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At two separate times, Felix Mendelssohn composed music for William Shakespeare's play, A Midsummer Night's Dream.
A Perfect Spy is a BBC serial adaptation of John le Carré's spy novel A Perfect Spy which was aired on BBC2 and it broadcasts from 4 November to 16 December 1987.
Aaron Karfunkel (also known as Aaron ben Judah; in Hebrew, Aharon ben Yehudah ha-Kohen; in Yiddish, Aaron Löb (died 1816) was a Bohemian rabbi of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. After having successively filled the rabbinates of Gawartschew, Łask, Dasparschi, and Widowa, he was called in 1801 to Náchod, where he remained until 1806. From 1807–1816 he was chief rabbi of Silesia. Karfunkel was the author of She'eltot Abiyah, containing dissertations on Talmudic subjects, and divided into twelve parts, having for their respective titles the names of the precious stones in the high priest's breastplate. Of these parts only two have been published (Berlin, 1806). They are divided into "kelalim", subdivided into paragraphs, with glosses entitled Millu'at Eben and dissertations called Meshuah Milhamah. Karfunkel was the author also of Tzanif Tahor, a commentary on Ecclesiastes, a manuscript of which is in the British Museum.
Abraham Gottlob Werner (25 September 174930 June 1817) was a German geologist who set out an early theory about the stratification of the Earth's crust and propounded a history of the Earth that came to be known as Neptunism.
Abraham Scultetus (24 August 1566 – 24 October 1625) was a German professor of theology, and the court preacher for the Elector of the Palatinate Frederick V.
The Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts - École supérieure des Arts de la Ville de Bruxelles (ARBA-ESA), in Dutch Koninklijke Academie voor Schone Kunsten van Brussel, is the Belgian art school, established in Brussels in the Kingdom of Belgium.
Action Saybusch (Aktion Saybusch, Akcja Żywiec) was the mass expulsion of some 18,000–20,000 ethnic Poles from the territory of Żywiec County in Polish Silesia, conducted by the Wehrmacht and German police during the German occupation of Poland in World War II.
AD 3 (III) was a common year starting on Monday or Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar (the sources differ, see leap year error for further information) and a common year starting on Monday of the Proleptic Julian calendar.
Adam Christian Thebesius (January 12, 1686 – November 10, 1732) was a German anatomist who was a native of Sandenwalde, Silesia.
Adam Gdacjusz or Gdacius or Gdak, also called Rey of Silesia (1615 Kluczbork – 1688 Kluczbork) was a Polish-language writer and a Lutheran pastor at the Wilna church and since 1644 was a deacon and, later, a parish priest in the Silesian town of Kreuzburg (now Kluczbork), where he was born.
Adam Matusiewicz (born 28 January 1973 in Katowice) is a Polish politician.
Adam Feliks Próchnik (Lwów, 21 August 1892 – 22 May 1942, Warsaw) was a Polish socialist activist, politician and historian.
Adolf Eduard Marschner (Grünberg, Schlesien, 5 March 1819 – Leipzig, 9 September 1853), was a Romantic German composer.
Adolf Ernst (Primkenau, Silesia, Kingdom of Prussia, (today Przemków, Poland) October 6, 1832 - Caracas, Venezuela, August 12, 1899) was a Prussian-born scientist.
Adolf Kneser (19 March 1862 – 24 January 1930) was a German mathematician.
Adolf Martin Schlesinger (4 October 1769 – 11 October 1838) was a German music publisher whose firm became one of the most influential in Berlin in the early nineteenth century.
Adolf Schimmelpfennig (14 November 1815 – 2 September 1887) was a German historian.
Adolph Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel (December 8, 1815February 9, 1905) was a German Realist artist noted for drawings, etchings, and paintings.
Adolph Strauch (b. August 30, 1822 – 1883) was a renowned landscape architect born in Silesia, Prussia, known particularly for his layout designs of cemeteries like Spring Grove Cemetery in Cincinnati, Ohio, Forest Lawn in Buffalo, NY and Graceland Cemetery in Chicago, Illinois.
Aegidius Hunnius the Elder (21 December 1550 in Winnenden – 4 April 1603 in Wittenberg) was a Lutheran theologian of the Lutheran scholastic tradition and father of Nicolaus Hunnius.
Below is list of Afrikaans exonyms.
The Aftermath of World War II was the beginning of an era defined by the decline of all great powers except for the Soviet Union and the United States, and the simultaneous rise of two superpowers: the Soviet Union (USSR) and the United States of America (USA).
Agnieszka Pilchowa pseudonym Agni P., one of the most famous Polish clairvoyants, bioenergotherapeutist and herbalist, was born on December 16, 1888, in the village of Zarubek near Ostrava, present-day Czech Republic and died in 1944 in Ravensbrück, Nazi Germany, present-day Germany.
The Agreement of Łęgonice, which was signed on 31 July 1666 in the village of Legonice, ended the so-called Lubomirski Rokosz, a rebellion against Polish King Jan II Kazimierz Vasa, initiated by a magnate and hetman, Jerzy Sebastian Lubomirski.
Rabbi Akiva Eger (also spelled as Akiva Eiger), or Akiva Güns, עקיבא אייגער, (Eisenstadt, 1761Poznań, 1837) was an outstanding Talmudic scholar, influential halakhic decisor and foremost leader of European Jewry during the early 19th century.
Al Murray's Road to Berlin is a British documentary television series about World War II, presented by Al Murray.
Albert I, Duke of Bavaria (Albrecht; 25 July 1336, Munich – 13 December 1404, The Hague) KG, was a feudal ruler of the counties of Holland, Hainaut, and Zeeland in the Low Countries.
Albert II, the Degenerate (de: Albrecht II der Entartete) (1240 – 20 November 1314) was a Margrave of Meissen, Landgrave of Thuringia and Count Palatine of Saxony.
Albert Julius Otto Penzig, also referred to as Albertus Giulio Ottone Penzig (15 March 1856, Samitz, Silesia – 6 March 1929, Genoa) was a German mycologist.
Albert Küchler (2 May 1803 – 16 February 1886) was a Danish painter associated with the Danish Golden Age.
Albert Ludwig Sigesmund Neisser (22 January 1855, Schweidnitz – 30 July 1916, Breslau) was a German physician who discovered the causative agent (pathogen) of gonorrhea, a strain of bacteria that was named in his honour (Neisseria gonorrhoeae).
Albert Norden (4 December 1904 – 30 May 1982) was a German communist politician.
Berthold Konrad Hermann Albert Speer (March 19, 1905 – September 1, 1981) was a German architect who was, for most of World War II, Reich Minister of Armaments and War Production for Nazi Germany.
Albert Vidalie (25 May 1913 – 8 June 1971) was a French writer, screenwriter, and songwriter.
Sebastian Albert Freiherr von Sack (born 1757 in Eichholz, Liegnitz, Silesia, died August 1829 in Berlin) was a German explorer and a chamberlain of Prussian nobility.
Albrecht Schubert (23 June 1886 – 26 November 1966) was a German general during World War II.
Albrecht Wenzel Eusebius von Wallenstein (Albrecht Václav Eusebius z Valdštejna; 24 September 158325 February 1634),Schiller, Friedrich.
Aleksander Zawadzki (16 December 1899 – 7 August 1964) was a Polish Communist political figure and President of Poland from 1952 to 1964.
Aleksandra Piłsudska (Suwałki, 12 December 1882 – London, 31 March 1963), née Szczerbińska, was the second wife of Józef Piłsudski.
Alexander von Hochberg or Aleksander Pszczyński (1 February 1905 – 22 February 1984) was a Polish-German aristocrat and military officer.
Count Alexey Petrovich Bestuzhev-Ryumin (Алексе́й Петро́вич Бесту́жев-Рю́мин) (1 June 1693 – 21 April 1768), Chancellor of the Russian Empire, was one of the most influential and successful European diplomats of the 18th century.
Alfred Fleischer was a German World War I flying ace credited with six confirmed aerial victories.
Alfred Junge (29 January 1886, Görlitz, Silesia (now Saxony), Germany – 16 July 1964, London) was a German-born production designer who spent a large part of his career working in the British film industry.
Alfred Kurella (May 2, 1895 – June 12, 1975) was a German author and functionary of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany (SED) in East Germany.
Alfred Pringsheim (2 September 1850 – 25 June 1941) was a German mathematician and patron of the arts.
Alfred Proksch (8 March 1891 in Larischau (Láryšov; now a part of Býkov-Láryšov (Pickau-Larischau), nearby Jägerndorf, Austrian Silesia – 3 January 1981 in Vienna) was an Austrian Nazi Party official. Proksch enrolled in the Kaiser Infantry Regiment No. 1 of the Austro-Hungarian Army in 1910 and then the Railway Academy in Linz in 1912 before taking a job with the government railways. He returned to the army in 1914 with the Infantry Regiment No. 91 and saw action during the First World War in Poland and Russia.Philip Rees, Biographical Dictionary of the Extreme Right Since 1890, 1990, p. 305 He first became involved in politics in 1912 when he joined the German Workers' Party and worked on behalf of the party in Silesia and Moravia. After his war service Proksch settled in the now much smaller Austria and returned to politics by rejoining the renamed Deutsche Nationalsozialistische Arbeiterpartei.Rees, Biographical Dictionary of the Extreme Right, p. 306 Proksch met Adolf Hitler in his earliest years as a Nazi and became a loyal follower of the German from then on. Proksch launched the Nazis in Upper Austria, where he would serve as Gauleiter, and founded both the party newspaper Volksstimme and the NSP-Verlag publishing house. In 1922, Proksch began to team up with the Passau National Socialists to fight against leftists in Linz. Later, he was a featured speaker in Passau and other towns in Lower Bavaria. He also served on Linz City Council for the party from 1923 to 1932. Proksch was appointed deputy Landesleiter in 1928 and then held the full leader's post between 1931 and 1933, although real power rested with Hitler's German appointee Theodor Habicht. However Proksch did have strong influence over finances and he was credited with eliminating the 30,000 schillings of debt that the party found itself in. He fled to Germany on 24 June 1933 following the banning of the Nazi Party in Austria but returned in time to take part in the coup attempt that resulted in the killing of Engelbert Dollfuss in 1934. Returning to Germany, he was elected to the Reichstag in 1936. Given Proksch's position as a Hitler loyalist his profile was raised following the Anschluss, in keeping with the other leaders of that tendency. Appointed to the Sturmabteilung as a Gruppenführer he was promoted to Obergruppenführer in 1943. In 1940 he was also made a Reichstreuhänder der Arbeit and served as president of the labour office for Vienna and Lower and Upper Danube.
Alfred Stock (July 16, 1876 – August 12, 1946) was a German inorganic chemist.
Alfred Graf von Schlieffen, generally called Count Schlieffen (28 February 1833 – 4 January 1913) was a German field marshal and strategist who served as chief of the Imperial German General Staff from 1891 to 1906.
Alfred J. R. E. Zucker (January 23, 1852, Freiburg, Silesia – August 2, 1913, Buenos Aires, Argentina) Guillermo Bindon October 28, 2010 British Cemetery Corporation in Argentina was a successful German-American architect, who worked in Galveston, Texas, Mississippi, New York City, and Buenos Aires.
Alice Diehl (1844 – 13 June 1912) was an English musician and novelist.
The All British League was an organisation in South Australia during World War I. Its objectives were to promote British traditions and culture at the expense of others in the state, especially to suppress any social or political influence from German Australian citizens and residents, whether born in Australia or not.
The Allgemeiner Deutscher Musikverein (ADMV) (General German Music Association) was a German musical association founded in 1861 by Franz Liszt and Franz Brendel, to embody the musical ideals of the New German School of music.
Allied war crimes include both alleged and legally proven violations of the laws of war by the Allies of World War II against either civilians or military personnel of the Axis powers.
Upon the defeat of Nazi Germany in World War II, the victorious Allies asserted their joint authority and sovereignty over 'Germany as a whole', defined as all territories of the former German Reich which lay west of the Oder–Neisse line, having declared the extinction of Nazi Germany at the death of Adolf Hitler (see 1945 Berlin Declaration).
Alois Vincenc Honek was a famous Czech violin-maker and surgeon.
Alojzy Lysko (born February 15, 1942 in Bojszowy) is a Silesian writer and politician.
Alteckendorf (sometimes spelled Alt Eckendorf) is a French commune in the Bas-Rhin department in the Grand Est region of northeastern France.
Altranstädt is a village in Saxony, Germany, now part of the Markranstädt district of Leipzig.
Altstadt's marketplace Coat of arms of Altstadt Altstadt (Senamiestis; Stare Miasto) was a quarter of central Königsberg, Germany.
Altus (also known as Uni Centrum or Business Center 2000) is a skyscraper in Katowice, Silesia, Poland.
Alzenau (until 31 December 2006 officially Alzenau i.UFr.) is a town in the north of the Aschaffenburg district in the Regierungsbezirk of Lower Franconia (Unterfranken) in Bavaria, Germany.
Baroness Amalia Frederica Wilhelmina von Dyhrn-Czettritz-Neuhaus née Baroness von Rabenau (30 July 1790 in Breslau – 14 June 1866 in Herzogswaldau) was a well-known German multi-millionaire heiress and a philanthropist.
Amandus Polanus von Polansdorf (16 December 1561, Opava, Silesia – 17 July 1610, Basel, Switzerland) was a German theologian of early Reformed orthodoxy.
Ambrosius Moibanus (4 April 1494 – 16 January 1554) was a German Lutheran theologian and reformer, and first Lutheran pastor at St Elisabeth's church in Breslau (now Wrocław).
The America Line (German: Amerikalinie) is the unofficial name of a railway line in northern Germany which is mainly of regional importance today.
An Eye for an Eye: The Untold Story of Jewish Revenge Against Germans in 1945 is a 1993 book by John Sack, in which Sack states that some Jews in Eastern Europe took revenge on their former captors while overseeing over 1,000 concentration camps in Poland for German civilians.
Anabaptism (from Neo-Latin anabaptista, from the Greek ἀναβαπτισμός: ἀνά- "re-" and βαπτισμός "baptism", Täufer, earlier also WiedertäuferSince the middle of the 20th century, the German-speaking world no longer uses the term "Wiedertäufer" (translation: "Re-baptizers"), considering it biased. The term Täufer (translation: "Baptizers") is now used, which is considered more impartial. From the perspective of their persecutors, the "Baptizers" baptized for the second time those "who as infants had already been baptized". The denigrative term Anabaptist signifies rebaptizing and is considered a polemical term, so it has been dropped from use in modern German. However, in the English-speaking world, it is still used to distinguish the Baptizers more clearly from the Baptists, a Protestant sect that developed later in England. Cf. their self-designation as "Brethren in Christ" or "Church of God":.) is a Christian movement which traces its origins to the Radical Reformation.
The Anaconda Copper Mining Company, part of the Amalgamated Copper Company from 1899 to 1915, was an American mining company.
András Mechwart de Belecska (or András Mechwart, born as Andreas Mechwart, Schweinfurt, 6 September 1834 – Budapest, 14 June 1907) was a German-born Hungarian-German mechanical engineer, chief executive of the Ganz Works, and a pioneer in the Hungarian mechanical and electrical engineering.
Andreas Fischer (ca. 1480 – 1540) was an Austrian/Moravian Anabaptist, and associate of Oswald Glaidt.
Andreas Gryphius (2 October 161616 July 1664) was a German lyric poet and dramatist.
Father Andreas Hönisch SJM (3 October 1930 – 25 January 2008) was the founder and Superior General of Servi Jesu et Mariae, and co-founder of the Katholische Pfadfinderschaft Europas.
Andreas Fritz Hillgruber (18 January 1925 – 8 May 1989) was a conservative German historian.
Andrychów (list, list, hist. also Andrychau) is the largest town in Wadowice County in southern Poland, in Little Beskids, in historical region Lesser Poland, with 22,257 inhabitants.
Andrzej Czuma (born 7 December 1938 in Lublin) is a Polish politician, lawyer and historian.
Andrzej Kusionowicz Grodyński (22 October 186124 July 1925), baptized as Andrzej Szymon Kusionowicz, was a Polish lawyer who worked as a Silesian circuit judge based in Cieszyn for much of his career.
Andrzej Wasowski (January 24, 1919 in Ukraine – May 27, 1993 in Washington DC) was a Polish classical pianist.
Angelus Silesius (9 July 1677), born Johann Scheffler and also known as Johann Angelus Silesius, was a German Catholic priest and physician, known as a mystic and religious poet.
Angelus Silesius Meeting House (Dom Spotkań im. Angelusa Silesiusa – DAS) was founded by the Jesuits in 1993 in Wrocław, Poland, to promote reconciliation and dialogue in Europe through work with European youth (ages 15 to 30) and through training adults who work with youth.
The Anglo-Austrian Alliance connected the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Habsburg Monarchy during the first half of the 18th century.
The Anglo-Prussian Alliance was a military alliance created by the Westminster Convention between Great Britain and Prussia which lasted formally between 1756 and 1762 during the Seven Years' War.
Anna Wiktoria German (February 14, 1936 – August 25, 1982) was a Soviet-born Polish singer, immensely popular in Poland and in the Soviet Union in the 1960s-1970s.
Anna Louisa Karsch (1 December 1722 in Hammer, Silesia – 12 October 1791 in Berlin) was a German autodidact and poet from the Silesia region, known to her contemporaries as "Die Karschin" and "the German Sappho".
Countess Anna of Stolberg-Wernigerode (6 September 1819 − 17 February 1868) was a German noblewoman.
Anne-Lise Stern (born Anneliese Stern: 16 July 1921 - 6 May 2013) was a French psychoanalyst and Holocaust survivor.
Anselmus de Boodt or Anselmus Boëtius de Boodt (Bruges, 1550 - Bruges, 21 June 1632) was a Flemish humanist, mineralogist, physician and naturalist.
Anselmus Ephorinus (Anzelm Eforyn, Eforinus) (c.1505 – December 1566) – Silesian humanist and doctor.
The Anti-Fascist Bloc was an organization of Polish Jews formed in the March 1942 in the Warsaw Ghetto.
Polonophobia, anti-Polonism, antipolonism, and anti-Polish sentiment are terms for a variety of hostile attitudes and acts toward Polish persons and culture.
Ant(h)on Frederik Tscherning (12 December 1795 – 29 June 1874) was a Danish army officer who became a politician.
Count Anton zu Stolberg-Wernigerode (23 October 1785 − 11 February 1854), was chief minister in Magdeburg, governor in the Prussian Province of Saxony and Prussian Minister of State.
Antoni Osuchowski (13 June 1849 in Paris – 9 January 1928 in Warsaw) was a Polish lawyer, publicist, philanthropist and national activist in Silesia, Warmia and Mazury.
Antoni Szylling (31 August 1884 - 17 June 1971) was a Polish general, considered, along with Generals Wiktor Thommée and Stanisław Maczek, to have been one of the most successful Polish Army commanders during the Invasion of Poland of 1939.
Antonio della Porta (c. 1631, Manno, Lugano - 3 August 1702, Bayreuth) was a Swiss Baroque architect and master builder, mainly active in Bohemia, Silesia and northern Bavaria.
The Apostolic Administration of Český Těšín was a short-lived (1947-78) pre-diocesan Latin Catholic jurisdiction in Czechoslovakia.
Archduke Karl Ferdinand of Austria (Vienna, 29 July 1818 – Gross Seelowitz (Židlochovice Castle), 20 November 1874) was the second son of Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen (1771–1847) and Princess Henrietta of Nassau-Weilburg, and the maternal grandfather of King Alfonso XIII of Spain.
Arhoolie Records, which is based in El Cerrito, California, United States, is an American small independent record label run by Chris Strachwitz.
Armin Maiwald, born January 23, 1940 in Cologne, is a German author, television director and producer.
Armored trains of Poland mostly date to the World War I period.
Arno Lustiger (May 7, 1924 – May 15, 2012) was a German historian and author of Jewish origin.
Arnold Johan Messenius (Gdańsk, 1607 – Stockholm, 1651) was a Swedish enfant terrible and Rikshistoriograf who was condemned to death and executed under the reign of Christina, Queen of Sweden.
Arnold Schottländer (2 April 1854 – 9 September 1909) was a German chess master.
Arnold von Winckler (Neisse, 17 February 1856 – Bad Freienwalde, 24 July 1945) was a Prussian military officer, and a general in World War I. He was the son of Lieutenant General Ewald Fedor von Winckler (1813–1895) and joined the Prussian army at the age of 17.
The Arthromygalidae are an extinct family of arachnids, possibly spiders.
Arthur Bialas (November 21, 1930 – November 12, 2012) was a German footballer.
Arthur Yitzhak Biram (Hebrew: ארתור בירם), (August 13 1878 – June 5 1967) was an Israeli philosopher, philologist, and educator.
Arthur Bruhns (born George Frederick William Bruhns; 10 April 1874 – 1928) was a composer, pianist, and organist.
Arthur Hoffmann (29 September 1900 in Neumannswaldau, Silesia – 12 January 1945, executed in Dresden) was a German resistance fighter against the Nazi régime in World War II.
Arthur Korn (4 June 1891 – 14 November 1978) was a German Jewish architect and urban planner who was a proponent of modernism in Germany and the UK.
Arthur Adolf, Count of Posadowsky-Wehner, Baron of Postelwitz (Arthur Graf von Posadowsky-Wehner Freiherr von Postelwitz, 3 June 1845 – 23 October 1932) was a German conservative statesman.
Artur Jurand FRSE (1914–2000) was a Polish-born animal geneticist who did important work at Edinburgh University in the later 20th century.
Artur König (18 April 1884 - ?1945) was a German politician (KPD).
Association Football club names are a part of the sport's culture, reflecting century-old traditions.
The Atlantic Charter was a pivotal policy statement issued during World War II on 14 August 1941, which defined the Allied goals for the post war world.
The following events occurred in August 1930.
Johann Friedrich August Borsig (23 June 1804 – 6 July 1854) was a German businessman who founded the Borsig-Werke factory.
August Freiherr von Binzer (born May 30, 1793 in Kiel, † March 20, 1868 in Neisse, Silesia) was a German poet, journalist, and Urburschenschafter.
August Hermann Francke (5 November 1870 in Gnadenfrei, Silesia – 16 February 1930 in Berlin) was a German Tibetologist.
August Marian Kowalczyk (15 August 1921 – 29 July 2012) was a Polish actor, theatre, television and film director who was the last survivor of a breakout of prisoners from Auschwitz Concentration Camp on 10 June 1942.
August Wilhelm Antonius Graf Neidhardt von Gneisenau (27 October 176023 August 1831) was a Prussian field marshal.
Auguste Louise of Württemberg-Oels (21 January 1698 - 4 January 1739), was a Duchess of Württemberg-Oels by birth and by marriage Duchess of Saxe-Weissenfels-Barby.
Augustin Sandtner (8 August 1893 – 11 October 1944) was a German Communist Party anti-war activist and party officer who served, briefly, as a member of the Prussian parliament (''"Landtag"'').
Augustin Theiner, Cong.Orat., (11 April 1804, Breslau – 8 August 1874, Civitavecchia) was a German theologian and historian.
Aurisina (until 1927 Nabresina, Nabrežina) is a town in the karst part of the comune of Duino-Aurisina (Slovene: Devin-Nabrežina) near Trieste in a region of Slovene minority.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
Relations between Austria and Germany are close, due to their shared history and language, with German being the official language and Germans being the largest ethnic group of both countries.
Austria and Prussia had a long-standing conflict and rivalry for supremacy in Central Europe during the 18th and 19th centuries, termed Deutscher Dualismus (German dualism) in the German language area.
The Austrian Netherlands (Oostenrijkse Nederlanden; Pays-Bas Autrichiens; Österreichische Niederlande; Belgium Austriacum) was the larger part of the Southern Netherlands between 1714 and 1797.
Austrian Silesia (Österreichisch-Schlesien (historically also Oesterreichisch-Schlesien, Oesterreichisch Schlesien, österreichisch Schlesien); Rakouské Slezsko; Śląsk Austriacki), officially the Duchy of Upper and Lower Silesia (Herzogtum Ober- und Niederschlesien (historically Herzogthum Ober- und Niederschlesien); Vévodství Horní a Dolní Slezsko), was an autonomous region of the Kingdom of Bohemia and the Austrian Empire, from 1867 a Cisleithanian crown land of Austria-Hungary.
The Austrian–Hungarian War was a military conflict between the Kingdom of Hungary under Mathias Corvinus and the Habsburg Archduchy of Austria under Frederick V (also Holy Roman Emperor as Frederick III).
The Austro-Hungarian Navy (German: kaiserliche und königliche Kriegsmarine, Hungarian: Császári és Királyi Haditengerészet "Imperial and Royal War Navy") was the naval force of Austria-Hungary.
The Austro-Prussian War or Seven Weeks' War (also known as the Unification War, the War of 1866, or the Fraternal War, in Germany as the German War, and also by a variety of other names) was a war fought in 1866 between the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia, with each also being aided by various allies within the German Confederation.
The Autobahn (plural) is the federal controlled-access highway system in Germany.
Axel Ullrich (born October 19, 1943 in Lauban, Silesia) is a German cancer researcher and has been the director of the molecular biology department at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry in Martinsried, Germany since 1988.
Óndra Łysohorsky was the pseudonym of Ervín Goj (6 June 1905 – 19 December 1989), a Czech poet of Silesian origin and awareness.
Červená Lhota is a château about north-west of Jindřichův Hradec in south Bohemia, Czech Republic.
Łambinowice (Lamsdorf) is a village in Nysa County, Opole Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
Łaziska Górne (German: Ober Lazisk, Silesian: Gůrne Łaziska) is a town in Silesia in southern Poland, near Katowice.
Łódź (לאדזש, Lodzh; also written as Lodz) is the third-largest city in Poland and an industrial hub.
Łódź Army (Armia Łódź) was one of the Polish armies that took part in the Invasion of Poland of 1939.
Łopatki is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Książki, within Wąbrzeźno County, Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, in north-central Poland.
Śląsk Świętochłowice (full name: Miejski Klub Sportowy Śląsk Świętochłowice (Silesia Świętochłowice City Sports Club) is one of the Polish sports clubs from Upper Silesia, strongly connected with the region, which is reflected in its name - Śląsk simply means Silesia.
Opole Silesia or Opolian Silesia (Śląsk Opolski, also known as Opolszczyzna), is loosely defined region of Poland.
Śląsk Song and Dance Ensemble (full name: Polish National Song and Dance Ensemble "Śląsk" in memory of Stanisław Hadyna, in Polish: Zespół Pieśni i Tańca "Śląsk" im. Stanisława Hadyny) is one of the largest Polish folk ensembles.
Wrocławski Klub Sportowy Śląsk Wrocław Spółka Akcyjna, commonly known as WKS Śląsk Wrocław, Śląsk Wrocław or simply Śląsk, is a Polish football club based in Wrocław that plays in Ekstraklasa, the highest level of the Polish football league system.
The Śląska Biblioteka Cyfrowa (English: Silesian Digital Library) (SDL) – a digital library co-created by various institutions representing the area of culture, education and science in the historical Silesia and the Silesian Voivodeship, Poland.
Śląsko-Dąbrowski Bridge is a bridge over the Vistula River in Warsaw.
The Ślęża (Zobten or Zobtenberg, later also Siling) is a mountain in the Sudeten Foreland (Polish: Przedgórze Sudeckie) in Lower Silesia, from Wrocław, southern Poland.
A: Adziewicz, Andziewicz, Audziewicz, Auxtul, Awdziewicz.
Śrem (Schrimm) is a town on the Warta river in central Poland.
Środa Śląska (Neumarkt in Schlesien) is a town in Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
The Środa Treasure (skarb ze Środy Śląskiej, skarb średzki) is a hoard of silver and gold coins, plus gold jewellery and some precious stones.
Świętochłowice (Schwientochlowitz; Śwjyntochlowicy) is a city in Silesia in southern Poland, near Katowice.
Świdnica (Schweidnitz; Svídnice) is a city in southwestern Poland in the region of Silesia.
Świeradów-Zdrój (Bad Flinsberg) is a spa town in Lubań County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland near the border with the Czech Republic.
Świerklaniec (Neudeck) is a village in Tarnowskie Góry County, in the Silesian Voivodeship of southwestern Poland.
Świerzawa (Schönau an der Katzbach) is a town in Złotoryja County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
Świńka (Polish medieval language for "Boar") is a Polish coat of arms.
Świny (Schweinhaus) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Bolków, within Jawor County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
Šárka Klemensová (born Šárka Cojocarová) is a Czech model and Czech Miss Earth 2011.
Šoldra, Šoldr (szołdra, szołdr) is a traditional Silesian cuisine Easter bread.
Šumperk (Mährisch Schönberg) is a district town in the Olomouc Region of the Czech Republic.
The Šumperk–Krnov railway line links Šumperk to Krnov through mountains of Eastern Sudetes with highest point in Ramzovské sedlo pass.
Żabie Doły is a nature and landscape protected area in Silesia, Poland.
Żagań (French and Sagan, Zahań, Zaháň, Saganum) is a town on the Bóbr river in western Poland, with 26,253 inhabitants (2010).
Żarnowiec is a village in Zawiercie County, Silesian Voivodeship, in southern Poland.
Żary (Sorau, Žarow) is a town in western Poland with about 39,900 inhabitants (2006), situated in the Lubusz Voivodeship (since 1999, previously in Zielona Góra Voivodeship (1975–1998)).
Żnin (Znin, 1941-45: Dietfurt) is a small town in Poland with a population of 14,181 (June 2014).
Not to be confused with the similarly-named town Żary (German: Sorau) in Silesian Voivodeship Żory (Sohrau) is a town and city county in Silesian Voivodeship, Poland with 58,672 inhabitants (2018).
Żyrosław I (Latin: Siroslaus) was Bishop of Wrocław from, 1112 to 1120.
Babi Dół railway station is a railway station serving the town of Babi Dół, in the Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland.
Bad Orb ("Thermae on the Orb River") is a spa town in the Main-Kinzig-Kreis district of Hesse, Germany.
is a town on the banks of the River Lamme in the district of Hildesheim, in Lower Saxony, Germany.
The Bahá'í Faith in Poland begins in the 1870s when Polish writer Walerian Jablonowski wrote several articles covering its early history in Persia.
Baidar was the second son of Chagatai Khan.
Balthasar Walther (1558 – c. 1631) was a Silesian physician and Christian Kabbalist of German ethnicity.
The Balts decorated their pots by creating "deep incisions and ridges around the neck." Baltic graves consisted of huts made out of timber, or stone costs with floors of pavement "encircled by timber posts", According to Marija Gimbutas.
The Bar Confederation (Konfederacja barska; 1768–1772) was an association of Polish nobles (szlachta) formed at the fortress of Bar in Podolia in 1768 to defend the internal and external independence of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth against Russian influence and against King Stanisław II Augustus with Polish reformers, who were attempting to limit the power of the Commonwealth's wealthy magnates.
Bar (Бар; Bar; Barium; Βάρ; Bar; Бар) is a town located on the Riv River in the Vinnytsia Oblast (province) of central Ukraine.
Barbara Campanini, known as La Barbarina, (7 June 1721 - 7 June 1799) was a famous Italian ballerina, one of the most important ballet dancers of the 18th century.
Barbara Harrisson (born Barbara Veronika Gertrud Maria Elisabeth Güttler,; accessed on December 2, 2016. 20 May 1922 – 26 December 2015) was a German-British art historian who also contributed scientifically to nature conservation, primatology, anthropology, and archaeology.
Bardo (Wartha) is a town in Ząbkowice Śląskie County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
Bargil Pixner (March 23, 1921 – April 5, 2002) was an ethnically German Italian monk of the Order of Saint Benedict, Biblical scholar and archaeologist, and Benedictine authority on the Dead Sea Scrolls.
Barossa German (Barossadeutsch or Barossa-Deutsch) is a dialect of German, predominately spoken in the Barossa Valley region of South Australia.
Bartholomeus Strobel the Younger or Bartholomäus in German or Bartlomiej in Polish (11 April 1591 (baptised) – after 1650) was a Baroque painter from Silesia, who worked in Prague, Silesia, and finally Poland, where he emigrated to escape the disruption of the Thirty Years War.
Bartosz Paprocki (also Bartholomeus Paprocky or Bartholomew Paprocki, Bartłomiej (Bartosz) Paprocki, Bartoloměj Paprocký z Hlahol a Paprocké Vůle; ca. 1540/43 in Paprocka Wola near Sierpc – 27 December 1614 in Lviv, Poland, today Ukraine) was a Polish and Czech writer, historiographer, translator, poet, heraldist and pioneer in Polish and Bohemian-Czech genealogy (often referred to as the "father of Polish and Bohemian-Czech genealogy").
Basilica of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Krzeszów (Bazylika Wniebowzięcia NMP w Krzeszowie is a Roman Catholic church and abbey of the Order of Saint Benedict in Krzeszów, Lower Silesian Voivodeship. Built around 1728-1735, it is a notable baroque church in Silesia, with the art of Ferdinand Brokoff (sculptor) and Michael Willmann (painter). It is also one of the shrines to the Virgin Mary, with a 13th old painting. In one of the chapels there is a mausoleum to Silesian Piasts: Bolko I the Strict and Bolko II the Small. It is a basilica since 1998.
Bataliony Chłopskie (BCh, Polish Farmers' Battalions) was a Polish World War II resistance movement, guerrilla and partisan organisation.
Bathing is the washing of the body with a liquid, usually water or an aqueous solution, or the immersion of the body in water.
The Battle of Łódź took place from November 11 to December 6, 1914, near the city of Łódź in Poland.
The Battle of Bar-sur-Aube was fought on 27 February 1814, between the First French Empire and the Austrian Empire.
The Battle of Berlin, designated the Berlin Strategic Offensive Operation by the Soviet Union, and also known as the Fall of Berlin, was the final major offensive of the European theatre of World War II.
The Battle of Breslau (also known as the Battle on the Lohe) was a battle fought on 22 November 1757 during the Third Silesian War (part of the Seven Years' War).
The Battle of Byczyna or Battle of Pitschen (Pitschen; Byczyna) was the deciding battle of the 1587–1588 War of the Polish Succession, which erupted after two rival candidates were elected to the Polish throne.
The Battle of Cartagena de Indias was an amphibious military engagement between the forces of Britain under Vice-Admiral Edward Vernon and those of Spain under the Viceroy Sebastián de Eslava. It took place at the city of Cartagena de Indias in March 1741, in present-day Colombia. The battle was a significant episode of the War of Jenkins' Ear and a large-scale naval campaign. The conflict later subsumed into the greater conflict of the War of the Austrian Succession. The battle resulted in a major defeat for the British Navy and Army. The defeat caused heavy losses for the British. Disease (especially yellow fever), rather than deaths from combat, took the greatest toll on both the Spanish and British forces.
The Battle of Czarnowo on the night of 23–24 December 1806 saw troops of the First French Empire under the eye of Emperor Napoleon I launch an evening assault crossing of the Wkra River against Lieutenant General Alexander Ivanovich Ostermann-Tolstoy's defending Russian Empire forces.
The Battle of Dessau Bridge was a significant battle of the Thirty Years' War between Danish Protestants and the Imperial German Catholic forces on the Elbe River outside Dessau, Germany on April 25, 1626.
The Battle of Domstadtl, also spelled Domstadt, Czech Domašov, was a battle between Habsburg Monarchy and Kingdom of Prussia at a Moravian village Domašov nad Bystřicí during the Third Silesian War (part of the Seven Years' War) on 30 June 1758, preceded by a minor clash at Guntramovice (Gundersdorf) on 28 June.
The Battle of Eisenach in 908, was a crushing victory by a Hungarian army over a German army composed of troops from Franconia, Saxony and Thuringia.
The Battle of Fontenoy, 11 May 1745,This article uses the Gregorian calendar (unless otherwise stated).
The Battle of Głogów or Defense of Głogów (Schlacht bei Glogau, Obrona Głogowa) was fought on 24 August 1109 at the Silesian town of Głogów, between the Kingdom of Poland and the Holy Roman Empire.
The Battle of Gross-Jägersdorf (30 August 1757) was a victory for the Russian force under Field Marshal Stepan Fyodorovich Apraksin over a smaller Prussian force commanded by Field Marshal Hans von Lehwaldt, during the Seven Years' War.
The Battle of Hennersdorf, sometimes referred to as Catholic-Hennersdorf, was a minor encounter that took place on November 23, 1745 in Katholisch-Hennersdorf in Silesia (Prussia, present-day Poland) during the Second Silesian War (part of the War of the Austrian Succession).
The Battle of Hochkirch took place on 14 October 1758 during the Third Silesian War (part of the Seven Years' War).
The Battle of Hohenfriedberg or Hohenfriedeberg, now Dobromierz, also known as the Battle of Striegau, now Strzegom, was one of Frederick the Great's most admired victories.
The Battle of Hoyerswerda was a minor encounter of September 9, 1759 during the Third Silesian War (part of the Seven Years' War) between Prussian and Austrian forces.
The Battle of Hundsfeld or Battle of Psie Pole was allegedly fought on 24 August 1109 near the Silesian capital Wrocław between the Holy Roman Empire in aid of the claims of the exiled Piast duke Zbigniew against his ruling half-brother, Bolesław III Wrymouth of Poland.
The Battle of Jarosław (known as the Defence of Jarosław in Polish sources) took place between September 10 and September 11, 1939, in the city of Jarosław on the San River.
The Battle of Jordanów took place on 1–3 September 1939, during the Invasion of Poland and the opening stages of World War II.
The Battle of Kay (Schlacht bei Kay), also referred to as the Battle of Sulechów, Battle of Züllichau, or Battle of Paltzig, was an engagement fought on 23 July 1759 during the Seven Years' War.
The Battle of Königgrätz (Schlacht bei Königgrätz), also known as the Battle of Sadowa, Sadová, or Hradec Králové, was the decisive battle of the Austro-Prussian War, in which the Kingdom of Prussia defeated the Austrian Empire.
The Battle of Komarow (known in Russia as the Battle of Tomaszów) was a battle on the Eastern Front during World War I. It would prove a victory for the Austro-Hungarian forces, but one they would not be able to reproduce in the coming months of the war.
The Battle of Koronowo was a battle of the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War.
The Battle of Kratzau occurred on 11 November 1428 between an Imperial Silesian army and the Sirotci Hussites in Kratzau, Bohemia.
The decisive Battle of Kunersdorf occurred on 12 August 1759 near Kunersdorf (Kunowice), immediately east of Frankfurt an der Oder (the second largest city in Prussia).
The Battle of Landeshut was an engagement fought on 23 June 1760 during the Third Silesian War (part of the Seven Years' War).
The Battle of Legnica (bitwa pod Legnicą), also known as the Battle of Liegnitz (Schlacht von Liegnitz) or Battle of Wahlstatt (Schlacht bei Wahlstatt), was a battle between the Mongol Empire and the combined defending forces of European fighters that took place at Legnickie Pole (Wahlstatt) near the city of Legnica in the Silesia province of the Kingdom of Poland on 9 April 1241.
The Battle of Leuthen was fought on 5 December 1757, at which Frederick the Great's Prussian army used maneuver and terrain to decisively defeat a much larger Austrian force commanded by Prince Charles of Lorraine and Count Leopold Joseph von Daun.
Two military engagements are known as the Battle of Liegnitz or Battle of Legnica after the Silesian town of Liegnitz - Legnica, in south-western Poland.
The Battle of Mohi (today Muhi), also known as Battle of the Sajó RiverA Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East, Vol.
The Battle of Mokra took place on September 1, 1939 near the village of Mokra, 5 km north from Kłobuck, 23 km north-west from Częstochowa, Poland.
The Battle of Mollwitz was fought by Prussia and Austria on 10 April 1741, during the First Silesian War (in the early stages of the War of the Austrian Succession).
The Battle of Moys was a battle fought on 7 September 1757 during the Third Silesian War (part of the Seven Years' War).
The Battle of Nachod (or Náchod) on 27 June 1866 was the first major action of the Austro-Prussian War.
The Battle of Opole took place in the Polish town of Opole, in early April 1241, during the Mongol invasion of Poland.
The Battle of Orsha was fought on 8 September 1514, between the allied forces of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Poland, under the command of Hetman Konstanty Ostrogski; and the army of the Grand Duchy of Moscow under Konyushy Ivan Chelyadnin and Kniaz Mikhail Golitsin.
The Battle of Pfaffenhofen was fought on 15 April 1745 between France and Austria.
The Battle of Piotrków Trybunalski was a battle in the Invasion of Poland from the 5 to 6 September 1939, which involved Polish and German tank formations.
In the Battle of Prague or Battle of Štěrboholy, fought on 6 May 1757 during the Third Silesian War (Seven Years' War), Frederick the Great's 67,000 Prussians forced 60,000 Austrians to retreat, but having lost 14,300 men, decided he was not strong enough to attack Prague.
The Battle of Raciborz took place in the Polish town of Raciborz, on 20 March 1241, during the Mongol invasion of Poland.
The Battle of Rossbach took place on 5 November 1757 during the Third Silesian War (1756–1763, part of the Seven Years' War) near the village of Rossbach (Roßbach), in the Electorate of Saxony.
The Battle of Sahay or Zahájí was fought on May 24, 1742 near village of Zahájí, about NW of České Budějovice (in German Budweis) in southern Bohemia, between the French under the Duc de Broglie and the Austrians under Lobkowitz.
The Battle of Saint Gotthard (Szentgotthárdi csata; Saint Gotthard Muharebesi; Schlacht bei Mogersdorf and Schlacht bei St.; Bataille de Saint-Gothard) was fought on August 1, 1664 as part of the Austro-Turkish War (1663–1664), between an Habsburg army led by Raimondo Montecuccoli, Jean de Coligny-Saligny, Wolfgang Julius, Count of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein, Prince Leopold of Baden, Georg Friedrich of Waldeck and an Ottoman army under the command of Köprülü Fazıl Ahmed Paşa.
The Battle of Tachov (Schlacht bei Tachau) or Battle of Mies (Schlacht bei Mies) was a battle fought on 4 August 1427 near the Bohemian towns of Tachov (Tachau) and Stříbro (Mies).
The Battle of the Border (Bitwa graniczna) refers to the battles that occurred in the first daysThe Battle of the Border began on 1 September, but sources vary with their assignment of an end date for this phase of the campaign.
The Battle of the Herrings was a military action near the town of Rouvray in France, just north of Orléans, which took place on 12 February 1429 during the siege of Orléans.
The Battle of the Katzbach on 26 August 1813, was a major battle of the Napoleonic Wars between the forces of the First French Empire under Marshal MacDonald and a Russo-Prussian army of the Sixth Coalition under Prussian Marshal Graf (Count) von Blücher.
In the Battle of Torgau on 3 November 1760, King Frederick the Great's Prussian army fought a larger Austrian army under the command of Field Marshal Leopold Josef Graf Daun.
The Battle of Trenčín (Schlacht bei Trentschin, Trencséni csata, Bitka pri Trenčíne) was a battle between the Hungarian Kuruc forces of Francis II Rákóczi and the Imperial Army of the Habsburgs.
The Battle of Vauchamps (14 February 1814) was the final major engagement of the Six Days Campaign of the War of the Sixth Coalition.
The Battle of Węgierska Górka was a two-day-long defence of a Polish fortified area in south of Silesia during the opening stages of the Invasion of Poland of 1939.
The Battle of Zorndorf, fought on August 25, 1758 during the Seven Years' War, was fought between Russian troops commanded by Count William Fermor and a Prussian army commanded by King Frederick the Great. The battle was tactically inconclusive, with both armies holding their ground and claiming victory.Franz A.J. Szabo. The Seven Years War in Europe: 1756–1763. Routledge. 2013. P. 167 The site of the battle was the Prussian village of Zorndorf (now Sarbinowo, Poland).
The Seven Years' War, 1754–1763, spanned five continents, affecting Europe, the Americas, West Africa, India, and the Philippines.
Bayerischer Fernsehpreis (the Bavarian TV award) is an award presented by the government of Bavaria, Germany since 1989.
Bóbr (Bobr, Bober) is a river which runs through the north of the Czech Republic and the southwest of Poland, a left tributary of the Oder.
The Będzin Castle is a castle in Będzin (pronounced) in southern Poland.
During the course of his lifetime (1770–1827), Ludwig van Beethoven enjoyed relationships with many of his musical contemporaries.
Beltaine is a Polish folk band.
The Belvedere auf dem Klausberg is a building in Sanssouci Park in Potsdam, Germany that is open to the public.
The Decrees of the President of the Republic (Dekrety presidenta republiky, Dekréty prezidenta republiky) and the Constitutional Decrees of the President of the Republic (Ústavní dekrety presidenta republiky, Ústavné dekréty prezidenta republiky), commonly known as the Beneš decrees, were a series of laws drafted by the Czechoslovak government-in-exile in the absence of the Czechoslovak parliament during the German occupation of Czechoslovakia in World War II.
Benedikt Emanuel Schack (Benedikt Žák) (7 February 175810 December 1826) was a composer and tenor of the Classical era, a close friend of Mozart and the first performer of the role of Tamino in Mozart's opera The Magic Flute.
Benjamin Schmolck (21 December 1672 – 12 February 1737) was a German Lutheran composer of hymns.
Benjamin Wolf Löw (1775 – March 6, 1851) was a Polish–Hungarian rabbi.
Benno Landsberger (21 April 1890 in Friedek, Austrian Silesia – 26 April 1968) was one of the most important German Assyriologists.
The Bergordnung were the mining regulations or law enacted in order to exercise the royal mining rights or Bergregal in central Europe in medieval times.
The Berlin Customs Wall (German: "Berliner Zoll- und Akzisemauer" literally Berlin customs and excise wall) was a ring wall around the historic city of Berlin, between 1737 and 1860; the wall itself had no defence function but was used to facilitate the levying of taxes on the import and export of goods (tariffs) which was the primary income of many cities at the time.
Berlin Ostbahnhof (German for Berlin East railway station) is a main line railway station in Berlin, Germany.
The Berliner Illustrirte Zeitung, often abbreviated BIZ, was a weekly illustrated magazine published in Berlin from 1892 to 1945.
Bernard Connor or O'Connor M.D. (c.1666–1698) was an Irish physician and historian.
Bernhard Erasmus von Deroy (11 December 1743 – 23 August 1812) from the Electorate of the Palatinate became a noted general officer in the army of Bavaria.
Bernhard Pollack (14 August 1865 – 3 March 1928 in Berlin) was a German neuroanatomist and ophthalmologist practicing in Berlin.
Berthelsdorf (Batromjecy) is a former municipality in the district of Görlitz, in the southeastern part of the Free State of Saxony, Germany.
Berthold of Ratisbon was a Franciscan of the monastery of Ratisbon and the most powerful preacher of repentance in the thirteenth century.
Bertold of Regensburg (c. 1220 – 13 December 1272) was a German preacher during the high Middle Ages.
The Beskids or Beskid Mountains (Beskidy, Czech and Beskydy, Rusyn: Бескиды (Beskidy), Бескиди (Beskydy)) is a traditional name for a series of mountain ranges in the Carpathians, stretching from the Czech Republic in the west along the border of Poland with Slovakia up to Ukraine in the east.
Beta vulgaris (beet) is a plant which is included in Betoideae subfamily in the Amaranthaceae family.
Biała (Bialka) is a river in southern Poland, a right tributary of the Vistula, around long.
Biała, or Biała Prudnicka (Zülz) is a town in Poland, in Opole Voivodeship, in Prudnik County, with 2,687 inhabitants (2004).
The Bibra family was one of the leading Uradel (ancient noble) families in Franconia (northern part of Bavaria) and present day Thuringia from the mid-15th century to about 1600.
For other Bibra and Bibran entries, go to Bibra (disambiguation). Bibran-Modlau (Bibran, Bibra und Modlau, Bibra-Modlau) was a Silesian noble family which was raised to Reichsfreiherr (Imperial barons) 1624.
Bielsko-Biała (Bílsko-Bělá; Bielitz-Biala) is a city in Southern Poland with the population of approximately 174,000 (December 2013).
The Bielsko-Biała Museum is a museum for the city of Bielsko-Biała, Poland located in the historical Bielsko Castle.
Bieruń (Berun) is a town in Upper Silesia, in southern Poland, about south of Katowice.
Bierut Decrees is a direct translation of a German-coined political phrase Bierut-Dekrete, used only in Germany by bodies representative of the cross-border interests of the ethnic Germans expelled from Poland in the aftermath of the Second World War.
Bigordans is the term for the inhabitants of Bigorre.
Bigos (бігас,, or бігус), often translated into English as hunter's stew, is a Polish dish of finely chopped meat of various kinds stewed with sauerkraut and shredded fresh cabbage.
A Bismarck tower (Bismarckturm) is a specific type of monument built according to a more or less standard model across the Germany to honour its first chancellor, Otto von Bismarck (d. 1898).
The world's first Bismarck tower was erected by private initiative in 1869 in the village of Ober-Johnsdorf, Silesia, then part of Prussia (today Janówek, Wrocław County, Poland).
Blachownia is a town in Częstochowa County, Silesian Voivodeship, Poland.
The Black Army (Fekete sereg, pronounced), also called the Black Legion/Regiment – possibly after their black armor panoply – is a common name given to the military forces serving under the reign of King Matthias Corvinus of Hungary.
Kluski czarne or (black noodles), also known as kluski polskie (Polish noodles) or kluski żelazne (iron noodles), are a variety of noodles popular in Silesia.
The Blockade of Germany (1939–1945), also known as the Economic War, was carried out during World War II by the United Kingdom and France in order to restrict the supplies of minerals, metals, food and textiles needed by Nazi Germany - and later Fascist Italy - in order to sustain their war efforts.
Blood sausages are sausages filled with blood that are cooked or dried and mixed with a filler until they are thick enough to solidify when cooled.
Bludoveček and Zámeček is a hamlet administered by Bludov council in the Olomouc Region of the Czech Republic.
The Blue Army (Polish: Błękitna Armia), or Haller's Army was a Polish military contingent created in France during the latter stages of World War I. The name came from the French-issued blue military uniforms worn by the soldiers.
The von Blumenthal family are Lutheran and Roman Catholic German nobility, originally from Brandenburg-Prussia.
Bożków (Eckersdorf) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Nowa Ruda, within Kłodzko County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
Boży bojownicy (Warriors of God) is a historical novel with fantasy elements, written by Andrzej Sapkowski.
The Bobolice Castle is a 14th-century royal castle in the village of Bobolice, Poland.
Bodzia is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Lubanie, within Włocławek County, Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, in north-central Poland.
Bogdan Musiał (born 1960 in Poland) is a Polish-German historian.
Bogdan Musiol (born 25 July 1957 in Świętochłowice, Silesia, Poland) is an East German-German bobsledder who competed from the late 1970s to the early 1990s.
Bogdan Zakrzewski (25 September 1916 in Poznań – 23 October 2011 in Wrocław) was a Polish historian and researcher of Polish literature.
Boguszów-Gorce (Gottesberg-Rothenbach) is a town in Wałbrzych County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
Bohdan Pociej (January 17, 1933 – March 3, 2011) was a Polish musicologist and writer who studied historical parallels between music and philosophy.
Bohemia (Čechy;; Czechy; Bohême; Bohemia; Boemia) is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic.
Bohemian glass, chiefly referred to as Bohemia crystal, is glass produced in the regions of Bohemia and Silesia, now parts of the Czech Republic.
The Bohemian Revolt (1618–1620) was an uprising of the Bohemian estates against the rule of the Habsburg dynasty that began the Thirty Years' War.
The Boii (Latin plural, singular Boius; Βόιοι) were a Gallic tribe of the later Iron Age, attested at various times in Cisalpine Gaul (northern Italy), Pannonia (Hungary and its western neighbours), parts of Bavaria, in and around Bohemia (after whom the region is named in most languages; comprising the bulk of the Czech Republic), and Gallia Narbonensis.
Bolesław I the Brave (Bolesław I Chrobry, Boleslav Chrabrý; 967 – 17 June 1025), less often known as Bolesław I the Great (Bolesław I Wielki), was Duke of Poland from 992 to 1025, and the first King of Poland in 1025.
Bolesław I the Tall (Bolesław I Wysoki) (b. 1127 – d. Leśnica, 7 or 8 December 1201) was a Duke of Wroclaw from 1163 until his death in 1201.
Bolesław II the Generous, also known as the Bold and the Cruel (Bolesław II Szczodry; Śmiały; Okrutny; c. 1042 – 2 or 3 April 1081 or 1082), was Duke of Poland from 1058 to 1076 and third King of Poland from 1076 to 1079.
Bolesław III Wrymouth (also known as Boleslaus III the Wry-mouthed, Bolesław III Krzywousty) (20 August 1086 – 28 October 1138), was a Duke of Lesser Poland, Silesia and Sandomierz between 1102 and 1107 and over the whole Poland between 1107 and 1138.
Bolesław Masłowski was a Polish chemist born in 1851 in Włodawa.
Bolesław of Kuyavia (also known as Mieszkowic) (Bolesław kujawski (Mieszkowic)) (1159 – 13 September 1195) was a Duke of Kuyavia from 1186 until his death.
Bolesławiec (Bunzlau; Bolesławjec) is a town located on the Bóbr River in the Lower Silesian Voivodeship in southwestern Poland, with 40,837 inhabitants (2006).
Bolesławiec pottery is the collective term for pottery produced in Bolesławiec, Poland.
Boleslaus II the Pious (Boleslav II.; - 7 February 999), a member of the Přemyslid dynasty, was Duke of Bohemia from 972 until his death.
Bolko II the Small (Bolko II Mały (Świdnicki), Bolko II (Schweidnitz); c. 1312 – 28 July 1368), was the last independent Duke of the Piast dynasty in Silesia.
Bolko V the Hussite (Bolko V Husyta) (ca. 1400 – 29 May 1460) was a Duke of Opole between 1422–1424 (as a co-ruler with his father), ruler over Głogówek and Prudnik since 1424, Duke of Strzelce and Niemodlin from 1450 and ruler over Olesno since 1455.
Bolko von Schweinichen (1 May 1896, Bytom - ???) was a police official in Nazi Germany who, for the majority of the German occupation of France, served as the commander of the regular German police (the Ordnungspolizei) in Paris.
The bombing of Dresden was a British/American aerial bombing attack on the city of Dresden, the capital of the German state of Saxony, during World War II in the European Theatre.
Bona Sforza (2 February 1494 – 19 November 1557) was a member of the powerful House of Sforza, which ruled the Duchy of Milan since 1447.
Johann Bonaventura von Rauch (25 July 1740 - 9 February 1814) was a Prussian Army major general.
A bonfire is a large but controlled outdoor fire, used either for informal disposal of burnable waste material or as part of a celebration.
The Polish Border Guard (Polish Straż Graniczna, also abbreviated as SG) is a state security agency tasked with patrolling the Polish border.
Borzęcin is a village in Brzesko County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, in southern Poland.
Brandenburg-Prussia (Brandenburg-Preußen) is the historiographic denomination for the Early Modern realm of the Brandenburgian Hohenzollerns between 1618 and 1701.
Brauchitsch is the surname of a Prussian noble family, first documented in the 13th century at the Silesian village of Chrustenik.
Brave Festival – Against Cultural Exile is a Polish festival organized since 2005 by Song of the Goat Theatre Association.
Brønnøysund Musikkorps (BMK) (founded in autumn of 1894) is a wind band in Brønnøysund, Norway, with approx.
Bretislav I (Břetislav I.; 1002/1005–10 January 1055), known as the "Bohemian Achilles", of the Přemyslid dynasty, was Duke of Bohemia from 1035 until his death.
Lieutenant-General Sir Brian Gwynne Horrocks, (7 September 1895 – 4 January 1985) was a British Army officer, chiefly remembered as the commander of XXX Corps in Operation Market Garden and other operations during the Second World War.
Brick Gothic (Backsteingotik, Gotyk ceglany, Baksteengotiek) is a specific style of Gothic architecture common in Northwest and Central Europe especially in the regions in and around the Baltic Sea, which do not have resources of standing rock, but in many places a lot of glacial boulders.
Traditionally a bridal crown (Brautkrone or, in the Black Forest, Schäppel) is a headdress that single women wear on certain holidays, at festivals and, finally, at their wedding.
Brigitte Zimmermann (born 22 May 1939) is a German journalist.
Brita Persdotter Karth is a fictional person in Swedish history.
Bronisław Wojciech Linke, (23 April 1906, Tartu, Estonia – 6 October 1962, Warsaw, Poland), was a painter and graphic artist noted for his metaphorical realism in his depiction of human destructiveness.
The Bronze and Iron Age cultures in Poland are known mainly from archeological research.
The Brothers Hospitallers of Saint John of God (officially the Hospitaller Order of the Brothers of Saint John of God; abbreviated as O.H.) are a Roman Catholic order founded in 1572.
Broumov (Braunau) is a town in the Czech Republic, in the Náchod District of the Hradec Králové Region, near the border with Poland.
Brun (Latin Bruno; born around 975, died around 1010), was Count in the Derlingau, the Nordthüringgau, the Hastfalagau, the Salzgau, the Gau Gretinge, and the Gau Mulbeze, with Brunswick as his residence.
Obersturmbannführer Bruno Müller or Brunon Müller-Altenau (Strasbourg, September 13, 1905 – March 1, 1960, Oldenburg) served as Senior Storm Unit Leader during the Nazi German invasion of Poland.
Bruno Walter (born Bruno Schlesinger, September 15, 1876February 17, 1962) was a German-born conductor, pianist and composer.
Bruntál (Freudenthal in Schlesien, Bruntal, Latin: Vallis Gaudiorum, Vrudental) is a town located near the western boundary of the Moravian-Silesian Region, in Czech Silesia.
Bryja - thin kasza or mash, a Germanic, Celtic and Slavic dish, based on overcooked oat or kasza, that formulated the basis of their respectable cuisine.
Brynica (German: Brinitz) is a river in Silesia, Poland.
Brzeg (Latin: Alta Ripa, former German name: Brieg) is a town in southwestern Poland with 36,381 inhabitants (2016) and the capital of Brzeg County.
Brzeg Castle is located in Brzeg, Opole Voivodeship, within the Silesia region of Poland.
Brzeg Dolny (until 1945 Dyhernfurth) is a town in Wołów County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship in south-western Poland.
Bulbulators is a Polish punk rock band playing since 1989.
Bulgarians are a recognized national minority in Serbia.
Burg Kreuzenstein is a castle near Leobendorf in Lower Austria, Austria.
Burkhard Malich (born 29 November 1936 in Schweidnitz, Silesia (now Świdnica, Poland)) is a German chess Grandmaster.
The Buschgroßmutter ("shrub grandmother",H. Naumann: Buschgroßmutter, Buschweibchen. In: Hanns Bächtold-Stäubli, Eduard Hoffmann-Krayer: Handwörterbuch des Deutschen Aberglaubens: Band 1 Aal-Butzemann. Berlin/New York 2000 p. 1714. in older orthography also BuschgrossmutterJacob Grimm: Deutsche Mythologie. Wiesbaden 2014, p. 375.), Pusch-Grohla ("shrub granny") or Buschweibchen ("shrub woman", with Weibchen being the diminutive of Weib, "woman") is a legendary creature from German folklore, especially found in folktales from the regions Thuringia, Saxony, former Silesia and the former German speaking parts of Bohemia.
Bydgoszcz displays an abundant variety of architectures, with styles from neo-gothic, neo-baroque and neoclassicism, to Art Nouveau and modernism; hence its nickname of Little Berlin at the start of the 20th century.
Bydgoszcz Canal (Bromberger Kanal) is a canal, 24.7 km long, between the cities of Bydgoszcz and Nakło in Poland, connecting Vistula river with Oder river, through Brda and Noteć rivers (the latter ending in the Warta river which itself ends in Oder).
Byków (Peuke) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Długołęka, within Wrocław County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
Bystrzyca Kłodzka (Habelschwerdt, Kladská Bystřice) is a historic town in Kłodzko County, in Lower Silesian Voivodeship in southwestern Poland.
Bytom (Polish pronunciation:; Silesian: Bytůń, Beuthen O.S.) is a city in Silesia in southern Poland, near Katowice.
Constantin Wilhelm Lambert Gloger (17 September 1803 near Grottkau, Silesia, Kingdom of Prussia – 30 December 1863 in Berlin) was a German zoologist and ornithologist.
Campaign Against Homophobia (original name: Kampania Przeciw Homofobii, abbreviation: KPH) is a Polish LGBT organisation, which aims to promote legal and social equality for people outside the heteronorm.
An inclined plane is a system used on some canals for raising boats between different water levels.
Carl August Haupt (28 August 1810, Kuniów, Silesia – 4 July 1891, Berlin) was a German organist, organ teacher and composer.
Carl August Julius Milde (2 November 1824 – 3 July 1871) was a German bryologist and pteridologist born in Breslau.
Carl Franz van der Velde (27 September 1779 – 6 April 1824) was a German author of historical novels.
Carl Duncker (25 March 1781 - 15 July 1869) was a German publisher.
Carl Gotthard Langhans (15 December 1732 – 1 October 1808) was a Prussian master builder and royal architect.
Carl Heymanns Verlag GmbH is a legal, specialized publishing house with its seat in Cologne, Germany.
Carl Theodor Mirbt (July 21, 1860 in Gnadenfrei, Silesia – September 27, 1929 in Göttingen) was a German Protestant church historian.
Carl Robert Tielsch (1815–1882) was a German merchant who founded the Carl Tielsch & Co. Porcelain Manufactury.
Carl Traugott Beilschmied (19 October 1793 in Langenöls – 6 May 1848 in Herrnstadt) was a German pharmacist and botanist, known for his research in phytogeography.
Major General Carl-August von Schoenebeck began his career in the Baden Leib-Grenadier Regiment in 1915.
Carl-Hans Graf von Hardenberg (October 22, 1891 – October 24, 1958) was a German politician and landowner.
Carla Bartheel (5 July 1902 – 28 December 1983) was a German film actress.
Carlo Lurago (also spelled Luraghi) (1615 – 22 October 1684) was an Italian architect, who was most active in Prague.
Carol Benesch (January 9, 1822, Jägerndorf, Austro-Hungarian Empire, today Krnov, Czech Republic - October 30, 1896, Bucharest, Romania) was a Silesian architect of Historicism and Eclecticism orientation established in the Kingdom of Romania.
The Carpathian German Party (Karpatendeutsche Partei, abbreviated KdP) was a political party in Czechoslovakia, active amongst the Carpathian German minority of Slovakia and Subcarpathian Rus'.
The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians are a mountain range system forming an arc roughly long across Central and Eastern Europe, making them the second-longest mountain range in Europe (after the Scandinavian Mountains). They provide the habitat for the largest European populations of brown bears, wolves, chamois, and lynxes, with the highest concentration in Romania, as well as over one third of all European plant species.
Casimir I of Oświęcim (Kazimierz I Oświęcimski) (1396 – 7 April 1434) was a Duke of Oświęcim since 1406 (under regency until 1414), ruler over Toszek (from 1414) and Strzelin (during 1416–1427).
Casimir I the Restorer (b. Kraków, 25 July 1016 – d. Poznań, 28 November 1058), was Duke of Poland of the Piast dynasty and the de jure monarch of the entire country from 1034 until his death.
Casimir II of Cieszyn (Kazimierz II cieszyński, Kazimír II., Kasimir II.) (– 13 December 1528) was a Duke of Cieszyn since 1477, ruler over Koźle during 1479–1509, since 1493 ruler over Wołów, over Pszczyna during 1498–1517, from 1506 over Opava, Duke of Głogów since 1506 (for life).
Casimir III the Great (Kazimierz III Wielki; 30 April 1310 – 5 November 1370) reigned as the King of Poland from 1333 to 1370.
Kazimierz Michał Władysław Wiktor Pułaski of Ślepowron (Casimir Pulaski; March 4 or March 6, 1745Makarewicz, 1998 October 11, 1779) was a Polish nobleman, soldier and military commander who has been called, together with his Hungarian friend Michael Kovats de Fabriczy, "the father of the American cavalry".
Caspar (or Kaspar) Schwen(c)kfeld von Ossig (1489 or 1490 – 10 December 1561) was a German theologian, writer, and preacher who became a Protestant Reformer and spiritualist.
Casus belli is a Latin expression meaning "an act or event that provokes or is used to justify war" (literally, "a case of war").
The Saint Nicholas' Cathedral (Kościół katedralny św. Mikołaja) is the main Roman Catholic Church of the city of Bielsko-Biała, in the Silesian Voivodship, Poland.
Cathedral of the Divine Saviour (Katedrála Božského Spasitele), located in the center of Ostrava, is the second largest Roman Catholic cathedral in Moravia and Silesia (after the basilica in Velehrad near Uherské Hradiště).
Catherine Elizabeth von Schindel zu Sasterhausen, Duchess of Bernstadt, known also by her later married names as Catherine von Dyhrn und Schönau and Catherine von Köckritz und Friedland (1559 - 16 May 1601) was a Silesian noblewoman, landowner and heiress.
In the Polish–Soviet War of 1919-1921, Soviet Russia and Soviet Ukraine were in combat with the newly independent Second Polish Republic and the Ukrainian People's Republic.
Celtic toponymy is the study of place names wholly or partially of Celtic origin.
The appearance of Celts in Transylvania can be traced to the later La Tène period (c. 4th century BC).
The Centennial Hall (Hala Stulecia; formerly Hala Ludowa, People's Hall, Jahrhunderthalle) is a historic building in Wrocław, Poland.
Blessed Ceslaus, O.P., (Czesław) (c. 1184 – c. 1242) was born in Kamień Śląski in Silesia, Poland, of the noble family of Odrowąż, and was a relative, possibly the brother, of Saint Hyacinth.
Cham Albanians, or Chams (Çamë, Τσάμηδες Tsámidhes), are a sub-group of Albanians who originally resided in the western part of the region of Epirus in northwestern Greece, an area known among Albanians as Chameria.
Cham is the capital of the district of Cham in the Upper Palatinate in Bavaria in Germany.
Charles Ansorge (born in Spiller, Silesia, Germany, in 1817; died in Chicago, 28 October 1866) was a German-born musician and composer who, as a Forty-Eighter, emigrated to the United States and worked for a time there also.
Charles Francis Haanel (May 22, 1866 – November 27, 1949) was an American author, philosopher and a businessman.
Charles Gotthold Reichel (14 July 1751 in Hermsdorf, Silesia – 18 April 1825 at Niesky, Prussia) was a Moravian bishop.
Charles I or Karl I (Karl Franz Joseph Ludwig Hubert Georg Otto Maria; 17 August 18871 April 1922) was the last reigning monarch of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Charles I, also known as Charles Robert (Károly Róbert; Karlo Robert; Karol Róbert; 128816 July 1342) was King of Hungary and Croatia from 1308 to his death.
Charles I, Duke of Münsterberg-Oels (also: Charles I of Podebrady, Karel z Minstrberka, Karl I. von Münsterberg.; 2 or 4 May 1476, in Kladsko – 31 May 1536, in Frankenstein) was a member of the House of Poděbrady.
Charles IV (Karel IV., Karl IV., Carolus IV; 14 May 1316 – 29 November 1378Karl IV. In: (1960): Geschichte in Gestalten (History in figures), vol. 2: F-K. 38, Frankfurt 1963, p. 294), born Wenceslaus, was a King of Bohemia and the first King of Bohemia to also become Holy Roman Emperor.
Charles of Austria (Karl von Österreich; 7 August 1590 – 28 December 1624), nicknamed the Posthumous, a member of the Imperial House of Habsburg, was Prince-Bishop of Wrocław (Breslau) from 1608, Prince-Bishop of Brixen from 1613, and Grand Master of the Teutonic Order from 1618 until his death.
Charles University, known also as Charles University in Prague (Univerzita Karlova; Universitas Carolina; Karls-Universität) or historically as the University of Prague (Universitas Pragensis), is the oldest and largest university in the Czech Republic. Founded in 1348, it was the first university in Central Europe. It is one of the oldest universities in Europe in continuous operation and ranks in the upper 1.5 percent of the world’s best universities. Its seal shows its protector Emperor Charles IV, with his coats of arms as King of the Romans and King of Bohemia, kneeling in front of St. Wenceslas, the patron saint of Bohemia. It is surrounded by the inscription, Sigillum Universitatis Scolarium Studii Pragensis (Seal of the Prague academia).
Charles Frederic Wenzel (1769–18??) was a German Lutheran missionary who worked in Sierra Leone.
Charles X Gustav, also Carl Gustav (Karl X Gustav; 8 November 1622 – 13 February 1660), was King of Sweden from 1654 until his death.
Charles Emanuel de Warnery was a royal Prussian colonel, later a royal Polish general.
Charles-Joseph Lamoral, 7th Prince de Ligne in French; in German Karl-Joseph Lamoral 7.
Charlotte Witthauer (1915–1980) was a German film actress.
Château de Valençay is a residence of the d'Estampes and Talleyrand-Périgord families in the commune of Valençay, the Indre département of France.
Chełmek is a town in Lesser Poland Voivodeship in southern Poland.
Chmeľnica (Hopgarten, Komlóskert, Chmielnica) is a village and municipality in Stará Ľubovňa District in the Prešov Region of northern Slovakia.
The Chodové (Chods, "Walkers", "Patrollers" or "Rangers") are an ethnic group living in western Bohemia.
Chorzów (Königshütte; Chorzůw) is a city in Silesia in southern Poland, near Katowice.
Christian Brückner (born 27 October 1943) is one of the most prolific and well-known German voice actors today, as well as a frequent actor.
Christian Frederick Hassé (1771–1831) was a composer of church music and an organist.
Count Christian Frederick of Stolberg-Wernigerode (Christian Friedrich (Graf) zu Stolberg-Wernigerode; 8 January 1746, Wernigerode Castle – 26 May 1824, Peterwaldau) was the only son of Count Henry Ernest of Stolberg-Wernigerode, whom he succeeded as ruler of the County of Wernigerode in 1778.
Christian Friedrich Heinrich Wimmer (October 30, 1803 – March 12, 1868) was a German botanist and educator who was a native of Breslau.
Christian Friedrich Koch (9 February 1798 – 21 January 1872) was a German jurist.
Christian Ganczarski (born 1966) is a German citizen of Polish ancestry who converted to Khawarij Islam.
Christian Gottlieb Ludwig (30 April 1709 – 7 May 1773) was a German physician and botanist born in Brieg, Silesia (now Brzeg, Poland).
Christian August Heinrich Kurt Graf von Haugwitz (11 June 1752 – 1832) was a German statesman, best known for serving as Foreign Minister of Prussia during the Napoleonic Wars.
Christian Graf von Krockow, (May 26, 1927 – March 17, 2002) was a German writer and political scientist, Christian Count of Krockow was the son of a historic Pomeranian noble family.
Christian Gregor (January 1, 1723 - November 6, 1801) was a Moravian composer and bishop.
Christian Hoffmann von Hoffmannswaldau (baptised December 25, 1616 – April 4, 1679) was a German poet of the Baroque era.
Christian I of Saxe-Merseburg (Dresden, 27 October 1615 – Merseburg, 18 October 1691), was the first duke of Saxe-Merseburg and a member of the House of Wettin.
The Renaissance saw the birth of Christian Kabbalah/Cabala (from the Hebrew קַבָּלָה "reception", often transliterated with a 'C' to distinguish it from Jewish Kabbalah and Hermetic Qabalah), also spelled Cabbala.
Christian Knorr von Rosenroth (July 15/16, 1636 – May 4, 1689) was a German Christian Hebraist and Christian Cabalist born at Alt-Raudten (today Stara Rudna) in Silesia.
Christian Kulik (born 6 December 1952 in Zabrze, Silesia, Poland) is a retired German football player of Polish origin.
Christian Leopold von Buch (April 26, 1774 – March 4, 1853) was a German geologist and paleontologist born in Stolpe an der Oder (now a part of Angermünde, Brandenburg) and is remembered as one of the most important contributors to geology in the first half of the nineteenth century.
Christian Minkus (May or June 1770 in Klein-Lassowitz – November 20, 1849 in Marienfeld) represented Silesian constituencies of the former German provinces Rosenberg O.S. and Kreuzburg O.S. as a member of the Frankfurt Assembly.
Christoph II, Burggraf and Count of Dohna-Schlodien (25 October 1702 in Schlodien – 19 May 1762 in Berlin) was a Prussian general.
Christoph Köler or (in Latin), Christophorus Colerus (1602–1658) was a German poet and writer.
Christoph Praetorius (died 1590) was an author, choirmaster and composer.
Christoph Rudolff (born 1499 in Jawor, Silesia, died 1545 in Vienna) was the author of the first German textbook on algebra.
Christoph Scheiner SJ (25 July 1573 (or 1575) – 18 June 1650) was a Jesuit priest, physicist and astronomer in Ingolstadt.
Christopher Samuel Tugendhat, Baron Tugendhat (born 23 February 1937) is a British Conservative Party politician, business man, company director, journalist and author.
Chrzanów is a town in southern Poland with 39,704 inhabitants.
Chudów (German Chudow also Chutow) is a village in the district of Gliwice County, within the municipality of Gmina Gierałtowice, Silesian Voivodeship, in the historical region of Silesia.
The Church of Sts.
The historic Church of St.
Church of St.
The Churches of Peace (Kościoły Pokoju, Friedenskirchen) in Jawor (German: Jauer) and Świdnica (German: Schweidnitz) in Silesia were named after the Peace of Westphalia of 1648.
Chwarszczany (Quartschen) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Boleszkowice, within Myślibórz County, West Pomeranian Voivodeship, in north-western Poland, close to the German border.
Cieszyn folk costume, also known as Valachian, is a Silesian folk costume, which used to be worn within majority of the area of Cieszyn Silesia, but mostly by Cieszyn Vlachs.
Cieszyn Silesia or Těšín Silesia or Teschen Silesia (Polish:, Czech: or, German: Teschener Schlesien or Olsagebiet) is a historical region in south-eastern Silesia, centered on the towns of Cieszyn and Český Těšín and bisected by the Olza River.
The Clare Valley is a valley located in South Australia about north of Adelaide in the Clare and Gilbert Valleys council area.
Claudia Ciesla (born 12 February 1987) is a Polish-German model and actress.
Coal mining regions are significant resource extraction industries in many parts of the world.
The coat of arms of Czechoslovakia were changed many times during Czechoslovakia’s history, some alongside each other.
The coat of arms of Glogów depicts a shield divided crosswise into four fields, with a fifth central field on which there appears in the centre an initial golden "G" on a red background.
The Arms of Liechtenstein are the armorial bearings of the Prince of Liechtenstein, currently Hans-Adam II.
The state of Prussia developed from the State of the Teutonic Order.
The coat of arms of the Czech Republic displays the three historical regions—the Czech lands—which make up the nation.
The coat of arms of the City of Wrocław is divided into quarters.
This is a list of the national coats of arms or equivalent emblems used by countries and dependent territories in Europe.
Over its long history, the Holy Roman Empire used many different heraldic forms, representing its numerous internal divisions.
The Coffee Hag albums were published in the early 20th century by the Kaffee Handelsgesellschaft AG (Kaffee HAG, Coffee Hag) in Bremen, Germany, starting with heraldic stamps and collector's albums.
| Cog railway Tanvald–Harrachov is a standard gauge cog railway in Europe.
A combination weapon is a close-quarters weapon combining the features of both a firearm and an edged melee weapon.
The Commission for the Determination of Place Names (Komisja Ustalania Nazw Miejscowości) was a commission of the Polish Department of Public Administration, founded in January 1946.
The Communist League (German: Bund der Kommunisten) was an international political party established on June 1, 1847 in London, England.
The Complex of Silesian International Schools, founded in 2007 in Katowice, is an International Centre of University of Cambridge International Examinations (CIE).
Concordia Knurów is a Polish Silesian association football club from Knurów, Upper Silesia.
A konfederacja ("confederation") was an ad hoc association formed by Polish-Lithuanian szlachta (nobility), clergy, cities, or military forces in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth for the attainment of stated aims.
On 24 April 1748 a congress assembled at the Imperial Free City of Aachen, in the west of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Congress of Breda often also known as the Breda peace talks were a series of negotiations between representatives of Great Britain and France in the Dutch city of Breda that took place between 1746 and 1748.
The first Congress of Visegrád was a 1335 summit in Visegrád in which Czech king John I of Bohemia, Charles I of Hungary and Casimir III of Poland formed an anti-Habsburg alliance.
Constantine Falkland Cary Smythe, MC (February 1, 1895 – November 18, 1980) was a Canadian businessman, soldier and sportsman in ice hockey and horse racing.
Conrad Eduard Reinhold Ansorge (15 October 186213 February 1930) was a German pianist, teacher and composer.
Conrad II (4 June 1039), also known as and, was Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire from 1027 until his death in 1039.
Nazism and the acts of the Nazi German state profoundly affected many countries, communities, and people before, during and after World War II.
Constance of Wrocław (c.1221–27 – 21 or 23 February 1257) was a Princess of Silesia and the Duchess of Kuyavia.
Constance (Konstancja) (died 1351) was a Polish princess member of the House of Piast and sovereign Duchess of Wodzisław Śląski from 1324 until her death.
Prince Friedrich Wilhelm Konstantin Hermann Thassilo of Hohenzollern-Hechingen (16 February 1801 in Schloss Sagan, Sagan, Silesia, Prussia – 3 September 1869 in Schloss Polnisch Nettkow, Grünberg, Silesia, Prussia) was the last Prince of Hohenzollern-Hechingen.
The cor anglais or original; plural: cors anglais) Longman has /kɔːz/ for British and /kɔːrz/ for American --> or English horn in North America, is a double-reed woodwind instrument in the oboe family. It is approximately one and a half times the length of an oboe. The cor anglais is a transposing instrument pitched in F, a perfect fifth lower than the oboe (a C instrument). This means that music for the cor anglais is written a perfect fifth higher than the instrument actually sounds. The fingering and playing technique used for the cor anglais are essentially the same as those of the oboe and oboists typically double on the cor anglais when required. The cor anglais normally lacks the lowest B key found on most oboes and so its sounding range stretches from E3 (written B) below middle C to C6 two octaves above middle C.
The cornet is a brass instrument similar to the trumpet but distinguished from it by its conical bore, more compact shape, and mellower tone quality.
The Cosmographia ("Cosmography") by Sebastian Münster (1488–1552) from 1544 is the earliest German-language description of the world.
Cotulla is a city in and the county seat of La Salle County, Texas, United States.
Count Karl Sigmund von Hohenwart (Karl Graf von Hohenwart) (February 12, 1824 in Vienna – April 26, 1899) was an Austrian politician who served as Minister-President of Austria in 1871.
The County of Kladsko (Kladské hrabství, Grafschaft Glatz, Hrabstwo kłodzkie) was a historical administrative unit within Bohemia as a part of the Kingdom of Bohemia and later in the Kingdom of Prussia with its capital at Kłodzko (Kladsko) on the Nysa river.
The Crown of Bolesław I the Brave (in Polish: Korona Chrobrego, also known in Latin as the Corona Privilegiata) was the coronation crown of the Polish monarchs.
The Fratres Cruciferi (cross-bearing brethren) are a Roman Catholic religious order.
Cugir (German: Kunendorf, Kudschir, Hungarian: Kudzsir) is a town in Alba county, the central settlement of the Breadfield, in Romania.
After the end of the Second World War, Polish society and culture were subject to significant changes.
The culture of medieval Poland was closely linked to the Catholic Church and its involvement in the country's affairs, especially during the first centuries of the Polish state's history.
Cunitz is a crater on Venus at latitude 14.5, longitude 350.9 in western Eistla Regio.
The history of the Curzon Line, with minor variations, goes back to the period following World War I. It was drawn for the first time by the Supreme War Council as the demarcation line between the newly emerging states, the Second Polish Republic, and the Soviet Union.
Cyprian was a medieval Bishop of Wrocław and Lubusz.
The Czartoryski Museum and Library (Muzeum Książąt Czartoryskich w Krakowie) is a museum located in Kraków, Poland, founded in Puławy in 1796 by Princess Izabela Czartoryska.
Częstochowa,, is a city in southern Poland on the Warta River with 240,027 inhabitants as of June 2009.
The Czech Corner (Český koutek, Czeski kątek, Böhmischer Winkel) is a territory found in the western end of Klodzko land, close to the current Czech-Polish border.
The Czech diaspora refers to both historical and present emigration from the Czech Republic, as well as from the former Czechoslovakia and the Czech lands (including Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia).
The Czech lands or the Bohemian lands (České země) are the three historical regions of Bohemia, Moravia, and Czech Silesia.
Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.
The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
Czech Silesia (České Slezsko; Czeski Ślůnsk; Tschechisch-Schlesien; Śląsk Czeski) is the name given to the part of the historical region of Silesia presently located in the Czech Republic.
Czech traditional clothing expresses Czech history relative to Czech culture and behaviour.
A number of locally-specific units of measurement were used in the territory of what is now the Czech Republic to measure length, area, capacity and so on.
Parliamentary elections were held in Czechoslovakia on 27 October 1929.
Parliamentary elections were held in Czechoslovakia on 26 May 1946.
Czechoslovak Trade Union Association (Odborové sdružení československé), abbreviated to OSČ, was a national trade union center, founded in 1897 in what was then the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
The Czechoslovak War Cross 1918 (Československý válečný kříž 1918 in Czech, Československý vojnový kríž 1918 in Slovak) is a military decoration of the former state of Czechoslovakia which was issued for acts of military valour during the years of the First World War.
The Czechoslovak War Cross 1939–1945 (Československý válečný kříž 1939–1945 in Czech, Československý vojnový kríž 1939–1945 in Slovak) is a military decoration of the former state of Czechoslovakia which was issued for those who had provided great service to the Czechoslovak state (in exile) during the years of World War II.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
Czerwieńsk (Rothenburg an der Oder) is a town in Zielona Góra County, Lubusz Voivodeship, Poland, with 4,152 inhabitants (2005).
Czerwionka-Leszczyny (Czerwionka-Leschczin) is a town in Silesia in southern Poland, on the Bierawka River (tributary of the Oder), located on Silesian Highlands, about 50 km (31 mi) north of the Silesian Beskids.
Gen. Czesław Piątas (born 20 March 1946) is a Polish general, former Chief of General Staff of the Polish Army.
Czterej pancerni i pies (Four tank-men and a dog) was a Polish black and white TV series based on the book by Janusz Przymanowski.
The Dacian bracelets are bracelets associated with the ancient people known as the Dacians, a distinct branch of the Thracians.
Dagobert von Gerhardt (pen-name Gerhard von Amyntor; 12 July 1831 in Liegnitz, Silesia – now Legnica, Poland – 24 February 1910 in Potsdam) was a German soldier, poet, and novelist.
Dagome iudex is one of the earliest historical documents relating to Poland.
Daina is the traditional name of vocal folk music in the Baltic languages, and is preserved in Lithuania and Latvia.
Daisy, Princess of Pless (Mary Theresa Olivia; née Cornwallis-West; 28 June 1873 – 29 June 1943) was a noted society beauty in the Edwardian period, and a member of one of the wealthiest European noble families.
Damian Halata (born 8 August 1962) is a former German international football player.
Daniel Casper (25 January 1635 in Nimptsch, Niederschlesien – 28 April 1683 in Breslau, Niederschlesien), also spelled Daniel Caspar, and referred to from 1670 as Daniel Casper von Lohenstein, was a Baroque Silesian playwright, lawyer, diplomat, poet, and chief representative of the Second Silesian School.
Daniel Czepko von Reigersfeld (1605–1660) was a German Lutheran poet and dramatist, known for his mystical verse influenced by Jacob Böhme.
Daniel Ginczek (born 13 April 1991 in Arnsberg) is a German footballer who plays as a striker for VfL Wolfsburg in the Bundesliga.
Daniel Hiester (June 25, 1747 – March 7, 1804) was an American political and military leader from the Revolutionary War period to the early 19th Century.
Daniel Itzig (also known as Daniel Yoffe 18 March 1723 in Berlin – 17 May 1799 in Potsdam) was a Court Jew of Kings Frederick II the Great and Frederick William II of Prussia.
Daniel Sennert (November 25, 1572 – July 21, 1637) was a renowned German physician and a prolific academic writer, especially in the field of alchemy or chemistry.
Daniel Strejc (Autumn of 1592 - probably 1669) was a Czech priest of the Unity of the Brethren.
Daniel Tilenus (also Tilenius) (1563–1633) was a German-French Protestant theologian.
Bilingual town sign of Flensburg, Germany Danish language exonyms for non-Danish speaking locations exist, primarily in Europe, but many of these are no longer commonly used, with a few notable exceptions.
Daria Eva Bijak (born 12 November 1985 in Racibórz (Ratibor), Silesia, Poland) is a German Gymnast raised in Muenster, NRW.
Darius Kampa (Dariusz Kampa; born 16 January 1977 in Kędzierzyn-Koźle, Silesia, Poland) is a German former football player.
Dariusz Wosz (born 8 June 1969) is a German former footballer who played mostly as a deep-lying playmaker in midfield.
David Erdmann (28 July 1821 - 11 March 1905) was a German evangelical theologian and church historian.
David Peter Lafayette Hunter MC (24 November 1919 – 5 September 2001) was a Royal Marines officer who was prisoner of war captive in Colditz Castle during the Second World War.
David Tebele Scheuer (1712–1782) was a German rabbi.
The Dąbrowa Basin (also, Dąbrowa Coal Basin) or Zagłębie Dąbrowskie is a geographical and historical region in southern Poland.
Dęblin is a town, population 16,656 (as of 2016), at the confluence of Vistula and Wieprz rivers, in Lublin Voivodeship, Poland.
The following events occurred in December 1916.
Delitzsch oberer Bahnhof (Delitzsch upper station) is an intermediate station on the double-tracked and electrified Halle–Cottbus railway and one of the two passenger station serving the town of Delitzsch in the Nordsachsen district of Germany.
The term Deluge (pоtор szwedzki, švedų tvanas) denotes a series of mid-17th-century campaigns in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Demographic estimates of the flight and expulsion of Germans have been derived by either the compilation of registered dead and missing persons or by a comparison of pre-war and post-war population data.
The Poles come from different West Slavic tribes living on territories belonging later to Poland in the early Middle Ages (see: Prehistory of Poland).
A demonym (δῆμος dẽmos "people, tribe", ὄόνομα ónoma "name") is a word that identifies residents or natives of a particular place, which is derived from the name of that particular place.
Denholm Mitchell Elliott, CBE (31 May 1922 – 6 October 1992) was an English actor, with more than 120 film and television credits.
Denis Avey (11 January 1919 – 16 July 2015) was a British veteran of the Second World War who was held as a prisoner of war at Auschwitz.
Desiderius Hampel (20 January 1895 – 11 January 1981) was a SS-Brigadeführer und Generalmajor der Waffen-SS during World War II who commanded the 13th ''Waffen'' Mountain Division of the SS ''Handschar'' (1st Croatian) and was possibly awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross (Ritterkreuz), the highest award in the military and paramilitary forces of Nazi Germany during World War II.
Deutsches Eck ("German Corner") is the name of a headland in Koblenz, Germany, where the Mosel river joins the Rhine.
The Deutsches Turn- und Sportfest (German Gym and Sports Celebration) was the last big sports event organized by the Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen, the Sports governing body of the Third Reich.
The Deutschland class was a group of five pre-dreadnought battleships built for the German Kaiserliche Marine.
Deyzh is a minor Hasidic dynasty that originated in the town of Dej, Romania.
Die Deutschen Konservativen (The German Conservatives) is a German conservative anti-communist organisation, which developed out of a conservative campaign to support Franz Josef Strauß in the 1980 federal election.
"" (Thoughts are free) is a German song about the freedom of thought.
The Diet of Speyer or the Diet of Spires (sometimes referred to as Speyer I) was an Imperial Diet of the Holy Roman Empire in 1526 in the Imperial City of Speyer in present-day Germany.
The Diplomatic Revolution of 1756 was the reversal of longstanding alliances in Europe between the War of the Austrian Succession and the Seven Years' War.
Dittrich is a variant of the German name Dietrich.
Serene Prince Dmitry Vladimirovich Golitsyn (Дмитрий Владимирович Голицын) (29 October 177127 March 1844, Paris) was a Russian cavalry general prominent during the Napoleonic Wars, statesman and military writer.
Dmytro Vitovsky (Дмитро Вітовський) (8 November 1887, Medukha, Stanislau powiat, Galicia and Lodomeria, Austro-Hungary – 8 July 1919, Racibórz, Silesia, Germany) was a Ukrainian politician and military leader.
The Doły Jasielsko-Sanockie, Regio Pedemontana Sanoker Flachland (Jasielsko–Sanockie Valleys, Jasło and Sanok Valleys, the Jasło-Sanok Basin or Jasielsko-Sanockie Pits) is a mountain range stretching between the Wisłoka and San Rivers in the West Carpathian Plateau and Central Beskidian Piedmont in Poland.
Doda Conrad (19 February 1905 – 28 December 1997) was a Polish-born American bass operatic singer.
Interior view upward to the Byzantine domes and semi-domes of Hagia Sophia. See Commons file for annotations. A dome (from Latin: domus) is an architectural element that resembles the hollow upper half of a sphere.
Dominicus Custos (1560–1612) was a Flemish artist, printer and copperplate engraver, who worked in the service of Emperor Rudolph II in Prague.
In the Slavic religious tradition, Domovoy (Russian: Домово́й, literally "Household Lord"; also spelled Domovoi, Domovoj, and known by other, local variations of the same term and by other names) is the household god of a given kin.
Don Cossacks (Донские казаки) are Cossacks who settled along the middle and lower Don.
Dortmund (Düörpm:; Tremonia) is an independent city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
Dow (Dov, Dob) Ber (Beer, Berisz, Berush) Meisels (1798 – March 17, 1870) was a Chief Rabbi of Kraków (Cracow) from 1832 and later, Chief Rabbi of Warsaw (from 1856).
Dragutin Karlo Novak (Zagreb, February 16, 1892 - Zagreb, October 31, 1978), was first person in Croatia to make a heavier-than-air flight.
Drapacz Chmur (Skyscraper) is a historical building in Katowice, Silesia, Poland.
Drayman Henschel (Führmann Henschell), also known as Carter Henschel, is an 1898 five-act naturalistic play by the German playwright Gerhart Hauptmann.
A Dreiherrenstein or Dreiherrnstein is the topographic name of a historical tripoint, especially in the German-speaking lands of central Europe, i.e. a place where the border of three princely territories met, together with any enclosures or border fortifications.
The Dresden–Werdau railway is an electrified, double-track main line in the German state of Saxony.
The Deutsche Reichsbahn-Gesellschaft (DRG) Class E 18 is a class of electric locomotives built in Germany and Austria between 1935 and 1955.
Dubislav Gneomar von Natzmer (1654– 20 April 1739) was a Prussian Generalfeldmarschall and a confidant of the House of Hohenzollern.
Dubliany (Дубляни; Dublany) is a city in Zhovkva Raion, Lviv Oblast (region) of Ukraine.
Duchess Maria Dorothea of Württemberg (Maria Dorothea Luise Wilhelmine Caroline; 1 November 1797 in Carlsruhe (now Pokój), Silesia – 30 March 1855 in Budapest, Hungary) was the daughter of Duke Louis of Württemberg (1756–1817) and Princess Henriette of Nassau-Weilburg (1780–1857).
The Duchies of Silesia were the more than twenty divisions of the region of Silesia formed between the 12th and 14th centuries by the breakup of the Duchy of Silesia, then part of the Kingdom of Poland.
The Duchy of Bohemia, also referred to as the Czech Duchy, (České knížectví) was a monarchy and a principality in Central Europe during the Early and High Middle Ages.
Duchy of Głubczyce (Hlubčické knížectví, Herzogtum Leobschütz, Księstwo Głubczyckie) was one of the duchies of Silesia.
The Duchy of Nysa (Księstwo Nyskie, Niské knížectví) or Duchy of Neisse (Herzogtum Neisse) was one of the duchies of Silesia with its capital at Nysa in Lower Silesia.
Duchy of Opole (Herzogtum Oppeln; Opolské knížectví) was one of the duchies of Silesia ruled by the Piast dynasty.
The Duchy of Pless (or the Duchy of Pszczyna,Julian Janczak, (An outline for the History of Cartography till the End of the 18th century), Opole: 1976, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw: Institute of History of Science, Education and Technology, 1993,. This contains sections in several European languages, including; Accessed 2008-13-01. ^ Tadeusz Walichnowski, (Przynaleznosc terytorialna archiwaliow Panstwa Polskiego w stosunkach miedzynarodowych), Polish Scientific Publishers, Warsaw, 1977. Polish State Archives. ^Nagel's Encyclopedia Guide, Poland by Nagel Publishers, 1989, 399 pages,. Accessed 2008-13-01. Herzogtum Pleß, Księstwo Pszczyńskie) was a Duchy of Silesia, with its capital at Pless (present-day Pszczyna, Poland).
The Duchy of Silesia (Księstwo śląskie, Herzogtum Schlesien) with its capital at Wrocław was a medieval duchy located in the historic Silesian region of Poland.
The Duchy of Teschen (Herzogtum Teschen), also Duchy of Cieszyn (Księstwo Cieszyńskie) or Duchy of Těšín (Těšínské knížectví, was one of the Duchies of Silesia centered on Cieszyn (Teschen) in Upper Silesia. It was split off the Silesian Duchy of Opole and Racibórz in 1281 during the feudal division of Poland and was ruled by Silesian dukes of the Piast dynasty from 1290 until the line became extinct with the death of Duchess Elizabeth Lucretia in 1653. The ducal lands initially comprised former Lesser Polish territories east of the Biała River, which in about 1315 again split off as the Polish Duchy of Oświęcim, while the remaining duchy became a fiefdom of the Bohemian kings in 1327 and was incorporated into the Lands of the Bohemian Crown by 1347. While the bulk of Silesia was conquered by the Prussian king Frederick the Great in the Silesian Wars of 1740–1763, Teschen together with the duchies of Troppau (Opava), Krnov and Nysa remained with the Habsburg Monarchy and merged into the Austrian Silesia crown land in 1849. The so-called "commander line" of the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty, a cadet branch descending from Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen, held the title "Duke of Teschen" until 1918.
A duke (male) or duchess (female) can either be a monarch ruling over a duchy or a member of royalty or nobility, historically of highest rank below the monarch.
The Duke of Silesia was the sons and descendants of the Polish Duke Bolesław III Wrymouth.
Duke Friedrich Paul Wilhelm of Württemberg (Friedrich Paul Wilhelm, Herzog von Württemberg; 25 June 1797, Bad Carlsruhe, Silesia, Kingdom of Prussia – 25 November 1860, Mergentheim, Kingdom of Württemberg) was a member of the House of Württemberg and a Duke of Württemberg.
Dukla is a town and an eponymous municipality in southeastern Poland, in the Subcarpathian Voivodeship.
Duncan Liddel (also Duncan Liddell; 1561 – 17 December 1613) was a Scottish mathematician, physician and astronomer.
The Duninowie also Łabędzie was a Polish knight family.
The Durham Light Infantry (DLI) was a light infantry regiment of the British Army in existence from 1881 to 1968.
Below is list of Dutch language exonyms for places in non-Dutch-speaking areas of Europe.
Dzierżoniów (Reichenbach im Eulengebirge; from 1945-1946 Rychbach, Drobniszew) is a town located at the foot of the Owl Mountains in southwestern Poland, within the Lower Silesian Voivodeship (from 1975–1998 in the former Wałbrzych Voivodeship).
The early life of Pope John Paul II covers the period in his life from his birth in 1920 to his ordination to the priesthood in 1946.
The early Slavs were a diverse group of tribal societies who lived during the Migration Period and Early Middle Ages (approximately the 5th to the 10th centuries) in Eastern Europe and established the foundations for the Slavic nations through the Slavic states of the High Middle Ages.
East Central German (Ostmitteldeutsche Dialekte) is the eastern, non-Franconian sub-group of Central German dialects, themselves part of High German.
East Upper Silesia (Ostoberschlesien) is a term denoting the easternmost extremity of Silesia, the eastern part of the Upper Silesian region around the city of Katowice (Kattowitz).
Easter Water is the name given to water used in rituals during the Easter Vigil in the Catholic Church.
The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.
Ebenezer is a locality in the northern Barossa Valley of South Australia.
Eberhard H. Gothein (29 October 1853 in Neumarkt – 13 November 1923 in Berlin) was a German Economist and Historian.
Eberhard König (Grünberg 18 June 1871 - Berlin 26 December 1949) was a Silesian German writer and dramatist.
Eberhard Mock is a fictional character in a series of novels by Marek Krajewski.
Eberhard von Brauchitsch (28 November 1926 – 7 September 2010) was a German industrial manager.
Werner self-portrait 1956 Fritz Eberhard Werner (8 August 1924 – 23 September 2002) was a German artist and landscapist.
Edgar Moron (born 28 August 1941) is a German politician for the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD).
Edmund Kalikst Eugeniusz Charaszkiewicz (Poniec, 14 October 1895 – 22 December 1975, London) was a Polish military intelligence officer who specialized in clandestine warfare.
Edmund Heines (21 July 1897 – 30 June 1934) was a Nazi Party leader and Ernst Röhm's deputy in the Sturmabteilung or SA.
Edmund Nick (Reichenberg –, Geretsried) was a German composer, conductor, and music writer.
Eduard Franck (5 October 1817 – 1 December 1893) was a German composer, pianist and music pedagogue.
Eduard Maria Oettinger (November 19, 1808 – June 26, 1872) was a German empire bibliographer.
Carl Eduard Adolph Petzold (14 January 1815 – August 1891) was a German landscape gardener.
Eduard Ernst Friedrich Hannibal Vogel von Fal(c)kenstein (5 January 1797 – 6 April 1885) was a Prussian General der Infanterie.
Education for Democracy Foundation (Fundacja Edukacja dla Demokracji) is a Polish foundation, launched in 1989, which operates as a public benefit organization.
Admiral Edward Boscawen, PC (19 August 1711 – 10 January 1761) was an Admiral in the Royal Navy and Member of Parliament for the borough of Truro, Cornwall.
Edward Gierek (6 January 1913 – 29 July 2001) was a Polish communist politician.
Father Egon Sendler (1 August 1923 – 17 March 2014) was a Roman Catholic priest of the Jesuit order and one of the world's foremost experts on the painting of Eastern Orthodox icons.
Eileen Mary "Didi" Nearne MBE, Croix de Guerre (15 March 1921Obituary in The Times 15 September 2010 – 2 September 2010 (date body found)) was a member of the UK's Special Operations Executive (SOE) during World War II.
Ein Feldlager in Schlesien (A Camp in Silesia) is a Singspiel in three acts by Giacomo Meyerbeer with a German-language libretto by Ludwig Rellstab after Eugène Scribe's Le camp de Silésie.
Einbeck is a town in the district Northeim, in southern Lower Saxony, Germany.
Eisenhammer Dorfchemnitz is an historic hammer mill in Dorfchemnitz in the Ore Mountains of Germany.
Parliamentary elections in the First Czechoslovak Republic were held in 1920, 1925, 1929 and 1935.
Elisa Bloch (1848, Breslau, Silesia - 1904 or 1905) was a Silesian-French sculptor.
Elisabeth Marie of Oels (11 May 1625 – 17 March 1686) was the last member of the House of Poděbrady and a regent of the Duchy of Oels.
Elisabeth of Wrocław (Polish: Elżbieta wrocławska) (c. 1232 – 16 January 1265), also known as Elisabeth of Poland, was a daughter of Henry II the Pious and his wife, Anna of Bohemia.
Elisabeth Volkenrath (née Mühlau; 5 September 1919 – 13 December 1945) was a German supervisor at several Nazi concentration camps during World War II.
Elizabeth of Carinthia (1298–1352) was an influential queen and royal family member in the Kingdom of Sicily, who lived and ruled in a tumultuous time.
Emanuel Grim (1 January 1883 – 18 October 1950) was a Polish Catholic priest, writer and journalist from the region of Cieszyn Silesia.
Emil Krebs (15 November 1867 in Freiburg in Schlesien – 31 March 1930 in Berlin) was a German polyglot and sinologist.
Emil Liebling (April 12, 1851 – January 20, 1914) was a German-American pianist and composer.
Emilie of Saxony (27 July 1516 – 9 April 1591) was the third wife of Margrave George the Pious of Brandenburg-Ansbach.
Schnitzer in 1875 Mehmed Emin Pasha (born Isaak Eduard Schnitzer, baptized Eduard Carl Oscar Theodor Schnitzer; March 28, 1840 – October 23, 1892) was an Ottoman physician of German Jewish origin, naturalist, and governor of the Egyptian province of Equatoria on the upper Nile.
An English exonym is a name in the English language for a place (a toponym), or occasionally other terms, which does not follow the local usage (the endonym).
Ephraim Shay (July 17, 1839 – April 19, 1916) was an American merchant, entrepreneur and self-taught railroad engineer who worked in the state of Michigan.
Ephraimiten were the inferior or fake coins in which part of the silver was replaced with copper.
Erich Löwenhardt (7 April 189710 August 1918) was the 3rd highest German flying ace with 54 victories during the First World War, behind only Manfred von Richthofen and Ernst Udet.
Erich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludendorff (9 April 1865 – 20 December 1937) was a German general, the victor of the Battle of Liège and the Battle of Tannenberg.
Erich Rudorffer (1 November 1917 – 8 April 2016) was a German Luftwaffe fighter ace who was one of a handful who served with the Luftwaffe through the whole of World War II.
Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski (1 March 1899 – 8 March 1972) was a high-ranking SS commander of Nazi Germany.
Erich von Manstein (24 November 1887 – 9 June 1973) was a German commander of the Wehrmacht, Nazi Germany's armed forces during the Second World War.
Erkner is a town in the Oder-Spree District of Brandenburg, Germany, situated on the south-eastern edge of the German capital city Berlin.
Erkrath is a town in the district of Mettmann, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
The Erla Ironworks (Eisenwerk Erla) has its origins in one of the oldest hammer mills in the Upper Ore Mountains, which was first recorded in 1380 as the Hammer in der Erl, making the ironworks the oldest existing business in the German state of Saxony.
Ernest of Opava (Ernst von Troppau; Arnošt Opavský; – 1464) was a member of the Opava branch of the Přemyslid dynasty.
Count Ernst Adalbert von Harrach (4 November 1598 – 25 October 1667) was an Austrian Catholic Cardinal who was appointed Archbishop of Prague and Prince-Bishop of Trento.
Ernst Christoph von Nassau, sometimes called Christoph Ernst, (1686 in Hartmannsdorf (Jaczków) near Glogau–19 November 1755 in Sagan) was a Prussian general lieutenant and knight of the Black Eagle Order.
Ernst Friedrich Glocker (1 May 1793 – 18 July 1858) was a German mineralogist, geologist and paleontologist.
Ernst Friedrich Gurlt (October 13, 1794 – August 13, 1882) was a German veterinarian and anatomist born in Drentkau near Grünberg, Silesia.
Ernst Friedrich Zwirner was an architect born at Jakobswalde in Silesia in 1802, he died at Cologne in 1861.
Baron Ernst Gideon von Laudon (German: Ernst Gideon Freiherr von Laudon (originally Laudohn or Loudon) (13 February 1717 – 14 July 1790) was an Austrian generalisimo, one of the most successful opponents of the Prussian king Frederick the Great, allegedly lauded by Alexander Suvorov as his teacher. He served the position of military governorship of Habsburg Serbia from his capture of Belgrade in 1789 until his death, cooperating with the resistance fighters of Koča Anđelković.
Ernst Hornig (25 August 1894 – 5 December 1976) was Germany "Praeses" and Bishop of the Evangelical Church of Silesia.
Ernst Melzer (September 21, 1835 – February 1, 1899) was a German educator and philosopher born in the Silesian village of Leifersdorf.
Ernst Ottwalt (13 November 1901 – 24 August 1943) was the pen name of German writer and playwright Ernst Gottwalt Nicolas.
Ernst Benjamin Salomo Raupach (May 21, 1784 – March 18, 1852) was a German dramatist.
Ernst Adolf Alfred Oskar Adalbert von Dobschütz (9 October 1870 – 20 May 1934) was a German theologian, textual critic, author of numerous books and professor at the University of Halle, the University of Breslau, and the University of Strasbourg.
Ernst Friedrich Wollweber (29 October 1898 – 3 May 1967) was Minister of State Security of the German Democratic Republic from 1953 to 1957.
Ernst Zinner (2 February 1886 in Goldberg, Silesia – 30 August 1970) was a German astronomer and noted historian of astronomy.
Ernst-Heinrich Schmauser (18 January 1890 – 10 February 1945) was a commander in the SS of Nazi Germany who was the Higher SS and Police Leader in Breslau during World War II.
Esaias Fleischer (c.1586 – 13 January 1663) was a Danish pharmacist.
Esaias Fleischer (25 October 1633 – 5 February 1697) was a Danish priest.
Esaias Reusner (the Younger) (29 April 1636 – 1 May 1679) was a German lutenist and composer.
The ethnic cleansing of Zamojszczyzna by Nazi Germany (Aktion Zamosc, also: Operation Himmlerstadt) during World War II was carried out as part of a greater plan of forcible removal of the entire Polish populations from targeted regions of occupied Poland in preparation for the state-sponsored settlement of the ethnic German Volksdeutsche.
The population of Post-World War II Poland became nearly completely ethnically homogeneous as a result of the German-Nazi Holocaust, the radically altered borders, and the deportations ordered by the Soviet authorities, who wished to remove the sizeable Polish minorities from the Baltics (Lithuania) and Eastern Europe (western Belarus and western Ukraine).
The Luft-Limousine or Luftlimousine, also known as Etrich VIII Luft-Limousine, was a single engine monoplane built by the Etrich company in Silesia in 1912.
Eugen Hirschfeld (22 January 1866 – 18 June 1946) was a medical practitioner, and member of the Queensland Legislative Council.
Police Major Eugen Seim (July 4, 1896, in Stuttgart – March 7, 1943, in Kiev) was a Nazi German officer during World War II, in charge of the Polizei-Battalion No.
Eugen von Keyserling (22 March 1833 in Pockroy, Lithuania – 4 April 1889 in Dzierżoniów, Silesia) was a Baltic-German arachnologist.
Eugene Spiro, born Eugen Spiro (April 18, 1874 in Breslau, Silesia – September 26, 1972 in New York City) was a German and American painter.
Eulengebirgsbahn AG was a Silesian railway company.
Euphemia of Greater Poland (Eufemia Odonicówna) (c. 1230 – 15 February after 1281), was a Polish princess member of the House of Piast from the Greater Poland branch and by marriage was Duchess of Kalisz, Wieluń and Opole-Racibórz.
The European Free Alliance Youth (EFAy) is the youth wing of the European Free Alliance European political party.
The evacuation of children in Germany during the World War II was designed to save children in Nazi Germany from the risks associated with the aerial bombing of cities, by moving them to areas thought to be less at risk.
The Evangelical Church Berlin-Brandenburg-Silesian Upper Lusatia (Evangelische Kirche Berlin-Brandenburg-schlesische Oberlausitz - EKBO) is a United Protestant church body in the German states of Brandenburg, Berlin and a part of Saxony (historical region of Silesian Upper Lusatia).
Evelin Gerda Lindner (born May 13, 1954, in Hameln, Germany) is a German-Norwegian medical doctor, psychologist, transdiciplinary scholar and author who is known for her theory of humiliation. Lindner is originally a physician and a clinical psychologist, and holds doctorates in both social medicine and social psychology. Her research focuses on human dignity, and she believes that the humiliation of honor and dignity may be among the strongest obstacles on the way to a decent world community. She founded the Human Dignity and Humiliation Studies network. Born in Germany, she is now mainly based in Norway, where she has partially lived since 1977. She has also lived in a number of other countries, including Egypt during most of the 1980s, and is an advocate of global citizenship.
Evelyn Fürstin Blücher von Wahlstatt (10 September 1876 – 20 January 1960), diarist and memoirist, wrote a standard account of life as a civilian aristocrat in Germany during World War I.
Ewald Stefan Pollok (born March 25, 1941 in Buchenhöh in Upper Silesia, Nazi Germany) doctor history, author of several books on the subject of Silesia.
The expulsion of Germans from Czechoslovakia after World War II was part of a series of evacuations and expulsions of Germans from Central and Eastern Europe during and after World War II.
The Expulsion of Poles by Germany was a prolonged anti-Polish campaign of ethnic cleansing by violent and terror-inspiring means lasting nearly half a century.
The Expulsion of Poles by Nazi Germany during World War II was a massive Nazi German operation consisting of the forced resettlement of over 1.7 million Poles from all territories of occupied Poland with the aim of their geopolitical Germanization (see Lebensraum) between 1939–1944.
Fabian Ludwig Georg Adolf Kurt von Schlabrendorff (1 July 1907 – 3 September 1980), was a German jurist, soldier, and member of the resistance against Adolf Hitler.
"Fairest Lord Jesus", also known as "Beautiful Savior", is a Christian hymn.
Fall Weiss ("Case White", "Plan White"; German spelling Fall Weiß) was the Nazi strategic plan for the invasion of Poland.
Fallschirm-Panzergrenadier-Division 2 "Hermann Göring" was formed on 24 September 1944 in the area of Radom.
Princess Franziska von Starhemberg (Franziska Fürstin von Starhemberg, also known as Fanny Starhemberg or Princess Fanny Starhemberg; 24 October 1875 - 27 April 1943), was an Austrian politician of the Christian Social Party.
Fürstenwalde station (Spree) is the station of the city of Fürstenwalde/Spree in the German state of Brandenburg.
FC Baník Ostrava is a football club from the Silesian part of the city of Ostrava, Czech Republic.
The Feast of Herod with the Beheading of St John the Baptist is an extremely large painting by the German-Silesian artist Bartholomeus Strobel the Younger (1591 – about 1650) which is now displayed in the Museo del Prado in Madrid.
Feel is a Polish band which was formed in Katowice (Upper Silesia) in 2005.
Felix Ivo Leicher (May 18 or 19, 1727 - February 20, 1812) was a Czech-born Viennese painter of altarpieces and secular works, which was spread to a wide area throughout the Habsburg Empire and beyond.
Felix Staroscik (20 May 1920 – 7 August 2009) was a Polish footballer who played as a winger for Third Lanark, Northampton Town and Bedford Town.
Fenenna of Kuyavia (also known as of Inowrocław; Fenenna kujawska or inowrocławska; ca. 1276–1295) was a Queen of Hungary by marriage to King Andrew III.
Ferdiš Duša (13 January 1888 in Frýdlant nad Ostravicí – 1958 ibidem) was a Czech folk painter, graphic artist, illustrator and manufacturer of ceramics, coming from the borderland between Moravia and Silesia.
Ferdinand Maxmilian Brokoff (Czech: Ferdinand Maxmilián Brokoff, 12 September 1688 - 8 March 1731) was a sculptor and carver of the Baroque era.
Major General Ferdinand Ernst Wilhelm August von Schmiedeberg (1778–1824) was a Prussian officer during the Napoleonic Wars.
Ferdinand I (Fernando I) (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1558, king of Bohemia and Hungary from 1526, and king of Croatia from 1527 until his death.
Ferdinand II (9 July 1578 – 15 February 1637), a member of the House of Habsburg, was Holy Roman Emperor (1619–1637), King of Bohemia (1617–1619, 1620–1637), and King of Hungary (1618–1637).
Ferdinand J. Joachimsthal was a German mathematician.
Ferdinand Ferdinandovich Morawitz (Фердинанд Фердинандович Моравиц, Ferdinand Carl Joseph Morawitz; 3 August 1827 in St. Petersburg – 5 December 1896 in St. Petersburg) was a Russian entomologist.
Ferdinand von Prondzynski (born 30 June 1954) is the Principal and Vice-Chancellor of The Robert Gordon University in Aberdeen, Scotland.
Ferdinand von Rayski (1806–1890) was a German painter noted for his portraits.
Carl Ferdinand von Roemer (5 January 1818 – 14 December 1891), German geologist, had originally been educated for the legal profession at Göttingen, but became interested in geology, and abandoning law in 1840, studied science at the University of Berlin, where he graduated Ph.D. in 1842.
The first Czechoslovak Republic (Czech / Československá republika) was the Czechoslovak state that existed from 1918 to 1938.
The Mongol Invasion of Poland from late 1240 to 1241 culminated in the battle of Legnica, where the Mongols defeated an alliance which included forces from fragmented Poland and their allies, led by Henry II the Pious, the Duke of Silesia.
The First Silesian War was a theatre of the War of the Austrian Succession.
The flag of the Duchy of Teschen was established in 2016 through the initiative of regional history enthusiasts in cooperation with the prominent Polish heraldic and vexologist Alfred Znamierowski.
During the later stages of World War II and the post-war period, German citizens and people of German ancestry fled or were expelled from various Eastern and Central European countries and sent to the remaining territory of Germany and Austria.
The flight and expulsion of Germans from Poland was the largest of a series of flights and expulsions of Germans in Europe during and after World War II.
Florian Baucke, also Florian Paucke, Florian Pauke, Florián Baucke (24 September 1719, Winzig (Wińsko), Silesia/Bohemian Royal Lands, (15261742) Habsburg Monarchy (Austria) 14 July 1779, Neuhaus (Jindřichův Hradec), Bohemia, Austria) was a Silesian and Bohemian Jesuit missionary, who recorded the native traditions of South America.
Foothills are geographically defined as gradual increase in elevation at the base of a mountain range, higher hill range or an upland area.
Forcade (de), also written Fourcade (de), Forcada (de), Forquade (de), Forquada (de), Forcade (de la), Fourcade (de la), Laforcade (de) and Lafourcade (de) belongs to the nobility of GuyenneChaix d'Est-Ange (1922), Tome 18, p. 310 and Gascony,Chaix d'Est-Ange (1922), Tome 18, p. 313 in France, and of the Kingdom of Prussia.
Liechtenstein's foreign economic policy has been dominated by its customs union with Switzerland (and with Austria-Hungary until World War I).
The former eastern territories of Germany (Ehemalige deutsche Ostgebiete) are those provinces or regions east of the current eastern border of Germany (the Oder–Neisse line) which were lost by Germany after World War I and then World War II.
The Fort de Tancrémont is a Belgian fortification located about south of Pepinster.
François Hotman (23 August 1524 – 12 February 1590) was a French Protestant lawyer and writer, associated with the legal humanists and with the monarchomaques, who struggled against absolute monarchy.
Francis I (Franz Stefan, François Étienne; 8 December 1708 – 18 August 1765) was Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany, though his wife effectively executed the real powers of those positions.
Francis Karl Alter (Franz Karl Alter) (1749–1804), a Jesuit, born in Silesia, and professor of Greek at Vienna, was an editor of the Greek text of the New Testament.
Franciscus Pahr (died 1580) was an Italian architect who worked in Silesia and Sweden from the 1550s.
Franciszek Pieczka (born 18 January 1928) is a Polish film and stage actor.
Franciszek Surma was a Polish fighter ace of the Polish Air Force in World War II with 5 confirmed kills.
Franciszek Zachara (b Tarnów, Austrian Poland (now Poland), 10 December 1898; d Tallahassee, Florida, 2 February 1966) was a Polish pianist and composer who concertized extensively throughout Europe in the years leading up to 1928.
The Franco-Austrian Alliance was a diplomatic and military alliance between France and Austria that was first established in 1756 following the First Treaty of Versailles which lasted for much of the remainder of the century until it was abandoned during the French Revolution.
Frank-Walter Steinmeier (born 5 January 1956) is a German politician serving as President of Germany since 19 March 2017.
Frankenberg may refer to.
Franz Josef Kallmann, MD (July 24, 1897 – May 12, 1965), a German-born American psychiatrist, was one of the pioneers in the study of the genetic basis of psychiatric disorders.
Franz Karl Achard (April 28, 1753 – April 20, 1821) was a German (Prussian) chemist, physicist and biologist.
Franz Moritz Graf von Lacy (English: Francis Maurice de Lacy, Russian: Boris Petrovich Lassi; 21 October 1725 – 24 November 1801), was the son of Count Peter von Lacy and was a famous Austrian field marshal.
Franz Peter Schubert (31 January 179719 November 1828) was an Austrian composer of the late Classical and early Romantic eras.
Count Franz von Oppersdorff (1778 - 1818) was a Silesian nobleman and a great lover of music, who commissioned Beethoven's Fourth and Fifth Symphonies.
Generalleutnant Franz Walz began his military career in the infantry in 1905.
Franz Xaver Gebauer (c1784 — 13 December 1822), born in Prussian Silesia, was an organist, composer of church music, and choirmaster and music director of the Augustinian Church, Vienna.
Franz Xaver Gebel (1787 – 3 May 1843) was a German composer, music teacher, and conductor.
Franz Xaver Ritter von Gietl (27 August 1803 – 19 March 1888) was a German physician.
Frédéric François Chopin (1 March 181017 October 1849) was a Polish composer and virtuoso pianist of the Romantic era who wrote primarily for solo piano.
Frédéric Maurice Casimir de La Tour d'Auvergne (Frédéric Maurice Casimir; 24 October 1702 – 1 October 1723) styled Prince of Turenne, was the eldest surviving son of Emmanuel Théodose de La Tour d'Auvergne (1668–1730).
Frederick of Cieszyn (Fryderyk cieszyński; b. 1480/83 - d. June 1507), was a Polish prince member of the House of Piast in the Cieszyn branch.
Frederick II (Friedrich; 24 January 171217 August 1786) was King of Prussia from 1740 until 1786, the longest reign of any Hohenzollern king.
Frederick V (Friedrich V.; 26 August 1596 – 29 November 1632) was the Elector Palatine of the Rhine in the Holy Roman Empire from 1610 to 1623, and served as King of Bohemia from 1619 to 1620.
Frederick, Prince of Hohenzollern (Friedrich Viktor Pius Alexander Leopold Karl Theodor Ferdinand Fürst von Hohenzollern) (30 August 1891 in Heiligendamm, Mecklenburg-Schwerin – 6 February 1965 in Krauchenwies, Baden-Württemberg, Germany) was the eldest son of William, Prince of Hohenzollern and Princess Maria Teresa of Bourbon-Two Sicilies.
The Fredro (plural: Fredrowie, feminine form: Fredrówna) was a Polish noble family originated from Silesia or Moravia.
Freimersheim is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Alzey-Worms district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
Below is a list of French language exonyms for places in non-French-speaking areas.
Countess Freya von Moltke (29 March 1911 – 1 January 2010) was a participant in the anti-Nazi resistance group, the Kreisau Circle, with her husband, Helmuth James Graf von Moltke.
Friedel Apelt (1 November 1902 - 12 December 2001) was a German political activist, trades union official and politician (KPD/SED).
Friedrich August Bouterwek (or Buterweck) was a German artist, who spent much of his life in Paris.
The Friedrich are the most ancient German-Bohemian glass-maker family.
Friedrich Günther, Prince of Schwarzburg (5 March 1901 – 9 November 1971) was the final head of the House of Schwarzburg and heir to the formerly sovereign principalities of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt and Schwarzburg-Sondershausen.
Friedrich Karl Hermann Kruse (21 July 1790 – 3 August 1866) was a German historian born in Oldenburg.
Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher (November 21, 1768 – February 12, 1834) was a German theologian, philosopher, and biblical scholar known for his attempt to reconcile the criticisms of the Enlightenment with traditional Protestant Christianity.
Frederick Sebastian Wunibald Truchsess von Waldburg, born 1677 – 4 July 1745, was a Prussian lieutenant general and diplomat for Frederick II of Prussia.
Friedrich Hermann Traugott Vogt (11 March 1851 in Greifswald – 28 October 1923 in Marburg) was a German philologist.
Friedrich Rudolf Ludwig Freiherr von Canitz (27 November 1654 – 11 August 1699) was a German poet and diplomat.
Friedrich von Logau (January 1605 – 24 July 1655) was a German poet and epigrammatist of the Baroque era.
Friedrich von Sallet (20 April 1812 – 21 February 1843) was a German writer, most notable for his political and religion-critiquing poems.
Friedrich Wilhelm Ferdinand Ernst Heinrich von Forcade de Biaix,Schlesische Provinzialblätter, Nov.
Friedrich Wilhelm Leopold Konstantin Quirin Freiherr von Forcade de Biaix, aka Friedrich Wilhelm Leopold Konstantin Quirin von Forcade de Biaix,Zedlitz-Neukirch, Band 4, Page 391 Blažek, Part 3, pp.
Friedrich Wilhelm Leopold Pfeil (28 March 1783, in Rammelburg – 4 September 1859, in Warmbrunn) was a German forester.
Friedrich Wilhelm Quirin von Forcade de Biaix,Lange, Page 91 Lehmann, Band 1, Page 34, Nr.
Friedrich Wilhelm Schirrmacher (28 April 1824 in Danzig – 19 June 1904 in Rostock) was a German historian.
Friedrich Wilhelm von Götzen (the younger; 1767-1820) was a Prussian general.
Friedrich Wilhelm von Reden (23 March 1752 – 3 July 1815) was a German pioneer in mining and metallurgy.
Friedrich Wilhelm Freiherr von Seydlitz (3 February 1721 – 8 November 1773) was a Prussian officer, lieutenant general, and among the greatest of the Prussian cavalry generals.
Fritz Erler (15 December 1868 – 11 December 1940) was a German painter, graphic designer and scenic designer.
Fritz Katz (born in 1898 in near Hindenburg, Prussian Silesia; died in 1969 in Athens) was a pioneer in organ transplant techniques, performing one of the first successful grafts of adrenal glands.
Karl Friedrich "Fritz" Zubeil (born 11 January 1848 in Leśniów Wielki, District Grünberg in Silesia; died 27 December 1926 in Berlin) was a German politician (SPD; USPD).
Fritz-Dietlof Graf von der Schulenburg (5 September 1902 – 10 August 1944) was a German government official and a member of the German Resistance in the 20 July Plot against Adolf Hitler.
Fugger is a German family that was a historically prominent group of European bankers, members of the fifteenth- and sixteenth-century mercantile patriciate of Augsburg, international mercantile bankers, and venture capitalists.
The Funnel(-neck-)beaker culture, in short TRB or TBK (German: Trichter(-rand-)becherkultur, Dutch: Trechterbekercultuur; c. 4300 BC–c. 2800 BC) was an archaeological culture in north-central Europe.
The Gabriel Śląsk (Silesia) was a Polish light aircraft designed and built by an amateur in the mid-1930s.
Gabriel Bethlen (Bethlen Gábor; 15 November 1580 – 25 November 1629) was Prince of Transylvania from 1613 to 1629 and Duke of Opole from 1622 to 1625.
Gaffron Castle is an old castle in Lower Silesian Voivodeship, Poland.
Gaffron is the name of a noble family - classified as Uradel (German for 'ancient nobility') - from Silesia.
Galeria Awangarda, 32 Wita Stwosza St, is Wrocław's and Silesia's premier gallery of the avant-garde.
Galicia (Ukrainian and Галичина, Halyčyna; Galicja; Czech and Halič; Galizien; Galícia/Kaliz/Gácsország/Halics; Galiția/Halici; Галиция, Galicija; גאַליציע Galitsiye) is a historical and geographic region in Central Europe once a small Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia and later a crown land of Austria-Hungary, the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, that straddled the modern-day border between Poland and Ukraine.
A Ganerbenburg is a castle occupied and managed by several families or family lines at the same time.
Gatja Helgart Rothe (also known as G.H. Rothe; (née Helgart Riedel) (March 15, 1935–August 3, 2007), was a German-American artist known for her printmaking, especially mezzotint. She was also a draftswoman and painter. After living and working in Europe, she briefly traveled through South America before moving to New York City in the 1970s and later, California. Her commercial success was primarily based on mezzotints and paintings commissioned and handled by galleries, dealers, and private collectors in the United States, Europe and Japan.
The Gauliga Schlesien was the highest football league in the region of Silesia (German:Schlesien), which consisted of the Prussian provinces of Lower Silesia and Upper Silesia from 1933 to 1945.
The Gawron class (rook) or Projekt 621 was a planned class of multipurpose corvettes ordered by Polish Navy.
Görlitz (Upper Lusatian dialect: Gerlz, Gerltz, and Gerltsch, Zgorzelec, Zhorjelc, Zgórjelc, Zhořelec) is a town in the German federal state of Saxony.
Görlitz (Landkreis Görlitz; Upper Sorbian: Wokrjes Zhorjelc; Zemský okres Zhorelec) is a district (Kreis) in the Free State of Saxony, Germany.
The Görlitz–Dresden railway is a two-track main line railway in the German state of Saxony, originally built and operated by the Saxon-Silesian Railway Company.
Götz Draeger (born 31 July 1944), sometimes incorrectly referred to as Dräger, is a German rower.
Günter Blobel (May 21, 1936 – February 18, 2018) was a Silesian German and American biologist and 1999 Nobel Prize laureate in Physiology for the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell.
Günter Rittner (born 11 March 1927, in Breslau, Silesia, Germany) is a German painter and illustrator.
Günther Blumentritt (10 February 1892 – 12 October 1967) was an officer in World War I, who became a Staff Officer under the Weimar Republic and went on to serve as a general for Nazi Germany during World War II.
Günther Rittau (born 7 August 1893 in Königshütte (Silesia); died 6 August 1971 in München) was a German camera operator and film director.
Freiherr Günther Hubertus von Reibnitz (8 September 1894 – 2 March 1983) was a cavalry officer of the German Empire during the First World War.
The Gąsawa massacre (Zbrodnia gąsawska, literally "the Gąsawa crime") was a 1227 attack on a meeting of Polish Piast dukes which was being held near the village of Gąsawa in Kujawy, Poland.
Gęsiniec (Husinec before 1763; Hussinetz 1763–1937; Friedrichstein 1937–1945) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Strzelin, within Strzelin County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
Głogów Małopolski is a town in Rzeszów County, Subcarpathian Voivodeship, Poland.
Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher, Fürst von Wahlstatt (16 December 1742 – 12 September 1819), Graf (count), later elevated to Fürst (sovereign prince) von Wahlstatt, was a Prussian Generalfeldmarschall (field marshal).
The General Government (Generalgouvernement, Generalne Gubernatorstwo, Генеральна губернія), also referred to as the General Governorate, was a German zone of occupation established after the joint invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in 1939 at the onset of World War II.
The General Jewish Labour Bund in Poland (אַלגעמײַנער ײדישער אַרבעטער בּונד אין פוילין tr: Algemeyner yidisher arbeter bund in poyln, Ogólno-Żydowski Związek Robotniczy "Bund" w Polsce) was a Jewish socialist party in Poland which promoted the political, cultural and social autonomy of Jewish workers, sought to combat antisemitism and was generally opposed to Zionism.
Geographical renaming is the changing of the name of a geographical feature or area.
Poland is a country in Central Europe with an area of 312,679 square kilometres (120,726 sq. mi.), and mostly temperate climate.
Georg Bartisch (1535–1607) was a German physician who was a native of Königsbrück, Saxonia.
Johannes Georg Bednorz (born May 16, 1950) is a German physicist who, together with K. Alex Müller, discovered high-temperature superconductivity in ceramics, for which they shared the 1987 Nobel Prize in Physics.
Georg Bochmann (18 September 1913 – 8 June 1973) was a high-ranking commander in the Waffen-SS who commanded the SS Division Götz von Berlichingen and the SS Division Horst Wessel.
Georg Feigl (13 October 1890 – 20 April 1945) was a German mathematician.
Georg Gärtner (December 18, 1920 – January 30, 2013), last name also spelled Gaertner, was a German soldier of World War II who escaped from a prisoner of war camp in the United States, took on a new identity as Dennis F. Whiles, and was never recaptured, though he did reveal his true identity some 40 years later.
Georg Gebel (25 October 1709 – 24 September 1753) was a German musician and composer.
Georg Gustav Fülleborn (2 March 1769 – 6 February 1803) was a German philosopher, philologist and miscellaneous writer.
Georg Hans Emmo Wolfgang Hieronymus (1846–1921) was a European botanist of German extraction.
Georg Händel (Halle, Archbishopric of Magdeburg, 24 September 1622 – Halle, Duchy of Magdeburg, 11 February 1697) was a barber-surgeon and the father of Georg Frideric Handel.
Georg Ludwig of Puttkamer (11 April 1715 in Versin – 12 August 1759 at Kunersdorf) was a Prussian major general and squire of Pawonków and Pietrowice in Upper Silesia; he came from the Pomeranian noble family of Puttkamer.
Count Georg Friedrich Armand von der Decken (5 October 1836 in Braunschweig - 19 August 1898 in Salzgitter-Ringelheim) was owner of Castle Ringelheim and a member of the German Reichstag.
George Abraham von Dyhrn, 1st Baron of Dyhrn (1620–1671), was an Austrian Chancellor in the province of Silesia, politician and a landowner in the Habsburg monarchy.
The Rt. Hon. George Charles, Baron de Dyhern (10 April 1710 – 25 April 1759), was a Saxon general, war minister under the regency of Augustus III. of Saxony, king of Poland and a close friend of Field Marshal Count Frederick Augustus Rutowsky.
George Frideric (or Frederick) Handel (born italic; 23 February 1685 (O.S.) – 14 April 1759) was a German, later British, Baroque composer who spent the bulk of his career in London, becoming well-known for his operas, oratorios, anthems, and organ concertos.
Sir Isidor George Henschel (18 February 185010 September 1934) was a German-born British baritone, pianist, conductor, and composer.
George William (Georg Wilhelm), also known as George IV William; Jerzy IV Wilhelm; 29 September 1660 – 21 November 1675) was the last Silesian duke of Legnica and Brzeg from 1672 until his death. He was the last male member of the Silesian Piast dynasty descending from Władysław II the Exile (1105–1159).
Karl Rudolf Gerd von Rundstedt (12 December 1875 – 24 February 1953) was a Field Marshal in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II.
Gerhard Bersu (26 September 1889 – 19 November 1964) was a German archaeologist who excavated widely across Europe.
Gerhard Georg Bernhard Ritter (6 April 1888, Bad Sooden-Allendorf – 1 July 1967, Freiburg) was a nationalist-conservative German historian, who served as a professor of history at the University of Freiburg from 1925 to 1956.
Gerhard Wagner (18 August 1888 in Neu-Heiduk, Prussian Silesia, now in Poland – 25 March 1939 in Munich) was the first Reich Doctors' Leader (Reichsärzteführer) in the time of Nazi Germany.
German art has a long and distinguished tradition in the visual arts, from the earliest known work of figurative art to its current output of contemporary art.
German Brazilians (German: Deutschbrasilianer, Riograndenser Hunsrückisch: Deitschbrasiliooner, teuto-brasileiros) refers to Brazilian people of ethnic German ancestry or origin.
The German Catholics (Deutschkatholiken) were a schismatic sect formed in December 1844 by German dissidents from the Roman Catholic Church, under the leadership of Johannes Ronge.
German Christian Social People's Party (Deutsche Christlich-Soziale Volkspartei, DCVP, Německá křesťansko sociální strana lidová) was an ethnic German political party in Czechoslovakia, formed as a continuation from the Austrian Christian Social Party.
The German Confederation (Deutscher Bund) was an association of 39 German-speaking states in Central Europe, created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to coordinate the economies of separate German-speaking countries and to replace the former Holy Roman Empire, which had been dissolved in 1806.
German diaspora (Deutschstämmige; also, under National Socialism: Volksdeutsche) are ethnic Germans and their descendants living outside Germany.
The German Emperor (Deutscher Kaiser) was the official title of the head of state and hereditary ruler of the German Empire.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
The German evacuation from Central and Eastern Europe ahead of the Red Army advance in World War II was delayed until the last moment.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
German Minority (Mniejszość Niemiecka, Deutsche Minderheit) are representatives of the German minority in Poland in the Sejm, or the lower house of Polish parliament.
The registered German minority in Poland at the 2011 national census consisted of 148,000 people, of whom 64,000 declared both German and Polish ethnicities and 45,000 solely German ethnicity.
The occupation of Latvia by Nazi Germany was completed on July 10, 1941 by Germany's armed forces.
This article details the order of battle of German army units invading Poland in 1939.
German Radio Intelligence Operation during World War II were signals intelligence operations that were undertaken by German Axis forces in Europe during World War II.
The German reunification (Deutsche Wiedervereinigung) was the process in 1990 in which the German Democratic Republic (GDR, colloquially East Germany; German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik/DDR) became part of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, colloquially West Germany; German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland/BRD) to form the reunited nation of Germany, and when Berlin reunited into a single city, as provided by its then Grundgesetz (constitution) Article 23.
The German Revolution or November Revolution (Novemberrevolution) was a civil conflict in the German Empire at the end of the First World War that resulted in the replacement of the German federal constitutional monarchy with a democratic parliamentary republic that later became known as the Weimar Republic.
The German Socialist Labour Party of Poland (Deutsche Sozialistische Arbeitspartei Polens, abbreviated DSAP, Niemiecka Socjalistyczna Partia Pracy w Polsce) was a political party organizing German Social Democrats in interbellum Poland.
The German–Polish War which took place from 1002 to 1018 consisted of a series of struggles between the Ottonian king Henry II of Germany (Holy Roman Emperor from 1014) and the Polish Piast ruler Bolesław I the Brave.
Germania Slavica, a historiographic term used since the 1950s, denotes the medieval contact zone between Germans and Slavs in Central Europe.
Germanisation (also spelled Germanization) is the spread of the German language, people and culture or policies which introduced these changes.
After partitioning Poland in the end of 18th century, the Kingdom of Prussia and later German Empire imposed a number of Germanisation policies and measures in the newly gained territories, aimed at limiting the Polish ethnic presence in these areas.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
The Germans of Yugoslavia (Jugoslawiendeutsche, njemački/nemački Jugoslaveni, њемачки/немачки Југословени) are people of German descent who live in Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, or Slovenia.
The German-speaking states in the early modern period (1500–1800) were divided politically and religiously.
German–Polish relations have a long and complicated history.
Gero von Schulze-Gaevernitz (27 September 1901 in Freiburg, Germany – 6 April 1970 in Canary Islands) was a German economist.
Gerti Deutsch (also known as Gertrude Helene Deutsch and Gertrude Hopkinson) (1908-1979) was an Austrian-born British photographer.
Gertrude Guillaume-Schack (9 November 1845 – 20 May 1903) was a women's rights activist who pioneered the fight against state-regulated prostitution in Germany, where she was born.
The Gessler company is an Austrian company that produces liqueur such as "Altvater" as well as Monopolowa vodka.
Marie-Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette (6 September 1757 – 20 May 1834), in the United States often known simply as Lafayette, was a French aristocrat and military officer who fought in the American Revolutionary War.
The House of Giorgi (in the sources also De Giorgi, Georgio, Zorzi, or, during late Renaissance also Latinized as de Georgiis; later in Croatian also Žurgović, more recently Đurđević) is a princely and ruling dynasty and one of the most prestigious noble families of the Republic of Ragusa that first began to gather prominence in Rome and the Republic of Venice.
Giovanni Battista di Quadro (Polish Jan Baptysta Quadro, Latin Joannes Baptista Quadro) (died between 10 April 1590 and 16 January 1591) was an Italian renaissance architect, one of the most famous architects in Central Europe in his epoque.
Giselle (French: Giselle, ou les Wilis) is a romantic ballet in two acts.
Giulio Cromer or Croma or Cremer (1572-1632) was a German-Italian painter of the Mannerist period, active for many years in Ferrara, Italy.
The Global Greens is an international network of Green parties and political movements that works to implement the Global Greens Charter.
Gmina Herby is a rural gmina (municipality) in Lubliniec County, Silesian Voivodeship, in southern Poland.
Gmina Jemielnica, German Gemeinde Himmelwitz is a rural gmina (administrative district) in Strzelce County, Opole Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
Gniezno (Gnesen) is a city in central-western Poland, about east of Poznań, with about 70,000 inhabitants.
A golden bull or chrysobull was a decree issued by Byzantine Emperors and later by monarchs in Europe during the Middle Ages and Renaissance, most notably by the Holy Roman Emperors.
The Pałac Goldsteinów or Goldstein Palace is neo-renaissance palace, which was built by two brothers, Abraham and Joseph Goldstein.
The Gotini (in Tacitus), who are generally equated to the Cotini in other sources, were a Gaulish tribe living during Roman times in the mountains approximately near the modern borders of the Czech Republic, Poland (Silesia), and Slovakia.
Gottfried Heinrich Stölzel (13 January 1690 in – 27 November 1749 in Gotha) was a prolific German baroque composer.
Gottfried Kirch (Kirche, Kirkius) (December 18, 1639 – July 25, 1710) was a German astronomer and the first 'Astronomer Royal' in Berlin and, as such, director of the nascent Berlin Observatory.
Gottfried, Freiherr van Swieten (October 29, 1733 – March 29, 1803) was a Dutch-born Austrian diplomat, librarian, and government official who served the Austrian Empire during the 18th century.
Gottlieb Sigmund Gruner (1717–1778), cartographer and geologist, was the author of the first connected attempt to describe in detail the snowy mountains of Switzerland.
The Government Delegation for Poland (Delegatura Rządu Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej na Kraj) was an agency of the Polish Government in Exile during World War II.
Grafschaft Abbey (Kloster Grafschaft) is a community of the Sisters of Mercy of Saint Charles Borromeo, formerly a Benedictine monastery, in Schmallenberg-Grafschaft in the Sauerland, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich of Russia (Russian: Николай Николаевич Романов (младший – the younger); 18 November 1856 – 5 January 1929) was a Russian general in World War I. A grandson of Nicholas I of Russia, he was commander in chief of the Russian armies on the main front in the first year of the war, and was later a successful commander-in-chief in the Caucasus.
"Gray Ranks" (Szare Szeregi) was a codename for the underground paramilitary Polish Scouting Association (Związek Harcerstwa Polskiego) during World War II.
Great Britain was one of the major participants in the Seven Years' War which lasted between 1754 and 1763.
Great Moravia (Regnum Marahensium; Μεγάλη Μοραβία, Megálī Moravía; Velká Morava; Veľká Morava; Wielkie Morawy), the Great Moravian Empire, or simply Moravia, was the first major state that was predominantly West Slavic to emerge in the area of Central Europe, chiefly on what is now the territory of the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland (including Silesia), and Hungary.
During the Great Northern War (1700–1721), many towns and areas of the Circum-Baltic and East-Central Europe suffered from a severe outbreak of the plague with a peak from 1708 to 1712.
The Greater Poland uprising of 1848 or Poznań Uprising (powstanie wielkopolskie 1848 roku or powstanie poznańskie) was an unsuccessful military insurrection of Poles against Prussian forces, during the Spring of Nations period.
The Greater Poland uprising of 1918–1919, or Wielkopolska uprising of 1918–1919 (Polish: powstanie wielkopolskie 1918–19 roku; Großpolnischer Aufstand) or Posnanian War was a military insurrection of Poles in the Greater Poland region (German: Grand Duchy of Poznań or Provinz Posen) against German rule.
Below is a list of modern-day Greek language exonyms for mostly European places outside of Greece and Cyprus.
not to be confused with Slovak Green Party The Green Party (Strana zelených, SZ), until January 2006 called Green Party in Slovakia (Strana zelených na Slovensku), is an environmentalist political party in Slovakia without parliamentary representation.
Greifenstein is a community in the Lahn-Dill-Kreis in Hesse, Germany.
Grigory Karpovich Kotoshikhin (Григорий Карпович Котошихин) (c. 1630 – November 1667) was a Russian diplomat, podyachy of the Posolsky Prikaz, and writer.
Grobhäusern is a historical German vying game in which players bet and then compare their 4-card combinations.
Grodziec Castle (German: Gröditzburg or Gröditzberg) has a history dating back to 1155 and is located in the Silesia region of Poland.
Grunwald Bridge (Most Grunwaldzki) is a suspension bridge over the river Oder in Wrocław, Poland, built between 1908 and 1910.
Gryf (Polish for "Griffin") is a Polish coat of arms that was used by many noble families in medieval Poland and later under the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, branches of the original medieval Gryfita-Świebodzic family as well as families connected with the Clan by adoption at ennoblement or even by error.
Grzędy (Konradswaldau) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Czarny Bór, within Wałbrzych County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
Grzegorz Gerwazy Gorczycki (ca. 1665 to 1667 – 30 April 1734) was a Polish Baroque composer.
Guido Georg Friedrich Erdmann Heinrich Adalbert Graf Henckel von Donnersmarck, from 1901 Prince (Fürst) Henckel von Donnersmarck (born 10 August 1830 in Breslau, died 19 December 1916 in Berlin) was a German nobleman, industrial magnate, member of the House Henckel von Donnersmarck and one of the richest men of his time.
The Guido mine, Zabytkowa Kopalnia Węgla Kamiennego is a historic deep coal mine and museum in Zabrze, Silesia, Poland.
Gundakar of Liechtenstein (30 January 1580 – 5 August 1658) (Prince from 1623) was a member of the House of Liechtenstein and as such the owner of a large estate.
Gustav Abb (February 23, 1886 in Berlin – April 28, 1945) was a German librarian and Nazi.
Gustav Eduard Becker (May 2, 1819 in Oels, Silesia - September 17, 1885 in Berchtesgaden) was a German clockmaker and founder of the brand Gustav Becker.
Karl Hermann Gustav Müller (May 7, 1851–July 7, 1925) was a German astronomer.
Gustav Niessl von Mayendorf (26 April 1839 in Verona – 1 September 1919 in Hütteldorf, Vienna; often cited as G. von Niessl), was an Austrian astronomer and mycologist.
Gustav Schnürer (June 30, 1860 – December 14, 1941) was a German-Swiss historian born in the Silesian village of Jätzdorf.
Gustav von Myrdacz (born 12 July 1874 in Vienna; died 11 July 1945 in Tirana) was an Austrian noble who was instrumental in organising the Royal Albanian Army from the early 1920s to 1945.
Gustav von Schönberg (21 July 1839 in Stettin – 3 January 1908) was a German economist.
Gustav Wilhelm Körber (10 January 1817, Hirschberg – 27 January 1885, Breslau) was a German lichenologist.
Gustavus Sidenberg (22 May 1843 – 22 January 1915) was a Jewish-American manufacturer and financier best known for building New York City's Hotel Theresa, which has become a New York City landmark on the National Register of Historic Places.
Gustavus Ferdinand von Tempsky (15 February 1828 – 7 September 1868) was a Prussian adventurer, artist, newspaper correspondent and soldier in New Zealand, Australia, California, Mexico and the Mosquito Coast of Central America.
Gustaw Herman Marcin Gizewiusz, or Gustav Gisevius (born May 21, 1810 in Pisz (Johannisburg), died May 7, 1848 in Ostróda (Osterode)) was a Polish political figure, folklorist, and translator.
Gustaw Morcinek (born Augustyn Morcinek; 24 August 1891 in Karviná, Austria-Hungary – 20 December 1963 in Kraków, Poland) was a Polish writer, educator and later member of Sejm from 1952 to 1957.
In common parlance, "guttural R" is the phenomenon whereby a rhotic consonant (an "R-like" sound) is produced in the back of the vocal tract (usually with the uvula) rather than in the front portion thereof and thus as a guttural consonant.
Guzów is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Wiskitki, within Żyrardów County, Masovian Voivodeship, in east-central Poland.
Gwardia Ludowa (People’s Guard) or GL was a communist underground armed organization created by the communist Polish Workers Party in German occupied Poland, with sponsorship from the Soviet Union.
Gwiazdka Cieszyńska ("Cieszyn Star") was a weekly Polish magazine published in Cieszyn (Teschen), Silesia in 1851-1939.
György Klapka, also known in German as Georg Klapka (7 April 182017 May 1892) was a Hungarian soldier.
The Habsburg Monarchy (Habsburgermonarchie) or Empire is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.
The Halle–Cottbus railway is a 176 km long double-track electrified main line in the German states of Saxony-Anhalt, Saxony and Brandenburg.
The Hanover-Altenbeken Railway Company (Hannover-Altenbekener Eisenbahn-Gesellschaft, HAE) was among the companies of the German "railway king" Bethel Henry Strousberg.
Hans Ernst Arnold Felix Bütow (28 December 1894 – 9 May 1974) was a German admiral during World War II.
Hans Caspar von Krockow (23 August 1700 – 25 February 1759) was a Prussian major general and commander of the Cuirassier Regiment No.
Hans Erasmus Aßmann, Freiherr von Abschatz (4 February 1646 – 22 April 1699) was a German statesman and poet from the second Silesian school.
Hans Ernst von Kottwitz (1 September 1757 – 13 May 1843) was a German Pietist and philanthropist.
Hans Jürgen Eysenck, PhD, DSc (4 March 1916 – 4 September 1997) was a German-born English psychologist who spent his professional career in Great Britain.
Johann or Hans Georg von Arnim-Boitzenburg (1583 Boitzenburger Land28 April 1641 Dresden) was a German general.
Hans Hacker (March 4, 1910 – December 27, 1994) was a ceramic decal designer and painter.
Hans Hanke (Johannes Reinhold Hanke) (13 March 1912 – 13 August 1981) was an SS-Obersturmbannführer (lieutenant colonel) in the Waffen SS during World War II.
Hans Heinrich XV von Hochberg (Polish: Jan Henryk XV, 23 April 1861 – 31 January 1938) was Prince of Pless (Pszczyna), Count von Hochberg and Baron of Fürstenstein (Książ).
Hans Joachim Iwand (11 July 1899 in Pisary, Poland – 2 May 1960 in Bonn) was a German Lutheran theologian.
Hans Jacoby (1904–1963) was a German screenwriter and art director.
Hans Jürgen Rösler (14 May 1920 – 12 January 2009) was a German Mineralogy professor.
Hans Joachim von Zieten, sometimes spelled Johann Joachim von Ziethen, (14 May 1699 – 26 January 1786), also known as Zieten aus dem Busch, was a cavalry general in the Prussian Army.
Hans Kloss (born 12 July 1938) is a German artist and graphic designer.
Hans Krüger (29 May 1898 in Lübeck – 27 March 1988 in Niefern-Öschelbronn) was a pharmacist, anthroposophist, botanist, lecturer and researcher.
Hans Marr (1878–1949) was a German actor.
Hans Merensky (16 March 1871 in Botshabelo – 21 October 1952 on his farm Westfalia near Duiwelskloof) was a South African geologist, prospector, scientist, conservationist and philanthropist.
Hans Peter Bimler (December 10, 1916 – June 28, 2003) was an American orthodontist who was known for developing the Bimler appliance.
Hans Schimpf (1890 – 10 April 1935 in Breslau) was a German Navy, (Kriegsmarine) officer and intelligence officer during World War II.
Hans Seger (August 28, 1864 in Neurode, Silesia – August 15, 1943 in Breslau) was a German prehistorian.
Hans Sigismund von Lestwitz (19 June 1718 – 16 February 1788) was a Prussian major general of the infantry and was especially honored by Frederick II for his action in the Battle of Torgau.
Hans Ulrich von Schaffgotsch (28 August 1595 – 24 July 1635) was a Silesian nobleman and Generalfeldwachtmeister who fought in the Silesian front of the Thirty Years' War.
Ludwig Friedrich Victor Hans, Count von Bülow (14 July 1774, Essenrode, near Brunswick – 11 August 1825, Bad Landeck, Silesia) was a Westphalian and Prussian statesman.
Hans-Georg von der Marwitz (7 August 1893 – 12 May 1925) was a German World War I flying ace credited with 15 aerial victories.
Hans-Joachim Caesar (17 May 1905 – after 1980) was a German lawyer and banking official, working for the German Reichsbank from 1931 until the end of World War II.
Hans Krause, known by his stage name Hansi Kraus (born 26 June 1952 in Gliwice, Silesia, Poland), is a German actor.
Harlequin Valentine is a bloody and romantic short story (1999) and graphic novel (2001) based on the old Commedia dell'arte and Harlequinade pantomime.
Harmony Hall, located in Fort Washington, Maryland, is managed by the United States National Park Service as part of the National Capital Parks-East system.
Harrachov (Harrachsdorf) is a town in Semily District, Liberec Region, in the northern Czech Republic, close to the border with Poland.
Hartmut Weiß (born 13 January 1942) is a retired German football player.
Hartwig von Ludwiger was a German general in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II.
HASAG (also known as Hugo Schneider AG, or by its original name in Hugo Schneider Aktiengesellschaft Metallwarenfabrik) was a German metal goods manufacturer founded in 1863.
Hauskyjza (Silesian: home cheese from the German Hauskäse) - a foodstuff made of cottage cheese, carum and other ingredients, which are mixed, put aside for a few days to acquire the characteristic sharp flavor, scent and tacky consistency, and then warmed and fried.
Höxter is a town in eastern North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany on the left bank of the river Weser, 52 km north of Kassel in the centre of the Weser Uplands.
The heavy warmbloods (Schwere Warmblüter) are a group of horse breeds primarily from continental Europe.
The Hedwig Codex, also known as the Codex of Lubin (Kodeks lubiński), – info from the exhibition "7 Wonders of Wrocław and Lower Silesia" (2016) is a medieval illuminated manuscript from the mid-14th century which through its sixty-one coloured drawings and inscriptions in "comics' style" tells the life story of saint Hedwig of Silesia, spouse of the Silesian Piast duke Henry the Bearded, her family and events related to her canonization (1267). This art piece, a fine example of Central European Gothic art, is valued especially for its depictions of the Tartar invasion of Europe (Silesia).
Hedwig glasses or Hedwig beakers are a type of glass beaker originating in the Middle East or Norman Sicily and dating from the 10th-12th centuries AD.
Hedwig Grossman Lehmann (1902–1995) was a German-born Israeli artist.
Hedwig of Munsterberg-Oels (Hedvika Minstrberská; 10/12 June 1508, Oleśnica – 28 November 1531, Legnica) was born Duchess of Münsterberg and Oleśnica and Countess of Kladsko and by marriage Margravine of Brandenburg-Ansbach-Kulmbach.
Hedwig of Sagan (Jadwiga żagańska; before 1350 – 27 March 1390) was Queen of Poland as the fourth wife of Casimir III.
Saint Hedwig of Silesia (Święta Jadwiga Śląska), also Saint Hedwig of Andechs (Heilige Hedwig von Andechs, Hedvigis; 1174 – 15 October 1243), a member of the Bavarian comital House of Andechs, was Duchess of Silesia from 1201 and of Greater Poland from 1231 as well as High Duchess consort of Poland from 1232 until 1238.
Heimann Hariton Tiktin (August 9, 1850 – March 13, 1936), born Heimann Tiktin, was a Silesian-born Romanian Jewish linguist and academic, one of the founders of modern Romanian linguistics.
Heineken International is a group which owns a worldwide portfolio of over 170 beer brands, mainly pale lager, though some other beer styles are produced.
Heinrich Emanuel Grabowski; also Henryk Grabowski (11 July 1792 – 1 October 1842) was a German botanist and pharmacist of Polish heritage.
Heinrich Feisthauer (14 September 1898 – 11 November 1964) was an opponent of the Nazi regime and survivor of Sachsenhausen concentration camp of Silesian origin.
(25 July 1800 – 18 May 1884) was a German botanist and paleontologist.
Heinrich Graetz (31 October 1817 – 7 September 1891) was amongst the first historians to write a comprehensive history of the Jewish people from a Jewish perspective.
Heinrich Gross, writing also as Henri Gross (born Szenicz, Hungarian Kingdom, now Senica, Slovakia, November 6, 1835; died 1910), was a German rabbi.
Henry IX Reuss, Count of Köstritz (15 September 1711 in Köstritz – 16 September 1780 in Berlin) Count Reuss had to Köstritz.
Heinrich Laehr (10 March 1820 – 18 August 1905) was a German psychiatrist born in Sagan, Silesia.
Heinrich Lichner (6 March 18297 January 1898) was a prolific German composer, best known today for his teaching pieces - simple piano works written for students.
Heinrich Scholz (1812, Breslau - 1859) was a German entomologist who specialised in Hemiptera and Diptera.
Heinrich Donatien Wilhelm Schulz-Beuthen (19 June 1838 in Beuthen, Upper Silesia (now Bytom, in Poland) - 12 March 1915 in Dresden) was a composer of the high Romantic era.
Heinrich Windelen (25 June 1921 – 16 February 2015) was a German politician of the Christian Democratic Union.
Heinrich Rudolf Wullschlägel (February 1, 1805, Sarepta, Saratov Governorate, Russian Empire (now part of Volgograd) – March 29, 1864, Berthelsdorf, Germany) was born in the Moravian Colony of Sarepta in Russia and was a Dutch-German bishop, botanist and translator.
Johann Karl Heinrich Wuttke (12 February 1818 – 14 June 1876, Leipzig) was a German historian and politician.
Heinz Starke (27 February 1911 – 31 January 2001) was a German politician.
Heinz Wozniakowski (24 December 1924 in Breslau, Silesia – 1963) was a German football player.
Helen Serger was a gallerist and dealer of modern art, in particular early 20th C. European avant-garde art.
Helen Zelezny, also known in Europe as Helene Zelezny-Scholz, Helen Scholz or Helene Scholzová-Železná (16 August 1882 – 18 February 1974), was a Czech born sculptor and architectural sculptor.
Helena Dorothea von Schönberg (1729-1799), was a German business person.
Helena Rosa Wright (17 September 1887 – 21 March 1982) was an English pioneer and influential figure in birth control and family planning both in Britain and internationally.
Helga Kohl is a photographer born in Poland and based in Namibia whose work explores abandoned diamond mine towns in Namibia.
Helga Molander (born as Ruth Werner; 19 March 1896 in Königshütte, Silesia, Germany (present-day Chorzów, Silesian Voivodeship, Poland) – 1986), was a German actress and mother of Hans Eysenck.
The Helisii were one of the tribal states of the Lugii, a Germanic tribe.
Hellmuth Karasek (4 January 1934 – 29 September 2015) was a German journalist, literary critic, novelist and the author of many books on literature and film.
Helmut Kirchberg (31 January 1906 – 23 May 1983) was a German Mining scientist.
Helmuth Brückner (7 May 1896 - 12 January 1951) was a Gauleiter of the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP) from 1925 until 1934.
Helmuth Raithel (9 April 190712 September 1990) was a German officer who held the rank of SS-Standartenführer (colonel) in the Waffen-SS during World War II.
The Helveconae, or Helvaeonae, or Helvecones, or Aelvaeones, or Ailouaiones were a Germanic tribe mentioned by Roman authors.
Henning Eichberg (1 December 1942 in Schweidnitz, Silesia – 22 April 2017 in Odense, Danemark) was a German sociologist and historian, teaching at the University of Southern Denmark in Odense.
Heinrich "Henri" Skiba (born 14 July 1927) is a former French football player of German origin who played for France national football team; he was then manager in Switzerland and France.
Henry II (Heinrich II; Enrico II) (6 May 973 – 13 July 1024), also known as Saint Henry, Obl. S. B., was Holy Roman Emperor ("Romanorum Imperator") from 1014 until his death in 1024 and the last member of the Ottonian dynasty of Emperors as he had no children.
Henry III (28 October 1016 – 5 October 1056), called the Black or the Pious, was a member of the Salian Dynasty of Holy Roman Emperors.
Henry III, called Henry the Illustrious (Heinrich der Erlauchte) (c. 1215 – 15 February 1288) from the House of Wettin was Margrave of Meissen and last Margrave of Lusatia (as Henry IV) from 1221 until his death; from 1242 also Landgrave of Thuringia.
Henry the Younger of Poděbrady (also: Henry the Younger of Münsterberg; Heinrich der Jüngere von Podiebrad or Heinrich d. J. von Münsterberg; Hynek Poděbrady or Hynek z Minstrberka; 18 May 1452, Prague – 1 July 1492, Poděbrady) was an Imperial Count and Count of Glatz.
Henry V (III) of Iron (Henryk V Żelazny; – after 8 April 1369), was a Duke of Żagań since 1342, from 1349 Duke of half-Głogów, and from 1363 Duke of half-Ścinawa.
Henry VIII of Legnica (Henryk VIII legnicki) (ca. 1355 – 12 December 1398) was a Duke of Legnica since 1364 (nominally and together with his brothers) and Bishop of Włocławek since 1389 until his death.
Henry Wenceslaus, Duke of Oels-Bernstadt (also known as: Henry Wenceslaus of Poděbrady, Henry Wenceslaus of Bernstadt or Henry Wenceslaus of Münsterberg, Heinrich Wenzel von Oels und Bernstadt, Heinrich Wenzel von Podiebrad, or Heinrich Wenzel von Münsterberg, Hynek Václav z Minstrberka or Jindřich Václav Minsterberský; 7 October 1592, probably in Oleśnica – 21 August 1639, probably in Bernstadt) was Duke of Bernstadt from 1617 until his death.
Henry XI of Głogów (Henryk XI Głogowski) (ca. 1435 – 22 February 1476) was a Duke of Głogów (including half of Głogów, Szprotawa, Krosno Odrzańskie, Świebodzin, Kożuchów and Zielona Góra) and Lubin since 1467.
Henryk Marcin Broder (born 20 August 1946, self-designation Henryk Modest Broder) is a Polish-born German journalist, author and TV personality.
Henryk Antoni Flame (or Flamme, nom de guerre "Grot" or "Bartek"; January 19, 1918 – December 1, 1947) was a corporal and pilot in the Polish Air Force, and a captain of the anti-Nazi, and anti-Communist resistance organization NSZ.
Henryk Mikołaj Górecki (English pronunciation Go-RET-ski; December 6, 1933 – November 12, 2010) was a Polish composer of contemporary classical music.
Henryk Kietlicz (1150 – March 22, 1219) was Archbishop of Gniezno from 1199 to 1219 was the main architect of the changes that allowed the Polish church to gain independence from the secular authorities.
Henry of Wierzbna also known as Henry of Wierzbnej or Heinrich von Würben was a Bishop of Wrocław in Poland from 1302-1319AD.
Henryk Zieliński (22 September 1920 in Szembruczek near Grudziądz - 6 March 1981 in Wrocław) was a Polish historian and professor at the University of Wrocław.
Henschke is a family-owned, -year-old Australian winery, located in Keyneton, South Australia in the Eden Valley wine region.
Herbert A.E. Böhme (7 September 1897 – 29 June 1984) was a German film and television actor.
Herbert Giersch (11 May 1921 – 22 July 2010) was a German economist.
Herbert Hupka (August 15, 1915 – August 24, 2006) was a German-Jewish journalist, politician (SPD and later the CDU), and advocate for the Germans expelled from neighbouring countries after the Second World War.
Herbert Franz Mataré (22 September 1912 – 2 September 2011) was a German physicist.
Georg Herbert Mehlhorn (24 March 1903 – 30 October 1968) was an SS Oberführer, Nazi legal expert, and Gestapo official.
Eduard Willy Kurt Herbert von Dirksen (2 April 1882 – 19 December 1955) was a German diplomat who is best remembered as the last German Ambassador to Britain before World War II.
Herman Diamand (March 30, 1860 in Lviv – February 26, 1931 in Lviv) was a Polish lawyer and socialist politician, Member of the Imperial Council in Vienna, where he held XI and XII terms; during the Second Polish Republic he was a Member of Parliament of the Legislative, and for the first and second Sejm.
Hermann Aron (1 October 1845 – 29 August 1913) was a German researcher of electrical engineering.
Hermann Eberhard (27 February 1852 in Ohlau, Silesia – 30 May 1908) was a 19th-century German explorer credited with western discovery of considerable lands in Patagonia, Chile.
Hermann Gustav Louis Ende (4 March 1829 – 10 August 1907) was a German architect noted for his work in Germany, Japan and elsewhere.
Hermann Flade (22 May 1932 – 15 May 1980) was a German political scientist.
Hermann Ottomar Friedrich Goedsche (12 February 1815 – 8 November 1878), also known as his pseudonym Sir John Retcliffe, was a German writer who was remembered primarily for his anti-Semitism.
Hermann Kuno Julius Kranold (also Hermann Kranold-Steinhaus) (1888, Hannover - 1942, Talladega, Alabama) was a German political writer active in the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD).
Hermann L. Lüning (5 November 1814 – 12 August 1874), was a German philologist, known for his edition of the Poetic Edda (1859), which Jacob Grimm's letter to Lüning praised as "the first important gift Germany has brought to Iceland." It was also the principal edition that Benjamin Thorpe consulted for his English translation of the Edda (1866).
Hermann Raster (May 6, 1827 – July 24, 1891) was a German American Forty-Eighter, editor, abolitionist, and politician best known for his career as chief editor for the Illinois Staats-Zeitung between 1867 and 1891 and his brief term as Collector of Internal Revenue for the 1st District of Illinois.
Hermann Stehr (16 February 1864 – 11 September 1940) was a German novelist, dramatist and poet.
Carl Theodor Hermann Steudner (1 September 1832 – 10 April 1863) was a botanist and an explorer of Africa.
Hermann Julius Theodor Hettner (March 12, 1821 – May 29, 1882), was a German literary historian and museum director.
Hermann Traube (September 24, 1860 – January 29, 1913) was a German mineralogist born in Ratibor, Silesia (presently Racibórz, Poland).
Prince Hermann von Hatzfeldt (4 February 1848 – 14 January 1930) was a German nobleman, member of the House of Hatzfeld, civil servant and politician.
Hermann Wassertrilling, or Hebrew: Ẓebi-Hirsch ben Nathan Wassertrilling, (Zwi-)Hirsch Wassertrilling (born in Boskowitz, Moravia) was an Austrian Hebraist who flourished in the 19th century.
Herta Geffke (married name, Herta Kaasch: 19 August 1893 - 29 December 1974) was a German activist and politician (KPD, SED) who resisted Nazism.
Jerome or Hieronymos was the early medieval Bishop of Wrocław, Poland from 1046-1062.
Hieronymus Vietor (ca. 1480, Liebenthal (now Lubomierz) Silesia – late 1546 or early 1547, Kraków)Tyszkowska, Bogusława:, 2009.
The High Middle Ages, or High Medieval Period, was the period of European history that commenced around 1000 AD and lasted until around 1250 AD.
High Prussian (Hochpreußisch) is the group of East Central German dialects in former East Prussia, in present-day Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, Poland.
Himmel und Erde (Heaven/Sky and earth; in the Rhineland: Himmel un Ääd) is a traditional German dish most popular in the regions of the Rhineland, Westphalia and Lower Saxony.
Hirsch von Pomischel (Pomyschl, Pomichal, Pomykal, Pomeiske) is the name of a noble family historically active in the Kingdom of Bohemia.
The Historic Silver Mine, (Zabytkowa Kopalnia Srebra), is a mining museum in Tarnowskie Góry, in Silesia in Poland.
The history of Austria covers the history of Austria and its predecessor states, from the early Stone Age to the present state.
Bielsko-Biała is a city in southern Poland created after the merging of two closely situated cities, Bielsko and Biała, in 1951.
The history of Christianity in the Czech Lands began in the 9th century.
The history of coal mining goes back thousands of years.
The Czechoslovak First Republic emerged from the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in October 1918.
The construction of domes in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries relied primarily on empirical techniques and oral traditions rather than the architectural treatises of the times, which avoided practical details.
History of Eastern Germany may refer to.
Gdańsk (or;; Kashubian: Gduńsk; Danzig) is one of the oldest cities in Poland.
The presence of German-speaking populations in Central and Eastern Europe is rooted in centuries of history, with the settling in northeastern Europe of Germanic peoples predating even the founding of the Roman Empire.
The German minority in Russia, Ukraine and the Soviet Union was created from several sources and in several waves.
The concept of Germany as a distinct region in central Europe can be traced to Roman commander Julius Caesar, who referred to the unconquered area east of the Rhine as Germania, thus distinguishing it from Gaul (France), which he had conquered.
As a consequence of the defeat of Nazi Germany in World War II, Germany was cut between the two global blocs in the East and West, a period known as the division of Germany.
The history of glass-making can be traced back to 3500 BC Asia in Mesopotamia.
The today's city of Katowice in Poland started as a conglomerate of a number of small farming and industrial village communities from the 13th century.
Political identity came to the territory now occupied by the Principality of Liechtenstein in 814, with the formation of the subcountry of Lower Rhætia.
Lutheranism as a religious movement originated in the early 16th century Holy Roman Empire as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church.
The history of Moravia, one of the Czech lands, is diverse and characterized by many periods of foreign governance.
The history of philosophy in Poland parallels the evolution of philosophy in Europe in general.
The history of Poland has its roots in the migrations of Slavs, who established permanent settlements in the Polish lands during the Early Middle Ages.
The History of interwar Poland comprises the period from the re-recreation of the independent Polish state in 1918, until the joint Invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in 1939 at the onset of World War II.
The history of Poland from 1939 to 1945 encompasses primarily the period from the Invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany to the end of World War II.
The rule of the Jagiellonian dynasty in Poland between 1386 and 1572 spans the late Middle Ages and early Modern Era in European history.
The period of rule by the Piast dynasty between the 10th and 14th centuries is the first major stage of the history of the Polish nation.
The early modern era of Polish history follows the late Middle Ages.
In this time period Polish history covering roughly a millennium, from the 5th century, the way through to the 16th century.
The Polish language is a West Slavic language, and thus descends from Proto-Slavic, and more distantly from Proto-Indo-European.
Poznań, today Poland's fifth largest city, is also one of the country's oldest cities, and was an important political and religious center in the early Polish state of the 10th century.
The history of Prague covers more than a thousand years, during which time the city grew from the Vyšehrad Castle to the capital of a modern European state, the Czech Republic.
The history of printing in Poland began in the late 15th century, when following the creation of the Gutenberg Bible in 1455, printers from Western Europe spread the new craft abroad.
Protestantism originated from work of several theologians starting in the 12th century, although there could have been earlier cases of which there is no surviving evidence.
The history of rail transport in Poland dates back to the first half of the 19th century when railways were built under Prussian, Russian, and Austrian rule.
In the second half of the 2nd millennium B.C. (late Bronze Age) Silesia belonged to the Lusatian culture.
This article discusses the history of the territory of Slovakia.
The history of Solidarity (Solidarność, pronounced), a Polish non-governmental trade union, began on 14 August 1980, at the Lenin Shipyards (now Gdańsk Shipyards) at its founding by Lech Wałęsa and others.
Sugar is a common part of human life.
Teschen, one of the oldest towns in Silesia, has had a Slav population (Golensizi tribe) since at least the 7th century.
The history of the Czech lands in the High Middle Ages encompasses the period from the rule of Vladislav II (c.1110–1174 AD) to that of Henry of Bohemia (c.1265–1335).
The history of the Germans in Poland dates back over a millennium.
The history of the Jews in Austria probably begins with the exodus of Jews from Judea under Roman occupation.
The Jews in Belarus were the third largest ethnic group in the country in the first half of the 20th century.
Jewish settlers founded the Ashkenazi Jewish community in the Early (5th to 10th centuries CE) and High Middle Ages (circa 1000–1299 CE).
The history of the Jews in Lithuania spans the period from the 8th century to the present day.
The history of the Jews in Poland dates back over 1,000 years.
The history of the Jews in Poland before the 18th century covers the period of Jewish-Polish history from its origins, roughly until the political and socio-economic circumstances leading to the dismemberment of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in the second half of the 18th century by the neighbouring empires (see also: Partitions of Poland).
The Czech lands, then also known as Lands of the Bohemian Crown, were largely subject to the Habsburgs from the end of the Thirty Years' War in 1648 until the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867.
The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 established the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary (also known as the Austro-Hungarian Empire).
This article covers the period from the Moravian Church's origin in the early fourteenth century to the beginning of mission work in 1732.
History of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569–1648) covers a period in the history of Poland and Lithuania, before their joint state was subjected to devastating wars in the middle of the 17th century.
History of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1648–1764) covers a period in the history of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, from the time their joint state became the theater of wars and invasions fought on a great scale in the middle of the 17th century, to the time just before the election of Stanisław August Poniatowski, the last king of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The History of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1764–1795) is concerned with the final decades of existence of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The history of trade unions in Poland started in 1869.
Wrocław (Vratislav, Breslau) has long been the largest and culturally dominant city in Silesia, and is today the capital of Poland's Lower Silesian Voivodeship.
Hlučín Region (Hlučínsko (familiarly Prajzsko), Hultschiner Ländchen, Kraik hulczyński) is a historically significant part of Czech Silesia, today a part of the Moravian-Silesian Region in the Czech Republic, named after its largest town Hlučín.
Holger Walter (born September 26, 1968 in Lauffen am Neckar) is a German sculptor based in Karlsruhe and Berlin.
Holocaust trains were railway transports run by the Deutsche Reichsbahn national railway system under the strict supervision of the German Nazis and their allies, for the purpose of forcible deportation of the Jews, as well as other victims of the Holocaust, to the German Nazi concentration, forced labour, and extermination camps.
Holtzendorff or von Holtzendorff can refer to.
The Holy Cross Mountains Brigade (Brygada Świętokrzyska) was a tactical unit of the National Armed Forces (Narodowe Siły Zbrojne, NSZ), one of the Polish underground military organizations during World War II.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
The Home Army (Armia Krajowa;, abbreviated AK) was the dominant Polish resistance movement in Poland, occupied by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, during World War II.
Honoré Théodore Maxime Gazan de la Peyrière (October 29, 1765 – April 9, 1845) was a French general who fought in the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars.
Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana, syn. Cochlearia armoracia) is a perennial plant of the family Brassicaceae (which also includes mustard, wasabi, broccoli, and cabbage).
Horst Werner Buchholz (4 December 1933 – 3 March 2003) was a German actor who appeared in more than sixty feature films from 1951 to 2002.
Horst Weigang (born 30 September 1940) is a German former footballer.
Dyhrn is a German noble family originally from Saxony.
The House of Habsburg (traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe.
The House of Hohenzollern is a dynasty of former princes, electors, kings and emperors of Hohenzollern, Brandenburg, Prussia, the German Empire, and Romania.
The House of Liechtenstein, from which the principality takes its name, is the family which reigns by constitutional, hereditary right over the nation of Liechtenstein.
The House of Vasa (Vasaätten, Wazowie, Vaza) was an early modern royal house founded in 1523 in Sweden, ruling Sweden 1523–1654, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth 1587–1668, and the Tsardom of Russia 1610–1613 (titular until 1634).
Willie Howard (April 13, 1883 – January 14, 1949) and Eugene Howard (July 7, 1880 – August 1, 1965), billed as the Howard Brothers, were Silesian-born American vaudeville performers of the first half of the 20th century.
Hubert Janitschek (30 October 1846 – 21 June 1893) was an Austrian-German art historian.
Hubert Schmundt (19 September 1888 – 17 October 1984) was a German admiral during World War II.
Hubertus Hoffmann is a German entrepreneur, geostrategist and philanthropist as Founder and President of the World Security Network Foundation and The Human Codes of Tolerance and Respect Project.
Hugo Ulrich (26 November 1827 – 23 March 1872) was a German Romantic composer, music educator and arranger.
Hugon Hanke (26 March 1904 – 19 December 1964) was a Polish politician, best known for being a 38th Prime Minister of Poland and 8th Prime Minister of the Republic of Poland in Exile (in 1955) and for his unexpected return to the Communist-ruled country while serving as PM.
The Hunyadi family was one of the most powerful noble families in the Kingdom of Hungary during the 15th century.
The Hussite Trilogy is a historical fantasy by the Polish author Andrzej Sapkowski.
The Hussite Wars, also called the Bohemian Wars or the Hussite Revolution, were fought between the heretical Catholic Hussites and the combined Catholic orthodox forces of Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, the Papacy and various European monarchs loyal to the Catholic Church, as well as among various Hussite factions themselves.
The Hussites (Husité or Kališníci; "Chalice People") were a pre-Protestant Christian movement that followed the teachings of Czech reformer Jan Hus, who became the best known representative of the Bohemian Reformation.
Hutschenreuther is the name of the family that established the production of porcelain in Northern Bavaria, starting in 1814.
Hyacinth Graf Strachwitz von Groß-Zauche und Camminetz (30 July 1893 – 25 April 1968) was a German Army officer of aristocratic descent.
Saint Hyacinth, O.P., (Święty Jacek or Jacek Odrowąż) (b. ca. 1185 in Kamień Śląski (Ger. Groß Stein) near Opole (Ger. Oppeln), Upper Silesia – d. 15 August 1257, in Kraków, Poland of natural causes) was a priest that worked to reform women's monasteries in his native Poland.
Hydrotherapy, formerly called hydropathy and also called water cure, is a part of alternative medicine, in particular of naturopathy, occupational therapy and physiotherapy, that involves the use of water for pain relief and treatment.
Hynek Krušina of Lichtenburg (also: Henry Kruschina of Lichtenburg, in Hynek Krušina IV.; 1392 – 4 March 1454, Kłodzko (Kladsko, Glatz)) was a Hussite commander and governor and lien holders of the County of Kladsko, the Duchy of Münsterberg and the city of Ząbkowice Śląskie (Frankenstein).
The Ice pigeon (Polish: Lazurek; German: Eistaube) is a breed of fancy pigeon developed over many years of selective breeding.
Ida Bothe was an artist and educator in the 19th century.
Ignacy Ewaryst Daszyński (Zbaraż, 26 October 1866 – 31 October 1936, Bystra Śląska) was a Polish socialist politician, journalist, and very briefly Prime Minister of the Second Polish Republic's first government, formed in Lublin in 1918.
Ignaz Aurelius Fessler, aka Feßler (Fessler Ignác Aurél; May 18, 1756 – December 15, 1839) was a Hungarian ecclesiastic, politician, historian and freemason.
Ignaz Wechselmann (1828, Nikolai, Prussian Silesia – January 17, 1903, Budapest) was a Hungarian architect and philanthropist.
Ill Bethisad is an ongoing, collaborative alternate history project which currently has over 70 participants, originally created by Andrew Smith from New Zealand It was initiated in 1997 as the Brithenig Project.
Ilse Kokula (born January 13, 1944) is a German educator, author and LGBT activist in the field of lesbian life.
Ilse Korseck (1911–1933) was a German stage and film actress.
Imielin is a small town in Silesia in southern Poland, near Katowice.
Immigration to Chile has contributed to the demographics and the history of this South American nation.
Germany is the second most popular migration destination in the world, after the United States.
The imperial election of 1742 was an imperial election held to select the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.
The imperial election of 1745 was an imperial election held to select the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.
Indo-Polish relations refers to the bilateral relations between Republic of Poland and the Republic of India.
ING Bank Śląski S.A. (ING BSK) is a Polish bank based in Katowice.
Ingeborg Euler (6 September 1927 - 20 March 2005 began her public career as a cabaret artiste and author. After the early death of her husband, the campaigning "Auschwitz journalist" Thomas Gnielka, she herself became more widely known as a German television journalist.
The Institutes of Agriculture of Bydgoszcz are a complex of historic buildings belonging today to city public administration, focused since their erection to teaching and research.
The idea of organizing the first international music competition in the Czech Republic emerged in 1946.
The Invasion of Poland, known in Poland as the September Campaign (Kampania wrześniowa) or the 1939 Defensive War (Wojna obronna 1939 roku), and in Germany as the Poland Campaign (Polenfeldzug) or Fall Weiss ("Case White"), was a joint invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, the Free City of Danzig, and a small Slovak contingent that marked the beginning of World War II.
Iris Von Arnim (born 25 January 1945 in Berbisdorf (Dziwiszów), Silesia, today Poland) is an internationally acclaimed German fashion designer.
Isaac Kramnick (born 1938) is an American historian, social scientist and the Richard J. Schwartz Professor of Government at Cornell University.
Isabella Jagiellon (Izabella királyné; Izabela Jagiellonka; 18 January 1519 – 15 September 1559) was the oldest child of Polish King Sigismund I the Old and his Italian wife Bona Sforza.
Archpriest Isidor Barndt (1816–1891), a poet and world traveler from Neisse, Germany, a town in the former state of Silesia, now Nysa, Poland, promoted reunionism and wrote about similarities in faiths in order to overcome splits between Protestants and Catholics in late 19th-century Germany.
Israel Isserlin (ישראל איסרלן; Israel Isserlein ben Petachia; 1390 in Maribor, Duchy of Styria – 1460 in Wiener Neustadt, Lower Austria) was a Talmudist, and Halakhist, best known for his Terumat HaDeshen, which served as one source for HaMapah, the component of the Shulkhan Arukh by Moses Isserles.
Below is list of Italian language exonyms for places in non-Italian-speaking areas of Europe: In recent years, the use of Italian exonyms for lesser known places has significantly decreased, in favour of the foreign toponym.
Italo Alighiero Chiusano (10 June 1926 – 15 February 1995) was an Italian independent writer, literary critic, Germanist, literary historian, essayist, author of dramas, and journalist.
Ius indigenatus (Latin for "right of local birth") is a right which was from the 15th to the 18th century a requirement for people to hold office in Prussia.
Ivan Stepanovich Konev (Ива́н Степа́нович Ко́нев; – 21 May 1973) was a Soviet military commander who led Red Army forces on the Eastern Front during World War II, retook much of Eastern Europe from occupation by the Axis Powers, and helped in the capture of Germany's capital, Berlin.
Ivo Žídek (4 June 1926 – 19 May 2003) was a Czech lyric tenor, known for his vivid portrayals of character roles in the operas of Smetana, Dvořák and Janáček.
Izera railway (Kolej Izerska, Zackenbahn) is a line connecting the Polish town of Jelenia Góra (Hirschberg) with Szklarska Poręba (Schreiberhau).
Jablunkov Pass (Czech:, Polish) is a mountain pass in the Beskids, located in the elevation of 553 m above sea level, in the Czech Republic, near the border with Poland and Slovakia.
Jack Harrison (18 December 1912 – 4 June 2010) was a Scottish educator, military pilot, and prisoner of war during World War II.
Jakob (or Jacob in English) Hutter (also Huter or Hueter) (c. 1500 – 25 February 1536), was a Tyrolean Anabaptist leader and founder of the Hutterites.
Jacobus Gallus Carniolus (a.k.a. Jacob(us) Handl, Jacob(us) Händl, Jacob(us) Gallus; Jakob Petelin Kranjski) (3 July 1550 – 18 July 1591) was a late-Renaissance composer of SloveneSkei/Pokorn, Grove online ethnicity.
The Jaffe reaction is a colorimetric method used in clinical chemistry to determine creatinine levels in blood and urine.
Jagdgeschwader 77 (JG 77) Herz As ("Ace of Hearts") was a Luftwaffe fighter wing during World War II.
The Jagiellonian dynasty was a royal dynasty, founded by Jogaila (the Grand Duke of Lithuania, who in 1386 was baptized as Władysław, married Queen regnant (also styled "King") Jadwiga of Poland, and was crowned King of Poland as Władysław II Jagiełło. The dynasty reigned in several Central European countries between the 14th and 16th centuries. Members of the dynasty were Kings of Poland (1386–1572), Grand Dukes of Lithuania (1377–1392 and 1440–1572), Kings of Hungary (1440–1444 and 1490–1526), and Kings of Bohemia (1471–1526). The personal union between the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (converted in 1569 with the Treaty of Lublin into the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth) is the reason for the common appellation "Poland–Lithuania" in discussions about the area from the Late Middle Ages onward. One Jagiellonian briefly ruled both Poland and Hungary (1440–44), and two others ruled both Bohemia and Hungary (1490–1526) and then continued in the distaff line as a branch of the House of Habsburg. The Polish "Golden Age", the period of the reigns of Sigismund I and Sigismund II, the last two Jagiellonian kings, or more generally the 16th century, is most often identified with the rise of the culture of Polish Renaissance. The cultural flowering had its material base in the prosperity of the elites, both the landed nobility and urban patriciate at such centers as Kraków and Gdańsk.
Jakob Christmann (born November 1554 in Johannisberg (Rheingau), Geisenheim – 16 June 1613 in Heidelberg) was a German Orientalist who also studied problems of astronomy.
Jakob Ernst von Liechtenstein-Kastelkorn (born February 14, 1690 in Hertwigswalde at Kamenz in Silesia, died June 12, 1747 in Salzburg) was Bishop of Seckau, Bishop of Olmütz and Prince-Archbishop of Salzburg.
Jakub Świnka (died 4 March 1314) was a Polish Catholic priest, the Archbishop of Gniezno and a notable politician, supporter of the idea of unification of all Polish lands under the rule of Władysław I the Elbow-high ("the Short").
Jakub Egit (27 September 1908 – 1996) was a Polish Jewish leader.
Jakub Wujek (1541 – 27 April 1597) son of Maciej Wujek; a Polish Jesuit, religious writer, Doctor of Theology, Vice-Chancellor of the Vilnius Academy and translator of the Bible into Polish.
James Butler (fl. 1631–1634) was an Irish military adventurer, one of the many members of the Irish house of Butler who, in the seventeenth century, gained reputation as soldiers.
Sir James Rose Innes, PC (8 January 1855 – 16 January 1942) was the Chief Justice of South Africa from 1914 to 1927 and, in the view of many, its greatest ever judge.
Jan Brzoza, real name Józef Worobiec or Józef Wyrobiec (December 10, 1900, Lviv – November 17, 1971, Myszków) was a Polish writer, publicist, radio-host, communist activist, one of the founders of the proletarian literature in Poland.
Jan Chryzostom Redler, also Johann Chrysostomus Redler, (18th century) was a Polish sculptor.
Jan Długosz (1 December 1415 – 19 May 1480), also known as Ioannes, Joannes, or Johannes Longinus or Dlugossius, was a Polish priest, chronicler, diplomat, soldier, and secretary to Bishop Zbigniew Oleśnicki of Kraków.
Jan Fethke (26 February 1903 – 16 December 1980) was a German-Polish film director and, under the pen name Jean Forge, a successful author.
Jan Jesenius (also written as Jessenius, Johannes Jessenius, Jeszenszky János, Ján Jesenský; December 27, 1566 – June 21, 1621) was a Bohemian physician, politician and philosopher.
Jan Jiří Heinsch or Heintsch (Johann Georg Heinsch; c. 1647 – September 9, 1712) was a Czech-German Baroque style painter.
Jan Kryštof Liška (Johann Christoph Lischka; c. 1650 – August 23, 1712) was a Czech Baroque painter.
Jan Muskata (1250 – 7 February 1320) was bishop of Kraków from 1294 to 1309.
Saint Jan Sarkander (Czech and Polish: Jan Sarkander) (20 December 1576 – 17 March 1620) was a Polish-Czech Roman Catholic priest.
Jan Sawka (December 10, 1946 – August 9, 2012) was a Polish-born American artist and architect.
Jan Sobczynski – Polish painter, born to Polish immigrants on 14 June 1918 in New York City, USA, died 27 May 2007, Warsaw, Poland.
Jan Tomasz Adamus (born 16 June 1968) is a Polish conductor, organist, chamber musician, recording artist and music administrator.
Janów Lubelski is a town in eastern Poland.
Janowiec (German: Johnsbach) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Bardo, within Ząbkowice Śląskie County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
Jaromír (died 4 November 1035), a member of the Přemyslid dynasty, was Duke of Bohemia, in 1003, from 1004 to 1012, and again from 1034 to 1035.
Jarosław (Ярослав, יאַרעסלאָוו Yareslov, Jaroslau) is a town in south-eastern Poland, with 38,970 inhabitants, as of 30 June 2014.
Jastrzębiec is a Polish coat of arms.
Javorník or Javorník u Jeseníku or Javorník ve Slezsku, (Jauernig), is a town in the Jeseník District of the Olomouc Region, Javorník Hook, Czech Republic.
Jaworzno is a city in southern Poland, near Katowice.
Jánský vrch (Schloß Johannesberg) is a castle located in the Jeseník District, which lies in the Olomouc Region of the Czech Republic.
Józef Andrzej Gierowski (1922-2006) was a Polish historian, professor and rector of the Jagiellonian University.
Józef Arkusz (March 18, 1921 – June 19, 1995) was a Polish film director and producer of over 70 educational films.
Józef Biniszkiewicz (1875, Czempiń – July 9, 1940, Buchenwald) was a Silesian socialist politician.
Józef Antoni Franciszek Elsner (sometimes Józef Ksawery Elsner; baptismal name, Joseph Anton Franz Elsner; 1 June 176918 April 1854) was a composer, music teacher, and music theoretician, active mainly in Warsaw.
Józef Feliks Gawlina, born in 1892 in Strzybnik (Racibórz County) in Silesia - died 1964 in Rome was a Divisional general in the Polish Armed Forces.
Józef Kasparek (1915–2002) was a Polish lawyer, historian and political scientist.
Józef Mroszczak (May 11, 1910 in Nowy Targ, Poland - September 19, 1975, in Warsaw, Poland) was a Polish graphic designer and representative of the Polish School of Posters.
Józef Pukowiec codename: Chmura, Pukoc (September 14, 1904 in Świętochłowice – August 14, 1942 in Katowice) was a Polish teacher, scoutmaster, and Polish resistance activist during the Second World War.
Józef Rymer (1882–1922) was a Polish and Silesian activist and politician.
Józef Skrzek (born 2 July 1948 in Siemianowice, Silesia) is a Polish multi-instrumentalist, singer, and composer, an important figure in Polish rock.
Jānis Balodis (20 February 1881 – 8 August 1965) was an army general, Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of Latvia (1919–1921), Minister of War (1931–1940) and politician who was one of the principal figures during the Latvian War of Independence and the dictatorship of Kārlis Ulmanis, when he officially was the number two of the regime as the Minister of War, Deputy Prime Minister and Vice President.
Jean Burger, alias "Mario", was a member of the French Resistance during World War II.
Jean de Forcade de Biaix,Picamilh, Tome 1, Page 421 aka Jean de Forcade, Marquis de Biaix,Priesdorff, Band 1, Page 114, Nr.
Jean-Jacques Manget (or Johann Jacob Mangetus) (1652–1742) was a Genevan physician and writer.
Jedlina-Zdrój (Charlottenbrunn) is a town in Wałbrzych County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
Jeremiah Dencke was born October 2, 1725 in Langenbielau, Silesia and died May 28, 1795 in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania.
Jeremias Benjamin Richter (10 March 1762 – 14 April 1807) was a German chemist.
Jerlochovice is a cadastral area in Fulnek, Nový Jičín District, Czech Republic.
Jerzy Montag (born 13 February 1947 in Katowice, Silesia) is a German politician.
Jerzy Sikorski (born July 25, 1935) is a Polish historian, doctorate in history (PhD), Copernicologist, medievalist, museologist, author, publisher, journalist, encyclopedist, and translator, who writes and publishes primarily in Polish.
Jerzy Ziętek (10 June 1901 in Gleiwitz – 20 November 1985 in Katowice, Upper Silesia) was a Polish politician and general.
The Rondo Generała Jerzego Ziętka in Katowice is the roundabout in the centre of the city, in the Silesian Voivodship in southern Poland.
Jeseník, Frývaldov until 1948 (Freiwaldau) is a town in the Olomouc Region of the Czech Republic, the administrative capital of Jeseník District.
Jeseník District (Okres Jeseník) is a district (okres) in the Olomouc Region of the Czech Republic.
Jeszenszky or Jesenský (also Jessensky, Jessinsky, Jessensky de Gross Jessen) is the name of two old noble families in the Kingdom of Hungary.
Jiří Třanovský (Jerzy Trzanowski, Juraj Tranovský, Georgius Tranoscius; 9 April 1592 – 29 May 1637), was a Lutheran priest and hymnwriter from the Cieszyn Silesia.
Count Jindřich Matyáš Thurn-Valsassina (German: Heinrich Matthias Graf von Thurn und Valsassina; Italian: Enrico Matteo Conte della Torre di Valsassina) (24 February 1567 – 26 January 1640), was a Bohemian nobleman, one of leaders of Protestant Bohemian Revolt against Emperor Ferdinand II.
The Jizera (Iser; Izera) is a river that begins on the border between Poland and the Czech Republic (in Silesia) and ends in Central Bohemia.
Jizera Mountains (Jizerské hory) or Izera Mountains (Góry Izerskie; Isergebirge) are part of the Western Sudetes on the border between the Czech Republic and Poland.
Jizerka (de Klein Iser) is part of municipality Kořenov in Jablonec nad Nisou District.
Joachim Bernhardt von Prittwitz and Gaffron (1726–1793), born in Groß Läswitz, died in Berlin, was a Prussian officer credited with saving the life of Frederick the Great at the Battle of Kunersdorf.
Joachim Gnilka (8 December 1928 in Leobschütz/Silesia, – 15 January 2018 in München, Germany) was a German Roman Catholic Catholic theologian and exegete.
Joachim II (Joachim II Hector or Hektor; 13 January 1505 – 3 January 1571) was a Prince-elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg (1535–1571), the sixth member of the House of Hohenzollern.
Joachim of Münsterberg (Jáchym z Minstrberka, Joachim von Münsterberg or Joachim of Münsterberg-Oels), also: Joachim of Poděbrady (German: Joachim von Podiebrad; Czech: Jáchym z Poděbrad, Joachim Podiebradowicz) (18 January 1503 – 27 December 1562), a member of the Podiebrad family, was Silesian duke of Münsterberg and Oels from 1536 to 1542.
Joachim Peiper (30 January 1915 – 14 July 1976), also known as Jochen Peiper, was a field officer in the Waffen-SS during World War II and personal adjutant to Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler between November 1940 and August 1941.
Count Joachim von Pfeil (1857-1924) was a German explorer and colonist in Africa and New Guinea.
Joan Bodon, who was born in Crespin, Aveyron, Occitania (France) on December 11, 1920 and died on February 24, 1975 in Algeria, is an author who wrote exclusively in Occitan although he is credited as being called Jean Boudou in the French translations of his works.
Johann Heinrich, Graf von Frankenberg (18 September 1726 – 11 June 1804) was Archbishop of Mechelen, Primate of the Low Countries, and a cardinal.
Joël Andre Le Tac (15 February 1918 – 8 October 2005) was a member of the Free French Forces (FFF) during the Second World War.
Jože Toporišič (October 11, 1926 – December 9, 2014) was a leading Slovene linguist.
Major Jocelyn Lee Hardy DSO, MC with Bar (10 June 1894 – 30 May 1958), was a British Army officer famed for his courage on the battlefield and repeated escapes from German prisoner of war camps during the First World War.
Johann Adolf II, Duke of Saxe-Weissenfels (Weissenfels, 4 September 1685 – Leipzig, 16 May 1746), was the last duke of Saxe-Weissenfels-Querfurt and a member of the House of Wettin.
Johann Baptist Alzog (8 June 1808 – 1 March 1878) was a German theologian and Catholic church historian.
Johann Baptista Baltzer (16 June 1803 – 1 October 1871) was a German Catholic theologian.
Johann Carl Friedrich Dauthe (26 September 1746 – 13 July 1816) was a German architect and etcher who specialised in the Neo-Classical style.
Johann Christian Ruberg (baptized 4 September 1746 – 5 September 1807) was a German inventor and a pioneer in metallurgy.
Johann Christoph Altnickol, or Altnikol, (1 January 1720 – 25 July 1759; dates of baptism and burial) was a German organist, bass singer, and composer.
Johann Christoph von Paar (? - 1636) was the Regional postmaster for Inner Austria, a post he appears to have inherited from his father.
Johann Dietrich von Hülsen (1 June 1693–29 May 1767) was a Prussian lieutenant general of the infantry.
Johann Dzierzon, or Jan Dzierżon or Dzierżoń, also John Dzierzon (16 January 1811 – 26 October 1906), was a pioneering Polish apiarist who discovered the phenomenon of parthenogenesis in bees and designed the first successful movable-frame beehive.
Prince Johann Ferdinand of Auersperg (29 September 1655 in Vienna – 6 August 1705 in Ziębice in Silesia) was the second Prince of Auersperg and was Duke of Silesia-Münsterberg from 1677 until his death.
Johann Georg Schrepfer, or Johann Georg Schröpfer (1738? – 8 October 1774 in Leipzig) was a German charlatan, independent Freemason, and necromancer.
Johann Gottfried Pratsch (Jan Bohumír Práč, Иван Прач, Johann Gottfried Pratsch, also called Prach, c. 1750 - c. 1818), was a Czech composer of music.
Johann Gottfried Scheibel (16 September 1783 – 21 March 1843) was a German theologian and a leader of the Old Lutherans.
Johann Gottlieb Janitsch (19 June 1708 – 1763) was a German Baroque composer.
Johann Heß (or Hess) (23 September 1490 – 5 January 1547) was a German Lutheran theologian and Protestant Reformer of Breslau (Wroclaw).
Johann Heinrich Casimir, Baron von Carmer (29 December 1720 in Kreuznach–23 May 1801 in Rützen, Silesia) was a Prussian judicial reformer.
Johann I Joseph (Johann Baptist Josef Adam Johann Nepomuk Aloys Franz de Paula; 26 June 1760 – 20 April 1836) was Prince of Liechtenstein between 1805 and 1806 and again from 1814 until 1836.
Johann Ignaz Cimbal (1722 – 27 December 1795) was an Austrian painter and etcher, who produced many altarpieces and frescoes for churches, monasteries and other Church buildings.
Johann Ignaz von Felbiger or John Felbinger (1724-1788) was a minister in the Prussian government and Austrian school reformer, pedagogical writer, and canon regular of the Order of St. Augustine, born January 6, 1724, at Gross-Glogau in Silesia.
Johann Roth (Jan Roth; 30 November 1426 – 21 January 1506) was Bishop of Lavant from 1468 to 1482 and Prince-Bishop of Wrocław (Breslau) from 1482 until his death.
Johann Karl Nestler, Jan Karel Nestler (16 December 1783 – 9 July 1842) was a Czech-German scientist in the field of hereditary traits, professor of natural history and agriculture at the Philosophical Faculty of University of Olomouc, dean of the faculty and rector of the university, and doyen of the Czech agriculture science.
Johann Kowoll (December 27, 1890 in Laurahütte – 1941) was a German socialist politician.
Johann Ludwig Karl Heinrich von Struve (August 9, 1812 – March 3, 1898) was the youngest son of the large brood of children of Johann Christoph Gustav von Struve and Sibilla Christiane Friederike von Hochstetter; part of the Struve family and brother to Gustav Struve.
Johann Ludwig von Wolzogen (1599–1661) was an Austrian nobleman and Socinian theologian.
Johann Nepomuk Fuchs (Slovenized: Janez Nepomuk Fuchs) (1727 in Neiss (.
Johann Nepomuk Eduard Ambrosius Nestroy (7 December 1801 – 25 May 1862) was a singer, actor and playwright in the popular Austrian tradition of the Biedermeier period and its immediate aftermath.
Johann Philipp Kratz von Scharffenstein (1585 – 26 July 1635) was a German nobleman and field marshal, who fought during the course of the Thirty Years' War.
Johann Schobert (c. 1720, 1735 or 1740 – 28 August 1767) was a composer and harpsichordist.
Johann Sigismund Scholze alias Sperontes (20 March 1705 in Lobendau bei Liegnitz (today Lubiatów near Złotoryja) 28 September 1750 in Leipzig) was a Silesian music anthologist and poet.
Johann Timotheus Hermes (31 May 1738 – 24 July 1821) was a German poet, novelist and Protestant theologian.
Nikolaus Michael Louis Johann (Hans) von Dallwitz (29 September 1855 in Breslau, Lower Silesia – 2 August 1919 in Bosse) was a politician, who served in Anhalt and Prussia.
Johann von Klenau (13 April 1758 – 6 October 1819), also called Johann Josef Cajetan von Klenau und Janowitz, was a field marshal in the Habsburg army.
Johann von Mayr (1 May 1716 in Vienna–5 January 1759 in Plauen)His name is also spelled Mayer, Maier, and Meyer.
Johann Wilhelm Ritter (16 December 1776 – 23 January 1810) was a German chemist, physicist and philosopher.
Johann Wilhelm Wagner (24 November 1681 in Heldburg/Thüringen – 16 December 1745 in Berlin) was a German astronomer.
Johanna Klink (17 January 1903 – February 2015) was a German supercentenarian, who was the oldest living person in Germany since the death of Frieda Szwillus on 21 September 2014.
Johanna Olbrich (alias 'Sonja Lüneburg': 26 October 1926 - 18 February 2004) was an East German spy.
Johannes Braun (28 October 1919 – 17 July 2004) was a Roman Catholic Bishop and an Apostolic Administrator in Magdeburg.
Johannes Gigas (22 February 1514 — 12 July 1581) was a German Protestant theologian, hymn writer, educator and Reformer.
Johannes Herbst (July 23, 1735 – January 15, 1812) was a German-American Moravian minister and composer.
Johannes Wiese (7 March 1915 – 16 August 1991) was a German Luftwaffe pilot during World War II, a fighter ace credited with 133 enemy aircraft shot down in 480 combat missions.
John Christian of Brieg (Jan Chrystian Brzeski; Johann Christian von Brieg; Ohlau, 28 August 1591 – Osterode in Ostpreußen (today Ostróda), 25 December 1639), was a Duke of Brzeg–Legnica–Wołów (since 1602; with his brother as co-ruler in Legnica and Wołów until 1612; in Oława since 1605).
John Anthony Crook FBA (5 November 1921 – 7 September 2007) by Peter Linehan in The Independent, 15 September 2007.
John Filipec (Jan Filipec z Prostějova, Pruisz Filipec János; according to the official list of bishops of Oradea/Várad:Johannes IX. Filipecz de Prosznicz; 1431 in Prostějov – 28 June 1509 in Uherské Hradiště) was an advisor of the kings Matthias Corvinus and Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary.
John George I (German: Johann Georg I.) (5 March 1585 – 8 October 1656) was Elector of Saxony from 1611 to 1656.
John II Casimir (Jan II Kazimierz Waza; Johann II.; Jonas Kazimieras Vaza; 22 March 1609 – 16 December 1672) was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania during the era of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Duke of Opole in Upper Silesia, and titular King of Sweden 1648–1660.
John II of Rosenberg (nicknamed: the peaceful; Jan II.; 1434 – 8 November 1472, Ortenburg) was a member of the House of Rosenberg.
John II, Duke of Troppau (also known as John "the Pious" of Leobschütz, John of Głubczyce, Jan III Opavský or Jan Pobožný; –) was a Duke of Silesia from the Opava branch of the Přemyslid dynasty.
John the Blind (Jang de Blannen; Johann der Blinde von Luxemburg; Jan Lucemburský; 10 August 1296 – 26 August 1346) was the Count of Luxembourg from 1309 and King of Bohemia from 1310 and titular King of Poland.
Saint John of Capestrano (Italian: San Giovanni da Capestrano, Hungarian: Kapisztrán János, Polish: Jan Kapistran, Croatian: Ivan Kapistran, Serbian: Јован Капистран, Jovan Kapistran) (24 June 1386 – 23 October 1456) was a Franciscan friar and Catholic priest from the Italian town of Capestrano, Abruzzo.
John of Głogów (Jan z Głogowa, Jan Głogowczyk; Johann von Schelling von Glogau) (c. 1445 – 11 February 1507) was a notable polyhistor at the turn of the Middle Ages and Renaissance—a philosopher, geographer and astronomer at the University of Krakow.
John Quincy Adams (July 11, 1767 – February 23, 1848) was an American statesman who served as a diplomat, minister and ambassador to foreign nations, and treaty negotiator, United States Senator, U.S. Representative (Congressman) from Massachusetts, and the sixth President of the United States from 1825 to 1829.
John Sigismund Zápolya or Szapolyai (Szapolyai János Zsigmond; 7 July 1540 – 14 March 1571) was King of Hungary as John II from 1540 to 1551, and from 1556 to 1570, and the first Prince of Transylvania from 1570 to his death.
Josef Ettlinger (1869–1912) was a German literary historian, critic, journalist and translator.
Joseph Ignaz Schnabel (24 May 1767 – 16 June 1831) was a German composer and church musician.
Josef Wagner (12 January 1899 – 22 April or 2 May 1945) was from 1928 the Nazi Gauleiter of the Gau of Westphalia-South, and as of January 1935 also of the Gau of Silesia.
Joseph, Count Lucchesi d’ Averna, died 5 December 1757, Leuthen, Silesia.
Joseph Ernst Seppelt (1813 – 29 January 1868) was a Prussian merchant who migrated to South Australia in 1849, and in 1851 settled in the Barossa Valley where he established Seppeltsfield, South Australia and the Seppelt winery.
Joseph Freiherr von Eichendorff (10 March 1788 – 26 November 1857) was a Prussian poet, novelist, playwright, literary critic, translator, and anthologist.
Joseph Hanisch (1 March 1812 9 October 1892) was a Bavarian, Roman Catholic organist and conductor.
Joseph Ignatius Ritter (12 April 1787, Schweinitz, Silesia – 5 January 1857, Breslau) was a German historian.
Joseph Johann von Littrow (13 March 1781, Horšovský Týn (Bischofteinitz) – 30 November 1840, Vienna) was an Austrian astronomer.
Joseph Musiol (Józef Musioł; born June 22, 1865 in Mikołów) was a Silesian politician.
Joseph Partsch (4 July 1851 – 22 June 1925) was a German geographer, born at Schreiberhau, Silesia.
Joseph Wittig (January 22, 1879 – August 22, 1949) was a German theologian and writer born in Neusorge, a village in the district of Neurode, Silesia.
Joseph Johann Baptist Andreas von Zerboni di Sposetti (23 May 1766 – 23 May 1831) was a German philosopher.
Joshua Prawer (יהושע פרַאוֶור; November 22, 1917 – April 30, 1990) was a notable Israeli historian and a scholar of the Crusades and Kingdom of Jerusalem.
Jossgrund is a municipality in the Main-Kinzig district, in Hesse, Germany.
Joy Division is a 2006 British-German-Hungarian film directed by Reg Traviss.
Juana Bormann (or Johana Borman; 10 September 1893 – 13 December 1945) was an East Prussian-born prison guard at several Nazi concentration camps, from 1938 and was executed as a war criminal at Hamelin, Lower Saxony, Germany, after a court trial in 1945.
Julia Golding (born March 1969), pen names Joss Stirling and Eve Edwards, is a British novelist best known for her Cat Royal series and The Companions Quartet.
Julia, Princess of Battenberg (– 19 September 1895) was the wife of Prince Alexander of Hesse and by Rhine, the mother of Alexander, Prince of Bulgaria, and ancestress to the current generations of the British and Spanish royal families.
Rudolf Julius Benno Hübner (27 January 1806 – 7 November 1882) was a German historical painter of the Düsseldorf school of painting.
Julius Madritsch (4 August 1906 – 11 June 1984) was a Viennese Austrian businessman who helped to save the lives of Jews during the Holocaust.
Julius August Reinhold von Grawert (1746–1821) was a Prussian general.Julius was the son of Johann Benjamin von Grawert (1709–1759) and his wife Christiane Sophie, née von Schollenstern (1717–1796).
Jursitzky (or Jurczycki) is the name of an ancient Polish noble family.
Kadan (also Qadan) was the son of the second Great Khan of the Mongols Ögedei and a concubine.
The Kafka Project is a non-profit literary research initiative founded in 1998 at San Diego State University.
The Kalkberg Stadium (Kalkbergstadion) is an open-air theatre built in a former quarry on the Segeberger Kalkberg, a rocky outcropping in the centre of Bad Segeberg, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany.
The Kalmykian Cavalry Corps (Kalmücken-Kavallerie-Korps) was a unit of about 5,000 Kalmyk volunteers who chose to join the German Army in 1942 rather than remain in Kalmykia as German forces retreated before the Red Army.
Kamenz (Kamjenc) is a town (Große Kreisstadt) in the district of Bautzen in Saxony, Germany.
Kamienna Góra (Landeshut, Lanžhot, Kamenná Hora) is a town in south-western Poland with 21,440 inhabitants (2006).
Kamil Artur Drozd (born April 8, 1997) is a Polish singer-songwriter and musician, best known for his 2011 single "Enemy".
Kampfgeschwader 1 (KG 1) (Battle Wing 1) was a German medium bomber wing that operated in the Luftwaffe during World War II.
Kampfgeschwader 2 " Holzhammer " (KG 2) (Battle Wing 2) was a Luftwaffe bomber unit during the Second World War.
Kampfgeschwader 55 "Greif" (KG 55 or Battle Wing 55) was a ''Luftwaffe'' bomber unit during World War II.
Kampfgeschwader 76 (KG 76) (Battle Wing) was a Luftwaffe bomber Group during World War II.
Kantner is a German locational surname, which originally meant a person from places called named Kanten in Prussia or Silesia.
The Kapp Putsch, also known as the Kapp-Lüttwitz Putsch after its leaders Wolfgang Kapp and Walther von Lüttwitz, was an attempted coup on 13 March 1920 which aimed to undo the German Revolution of 1918–1919, overthrow the Weimar Republic and establish a right-wing autocratic government in its place.
Karłowice Wielkie (Groß Karlowitz) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Kamiennik, within Nysa County, Opole Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
Karel Večeřa (born 9 October 1955 in Ivančice) is a Czech football manager and former footballer.
Karin Stanek (August 18, 1943 – February 15, 2011) was a Polish rock and roll and beat music singer, a member of the band Czerwono-Czarni.
Karl Abraham Freiherr von Zedlitz und Leipe (born January 4, 1731 in Schwarzwaldau in Silesia; died March 18, 1793, on his estate in Silesia Kapsdorf) was a Prussian minister of education who was instrumental in establishing mandatory education in Prussia, which served as a model for the public education system in the United States.
Karl Alois, Prince Lichnowsky (Karl Alois Johann-Nepomuk Vinzenz Leonhard, Fürst Lichnowsky, also known as Carl Alois, Fürst von Lichnowsky-Woschütz) (21 June 1761 – 15 April 1814), was second Prince Lichnowsky and a Chamberlain at the Imperial Austrian court.
Karl August von Heigel (March 25, 1835 in Munich – September 6, 1905), German novelist, was born, the son of a régisseur or stage-manager of the court theatre in Munich.
Karl Ernst Bürger (April 11, 1866 – September 3, 1936)Bürger's short biography until 1897 is printed in Jahresbericht über das Herzogliche Gymnasium zu Blankenburg am Harz.
Karl Bischoff (9 August 1897 – 2 October 1950) was a German architect, engineer and SS-Sturmbannführer.
Karl Denke (February 12, 1860-February 22, 1924) was a Prussian serial killer and cannibal who killed and cannibalized dozens of homeless vagrants and travelers from 1903-1924.
Karl Eckstein (28 December 1859, in Grünberg, Silesia – 22 April 1939, in Ragusa, Dalmatia) was a German entomologist who specialised in Lepidoptera.
Karl Franz Otto Dziatzko (27 January 1842 - 13 January 1903, Göttingen) was a German librarian and scholar, born in Neustadt, Silesia.
Karl Friedrich I of Münsterberg-Oels (also: Karl Friedrich I of Poděbrady; Karl Friedrich I. von Oels und Münsterberg. or Karl Friedrich I. von Podiebrad; Karel Bedřich z Minstrberka.; 18 October 1593, Oleśnica – 31 May 1647, Oleśnica) was Duke of Oels from 1617 to 1647 and Duke of Bernstadt from 1639 to 1647.
Karl Friedrich von Steinmetz (27 December 1796 – 2 August 1877) was a German Generalfeldmarschall.
Karl Godulla, Carolus Godulla, in Polish spelled Karol Godula (born 8 November 1781 in Makoschau, today Makoszowy, a subdivision of Zabrze, Silesia; died 6 July 1848 in Breslau, today Wrocław) was a Silesian self-made industrialist ("the king of zinc"), and one of the best-known pioneers in the industrial development of Prussian Silesia.
Karl Gotthelf, Baron von Hund und Altengrotkau (1 September 1722, Unwürde - 10 October 1776, Meiningen) was a German freemason.
Karl Gustav Limpricht (11 July 1834, Eckersdorf near Sagan – 20 October 1902, Breslau) was a German schoolteacher and bryologist.
Karl August Hanke (24 August 1903 – 8 June 1945) was the last Reichsführer of the Schutzstaffel (SS), and an official of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) in Nazi Germany.
Karl Wilhelm Hübner (1814–1879) was a German genre painter.
Karl Heinrich Ritthausen (13 January 1826 – 16 October 1912) was a German biochemist who identified two amino acids and made other contributions to the science of plant proteins.
Karl Heinrich von Bogatzky (Jankowe, Lower Silesia September 7, 1690 – June 15, 1774) was a German hymn writer.
Charles II of Münsterberg-Oels (also: Charles II of Poděbrady; Karel II.; 15 April 1545, Oleśnica – 28 January 1617, Oleśnica) was Duke of Oels from 1565 to 1617 and Duke of Bernstadt from 1604 to 1617.
Karl Joel (27 March 1864 – 23 July 1934) was a German philosopher and professor.
Karl Johann Bernhard Karsten (26 November 1782 – 22 August 1853) was a German mineralogist known for contributions made to the German metallurgy industry.
Karl Max, Prince Lichnowsky (Karl Max Fürst von Lichnowsky) (Kreuzenort, Upper Silesia (now Krzyżanowice, Poland), 8 March 1860 – Kuchelna, 27 February 1928) was a German diplomat who served as Ambassador to Britain during the July Crisis and who was the author of a noted pamphlet of 1916 that deplored German diplomacy in mid-1914 that, he argued, directly caused the outbreak of the First World War.
Karl Otto Georg von Meck (Карл Фёдорович фон Мекк), (22 June 1821 – 26 January 1876, Moscow) was an important 19th century Russian businessman of German descent, one of the founders of Russian railways.
Karl Schirdewan (14 May 1907 – 14 July 1998) was a German communist activist who after 1945 became a top East German politician.
Feldwebel Karl Teichmann was a World War I flying ace credited with five aerial victories.
Karl Gotthelf Jakob Weinhold (26 October 1823, in Reichenbach – 15 August 1901, in Bad Nauheim) was a German folklorist and linguist who specialized in German studies.
Karl Wilhelm Krause (5 March 1911 – 6 May 2001) was a Waffen-SS officer (SS number: 236,858) who rose to the rank of SS-Hauptsturmführer (captain) during World War II.
Karl Wilhelm Freiherr von Willisen (30 April 1790 – 25 February 1879) was a Prussian general.
Karl-Albrecht von Groddeck (18 February 1894 – 10 January 1944) was a German general in the Wehrmacht during World War II who commanded several divisions.
Karlgeorg Hoefer (February 6, 1914 – October 8, 2000) was a German calligrapher and typographer.
Karol Antoniewicz (Bołoz.) Կարոլ Անտոնեվիչ (born in Lwów (now Lviv Ukraine), 6 November 1807; died 14 November 1852) was a Polish-Armenian Jesuit and missionary.
Karol Modzelewski (born 23 November 1937 in Moscow) is a Polish historian, writer, politician and academic.
Prince Karol Stanisław Radziwiłł (Караль Станіслаў Радзівіл II, Karolis Stanislovas Radvila II, Exonym: Charles Stanislaus: 27 February 1734 – 21 November 1790) was a Polish nobleman, politician, diplomat, prince of the Crown Kingdom of Poland and the Commonwealth, statesman of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Voivode of Vilnius, governor of Lwów and Sejm Marshal between 1767 and 1768.
Karol Szymanowski Academy of Music in Katowice is a school of music of university level in Poland.
Kaspar Ursinus Velius (c. 1493 – 5 March 1539) was a German humanist scholar, poet and historian.
Kasperle, Kasper, or Kasperl (Bavarian German: Káschberl, Swabian German: Kaschberle, Swiss German: Chaschperli) is a famous and traditional puppet character from Austria, German-speaking Switzerland, and Germany.
Katowice historic train station was the main railway station of Katowice, in the Silesia region of what is now Poland.
Katowice railway station is a railway station in Katowice, Silesia, Poland, and the largest railway station in the Upper Silesian Industrial Region.
On 28 January 2006, the roof of one of the buildings at the Katowice International Fair (Międzynarodowe Targi Katowickie) collapsed in Chorzów / Katowice, Poland.
Prince Kazimierz Florian Czartoryski (1620–1674) was a 17th century Primate of Poland, Bishop of Poznań and Włocławek.
Kazimierz Julian Kutz (born 1929) is a Polish film director, author, journalist and politician, one of the representatives of the Polish Film School and a deputy speaker of the Senate of Poland.
Kazimierz Piwarski (b. 19 February 1903, d. 1968) was a Polish historian, professor of Jagiellonian University in Kraków since 1946 and Poznań University in years 1953-1955, member of Polish Academy of Skills (Polska Akademia Umiejętności, PAU) since 1945, and member of Polish Academy of Sciences (Polska Akademia Nauk, PAN) since 1958.
Käthe Kollwitz, née Schmidt, (8 July 1867 – 22 April 1945) was a German artist, who worked with painting, printmaking (including etching, lithography and woodcuts) and sculpture.
Käthe Popall (born Käthe Fürst: 15 February 1907 - 23 May 1984) was a Bremen politician (KPD).
Kąty Wrocławskie (Kanth) is a town in Wrocław County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
Kędzierzyn-Koźle (Kandrzin-Cosel, 1934-45: Heydebreck O.S. and Cosel; Kandrzin-Koźle) is a town in southwestern Poland, the administrative centre of Kędzierzyn-Koźle County in Opole Voivodeship.
Kępno (Kempen in Posen) is a town in Poland.
Kłobuck (Klobutzko) is a town in Poland, with 13,061 inhabitants (2016).
Kłodzko (Kladsko; Glatz; Glacio) is a town in south-western Poland, in the region of Lower Silesia.
Kłodzko Fortress (Twierdza Kłodzko, Festung Glatz) is a unique fortification complex of the Lower Silesian Voivodeship in southwestern Poland.
Kłodzko Land (Kladsko; Glatzer Land; Ziemia kłodzka) is a historical region in southwestern Poland.
Kevin J. Hannan (January 22, 1954 – January 5, 2008) was American ethnolinguist and slavicist.
The Minotaurus and Ajax were a pair of 0-4-2 steam locomotives purchased by the Kaiser Ferdinands-Nordbahn (KFNB) – Emperor Ferdinand Northern Railway from Jones, Turner and Evans of Newton-le-Willows, England in 1841; Minotaurus has been scrapped, Ajax survives and is believed to be the oldest preserved steam locomotive on the European mainland and is currently exhibited at the Technisches Museum Wien (Vienna Technical Museum).
King in Prussia was a title used by the Electors of Brandenburg from 1701 to 1772.
The Kingdom of Bohemia, sometimes in English literature referred to as the Czech Kingdom (České království; Königreich Böhmen; Regnum Bohemiae, sometimes Regnum Czechorum), was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Central Europe, the predecessor of the modern Czech Republic.
The Kingdom of Croatia (Regnum Croatiae; Kraljevina Hrvatska, Hrvatsko Kraljevstvo) was a medieval kingdom in Central Europe comprising most of what is today Croatia (without western Istria and some Dalmatian coastal cities), as well as most of the modern-day Bosnia and Herzegovina.
In the Late Middle Ages, the Kingdom of Hungary, a country in Central Europe, experienced a period of interregnum in the early 14th century.
The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.
The Klaipėda Revolt took place in January 1923 in the Klaipėda Region (Memel Territory, Memelland).
Klaus Töpfer (born 29 July 1938 in Waldenburg, Silesia) is a German politician (CDU) and environmental politics expert.
Klekotna (Charlottenthal or Charlotte's Vale) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Dobrodzień, within Olesno County, Opole Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
Kliczków (Klitschdorf) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Osiecznica, within Bolesławiec County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
Kluczbork (Kreuzburg O.S.) is a town in southwestern Poland with 24,962 inhabitants (2011), situated in the Opole Voivodeship.
Kluge House, also known as Maverick House, is a rare example of Silesian fachwerk, log and half-timber construction, located in Helena, Montana.
Kluski (singular: klusek or kluska) is a generic Polish name for all kinds of soft, mushy dumplings, usually without a filling.
Knabenau or von Knabenau (also known as Baron von Knabenau) is the name of an ancient Courland nobility, originally from Silesia, and later it spreads in the 16th century in Courland.
Knurów (Knurow; Knurůw) is a town near Katowice in Silesia, southern Poland.
Kočevski Rog or Kočevje Rog (Hornwald) or simply Rog is a karstified plateau in the Kočevje Highlands above the Črmošnjice Valley in southeastern Slovenia.
Kořenov (Bad Wurzelsdorf) is a mountain village in Jablonec nad Nisou District, Liberec Region in the northern Czech Republic, close to the border with Poland.
The Kościelecki Square is an old and historical place in downtown Bydgoszcz.
The Košice–Bohumín Railway (Košicko-bohumínská dráha, Košicko-bohumínska železnica, Kolej koszycko-bogumińska, Kaschau-Oderberger Bahn, Kassa-Oderbergi Vasút) can refer to.
Kohlwurst, Lungenwurst or Lungwurst is a simple, fresh, strongly smoked sausage (Rohwurst) made of lights, pork and fat, which is mostly eaten cooked with kale (cabbage) dishes such as Knieperkohl.
Komańcza (Команча, Komancha) is a village in the Sanok County, in the Subcarpathian Voivodeship (province) of south-eastern Poland.
Komorowice (Batzdorf) is the northernmost part of Bielsko-Biała, Silesian Voivodeship, southern Poland.
Konary Castle or Knight's Castle Kunern is a castle in the village Konary (Kunern), Lower Silesia, Poland, located 55 km south of the city of Wrocław.
The Konitz affair was an accusation of Jewish ritual murder, based on the unexplained murder of the student Ernst Winter in Konitz, West Prussia.
Konrad Freiherr von Wangenheim (20 August 1909 – 28 January 1953) was a German army Cavalry officer, a horse rider who competed at the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, securing a gold medal for the German equestrian team whilst suffering from a broken collarbone.
Konrad I of Głogów (Konrad I głogowski; – 6 August 1273/74), a member of the Silesian Piasts, was Silesian duke of Głogów from 1251 until his death.
Konrad IX the Black (Konrad IX Czarny) (c. 1415 – 14 August 1471) was a Duke of Oleśnica, Koźle, half of Bytom and half of Ścinawa since 1450 (with his brothers as co-rulers), and since 1452 sole ruler over Oleśnica, Koźle and half of Bytom.
Konrad the Curly (Konrad Kędzierzawy; c. 1198 – 4 September 1213 in Czerwony Kosciol), was a Polish prince member of the Piast dynasty in his Silesian branch.
Konrad von Wallenrode (c. 1330s – 23 July 1393) was the 24th Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, serving from 1391 to 1393.
Kopalnioki (English: Liquorice, German: Lakritz Bonbons) - hard Silesian candy without filling, with a mint-anise taste, common since the end of the nineteenth-century.
Korfantów (Friedland in Oberschlesien) is a town in the Opole Voivodeship of Poland, with 1,857 inhabitants (2015).
Korwin is a Polish coat of arms.
Kosztowy (Kostow) is a quarter of the city of Mysłowice in the Silesian Voivodship of Poland.
Kraśnik is a town in eastern Poland with 35,602 inhabitants (2012), situated in the Lublin Voivodeship, historic Lesser Poland.
Kraków Gate (Brama Krakowska) is one of the few rock gates in Ojców National Park.
Kraków Voivodeship 1300–1795 (Palatinatus Cracoviensis, Województwo Krakowskie) – a unit of administrative division and local government in the Kingdom of Poland from the 14th century to the partitions of Poland in 1772–1795 (see History of Poland during the Piast dynasty, Kingdom of Poland (1385–1569), and Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth).
The Krakowiacy are a subethnic group of the Polish nation, who reside in the historic province of Lesser Poland, in the area of the city of Kraków.
Krauschwitz (Krušwica) is a municipality in the Görlitz district of Saxony, Germany at the border with Poland.
Kravaře (Deutsch-Krawarn) is a town in Silesia in the Czech Republic.
Králíky (Grulich) is a town in the Ústí nad Orlicí District, Pardubice Region of the Czech Republic.
Králický Sněžník or Śnieżnik Kłodzki (Polish) is a mountain in the Eastern Bohemia, located on the border between the Czech Republic and Poland.
The Krämerbrücke (Merchants' bridge) is a medieval arch bridge in the city of Erfurt, in Thuringia in central Germany, which is lined with half timbered shops and houses on both sides of a cobblestone street.
Kreis Lissa (leszczyński) was a county in the southern administrative district of Posen, in the Prussian province of Posen.
Kresy Wschodnie or Kresy (Eastern Borderlands, or Borderlands) was the Eastern part of the Second Polish Republic during the interwar period constituting nearly half of the territory of the state.
The Krkonoše (Czech), Karkonosze (Polish), Riesengebirge (German), Riesageberge (Silesian German) or Giant Mountains, are a mountain range located in the north of the Czech Republic and the south-west of Poland, part of the Sudetes mountain system (part of the Bohemian Massif).
Kryvyi Rih (krɪˈwɪj riɦ|lit.
Krzepice (Krippitz) is a Polish town near Częstochowa, in Kłobuck County, Silesian Voivodeship, in northwestern corner of Lesser Poland.
Książ (Zamek Książ, Schloss Fürstenstein) is the largest castle in the Silesia region, located north of Wałbrzych in Lower Silesian Voivodeship, Poland.
Kunde is a Germanic surname with origins in Bohemia and Silesia.
Kur is a Polish coat of arms.
Kurt Christoph Graf von Schwerin (26 October 1684 – 6 May 1757) was a Prussian Generalfeldmarschall, one of the leading commanders under Frederick the Great.
Kurt Ehrenreich Floericke (also spelled Curt and or Flöricke; 23 March 1869 in Zeitz – 29 October 1934 in Stuttgart) was a German naturalist and author of numerous popular science books.
Kurt Knispel (20 September 1921 – 28 April 1945) was a German tank ace during World War II, notable for his 168 confirmed tank kills, making him the most successful fighter in armored warfare.
Kurt Bruno Pompe (March 4, 1899 in Schmiedeberg, Lower Silesia, Germany – August 1, 1964 in Schweinfurt, Germany) occupied important positions in several forced labor camps for Jews in Silesia (German until 1945) during World War II, part of a network of over 160 camps run by an SS organization, Dienststelle Schmelt.
Kurt Redel (8 October 1918 in Breslau, Silesia, now Wrocław, Poland – 12 February 2013 in Munich, Germany) was a German flautist and conductor.
Kurt Selchow (born 28 May 1886 in Oppeln, Upper Silesia, Germany) was a Minister (Gosandtor Ministerdirigigent.) and Director of the Z Branch, the Signal Intelligence Agency of the German Foreign Office (Auswärtiges Amt) before and during World War II.
Kurt von Hammerstein-Equord (26 September 1878 – 24 April 1943) was a German general who served for a period as Commander-in-Chief of the Reichswehr.
Kutsche, with numerous other spellings, is a German surname with several etymologies, including one Hungarian and several Slavic.
The Kwisa (Queis) is a river in south-western Poland, a left tributary of the Bóbr, which itself is a left tributary of the Oder river.
The lachter (also Berglachter) was a common unit of length used in the mining industry in Europe, usually to measure depth, tunnel driving and the size of mining fields; it was also used for contract work.
Ladislaus the Posthumous, known also as Ladislas (Utószülött László; Ladislav Pohrobek, 22 February 144023 November 1457) (in Hungarian: V. László), was Duke of Austria, and King of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia.
In Germany and Switzerland, a Landeskirche (plural: Landeskirchen) is the church of a region.
Landflucht ("flight from the land") refers to the mass migration of peasants into the cities that occurred in Germany (and throughout much of Europe) in the late 19th century.
Landgravine Josepha of Fürstenberg-Weitra (Landgräfin Josefa zu Fürstenberg-Weitra; 21 June 177623 February 1848) was princess consort of Liechtenstein as wife of Johann I Joseph, Prince of Liechtenstein.
The Lands of the Bohemian Crown, sometimes called Czech lands in modern times, were a number of incorporated states in Central Europe during the medieval and early modern periods connected by feudal relations under the Bohemian kings.
Langstroth Cottage is a historic building on the Western College campus of Miami University in Oxford, Ohio.
In modern beekeeping, a Langstroth hive is any vertically modular beehive that has the key features of.
Langwasser is a district of Nuremberg in the southeastern area of the city.
Lars Gustafsson Vasa (born 1 September 1586 in Silesia died 1660) - fictional son of Prince Gustav of Sweden with his supposed wife Brita Karth.
Lasse Sobiech (born 18 January 1991) is a German footballer who plays as a central defender for 2. Bundesliga club 1. FC Köln.
Lauf Castle (Wenzelschloss or Burg Lauf; hrad Lauf) was originally a medieval fortress in the town of Lauf an der Pegnitz near Nuremberg, Germany.
Laurentius Carels (1624–1688) was one of the first settlers of Delaware County, Pennsylvania and one of the first Swedish Lutheran clergyman in New Sweden.
Laurentius Corvinus (Laurentius Rabe; Wawrzyniec Korwin; 1465–1527) was a Silesian scholar who lectured as an "extraordinary" (i.e. untenured) professor at the University of Krakow when Nicolaus Copernicus began to study there.
Ląd Abbey is a former Cistercian monastery in Ląd, Poland.
Lędziny (Lendzin) is a town in Silesia in southern Poland, near Katowice.
Lech, Czech and Rus refers to a founding myth of three Slavic peoples: the Poles (or Lechites), the Czechs, and the Rus' people.
The Lechitic (or Lekhitic) languages are a language subgroup consisting of Polish and several other languages and dialects that originally were spoken in the area.
The Legion of the Vistula (Legia Nadwiślańska) was a unit of Poles in the service of Napoleonic France, one of the larger Polish legions of the Napoleonic period.
Legnica (archaic Polish: Lignica, Liegnitz, Lehnice, Lignitium) is a city in southwestern Poland, in the central part of Lower Silesia, on the Kaczawa River (left tributary of the Oder) and the Czarna Woda.
Lelów (לעלוב - Lelov) is a village in Częstochowa County, Silesian Voivodeship, in southern Poland.
Lennart Torstenson, Count of Ortala, Baron of Virestad (17 August 1603 – 7 April 1651), was a Swedish Field Marshal and military engineer.
Leo I of Galicia (Лев Дани́лович, Lev Danylovych) (c. 1228 – c. 1301) was a Knyaz (prince) of Belz (1245–1264), Peremyshl, Halych (1264–1269), Grand Prince of Kiev (1271–1301) and King of Galicia-Volhynia.
Georg Leo Graf von Caprivi de Caprera de Montecuccoli (Count George Leo of Caprivi, Caprera, and Montecuccoli, born Georg Leo von Caprivi; 24 February 1831 – 6 February 1899) was a German general and statesman who succeeded Otto von Bismarck as Chancellor of Germany.
Leoš Janáček (baptised Leo Eugen Janáček; 3 July 1854 – 12 August 1928) was a Czech composer, musical theorist, folklorist, publicist and teacher.
Leon Kruczkowski (1900–1962) was a Polish writer and publicist, and a prominent figure of the Polish theatre in the post-World War II period.
Leonard Wilhelm Skierski (26 April 1866 – 1940) was a Polish military officer and a general of the Imperial Russian Army and then the Polish Army.
Leonid Nikolayevich Rabichev (30 June 1923 – 20 September 2017) was a Soviet and Russian writer, graphic artist and World War II veteran.
Leopold Karl Walter Graf von Kalkreuth (15 May 1855 – 1 December 1928) was a German painter, known for portraits and landscapes.
Leopold I, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau (3 July 1676 – 7 April 1747) was a German prince of the House of Ascania and ruler of the principality of Anhalt-Dessau from 1693 to 1747.
Leopold Wilhelm von Dobschütz (1 January 1763 in Brieg, Niederschlesien – 3 February 1836 at Gut Zölling, Kreis Freystadt, prev. Kreis Sagan, Niederschlesien) was a Prussian "general of cavalry", the "hero of Dennewitz" and "liberator of Wittenberg", military governor of the Rhine province and of Breslau.
Leopold (11 September 1679 – 27 March 1729), surnamed the Good, was Duke of Lorraine and Bar from 1690 to his death.
Lepidotes (previously known as Lepidotus) is an extinct genus of semionotid neopterygian ray-finned fish from the Jurassic period (Toarcian age) and Early Cretaceous.
Lesser Poland (Polish: Małopolska, Latin: Polonia Minor) is a historical region (dzielnica) of Poland; its capital is the city of Kraków.
Lesser Poland Voivodeship or Lesser Poland Province (in Polish, województwo małopolskie), also known as Małopolska Voivodeship or Małopolska Province, is a voivodeship (province), in southern Poland.
Leszno (Lissa, between 1800 and 1918 also called Polnisch Lissa or Lissa in Posen) is a town in western Poland with 64,612 inhabitants (2014).
The Letter of Majesty (1609) was a 17th-century European document, reluctantly signed by the Holy Roman Emperor, Rudolf II, granting religious tolerance to both Protestant and Catholic citizens living in the estates of Bohemia.
Lewis David de Schweinitz (13 February 1780 – 8 February 1834) was a German-American botanist and mycologist.
Liber fundationis episcopatus Vratislaviensis (Księga uposażeń biskupstwa wrocławskiego, Book of endowments of the Bishopric of Wrocław) is a Latin manuscript catalog of documents compiled in the later 13th or in the early 14th century.
The House of Lichnowsky or House of Lichnovský is a Czech aristocratic family of Silesian and Moravian origin, documented since the 14th century.
Liechtenstein, officially the Principality of Liechtenstein (Fürstentum Liechtenstein), is a doubly landlocked German-speaking microstate in Central Europe.
The Liegnitz Ritter-Akademie or knight academy was a school for the sons of the silesian aristocracy and landed gentry established in the seventeenth century in Liegnitz, Prussia.
Liesl Herbst (8 November 1903 – 25 February 1990) was an Austrian championship tennis player.
Lily Pringsheim (born Lily Chun: 7 February 1887 - 28 September 1954) was a German politician (SPD).
Lindenhurst is a village in Suffolk County, New York, United States, on the southern shore of Long Island in the town of Babylon.
Lipiny (German: Lipine) is a district of the Upper Silesian town of Świętochłowice, southern Poland.
Lipsko is a town in Poland, in northern Lesser Poland, Mazowsze Voivodship.
Lisowczycy (also known as Straceńcy ('lost men' or 'forlorn hope') or chorągiew elearska (company of); or in singular form: Lisowczyk or elear) – the name of an early 17th-century irregular unit of the Polish-Lithuanian light cavalry.
The following is a partial list of adjectival forms of place names in English and their demonymic equivalents, which denote the people or the inhabitants of these places.
The following is a list of adjectival forms of subcontinental regions in English and their demonymic equivalents, which denote the people or the inhabitants of these subcontinental regions.
This list of Germanic tribes is a list of tribes, tribal groups, and other connections and alliances of ethnic groups and tribes that were considered Germanic in ancient times.
This is a list of Slavic tribes reported in the Middle Ages, that is, before the year AD 1500.
This is a list of astronomical observatories ordered by name, along with initial dates of operation (where an accurate date is available) and location.
The following tables list the banners of the forces participating in the Battle of Grunwald, (1410).
This is a list of Bohemian monarchs now also referred to as list of Czech monarchs who ruled as Dukes and Kings of Bohemia.
This list of Catholic artists concerns artists known, at least in part, for their works of religious Roman Catholic art.
The following is a list of notable companies that produced, or currently produce clocks.
A number of concertos and concertante works have been written for cor anglais (English horn) and string, wind, chamber, or full orchestra.
The list should also contain various important Czech topics that are not yet covered. The list is divided into categories, ordered alphabetically (initially inspired by List of United Kingdom-related topics).
This is a list of the main sporting local derbies in Poland.
The following drinks were named after places.
This list is a compilation of German toponyms (i.e., names of cities, regions, rivers, mountains and other geographical features situated in a German-speaking area) that have traditional English exonyms.
This article lists incidents that have been termed ethnic cleansing by some academic or legal experts.
This article provides a collection of the etymology of the names of country subdivisions.
Most regions and provinces of Europe have alternative names in different languages.
This is a list of European cross-border regions, often called Euroregions.
This is a list of people who have acted as official executioners.
This is a list of female hereditary rulers who ruled or reigned over a political jurisdiction in their own right or by right of inheritance.
Lists of foods named after places have been compiled by writers, sometimes on travel websites or food-oriented websites, as well as in books.
This list shows the French exonyms for German toponyms.
This is a list of official and unofficial names for time spans in the geologic timescale and units of chronostratigraphy.
Below is a list of dishes found in German cuisine.
The List of German-language television channels includes the following channels.
The characters of Hetalia: Axis Powers (often shortened to just Hetalia) are Japanese manga/anime personifications of various nations, countries and micronations.
There are many historical regions of Central Europe.
This is a list of dishes found in Hungarian cuisine.
This is a list of Internet exchange points (IXPs).
This is an alphabetical list of historically notable members of the Society of Jesus.
This is a list of Jewish architects.
The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross (Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes) and its variants were the highest awards in the military and paramilitary forces of Nazi Germany during World War II.
Here is a list of the largest optical refracting telescopes sorted by lens diameter and focal length.
This list includes the Roman names of countries, or significant regions, known to the Roman Empire.
Here is a list of principalities and regions written in the Latin language and English and other names on the right.
A list of notable lesbian magazines, periodicals, newsletters, and journals.
This is a list of libraries damaged during World War II.
The mannerist architecture and sculpture in Poland have two major traditions: Polish-Italian and Dutch-Flemish, that dominated in northern Poland.
A region-by-region list of fairy and folk tales collected and retold by Ruth Manning-Sanders (1886–1988).
This article lists the margraves of Meissen, a march and territorial state on the eastern border of the Holy Roman Empire.
A headstamp is the markings on the bottom of a cartridge case designed for a firearm.
This is a list of minor planets named after places, organized by continent.
This article was split from List of museums in Texas.
This is a list of Nazi Party (NSDAP) leaders and officials.
This is a list of OECD regions by GDP (PPP) per capita, a ranking of subnational entities from members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) by gross domestic product at purchasing power parity prices per capita.
This list includes people who were born in or lived in Breslau before 1945.
This is a list of notable people from Silesia.
Numerous figures in German culture and history (some still living) were either born or resident in the former eastern territories of Germany.
The Province of Trieste is a province in the autonomous Friuli-Venezia Giulia region of Italy.
This article is about placeholder names for things, persons, places, time, numbers and other concepts in various languages.
This is a list of geographical features in the Free State of Saxony, Germany.
This is a list of poppy seed pastries and dishes.
Below is a list of Portuguese language exonyms for places in non-Portuguese-speaking areas of Europe.
This is a list of the Princes of Transylvania.
This list of prisoner-of-war escapes includes successful and unsuccessful attempts in chronological order, where possible.
This is a list of familicides that occurred in Europe.
This is a list of notable reggae festivals by country.
This is a list of rivers of the Czech Republic.
–Listed below are examples of surviving buildings in Romanesque style in Europe, sorted by modernday countries.
Below is a list of Russian language exonyms for places, mainly in Europe.
The following is a list of Silesian language books in standard orthography.
Below is a list of sovereign states with the dates of their formation (date of their independence or of their constitution), sorted by continent.
The notion of a sovereign state arises in the 16th century with the development of modern diplomacy.
A list of towns in Europe with German town law.
This list of treaties contains known historic agreements, pacts, peaces, and major contracts between states, armies, governments, and tribal groups.
This is a chronological list of military conflicts in which Polish armed forces won or took place on Polish territory from the reign of Mieszko I (960–992) to the ongoing military operations.
This is a list of wars fought by the Kingdom of Spain or on Spanish territory.
This is a list of wars involving the Kingdom of Sweden.
This chronological list of famous watchmakers is a list of those who influenced the development of horology or gained iconic status by their creations.
List of works by the German architect Erich Mendelsohn.
The UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) has designated 77 World Heritage Sites in nine countries (also called "state parties") of Eastern Europe; defined here to mean the former Eastern Bloc countries not including the Baltic Countries (which are in Northern Europe) or former Yugoslavia and Albania (which are in Southern Europe) or the parts of Germany that once comprised East Germany (which are included in Western Europe): Russia, Belarus, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Ukraine, Moldova, Romania and Bulgaria.
A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a place that is listed as site of outstanding cultural or natural importance to the common heritage of humanity.
This is a list of fictional feature films or miniseries which feature events of World War II in the narrative.
This is a list of fictional feature films or miniseries released since 1950 which feature events of World War II in the narrative.
The Lithuanian Civil War of 1389–92 was the second civil conflict between Jogaila, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, and his cousin Vytautas.
Europe first participated in the Little League World Series in.
Lobethal is a town in the Adelaide Hills area of South Australia.
The Lobkowicz Palace (Lobkowický palác) is a part of the Prague Castle complex in Prague, Czech Republic.
Loerrach International e.V. (registered society) is an association of citizens, educational, sport and cultural institutions, service clubs, municipal administration and local council in Lörrach in southwestern Germany.
The Lordship of Hummel (Homole) is a historic landscape zone in the western part of the former County of Kladsko (Grafschaft Glatz, Schlesien), then part of Bohemia, now in Silesia, Poland.
Aphorismorum Medicinalium..., 1589 Lorenz Scholz von Rosenau, also Laurentius Scholzius (20 September 1552 – 22 April 1599) was a German botanist and physician.
Lorenz Schwietz (25 July 1850 – May 1925, in Breslau) was Royal Prussian executioner (Scharfrichter) from 21 June 1900 to 29 January 1914.
Lothar Berthold (30 August 1926 - 12 September 2007) was an East German Marxist historian, university teacher and publisher.
Lothar Stark (1876–1944) was a German film producer.
Charlotte Ida Anna "Lotte" Stam-Beese (née Beese, January 28, 1903 - November 18, 1988) was a German architect and urban planner who helped with the reconstruction of Rotterdam after World War II.
Louis XV (15 February 1710 – 10 May 1774), known as Louis the Beloved, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1 September 1715 until his death in 1774.
Louis-Joseph Delaporte, often known as Louis Delaporte (22 October 1874 - February 1944) was a French archaeologist and Hittitologist.
Louise Elisabeth of Württemberg-Oels (4 March 1673 – 28 April 1736), was a Duchess of Württemberg-Oels by birth and by marriage Duchess of Saxe-Merseburg-Lauchstädt.
Low Lusatian German (in German: Niederlausitzer Mundart (also English: Low Lusatian Dialect)) is a variety of Central German spoken in northern Saxony and southern Brandenburg within the regions of Lower Lusatia (Cottbus) and the northern part of Upper Lusatia (Hoyerswerda).
Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen, Neddersassen) is a German state (Land) situated in northwestern Germany.
Lower Silesia (Dolny Śląsk; Dolní Slezsko; Silesia Inferior; Niederschlesien; Silesian German: Niederschläsing; Dolny Ślůnsk) is the northwestern part of the historical and geographical region of Silesia; Upper Silesia is to the southeast.
The Lowlands of Holland (Roud 484) is a British folk song in which a young wife tells that her husband has died in the navy at the wars in Holland.
Lubiąż (Leubus) is a village on the east bank of the Odra (Oder) River, in the administrative district of Gmina Wołów, within Wołów County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
Lubin, (Lüben) is a town in Lower Silesian Voivodeship in south-western Poland.
Lubniewice (Königswalde) is a small town in Sulęcin County, Lubusz Voivodeship, western Poland, with 1,924 inhabitants (2004).
Lubomirski is a Polish princely family.
Lubomirski's rebellion or Lubomirski's rokosz (rokosz Lubomirskiego), was a rebellion against Polish King John II Casimir, initiated by the Polish nobleman Jerzy Sebastian Lubomirski.
Lubsko (Sommerfeld, Lower Sorbian: Žemŕ) is a town in Żary County in the Lubusz Voivodeship in western Poland.
Lubusz Land (Ziemia Lubuska, Lubusz; Land Lebus) is a historical region and cultural landscape in Poland and Germany on both sides of the Oder river.
Lubusz Voivodeship, or Lubusz Province (in Polish, województwo lubuskie), is a voivodeship (province) in western Poland.
Luc de Clapiers, marquis de Vauvenargues (6 August 1715 – 28 May 1747) was a minor French writer, a moralist.
Luceafărul (originally spelled Luceafĕrul; variously rendered as "The Morning Star", "The Evening Star", "The Vesper", "The Daystar", or "Lucifer") is a narrative poem by Romanian author Mihai Eminescu.
Lucie Weidt (May 11, 1876 – July 28, 1940) was a German-born Austrian soprano noted for her prowess in the operas of Richard Wagner.
Lucjan Feliks Malinowski (27 May 1839 in Jaroszewice, Poland – 15 January 1898 in Kraków) - Polish linguist, scientist a regional dialects of Silesia, traveller, professor of Jagiellonian University, from the 1887 principal Seminar Slavic languages.
Ludwig August von Stutterheim served Frederick the Great and his successors in the War of Bavarian Succession, the Kościuszko Uprising, and the wars of the Fourth and Sixth coalitions.
Ludwig Camerarius (22 January 1573, Nuremberg – 4 October 1651, probably in Heidelberg) was a German statesman, lawyer, minister and head of Frederick V's government-in-exile in the Hague.
Ludwig Crocius (also Ludovicus Crocius; 29 March 1586 – 7 December 1653 or 1655) was a German Calvinist minister.
Ludwig Ferdinand Schnorr von Carolsfeld (11 October 1788 – 13 April 1853) was a German Romantic painter, engraver and lithographer.
Ludwig Kasper (2 May 1893 – 28 August 1945) was an Austrian sculptor.
Ludwig Laqueur (July 25, 1839 – April 20, 1909) was a German ophthalmologist born in Festenberg, Silesia.
Ludwig Meidner (18 April 1884 – 14 May 1966) was a German expressionist painter and printmaker born in Bernstadt, Silesia.
Ludwig Rosenthal (2 July 1840, Fellheim, Bavaria - 23 December 1928, Munich) was a German antiquarian bookseller.
Ludwig Schwamb (30 July 1890 in Undenheim – 23 January 1945 in Berlin) was a social-democratic jurist and politician who fought against the Nazi dictatorship in Germany as a member of the Kreisau Circle motivated by his Christian beliefs, and as a close colleague of Wilhelm Leuschner, which led to his execution as a resistance fighter.
Ludwig Ritter von Fautz (20 August 1811 in Vienna – 23 February 1880 in Penzing, now Vienna) was vice admiral and commander of the Austrian Navy.
Johann David Ludwig Graf Yorck von Wartenburg (26 September 1759 – 4 October 1830) was a Prussian Generalfeldmarschall instrumental in the switching of the Kingdom of Prussia from a French alliance to a Russian alliance during the War of the Sixth Coalition.
Ludwik Konarzewski – senior (August 18, 1885, Wilanów – October 2, 1954, Istebna) was a Polish painter, sculptor and teacher of fine arts who worked in Upper Silesia and Cieszyn Silesia.
The Lugii (or Lugi, Lygii, Ligii, Lugiones, Lygians, Ligians, Lugians, or Lougoi) were a large tribal confederation mentioned by Roman authors living in ca.
Lugus was a deity of the Celtic pantheon.
Luise Kähler (1869 – September 1955) was a German socialist, trade union leader and politician.
Lukas Josef Podolski (born Łukasz Józef Podolski on 4 June 1985) is a professional footballer who plays as a forward for Japanese side Vissel Kobe.
A lullaby, or cradle song, is a soothing song or piece of music that is usually played for (or sung to) children.
Lusatia (Lausitz, Łužica, Łužyca, Łużyce, Lužice) is a region in Central Europe.
The Lusatian culture existed in the later Bronze Age and early Iron Age (1300 BC – 500 BC) in most of today's Poland and parts of the Czech Republic, Slovakia, eastern Germany, and western Ukraine.
The Lusatian Mountains (Lužické hory; Lausitzer Gebirge; Góry Łużyckie) are a mountain range of the Western Sudetes on the southeastern border of Germany with the Czech Republic.
The Lutheran Diocese of Katowice is one of the dioceses from the Polish Lutheran Church, which comprises 6 dioceses.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Lux perpetua is a historical novel with fantasy elements, written by Andrzej Sapkowski, the last part of the Hussite Trilogy.
The Lwów Oath (Śluby lwowskie) was an oath made on April 1, 1656 by Polish king John II Casimir in Latin cathedral in the city of Lwów (today Lviv, western Ukraine).
Lwówek Śląski (Löwenberg in Schlesien) is a town in the Lower Silesian Voivodeship in Poland.
Małomice (Mallmitz) is a town in Żagań County, Lubusz Voivodeship, Poland, with 3,671 inhabitants (2004).
Maciej Urbaniec (born in 1925 near Zamość - died in 2004 in Warsaw).
Magnat is a 1987 Polish historical drama film directed by Filip Bajon.
Magnus Alexander Maximilian Freiherr von Braun (7 February 1878 – 29 August 1972) was a German civil servant and conservative politician whose career spanned the German Empire, World War I and the Weimar Republic.
Makówki, Lower Silesian: Mohn Kließla (Kliessla), Mohn Klöße, Mohn Pilen Mákos Guba are different names for a traditional poppy seed-based dessert from Central Europe.
Malcolm Sinclair (1690 – 17 June 1739) was a Swedish officer, nobleman and envoy who was murdered by two Russian officers on his way home from the Ottoman Empire.
Manfred Kanther (b. 26 May 1939 in Schweidnitz, Silesia) is a German conservative politician and was Minister of the Interior of the Federal Republic of Germany from 1993 to 1998.
Karl Ernst Manfred Freiherr von Richthofen (24 May 1855 – 28 November 1939) was a German General der Kavallerie (General of the Cavalry) during World War I and recipient of the order Pour le Mérite, known informally as the Blue Max.
Mannerist architecture and sculpture in Poland dominated between 1550 and 1650, when it was finally replaced with baroque.
Marcel Witeczek (born 18 October 1968) is a retired German footballer who played mostly as an attacking midfielder.
Marcus Kretzer (born May 9, 1965 in Hilden, Germany) is a German pianist and music teacher.
Marek Stachowski (21 March 1936 – 3 November 2004) was a Polish composer.
Margaret Frances Jane Lowenfeld (4 February 1890 – 2 February 1973) was a British pioneer of child psychology and play therapy, a medical researcher in paediatric medicine, and an author of several publications and academic papers on the study of child development and play.
Maria Clementina Sobieska (Maria Klementyna Sobieska; 18 July 1702 – 18 January 1735) was a Titular Queen consort of England by marriage to James Francis Edward Stuart, a Jacobite claimant to the British throne.
Maria Cunitz or Maria Cunitia (other versions of surname include: Cunicia, Cunitzin, Kunic, Cunitiae, Kunicia, Kunicka) (Wołów, Silesia, 1610 – Byczyna, Silesia, August 22, 1664) was an accomplished Silesian astronomer, and one of the most notable female astronomers of the modern era.
Maria Karolina Sobieska (25 November 1697 – 8 May 1740) was a Polish noblewoman, daughter of Jakub Ludwik Sobieski.
Maria (Mia) Kuryluk (24 December 1917 – 1 January 2001) was a poet, writer, translator, and amateur pianist.
Maria Stona; Marie Scholz; born Stonawski (1859–1944) was a Silesian German writer and poet.
Maria Szraiber is a Polish pianist and music educator.
Maria Theresa Walburga Amalia Christina (Maria Theresia; 13 May 1717 – 29 November 1780) was the only female ruler of the Habsburg dominions and the last of the House of Habsburg.
Maria Helene Françoise Izabel Gräfin von Maltzan, Freiin zu Wartenberg und Penzlin (March 25, 1909 – November 12, 1997) was an aristocrat who, as part of the German Resistance against Adolf Hitler and the Nazi party, saved the lives of many Jewish people in Berlin.
Marian Krzaklewski (born 23 August 1950 in Kolbuszowa) is a Polish politician.
Marie Bloede (29 September 1821 - 12 March 1870) was an American author of German descent, who also published under the pseudonym Marie Westland.
Marie Eva Elwine Goslich (24 February 1859 in Frankfurt (Oder) – 1936) was a German journalist, photographer and magazine editor.
Countess Henrieta Hermína Rudolfína Ferdinanda Marie Antonie Anna Chotková of Chotkov and Vojnín – (known as Marie Henrieta Chotek - Mária Henrieta Choteková) - (1863–1946), also known as the countess of roses was a grower of roses, who established the rosarium of Dolná Krupá (Slovakia),.
Maria Karolina Zofia Felicja Leszczyńska (23 June 1703 – 24 June 1768) also known as Marie Leczinska, was a Polish noblewoman and French Queen consort.
Marie Louise Gonzaga (Ludwika Maria; 18 August 1611 – 10 May 1667) was Queen of Poland and Grand Duchess of Lithuania by marriage to two Polish kings and Grand Dukes of Lithuania, Władysław IV Vasa and John II Casimir.