Safavid dynasty under Tahmasp I was part the Ottoman–Safavid War of 1532 to 1555, itself part a series of Ottoman–Persian Wars.
A carpet is a textile floor covering typically consisting of an upper layer of pile attached to a backing.
Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the center or capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what is now the Tunis Governorate in Tunisia.
The caste system in India is the paradigmatic ethnographic example of caste.
Estimates of the casualties from the conflict in Iraq (beginning with the 2003 US invasion of Iraq, and the ensuing occupation and insurgency) have come in many forms, and the accuracy of the information available on different types of Iraq War casualties varies greatly.
Caucasian days (Jours caucasiens) is a novel by the French writer of Azeri origin Banine, published in Paris, in 1945.
The Cedar Revolution (Arabic: ثورة الأرز - thawrat al-arz) or Independence Intifada (Arabic: انتفاضة الاستقلال - intifāḍat al-istiqlāl) was a chain of demonstrations in Lebanon (especially in the capital Beirut) triggered by the assassination of former Lebanese Prime Minister, Rafik Hariri.
Celebratory gunfire (also called aerial firing or happy fire) is the shooting of a firearm into the air in celebration.
A cemevi or cem evi (pronounced and sometimes written as djemevi; meaning literally "a house of gathering" in Turkish or more precisely, "house of cem") is a place of fundamental importance for Turkey's Alevi-Bektashiyyah tariqa populations and traditions.
The Kingdom of Bahrain is deemed ‘Not Free’ in terms of Net Freedom and Press Freedom by Freedom House.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
The Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran (CBI; Bank Markazi-ye Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi-ye Irān, also known as Bank Markazi) is the central bank of Iran.
Chad (تشاد; Tchad), officially the Republic of Chad ("Republic of the Chad"), is a landlocked country in Central Africa.
A chādor (چادر), also variously spelled in English as chadah, chad(d)ar, chader, chud(d)ah, chadur and naturalized as is an outer garment or open cloak worn by some women in Iran, Iraq and some other countries under the Persianate cultural sphere as well as predominantly Shia areas i.e. Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Pakistan, India, Kuwait, Lebanon, Syria, Tajikistan and Turkey, in public spaces or outdoors.
Chand Bibi (1550–1599 CE), was an Indian Muslim regent and warrior.
The Chaqchan Mosque (مسجد چقچن; meaning “The Miraculous Mosque”) is a mosque located in the city of Khaplu, in the Gilgit-Baltistan region of northern Pakistan.
On 7 January 2015 at about 11:30 local time, two brothers, Saïd and Chérif Kouachi, forced their way into the offices of the French satirical weekly newspaper Charlie Hebdo in Paris.
The Chawk Mosque (also Chawk Masjid) is a mosque in the city of Murshidabad, India.
A cherub (also pl. cherubim; כְּרוּב kərūv, pl., kərūvîm; Latin cherub, pl. cherubin, cherubim; Syriac ܟܪܘܒܐ; Arabic قروبيين) is one of the unearthly beings who directly attend to God according to Abrahamic religions.
The Children of Muhammad include the three sons and four daughters born to the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.
The Chindawol uprising was a insurrection that took place on June 23, 1979 in the Chindawol district in the old city of Kabul, Afghanistan.
The Chishtī Order (چشتی chishtī) is a Sunni Sufi order within the mystic Sufi tradition of Islam.
Chishtian (چشتیاں.) is a city in Bahawalnagar district in Punjab Province, Pakistan.
Chittagong, officially known as Chattogram, is a major coastal city and financial centre in southeastern Bangladesh.
Chol Gala Mosque (Çöl Qala məscidi, sometimes also transliterated as Chol Qala Mosque) was an Azerbaijani mosque located in Shusha, Karabakh region of Azerbaijan about 350 km southwest from capital Baku but is currently under control of Armenian forces since the occupation of Shusha on May 8, 1992.
Chota Imambara, also known as Imambara Hussainabad Mubarak is an imposing monument located in the city of Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Christianity in Asia has its roots in the very inception of Christianity, which originated from the life and teachings of Jesus in 1st century Roman Palestine.
Christianity has a long history in Iran, dating back to the early years of the faith, and pre-dating Islam.
Christianity, which originated in the Middle East in the 1st century AD, is a significant minority religion of the region. Christianity in the Middle East is characterized by the diversity of its beliefs and traditions, compared to other parts of the Old World. Christians now make up approximately 5% of the Middle Eastern population, down from 20% in the early 20th century. Cyprus is the only Christian Majority country in the Middle East, with the Christian percentage ranging between 76% and 78% of mainly Eastern Orthodox Christianity (i.e. most of the Greek population). Proportionally, Lebanon has the 2nd highest rate of Christians in the Middle East, with a percentage ranging between 39% and 41% of mainly Maronite Christians, followed by Egypt where Christians (especially Coptic Christians) and others account for about 11%. The largest Christian group in the Middle East is the previously Coptic speaking but today mostly Arabic-speaking Egyptian Copts, who number 15–20 million people, "estimates ranged from 6 to 11 million; 6% (official estimate) to 20% (Church estimate)" although Coptic sources claim the figure is closer to 12–16 million. "In 2008, Pope Shenouda III and Bishop Morkos, bishop of Shubra, declared that the number of Copts in Egypt is more than 12 million." (Arabic) "In 2008, father Morkos Aziz the prominent priest in Cairo declared that the number of Copts (inside Egypt) exceeds 16 million." Copts reside mainly in Egypt, but also in Sudan and Libya, with tiny communities in Israel, Cyprus, Jordan, Lebanon, and Tunisia. The Eastern Aramaic speaking indigenous Assyrians of Iraq, southeastern Turkey, northwestern Iran and northeastern Syria, who number 2–3 million, have suffered both ethnic and religious persecution for many centuries, such as the Assyrian Genocide conducted by the Ottoman Turks and their allies, leading to many fleeing and congregating in areas in the north of Iraq and northeast of Syria. The great majority of Assyrians are followers of the Assyrian Church of the East, Chaldean Catholic Church, Syriac Orthodox Church, Ancient Church of the East, Assyrian Pentecostal Church and Assyrian Evangelical Church. In Iraq, the numbers of Assyrians has declined to between 300,000 and 500,000 (from 0.8 to 1.4 million before 2003 US invasion). Assyrian Christians were between 800,000 and 1.2 million before 2003. In 2014, the Assyrian population of the Nineveh Plains In Northern Iraq largely collapsed due to an Invasion by ISIS. But after the fall of ISIS the Assyrian population of the Nineveh Plainsis rreturning home. The next largest Christian group in the Middle East is the once Aramaic speaking but now Arabic-speaking Maronites who are Catholics and number some 1.1–1.2 million across the Middle East, mainly concentrated within Lebanon. Many Lebanese Christians avoid an Arabic ethnic identity in favour of a pre-Arab Phoenician-Canaanite heritage, to which most of the general Lebanese population originates from. In Israel, Israeli Maronites (Palestinians) together with smaller Aramaic-speaking Christian populations of Syriac Orthodox and Greek Catholic adherence are legally classified ethnically as either Arameans or Arabs per their choice. The Arab Christians mostly descended from Arab Christian tribes, from Arabized Greeks or are recent converts to Protestantism, and number about 5 million in the region. Most Arab Christians are adherents of the Eastern Orthodox Church. Roman Catholics of the Latin Rite are small in numbers and Protestants altogether number about 400,000. Most Arab Christian Catholics are originally non-Arab, with Melkites and Rum Christians descending from Arabized Greek-speaking Byzantine populations. They are members of the Melkite Greek Catholic Church, a Eastern Catholic Church. They number over 1 million in the Middle East. They came into existence as a result of a schism within the Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch due to the election of a Patriarch in 1724. The Armenians number around 1 million in the Middle East, with their largest community in Iran with 200,000 members. The number of Armenians in Turkey is disputed having a wide range of estimations. More Armenian communities reside in Lebanon, Jordan and to lesser degree in other Middle Eastern countries such as Iraq, Israel and Egypt. The Armenian Genocide during and after World War I drastically reduced the once sizeable Armenian population. The Greeks who had once inhabited large parts of the western Middle East and Asia Minor, declined after of the Arab conquests, then the later Turkish conquests, and all but vanished from Turkey as a result of the Greek Genocide and expulsions which followed World War I. Today the biggest Middle Eastern Greek community resides in Cyprus and numbers around 793,000 (2008). Cypriot Greeks constitute the only Christian majority state in the Middle East, although Lebanon was founded with a Christian majority in the first half of the 20th century. In addition, some of the modern Arab Christians (especially Melkites) constitute Arabized Greco-Roman communities rather than ethnic Arabs. Smaller Christian groups include: Arameans, Georgians, Ossetians and Russians. There are currently several million Christian foreign workers in the Gulf area, mostly from the Philippines, India, Sri Lanka and Indonesia. In the Persian Gulf states, Bahrain has 1,000 Christian citizens and Kuwait has 400 native Christian citizens, in addition to 450,000 Christian foreign residents in Kuwait. Although the vast majority of Middle Eastern populations descend from Pre-Arab and Non-Arab peoples extant long before the 7th century AD Arab Islamic conquest, a 2015 study estimates there are also 483,500 Christian believers from a previously Muslim background in the Middle East, most of them being adherents of various Protestant churches. Converts to Christianity from other religions such as Islam, Yezidism, Mandeanism, Yarsan, Zoroastrianism, Bahaism, Druze, and Judaism exist in relatively small numbers amongst the Kurdish, Turks, Turcoman, Iranian, Azeri, Circassian, Israelis, Kawliya, Yezidis, Mandeans and Shabaks. Middle Eastern Christians are relatively wealthy, well educated, and politically moderate, as they have today an active role in social, economic, sporting and political spheres in their societies in the Middle East.
Christopher Melchert is an American professor and scholar of Islam, specialising in Islamic movements and institutions, especially in the ninth and tenth centuries C.E. A prolific author, he is University Lecturer in Arabic and Islam at the University of Oxford's Oriental Institute, and is a Fellow in Arabic at Pembroke College, Oxford.
Chukhur Mahalla Mosque (Çuхur məhəllə məscidi) also called Shefa Ojagi (Place of Cure in Azeri) was an Azerbaijani mosque located in Shusha, Karabakh region of Azerbaijan about 350 km southwest from capital Baku but is currently under control of Armenian forces since the occupation of Shusha on May 8, 1992.
Chup Tazia (چپ تعزیہ) or silent tazia is the name given to religious processions held mostly on 8th of Rabi' al-awwal by Twelver Shia Muslims in India and Pakistan to commemorate the death of Imam Hasan al-Askari, the eleventh of the Twelver Shi'a Imams.
The Chyah Airstrike or the Chyah Massacre was an attack by the Israel Air Force (IAF) on the Shiyyah suburb in the Lebanese capital of Beirut on August 7, 2006, during the 2006 Lebanon War.
The United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) has had a long history of its involvement in Iraq.
CIA activities in Syria since the agency's inception in 1947 have included coup attempts and assassination plots, and in more recent years, extraordinary renditions, a paramilitary strike, and funding and military training of forces opposed to the current government.
Circassians in Iraq are people of North Caucasian origin in Iraq, including Adyghes, Chechens and Dagestanis.
Circumstance (شرایط Šar'ayet) (En secret.) is a 2011 French-Iranian-American dramatic film written and directed by Maryam Keshavarz starring Nikohl Boosheri, Sarah Kazemy, and Reza Sixo Safai.
The City of the Dead, or Cairo Necropolis (Qarafa, el-Arafa), is an Islamic necropolis and cemetery below the Mokattam Hills in southeastern Cairo, Egypt.
Ciudad del Este (Spanish for City of the East) initialed CDE is the second largest city in Paraguay and capital of the Alto Paraná Department, situated on the Paraná River.
The Clash of Civilizations is a hypothesis that people's cultural and religious identities will be the primary source of conflict in the post-Cold War world.
The Classical Age of the Ottoman Empire (Klasik Çağ) concerns the history of the Ottoman Empire from the Conquest of Constantinople in 1453 until the second half of the sixteenth century, roughly the end of the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent (r. 1520-1566).
Clinton Bennett (born 7 October 1955) is a British American scholar of religions and participant in interfaith dialogue specialising in the study of Islam and Muslim-non-Muslim encounter.
The Clock Tower of Murshidabad (locally known just as Clock Tower or Ghari Ghar, also known as Big Ben of Murshidabad) is a clock tower in the Nizamat Fort Campus in West Bengal, India.
The Coalition of Iran's Independent Volunteers (ائتلاف خدمتگزاران مستقل ایران) is a principlist political group in Iran.
The Coalition of the Pleasant Scent of Servitude or Sweet Scent of Servitude (ائتلاف رايحه خوش خدمت) was an Iranian principlist political group supporting Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and his government.
The Columbia University Department of Middle Eastern, South Asian, and African Studies (also known as "MESAAS") is a leading center for the study of the politics, history, culture, societies and languages of the Middle East, South Asia, and Africa.
Commanding the just (امر بالمعروف Amr bi l-Ma‘rūf) is a part of Shia Islam's Branches of Religion.
The Islamic dietary laws (halal) and the Jewish dietary laws (kashrut; in English, kosher) are both quite detailed, and contain both points of similarity and discord.
Concubinage is an interpersonal and sexual relationship in which the couple are not or cannot be married.
Condoleezza Rice served as United States Secretary of State under George W. Bush.
Confessionalism, in a religious (and particularly Christian) sense, is a belief in the importance of full and unambiguous assent to the whole of a religious teaching.
The Conquest of al-Hasa was achieved by the Saudi forces of ibn Saud with support from the Ikhwan in 1913.
The consensus companions or "As'hab al-Ijma'" (اصحاب الاجماع) are eighteen Muhaddith and Islamic scholars who had direct contact with Shia Imams and had great knowledge of religion.
A constitutional convention is an informal and uncodified procedural agreement that is followed by the institutions of a state.
The Persian Constitutional Revolution was a short-lived push for democratic rule in the form of a constitutional monarchy within a highly elitist yet decentralized society under the Qajars.
Contemporary history, in English-language historiography, is a subset of modern history which describes the historical period from approximately 1945 to the present.
Content from the United States diplomatic cables leak has depicted the United States' opinion of the Middle East-related subjects extensively.
Content from the United States diplomatic cables leak has depicted Saudi Arabia and related subjects extensively.
The Council of Representatives (Majlis an-Nuwwāb al-ʿIrāqiyy; ئهنجومهنی نوێنهرانی) is the unicameral legislature of the Republic of Iraq.
Covenant in the Bahá'í Faith refers to two separate binding agreements between God and man.
The status of creation and evolution in public education has been the subject of substantial debate and conflict in legal, political, and religious circles.
The creation–evolution controversy (also termed the creation vs. evolution debate or the origins debate) involves an ongoing, recurring cultural, political, and theological dispute about the origins of the Earth, of humanity, and of other life.
This article presents an overview of Creationism by country.
After 1241, the year of the earliest recorded Tatar invasion of Bulgaria, the Second Bulgarian Empire maintained constant political contacts with the Tatars.
Criticism of Islam has existed since its formative stages.
Criticism of monarchy can be targeted against the general form of government—monarchy—or more specifically, to particular monarchical governments as controlled by hereditary royal families.
The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, more commonly known as the Iran nuclear deal was the international agreement reached on Iran's nuclear program in Vienna in 2015.
Criticism of Twelver Shia Islam dates from the initial rift between the two primary denominations of Islam, the Sunni and the Shia.
Crusader Kings II is a grand strategy game set in the Middle Ages, developed by Paradox Development Studio and published by Paradox Interactive as a sequel to Crusader Kings.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
The culture of Asia encompasses the collective and diverse customs and traditions of art, architecture, music, literature, lifestyle, philosophy, politics and religion that have been practiced and maintained by the numerous ethnic groups of the continent of Asia since prehistory.
The Culture of Azerbaijan (Azerbaijani:Azərbaycan mədəniyyəti) developed under the influence of Iranian, Turkic and Caucasian heritage as well as Russian influences due to its former status as a Soviet republic.
The culture of Bahrain is part of the historical region of Eastern Arabia.
The culture of Burkina Faso in West Africa is also called the Burkinabé culture.
The culture of Iran (Farhang-e Irān), also known as culture of Persia, is one of the oldest in the world.
Karachi has been thought to be the southwestern pillar of the cultural edifice of Sindh.
The culture of Niger is marked by variation, evidence of the cultural crossroads which French colonialism formed into a unified state from the beginning of the 20th century.
The culture of Oman is steeped in the religion of Islam.
The society and culture of Pakistan (ثقافتِ پاکستان) comprises numerous ethnic groups: the Punjabis, Saraikis, Pothwaris, Kashmiris, Sindhis in east, Makrani in the south; Baloch, Hazaras and Pashtuns in the west; and the Dards, Wakhi, Baltis, Shinaki and Burusho communities in the north.
The cultural setting of Saudi Arabia is Arab and Islam.
The culture of Somalia is an amalgamation of traditions in that were developed independently and through interaction with neighboring and far away civilizations, including other parts of Africa, Northeast Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, and Southeast Asia.
The culture of Trinidad and Tobago reflects the influence of Indian, European, Spanish (Hispanic or Latino), Jewish, Arab, and African cultures.
The Culture of Uttar Pradesh is an Indian Culture which has its roots in the Hindi and Urdu literature, music, fine arts, drama and cinema.
The culture of Yemen has an ancient history, influenced by Islam.
Cybersectarianism is the phenomenon of new religious movements and other groups using the Internet for text distribution, recruitment, and information sharing.
Cyrus II of Persia (𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁 Kūruš; New Persian: کوروش Kuruš;; c. 600 – 530 BC), commonly known as Cyrus the Great  and also called Cyrus the Elder by the Greeks, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, the first Persian Empire.
The D'Arcy Concession was a petroleum oil concession that was signed in 1901 between William Knox D'Arcy and Mozzafar al-Din, Shah of Persia.
Da'a'im al-Islam is an Ismaili Shi'a Muslim book of jurisprudence.
A da'i (dā‘īy) is generally someone who engages in da'wah, the act of inviting people to Islam.
The Dabestān-e Mazāheb, also transliterated as Dabistān-i Mazāhib (دبستان مذاهب) "School of Religions", is an examination and comparison of South Asian religions and sects of the mid-17th century.
Dabiq (دابق) was an online magazine used by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) for Islamic radicalisation and recruitment.
The Republic of Dagestan (Респу́блика Дагеста́н), or simply Dagestan (or; Дагеста́н), is a federal subject (a republic) of Russia, located in the North Caucasus region.
Dahieh (الضاحية الجنوبية al-Janubiya, Banlieue Sud de Beyrouth, Dâhiye de Beyrouth, meaning "the southern suburb") is a predominantly Shia Muslim suburb south of Beirut, locating in the Baabda District, Lebanon, composed of several towns and municipalities.
The Dahiya doctrine or, Dahya doctrine, is a military strategy of asymmetric warfare, outlined by Israel Defense Forces (IDF) Chief of General Staff Gadi Eizenkot, which encompasses the destruction of the civilian infrastructure of regimes deemed to be hostile as a measure calculated to deny combatants the use of that infrastructure.
Sheikh Dakhil Al-Hakkāmi Al-Najafi (Arabic: دخيل النجفي) (c. 1888) was an Iraqi Shia marja, jurist, author, writer and a religious leader.
Dalip Frashëri, also known with the pen-name Hyxhretiu (the exiled), was an Albanian Bektashi poet and religious leader of the 19th century.
Dallyar Jirdakhan (also Dəllər Cırdaxan, Dallyar Dzhyrdakhan, Dallyar-Dzhirdakhan, Jafar Jabbarly) is a village and municipality in the Shamkir Rayon of Azerbaijan.
Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.
Dammam (الدمام) is the capital of the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia.
Dar Tabligh (دار السلام تبلف) is a sub-committee of the Khoja Shi'a Ithnasheri Jamaat of Dar es Salaam Tanzania.
The Dards are a group of Indo-Aryan peoples found predominantly in northern Pakistan, north-western India, and eastern Afghanistan.
Darul Uloom Nadwatul Ulama is an Islamic institution at Lucknow, India, which draws large number of Muslim students from all over the world.
The Darvazeh No mosque is a historical mosque from the Qajar era in Isfahan, Iran.
The Darzi (Urdu: درزی, दर्ज़ी), sometimes pronounced Darji, are a Muslim community, found in North India and Pakistan.
The Islamic figure Husayn ibn Ali had three daughters: Ruqayyah (رُقَـيَّـة), Fāṭimah aṣ-Ṣughrá (فَـاطِـمَـة الـصُّـغـرَى, "Fatimah the Younger"), Ḥasan Amīn, s.n., 1973 - Religion; "...
David II (დავით II, Davit' II) also known as Imām Qulī Khān (იმამყული-ხანი) (1678 — November 2, 1722), of the Bagrationi Dynasty, was a king of Kakheti in eastern Georgia from 1709 to 1722.
David John Cawdell Irving (born 24 March 1938) is an English author and Holocaust denier who has written on the military and political history of World War II, with a focus on Nazi Germany.
David Menashri (born 1944) is an Israeli professor and scholar of modern Iranian history.
David Stuart Dodge (November 17, 1922 – January 20, 2009) was the Vice-President for Administration (1979–83), Acting President (1981–82) and President (1996–97) of the American University of Beirut (AUB).
Sharaf al-din Dawūd al-Qayṣarī (c.1260-c.1350) was a Mamluk-era Sufi scholar, philosopher and mystic.
Syedna Dawood Bin Maulai Ajab Shah (death: 27 Rabi ul Aakhir 999 AH AH/1591 AD) in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India was the 26th Da'i al-Mutlaq (Absolute Missionary) of the Dawoodi Bohra branch of Musta‘lī Islam.
Syedna Dawood Bin Qutubshah (born 23 Rabi-Ul-Awwal 946 AH; died 15 Jumadil akhir 1021 AH / 1612 AD, Ahmedabad, India) was the 27th Da'i al-Mutlaq (Absolute Missionary) of the Dawoodi Bohra sect of Musta‘lī Islam.
The Dawoodi Bohras are a sect within the Ismā'īlī branch of Shia Islam.
Dawud bin Ali bin Khalaf al-Zahiri (815–883/4 CE) was a Muslim scholar of Islamic law during the Islamic Golden Age, specializing in the fields of Hermeneutics, Biographical evaluation, and historiography.
Day of Rage (يوم الغضب) is the name given by protesters in Bahrain to 14 February 2011, the first day of their national uprising.
The Day of Sorrow (روز غم) is commemorated by some Muslims, marking the razing of the Al-Baqi' cemetery in Medina by Saudi King Abdulaziz ibn Saud.
The Day of Zamora (Día de Zamora), also known as Jornada del Foso de Zamora ("Zamora's trench Day"), was a battle of the Spanish Reconquista that took place at the city of Zamora, Spain The battle was fought between the forces of the Kingdom of Asturias under the command of Alfonso III of Asturias and the Muslim forces of Ahmed-ben-Moavia (also called Abul Kassin).
The Daylamites or Dailamites (Middle Persian: Daylamīgān; دیلمیان Deylamiyān) were an Iranian people inhabiting the Daylam—the mountainous regions of northern Iran on the southern shore of the Caspian Sea.
De-Ba'athification (Arabic: اجتثاث حزب البعث&lrm) refers to a policy undertaken in Iraq by the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) and subsequent Iraqi governments to remove the Ba'ath Party's influence in the new Iraqi political system.
On 8 January 2017, Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, the fourth President of Iran and the country's Chairman of Expediency Discernment Council, died at the age of 82 after suffering a heart attack.
The state funeral of Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq was held on 19 August 1988 in Shah Faisal Mosque in Islamabad, Pakistan.
Abdulredha Mohamed Hasan Buhmaid (or Buhamaid, عبدالرضا محمد حسن بوحميد) was a 28-year-old Bahraini protester shot by a live bullet in the head on 18 February 2011.
Journalist Aftab Alam and four others were killed in several related attacks in North Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.
Ahmed Jaber Ali al-Qattan (أحمد جابر علي القطّان) was a 16 or 17-year-old Bahraini who died in a hospital on 6 October 2011 after reportedly being hit in the chest, abdomen and upper limb by bird pellet gunshots fired by Bahraini security forces during the Bahraini uprising (2011–present).
Ali Abdulhadi Saleh Jafar Mushaima (علي عبدالهادي صالح جعفر مشيمع) (26 August 1989 – 14 February 2011) was a 21-year-old Bahraini who on Monday 14 February 2011, the "Bahraini Day of Rage", became the first fatality of the Bahraini Uprising.
Ali Jawad al-Sheikh (علي جواد الشيخ) was a 14-year-old Bahraini who died in the hospital on 31 August 2011 after reportedly being hit in the head by a tear gas canister shot by Bahraini security forces during the Bahraini uprising.
Fadhel Salman Ali Salman Al-Matrook (فاضل سلمان علي سلمان المتروك) (8 November 1979 – 15 February 2011) was a 31-year-old Bahraini who died in hospital on 15 February 2011 after reportedly being hit in the back and chest by bird pellet gunshots (a type of shotgun shell) fired from short distance by Bahraini security forces during the Bahraini uprising (2011–present).
Footage of the death of Nedā Āghā-Soltān (نِدا آقاسُلطان – Nedā Āġā Soltān; 23 January 1983 – 20 June 2009) drew worldwide attention after she was shot dead during the 2009 Iranian election protests.
A death squad is an armed group that conducts extrajudicial killings or forced disappearances of persons for the purposes of political repression, genocide, or revolutionary terror.
Death to America (مرگ بر آمریکا Marg bar Āmrikā) is an anti-American political slogan and chant which has been in use in Iran since the inception of the Iranian Revolution in 1979.
The following is a list of notable deaths in January 2016.
The following is a list of notable deaths in September 2015.
The December 2017 Kabul suicide bombing occurred on 28 December 2017, when militants attacked a Shiite cultural centre in Kabul, Afghanistan.
On December 30, 2009, pro-government demonstrations, also called 9 Dey rally, took place in Shiraz, Arak, Qom, Isfahan and Tehran, among other cities in Iran to protest recent anti-government demonstrations connected with the much disputed 2009 presidential election.
A declaration of war is a formal declaration issued by a national government indicating that a state of war exists between that nation and another.
The Delaware Air National Guard (DE ANG) is the air force militia of the State of Delaware, United States of America.
The Delhi Sultanate (Persian:دهلی سلطان, Urdu) was a Muslim sultanate based mostly in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526).
According to the Democracy Index 2016 study, Israel (#29 worldwide) is the only democracy in the Middle East, while Tunisia (#69 worldwide) is the only democracy in North Africa.
Democratic initiative process (Demokratik açılım süreci) is the name of the process in which the government of Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan launched a project aiming to improve standards of democracy, freedoms and respect for human rights in Turkey.
The Democratic Republic of Afghanistan (DRA; جمهوری دمکراتی افغانستان,; دافغانستان دمکراتی جمهوریت), renamed in 1987 to the Republic of Afghanistan (جمهوری افغانستان;; د افغانستان جمهوریت), commonly known as Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Afġānistān), existed from 1978 to 1992 and covers the period when the socialist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) ruled Afghanistan.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo), also known as DR Congo, the DRC, Congo-Kinshasa or simply the Congo, is a country located in Central Africa.
The Democratic Socialist Party, is a Lebanese party founded and led by former Lebanese speaker of parliament Kamel Al-Assad.
The concept of demographic threat (or demographic bomb) is a term used in political conversation to refer to population increases from within a minority ethnic group in a given country that are perceived as threatening to alter the ethnic identity of that country.
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Algeria, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Bahrain, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
Central Asia is a diverse land with many ethnic groups, languages, religions and tribes.
The population of Dubai is 3.03 million as of March 2018.
The demography of Germany is monitored by the Statistisches Bundesamt (Federal Statistical Office of Germany).
Iran's population increased dramatically during the later half of the 20th century, reaching about 80 million by 2016.
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Iraq, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
Karachi is the largest and most populous city in Pakistan.
The demographics of Liberia are examined on this page, including Liberia's population density, ethnic groups, education level, population health, economic status, religious affiliations and other demographic information.
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Morocco, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
The following is an overview of the demographics of Myanmar (also known as Burma), including statistics such as population, ethnicity, language, education level and religious affiliation.
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Oman, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Saudi Arabia, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations, and other aspects of the population.
The estimated population of Sindh in 2017 is 47.89 million.
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Sudan, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
The Demographics of Tajikistan is about the demographic features of the population of Tajikistan, including population growth, population density, ethnicity, education level, health, economic status, religious affiliations, and other aspects of the population.
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Tanzania, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations, and other aspects of the population.
The Arab League (League of Arab States) is a social, cultural and economic grouping of 22 Arab states in the Arab world.
Demographics of the world include population density, ethnicity, education level, health measures, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the human population of the planet Earth.
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Turkey, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
The demographics of Uzbekistan are the demographic features of the population of Uzbekistan, including population growth, population density, ethnicity, education level, health, economic status, religious affiliations, and other aspects of the population.
Denial and deception (D&D) is a Western theoretical framework for conceiving and analyzing military intelligence techniques pertaining to secrecy and deception.
Denis Martin Donaldson (1950 – 4 April 2006) was a volunteer in the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) and a member of Sinn Féin who was murdered following his exposure in December 2005 as an informer in the employ of MI5 and the Special Branch of the Police Service of Northern Ireland (formerly the Royal Ulster Constabulary).
Denis M. MacEoin (born January 26, 1949 in Belfast, Northern Ireland) is a British analyst and writer.
Deobandi (Pashto and دیو بندی, دیو بندی, দেওবন্দী, देवबन्दी) is a revivalist movement within Sunni (primarily Hanafi) Islam.
The permissibility of depictions of Muhammad in Islam has been a contentious issue.
Dera Ismail Khan (Urdu:, ډېره اسماعيل خان, ډېره اسماعيل خان), often abbreviated to D.I. Khan, is a city in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan.
The Derbent Khanate (خانات دربند — Khānāt-e Darband, Dərbənd xanlığı) was a Caucasian khanate that was established in Afsharid Iran.
Deliberate destruction and theft of cultural heritage has been conducted by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant since 2014 in Iraq, Syria, and to a lesser extent in Libya.
The destruction of sites associated with early Islam is an ongoing phenomenon that has occurred mainly in the Hejaz region of western Saudi Arabia, particularly around the holy cities of Mecca and Medina.
During the 2011 Bahraini uprising, as many as 43 Shia mosques, McClatchy Washington Bureau.
The "Deviant current" or "Current of deviation" (Jarīān-e Enherāfī) is a term used by Iranian officials (e.g. high-ranking clerics, Revolutionary Guards commanders) and conservative rivals of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad to describe Ahmadinejad's entourage which functions like a faction or party.
Dewait is a big village in Azamgarh district of Uttar Pradesh, India, situated near the Mehnagar Market.
Dewan Dakwah Islamiyah Indonesia (lit: Indonesian Islamic Dawah Council), often abbreviated as DDII, is a Sunni Islamic organization in Indonesia which aimed at dawah (proselytizing).
Dhaka (or; ঢাকা); formerly known as Dacca is the capital and largest city of Bangladesh.
The Dhammiyya Shia was a Ghulat sect of Islam.
Sheikh Dhari Ali al-Fayadh (c. 1918 – June 28, 2005) was the oldest Iraqi Member of Parliament until his assassination in 2005.
Dhi Qar Governorate (translit) is a governorate in southern Iraq.
A (ذمي,, collectively أهل الذمة / "the people of the dhimma") is a historical term referring to non-Muslims living in an Islamic state with legal protection.
Sayed Dheya Yahya Ali Maki al-Musawi, (Arabic: ضياء السيد يحيى علي مكي الموسوي), born in Bahrain 1970, is a politician, author, writer and former cleric.
Dhu'l-Hijjah or alternatively Zulhijja (ذو الحجة; properly transliterated, also called Zil-Hajj) is the twelfth and final month in the Islamic calendar.
Dhu’ayb bin Mūsā al-Wādi‘ī al-Hamdānī (died 10 Muharram 546 AH (1151 CE) in Hooth, Yemen) was the first Da'i al-Mutlaq, a position of spiritual authority in Musta'li Isma'ili Islam.
Dia Abdul Zahra Kadim is a deceased Iraqi detainee, (Arabic: ضياء عبدالزهراء كاظم); c. 1970 – January 29, 2007), also known as al-Ali bin Ali bin Abi Talib (Arabic: العلي بن علي بن أبي طالب), claimed to be from Hilla, Iraq, was the leader of an armed extremist Shia Islam cult named Jund al-Samaa ("Soldiers of Heaven" in Arabic, a well-armed Shia cult regarding the religious leadership in Najaf as illegitimate) based in Iraq. He claimed to be the Hidden Imam and Mahdi. He was detained twice in recent years. He was also known to have connections to the former regime of Saddam Hussein since 1993. He was possibly Ahmad al-Hassan who claims to be the son of the Mahdi. After Saddam Hussein was toppled in the U.S.-led 2003 invasion of Iraq, Abdul-Zahra's group appeared to be a legitimate political movement. Soon Abdul-Zahra, who was in his mid-30s, began telling followers that he was the reincarnation of the Ali ibn Abu Talib, the first Shia Imam as well as the last of the Rightly Guided Caliphs.
Dibaj (ديباج, also Romanized as Dibadj; formerly known as Qal‘eh (Persian: قلعه), Chahārdeh, Chārdeh, and Chehārdeh) is a city in the Central District of Damghan County, Semnan Province, Iran.
Dieudonné M'bala M'bala (born 11 February 1966), generally known by his stage name Dieudonné, is a French comedian, actor, and political activist.
This is a growing comparison chart between the three largest branches of Islam: Sunni, Shia and Ibadi.
Sayyid Dildar 'Ali, also known as Ghufran-Ma'ab Naseerabadi, (1753 to 10-jan-1820) was a Shia scholar of India who originated from a family of scholars from the village of Nasirabad, Raibareli, 32 km from their District Raebareli, in Uttar Pradesh, India.
Dilras Banu Begum (1622 – 8 October 1657) was the first wife and chief consort of Emperor Aurangzeb, the last of the great Mughal emperors.
Dimitri Kitsikis (Δημήτρης Κιτσίκης; born 2 June 1935) is a Greek Turkologist and Sinologist, Professor of International Relations and Geopolitics.
Dina Wadia (15 August 1919 – 2 November 2017) was the daughter and only child of the founder of Pakistan, Muhammad Ali Jinnah and his wife Rattanbai Petit.
Mar Dinkha IV (Classical Syriac: and مار دنخا الرابع), born Dinkha Khanania (15 September 1935 – 26 March 2015), was the Catholicos-Patriarch of the Assyrian Church of the East.
The Directorate of General Security (DGS) also called Internal State Security, secret policeHiltermann, Joost.
In Turkey, the Directorate of Religious Affairs (Diyanet İşleri Başkanlığı, normally referred to simply as the Diyanet) is an official state institution established in 1924 under article 136 of the Constitution of Turkey by the Grand National Assembly of Turkey as a successor to the Shaykh al-Islām after the abolition of the Ottoman Caliphate.
Diskit Monastery also known as Deskit Gompa or Diskit Gompa is the oldest and largest Buddhist monastery (gompa) in the Nubra Valley of Ladakh, northern India.
There are a number of uncertainties and disputed issues in the early history of Islam.
Diyala Governorate (محافظة ديالى) or Diyala Province is a governorate in eastern Iraq.
Ahmed Djemal Pasha (احمد جمال پاشا, Ahmet Cemal Paşa; 6 May 1872 – 21 July 1922), commonly known as Cemal Paşa in Turkey, and Jamal Basha or Jamal Basha Al-Saffah (Jamal Basha the Bloodthirsty) in the Arab world, was an Ottoman military leader and one-third of the military triumvirate known as the Three Pashas (also called the "Three Dictators") that ruled the Ottoman Empire during World War I. Djemal was the Minister of the Navy.
A dominant minority is a minority group that has overwhelming political, economic, or cultural dominance in a country, despite representing a small fraction of the overall population (a demographic minority).
Donald Fareed is an Iranian-born American Christian televangelist and President of the non-profit organization Persian Ministries International, which was founded by him.
Dora (also al-Dura, or ad-Durah, Arabic,الدورة) is a neighborhood in Al Rashid administrative district, southern Baghdad, Iraq.
In July 2010, Terry Jones, the pastor of the Christian Dove World Outreach Center in Gainesville, Florida, U.S., announced he would burn 200 Qurans on the 2010 anniversary of the September 11 attacks.
Mohammad Ali Mirza Dowlatshah (4 January 1789 – 22 November 1821, Al-Mada'in, Ottoman Iraq) was a famous Persian Prince of the Qajar Dynasty.
The draining of the Mesopotamian Marshes occurred in Iraq and to a smaller degree in Iran between the 1950s and 1990s to clear large areas of the marshes in the Tigris-Euphrates river system.
The Druze (درزي or, plural دروز; דרוזי plural דרוזים) are an Arabic-speaking esoteric ethnoreligious group originating in Western Asia who self-identify as unitarians (Al-Muwaḥḥidūn/Muwahhidun).
Druze people in Syria refers to an ethnoreligious group consisting of adherents to the Druze faith, originating from the Near East who self-identify as "Unitarians" or "the People of Monotheism" (الموحدين al-Muwaḥḥidīn).
Du'a al-Baha (دعاء البهاء) (known as Du'a al-Sahar (دعاء السحر)) is a Du'a recommended to Muslims to recite it in pre-dawns of Ramadan, when Muslims usually eat Suhur.
Du'a al-Faraj (Arabic: دعاء الفرج) is a du'a which is attributed to Imam Mahdi and is begun with the phrase of “Elahi Azomal Bala (O Allah, terrible was the calamity)”.
Du'a Arafah (دعای عرفه) is a Shia Muslim prayer first recorded by Husayn ibn Ali, the third Imam of Shia.
Dua Kumayl (دعاء كميل) (literally the Supplication of Kumayl) is a supplication famous among Shi'a for its perceived beauty and a traditional supplication in Shi'a Muslim spiritual practice.
Reciting Du'a Nudba in the Jamkaran Mosque Du'a Nudba is one of the major Shiite prayers about Muhammad al-Mahdi and his occultation.
In the terminology of Islam, (دُعَاء, plural: أدْعِيَة; archaically transliterated Doowa), literally meaning "invocation", is an act of supplication.
Dua Tawassul is the name for various supplications in Shia Islam although there exists one more well-known Dua with the same name.
The Dua-e Ahad (دعاء العهد) is an Arabic language allegiance supplication prayer to Muhammad al-Mahdi, twelfth Imam of Shia Islam (the Imam Mahdi).
Dubai (دبي) is the largest and most populous city in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
Dujail (Arabic: الدجيل; alternate spelling: Ad Dujayl) is a Shi'a district in the Saladin Province.
The Dujail Massacre refers to the events following an assassination attempt against the Iraqi president, Saddam Hussein, on 8 July 1982 in Dujail.
The Dukayniyya Shia (named for one of its leaders, Abu Nu'aym al-Fadl ibn al-Dukayn) were a sect of the Zaidi branch of Shia Islam.
The Dulafid or Dolafid dynasty was an Arab dynasty that served as governors of Jibal for the Abbasid caliphs in the 9th century.
Dulaim or Dulaimi or Al Duliam or Dulaym (الدليم) is an Arab royal tribe, with over seven million members.
Early Islamic philosophy or classical Islamic philosophy is a period of intense philosophical development beginning in the 2nd century AH of the Islamic calendar (early 9th century CE) and lasting until the 6th century AH (late 12th century CE).
Mīrzā Ghulām Aḥmad (13 February 1835 – 26 May 1908, or 14 Shawal 1250–24 Rabi' al-thani 1326 AH) was a religious figure from India who founded the Ahmadiyya movement.
The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era.
Eastern Arabia was historically known as Bahrain (البحرين) until the 18th century.
Ebba, also known as aba and ubba (عبا; ܥܒܐ), is a village in the Nabatieh Governorate region of southern Lebanon located between Nabatieh and Tyr, north of the Litani River.
Ebrahim Hakimi (15 August 1871 – 19 October 1959) was an Iranian statesman, who served as prime minister of Iran on three occasions.
The religious capital or ecclesiastical capital of a region is a place considered pr