208 relations: Abiraterone, Addison's disease, Adrenal gland, Adrenal insufficiency, Adrenal tumor, Adrenocortical carcinoma, Adrenocortical hormone, Adrenosterone, Aldosterone, Alfatradiol, Alkynylation, Amphenone B, Androgen, Androstenediol, Androstenedione, Androsterone, Annexin A1, Anthony W. Norman, Antiandrogen, Anticorticotropin, Azacosterol, Étienne-Émile Baulieu, Blood pressure, Blue-headed vireo, Boldione, Box jellyfish, Breast development, Bruce effect, California sheephead, Cat cognitive support diets, Catecholamine, Cell nucleus, Chemotherapy regimen, Childhood memory, Cholesterol, Combined oral contraceptive pill, Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, Corpus luteum, Corticosteroid, Corticosterone, Cortisol, Cortisone, Cyclobuxine, Cytochrome P450, Danazol, Dehydroandrosterone, Dehydroepiandrosterone, DHRS7B, Differential diagnoses of depression, Dihydrotestosterone, ..., Dioscorea, Dioscorea bulbifera, Dioscorea zingiberensis, Disorders of sex development, Ecdysteroid, Elizabeth Gould (psychologist), Endocrine system, Endocrinology, Endoplasmic reticulum, Environmental impact of pharmaceuticals and personal care products, Epiandrosterone, Estetrol, Estetrol (medication), Estradiol, Estradiol (medication), Estrane, Estrin, Estrin (compound), Estriol (medication), Estrogen, Estrogen receptor, Estrone, Estrone (medication), Estrone sulfate (medication), Ethel Ronzoni Bishop, Etomidate, Etonogestrel, Fatty acid metabolism, Female body shape, Finasteride, Gelsemine, Gender, Genome (book), Gerald Crabtree, Gerhard Raspé, Ginsenoside, Glucocorticoid, Glycoside, Gonadal dysgenesis, Gonane, Growth factor, Heinz Gibian, High-density lipoprotein, Homeostasis, Hormonal contraception, Hormonal therapy (oncology), Hormone, Hormone receptor, HSD3B2, Hydroxylation of estradiol, Hypercholesterolemia, Hypereosinophilia, Igor Torgov, Inborn errors of steroid metabolism, Inositol, Intracellular receptor, Israel Hanukoglu, Jeff Bagwell, Jeffrey Blaustein, Ketoconazole, Ketosteroid, Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia, List of distinct cell types in the adult human body, List of human blood components, List of MeSH codes (D06), List of Michigan State University people, List of neurosteroids, List of people from Michigan, List of proteins, List of University of Michigan alumni, Liver, Long-term potentiation, Marc Breedlove, Marion Sewer, Masato Tanabe, Maternal fetal stress transfer, Membrane progesterone receptor, Memory improvement, Mevalonate pathway, Mifepristone, Mineralocorticoid, Nancy Loudon, Natural product, Neuroscience of sex differences, Neurosteroidogenesis inhibitor, Nuclear receptor, Orally disintegrating tablet, Orexigenic, Organic chemistry, Organizational-Activational Hypothesis, Paul Stewart (doctor), Paul Talalay, Peptide hormone, Pleiotropy (drugs), Polyestradiol phosphate, Prasterone, Pregnenolone, Prenatal testosterone transfer, Prevotella intermedia, PRMT4 pathway, Progesterone (medication), Progestin-induced virilization, Progestogen, Puberty, Resistance-nodulation-cell division superfamily, Revival Soy, Richard Anthony Jefferson, Ruff, Saliva testing, Sapogenin, Second messenger system, Serum albumin, Sex hormone-binding globulin, Sex steroid, Signal transduction, SLC10A1, Soybean, Spirolactone, Spironolactone, Squalene, Steroid, Steroid Delta-isomerase, Steroid hormone receptor, Steroid sulfate, Steroidogenesis inhibitor, Steroidogenic enzyme, Steroids (journal), Sterol, Stress (biology), TAS-108, Testolactone, Testosterone-cortisol ratio, The Great Pheromone Myth, Thomas C. Südhof, Thymosin beta-4, Topical medication, Topical progesterone, Toxicodynamics, Traditional Chinese medicines derived from the human body, Tropic hormone, UGT2B17, UGT2B7, Vaginal adenosis, Werner Emmanuel Bachmann, Yuliya Yefimova, ZIP9, 11-Deoxycorticosterone, 11-Deoxycortisol, 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 16α-Hydroxyprogesterone, 17α-Hydroxyprogesterone, 20α,22R-Dihydroxycholesterol, 21-Hydroxylase, 22R-Hydroxycholesterol, 3β-Androstanediol, 5α-Dihydrocorticosterone, 5α-Dihydroethisterone, 7α-Thioprogesterone. Expand index (158 more) » « Shrink index
Abiraterone, developmental code name CB-7598, also known as 17-(3-pyridyl)androsta-5,16-dien-3β-ol, is a synthetic, steroidal CYP17A1 inhibitor.
Addison's disease, also known as primary adrenal insufficiency and hypocortisolism, is a long-term endocrine disorder in which the adrenal glands do not produce enough steroid hormones.
The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.
Adrenal insufficiency is a condition in which the adrenal glands do not produce adequate amounts of steroid hormones, primarily cortisol; but may also include impaired production of aldosterone (a mineralocorticoid), which regulates sodium conservation, potassium secretion, and water retention.
An adrenal tumor or adrenal mass is any benign or malignant neoplasms of the adrenal gland, several of which are notable for their tendency to overproduce endocrine hormones.
Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC, adrenal cortical carcinoma, adrenal cortical cancer, adrenal cortex cancer, etc.) is an aggressive cancer originating in the cortex (steroid hormone-producing tissue) of the adrenal gland.
In humans and other animals, the adrenocortical hormones are hormones produced by the adrenal cortex, the outer region of the adrenal gland.
Adrenosterone, also known as Reichstein's substance G, as well as 11-ketoandrostenedione (11-KA4), 11-oxoandrostenedione (11-OXO), and androst-4-ene-3,11,17-trione, is a steroid hormone with a weak androgenic effect, and an intermediate/prohormone of 11-ketotestosterone.
Aldosterone, the main mineralocorticoid hormone, is a steroid hormone produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland.
Alfatradiol, also known as 17α-estradiol and sold under the brand names Avicis, Avixis, Ell-Cranell Alpha, and Pantostin, is a weak estrogen and a 5α-reductase inhibitor which is used as a topical medication in the treatment of androgenic alopecia (pattern hair loss) in men and women.
Alkynylation is an addition reaction in organic synthesis where a terminal alkyne adds to a carbonyl group to form an α-alkynyl alcohol.
Amphenone B, or simply amphenone, also known as 3,3-bis(p-aminophenyl)butan-2-one, is an inhibitor of steroid hormone and thyroid hormone biosynthesis which was never marketed but has been used as a tool in scientific research to study corticosteroids and the adrenal glands.
An androgen (from Greek andr-, the stem of the word meaning "man") is any natural or synthetic steroid hormone which regulates the development and maintenance of male characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors.
Androstenediol, or 5-androstenediol (abbreviated as A5 or Δ5-diol), also known as androst-5-ene-3β,17β-diol, is an endogenous weak androgen and estrogen steroid hormone and intermediate in the biosynthesis of testosterone from dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).
Androstenedione, or 4-androstenedione (abbreviated as A4 or Δ4-dione), also known as androst-4-ene-3,17-dione, is an endogenous weak androgen steroid hormone and intermediate in the biosynthesis of estrone and of testosterone from dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).
Androsterone, or 5α-androstan-3α-ol-17-one, is an endogenous steroid hormone, neurosteroid, and putative pheromone.
Annexin A1, also known as lipocortin I, is a protein that is encoded by the ANXA1 gene in humans.
Anthony W. Norman is a distinguished professor emeritus of biochemistry and biomedical sciences at the University of California, Riverside and one of the world's foremost experts on vitamin D.
Antiandrogens, also known as androgen antagonists or testosterone blockers, are a class of drugs that prevent androgens like testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) from mediating their biological effects in the body.
An anticorticotropin, or anticorticotrophin, is a drug which opposes the actions of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and/or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in relation to their stimulatory effects on the adrenal glands, or which otherwise suppresses steroid hormone production in the adrenal glands.
Azacosterol (INN), or azacosterol hydrochloride (USAN) (brand name Ornitrol), also known as 20,25-diazacholesterol, is a cholesterol-lowering drug (hypocholesteremic) which was marketed previously but has since been discontinued. It is also an avian chemosterilant used to control the pest pigeon population via inducing sterility. The drug is a sterol and derivative of cholesterol in which two carbon atoms have been replaced with nitrogen atoms. Azacosterol acts as an inhibitor of 24-dehydrocholesterol reductase (24-DHCR), preventing the formation of cholesterol from desmosterol. Although it primarily acts to inhibit 24-DHCR, the drug also inhibits other steps in cholesterol biosynthesis. The anti-fertility effects of the drug in birds are mediated by inhibition of steroid hormone production, steroid hormones being synthesized from cholesterol. Due to prevention of the metabolism of desmosterol, the drug causes it to accumulate, in turn producing side effects such as hyperkeratosis, particularly of the palms and soles.
Étienne-Émile Baulieu (born 12 December 1926) is a French biochemist and endocrinologist who is best known for his research in the field of steroid hormones and their role in reproduction and aging.
Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.
The blue-headed vireo (Vireo solitarius) is a Neotropical migrating song bird found in North and Central America.
Boldione, also known as androstadienedione or 1-dehydroandrostenedione, as well as 1,4-androstadiene-3,17-dione, is an important industrial precursor for various steroid hormones.
Box jellyfish (class Cubozoa) are cnidarian invertebrates distinguished by their cube-shaped medusae.
Breast development, also known as mammogenesis, is a complex biological process in primates that takes place throughout a female's life.
The Bruce effect, or pregnancy block, is the tendency for female rodents to terminate their pregnancies following exposure to the scent of an unfamiliar male.
The California sheep head (Semicossyphus pulcher) is a species of wrasse native to the eastern Pacific Ocean.
In general, cognitive support diets are formulated to include nutrients that have a known role in brain development, function and/or maintenance, with the goal of improving and preserving mental processes such as attentiveness, short-term and long-term memory, learning, and problem solving.
A catecholamine (CA) is a monoamine, an organic compound that has a catechol (benzene with two hydroxyl side groups at carbons 1 and 2) and a side-chain amine.
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
A chemotherapy regimen is a regimen for chemotherapy, defining the drugs to be used, their dosage, the frequency and duration of treatments, and other considerations.
Childhood memory refers to memories formed during childhood.
Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.
The combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP), often referred to as the birth control pill or colloquially as "the pill", is a type of birth control that is designed to be taken orally by women.
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) are any of several autosomal recessive diseases resulting from mutations of genes for enzymes mediating the biochemical steps of production of mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids or sex steroids from cholesterol by the adrenal glands (steroidogenesis).
The corpus luteum (Latin for "yellow body"; plural corpora lutea) is a temporary endocrine structure in female ovaries and is involved in the production of relatively high levels of progesterone, moderate levels of estradiol, inhibin A and small amounts of estrogen.
Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones.
Corticosterone, also known as 17-deoxycortisol and 11β,21-dihydroxyprogesterone, is a 21-carbon steroid hormone of the corticosteroid type produced in the cortex of the adrenal glands.
Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones.
Cortisone, also known as 17α,21-dihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,11,20-trione, is a pregnane (21-carbon) steroid hormone.
Cyclobuxine is an alkaloid, which can be found in Buxus sempervirens (family Buxaceae) better known as common boxwood, and is derived from the cholesterol skeleton.
Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are proteins of the superfamily containing heme as a cofactor and, therefore, are hemoproteins.
Danazol, sold under the brand name Danocrine among others, is a medication which is used in the treatment of endometriosis, fibrocystic breast disease, hereditary angioedema, and other conditions.
Dehydroandrosterone (DHA), or 5-dehydroandrosterone (5-DHA), also known as isoandrostenolone, as well as androst-5-en-3α-ol-17-one, is an endogenous androgen steroid hormone.
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), also known as androstenolone, is an endogenous steroid hormone.
Dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR family) member 7B is an enzyme encoded by the DHRS7B gene in humans, found on chromosome 17p11.2.
Depression, one of the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorders, is being diagnosed in increasing numbers in various segments of the population worldwide.
Dihydrotestosterone (DHT), or 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT), also known as androstanolone or stanolone, is an endogenous androgen sex steroid and hormone.
Dioscorea is a genus of over 600 species of flowering plants in the family Dioscoreaceae, native throughout the tropical and warm temperate regions of the world.
Dioscorea bulbifera (commonly known as the air potato, air yam, bitter yam, cheeky yam, potato yam) is a species of true yam in the yam family, Dioscoreaceae.
Dioscorea zingiberensis, is a species of yam, a tuberous root vegetable.
Disorders of sex development (DSD), sometimes referred to as disorders of sex differentiation or differences of sex development, are medical conditions involving the reproductive system.
Ecdysteroids are arthropod steroid hormones that are mainly responsible for molting, development and, to a lesser extent, reproduction; examples of ecdysteroids include ecdysone, ecdysterone, turkesterone and 20-hydroxyecdysone.
Elizabeth Gould is an American neuroscientist and professor of psychology at Princeton University's Department of Psychology.
The endocrine system is a chemical messenger system consisting of hormones, the group of glands of an organism that carry those hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs, and the feedback loops of homeostasis that the hormones drive.
Endocrinology (from endocrine + -ology) is a branch of biology and medicine dealing with the endocrine system, its diseases, and its specific secretions known as hormones.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle found in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae.
The environmental effect of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) is largely speculative.
Epiandrosterone, or isoandrosterone, also known as 3β-androsterone, 3β-hydroxy-5α-androstan-17-one, or 5α-androstan-3β-ol-17-one, is a steroid hormone with weak androgenic activity.
Estetrol (E4), or oestetrol, is a weak estrogen steroid hormone which is found in detectable levels only during pregnancy.
Estetrol, tentative brand names Donesta (alone) and Estelle (with drospirenone), is an estrogen medication and naturally occurring steroid hormone which is under development for use as a birth control pill in combination with a progestin, in menopausal hormone therapy to treat symptoms such as vaginal atrophy, hot flashes, and bone loss, and for the treatment of breast cancer, prostate cancer, osteoarthritis, and migraine.
Estradiol (E2), also spelled oestradiol, is an estrogen steroid hormone and the major female sex hormone.
Estradiol, also spelled oestradiol, is a medication and naturally occurring steroid hormone.
Estrane is a C18 steroid derivative, with a gonane core.
Estrin is a surname, and may refer to.
Estrin (American English), or oestrin (British English), also known as estra-1,3,5(10)-triene, is an estrane steroid.
Estriol, sold under the brand name Ovestin among others, is an estrogen medication and naturally occurring steroid hormone which is used in menopausal hormone therapy.
Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.
Estrogen receptors (ERs) are a group of proteins found inside cells.
Estrone (E1), also spelled oestrone, is a steroid, a weak estrogen, and a minor female sex hormone.
Estrone, sold under the brand names Estragyn, Kestrin, and Theelin among many others, is an estrogen medication and naturally occurring steroid hormone which has been used in menopausal hormone therapy and for other indications.
Estrone sulfate (E1S) is an estrogen medication and naturally occurring steroid hormone.
Ethel Ronzoni Bishop (b. August 21, 1890-1975) was an American biochemist and physiologist.
Etomidate (USAN, INN, BAN) (marketed as Amidate) is a short-acting intravenous anaesthetic agent used for the induction of general anaesthesia and sedation for short procedures such as reduction of dislocated joints, tracheal intubation, and cardioversion.
Etonogestrel is a progestin medication which is used as a means of birth control for women.
Fatty acid metabolism consists of catabolic processes that generate energy, and anabolic processes that create biologically important molecules (triglycerides, phospholipids, second messengers, local hormones and ketone bodies).
Female body shape or female figure is the cumulative product of a woman's skeletal structure and the quantity and distribution of muscle and fat on the body.
Finasteride, sold under the brand names Proscar and Propecia among others, is a medication used mainly to treat an enlarged prostate or scalp hair loss in men.
--> Gelsemine (C20H22N2O2) is an indole alkaloid isolated from flowering plants of the genus Gelsemium, a plant native to the subtropical and tropical Americas, and southeast Asia, and is a highly toxic compound that acts as a paralytic, exposure to which can result in death.
Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between, masculinity and femininity.
Genome: The Autobiography of a Species in 23 Chapters is a 1999 popular science book by the science writer Matt Ridley, published by Fourth Estate.
Gerald R. Crabtree is the David Korn Professor at Stanford University and an Investigator in the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.
Gerhard Raspé (born 20 January 1928 in Bucharest, died 1 September 1974 in West Berlin) was a Romanian-born German organic chemist, who served as research director at Schering AG and a member of the company's executive board.
Ginsenosides or panaxosides are a class of natural product steroid glycosides and triterpene saponins.
Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which are a class of steroid hormones.
In chemistry, a glycoside is a molecule in which a sugar is bound to another functional group via a glycosidic bond.
Gonadal dysgenesis is classified as any congenital developmental disorder of the reproductive system in the male or female.
Gonane (C17), also known as perhydrocyclopentaphenanthrene, is a tetracyclic hydrocarbon ring structure and the fundamental steroid nucleus.
A growth factor is a naturally occurring substance capable of stimulating cellular growth, proliferation, healing, and cellular differentiation.
Heinz Rudolf Gibian (born 30 March 1916 in Munich, died 13 May 1995 in Berlin) was a German biochemist, who was noted for his research on steroid hormones.
High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are one of the five major groups of lipoproteins.
Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.
Hormonal contraception refers to birth control methods that act on the endocrine system.
Hormonal therapy in oncology is hormone therapy for cancer and is one of the major modalities of medical oncology (pharmacotherapy for cancer), others being cytotoxic chemotherapy and targeted therapy (biotherapeutics).
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
A hormone receptor is a receptor molecule that binds to a specific hormone.
HSD3B2 is a human gene that encodes for 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/delta(5)-delta(4)isomerase type II or hydroxy-delta-5-steroid dehydrogenase, 3 beta- and steroid delta-isomerase 2.
The hydroxylation of estradiol is one of the major routes of metabolism of the estrogen steroid hormone estradiol.
Hypercholesterolemia, also called high cholesterol, is the presence of high levels of cholesterol in the blood.
Hypereosinophilia is an elevation in an individual's circulating blood eosinophil count above 15.0 x 109/L (i.e. 1,500/μL).
Igor Vladimirovich Torgov (Игорь Владимирович Торгов) (February 15 (O.S. February 2), 1912, Kazan - 2007) was a Soviet chemist and a corresponding member of the Soviet Academy of Sciences (1972).
An inborn error of steroid metabolism is an inborn error of metabolism due to defects in steroid metabolism.
Myo-inositol, or simply inositol, is a carbocyclic sugar that is abundant in brain and other mammalian tissues, mediates cell signal transduction in response to a variety of hormones, neurotransmitters and growth factors and participates in osmoregulation It is a sugar alcohol with half the sweetness of sucrose (table sugar).
Intracellular receptors are receptors located inside the cell rather than on its cell membrane.
Israel Hanukoglu (İsrael Hanukoğlu) is a Turkish-born Israeli scientist.
Jeffrey Robert Bagwell (born May 27, 1968) is an American former professional first baseman and coach who spent his entire 15-year Major League Baseball (MLB) playing career with the Houston Astros.
Jeffrey Blaustein is a retired professor and the former head of the Behavioral Neuroscience Division at the University of Massachusetts Amherst (UMass Amherst), known for his research in behavioral neuroendocrinology.
Ketoconazole is a synthetic imidazole antifungal drug used primarily to treat fungal infections.
Androstenedione Androsterone Estrone A ketosteroid, or an oxosteroid, is a steroid in which a hydrogen atom has been replaced with a ketone (C.
Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia is an endocrine disorder that is an uncommon and potentially lethal form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH).
There are many different types of cell in the human body.
In blood banking, the fractions of Whole Blood used for transfusion are also called components.
This is the fourth part of the list of the "D" codes for MeSH.
Michigan State University alumni number around 552,000 worldwide.
This is a list of neurosteroids, or natural and synthetic steroids that are active on the mammalian nervous system through receptors other than steroid hormone receptors.
This is a list of notable people from the U.S. state of Michigan.
Note that there exists a category for proteins that is more complete than this list. A list of proteins (and protein complexes).
There are more than 500,000 living alumni of the University of Michigan.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
In neuroscience, long-term potentiation (LTP) is a persistent strengthening of synapses based on recent patterns of activity.
Stephen Marc Breedlove (born 1954) is the Barnett Rosenberg professor of Neuroscience at Michigan State University in East Lansing, Michigan.
Marion Sewer (1972-2016) was a pharmacologist and professor at the University of California, San Diego's Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences known for her research on steroid hormone biogenesis and her commitment to increasing diversity in science.
Masato "Mas" Tanabe was a drug researcher at SRI International, where he spent 45 years studying steroid hormones, which are instrumental in combatting breast cancer and prostate cancer.
Maternal fetal stress transfer describes the physiological phenomenon by which psychosocial stress experienced by a mother during her pregnancy can be transferred to the fetus.
Membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs) are a group of cell surface receptors and membrane steroid receptors belonging to the progestin and adipoQ receptor (PAQR) family which bind the endogenous progestogen and neurosteroid progesterone, as well as the neurosteroid allopregnanolone.
Memory improvement is the act of improving one's memory.
The mevalonate pathway, also known as the isoprenoid pathway or HMG-CoA reductase pathway is an essential metabolic pathway present in eukaryotes, archaea, and some bacteria.
Mifepristone, also known as RU-486, is a medication typically used in combination with misoprostol, to bring about an abortion.
Mineralocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which in turn are a class of steroid hormones.
Nancy Beaton Loudon (née Mann; 28 February 1926 – 20 February 2009) was a Scottish gynaecologist.
A natural product is a chemical compound or substance produced by a living organism—that is, found in nature.
Neuroscience of sex differences is the study of the characteristics of the brain that separate the male brain and the female brain.
A neurosteroidogenesis inhibitor is a drug that inhibits the production of endogenous neurosteroids.
In the field of molecular biology, nuclear receptors are a class of proteins found within cells that are responsible for sensing steroid and thyroid hormones and certain other molecules.
An orally disintegrating tablet or orally dissolving tablet (ODT) is a drug dosage form available for a limited range of over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription medications.
An orexigenic, or appetite stimulant, is a drug, hormone, or compound that increases appetite and may induce hyperphagia.
Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.
The Organizational-Activational Hypothesis states that steroid hormones permanently organize the nervous system during early development, which is reflected in adult male or female typical behaviors.
Paul Stewart FMedSci FRCP is Dean of Medicine and Health at the University of Leeds and an Honorary Consultant Endocrinologist at the Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust.
Paul Talalay (born March 31, 1923) is the John Jacob Abel Distinguished Service Professor of Pharmacology and Director of the Laboratory for Molecular Sciences at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine in Baltimore.
Peptide hormones or protein hormones are hormones whose molecules are peptides or proteins, respectively.
In pharmacology, pleiotropy includes all of a drug's actions other than those for which the agent was specifically developed.
Polyestradiol phosphate (PEP), sold under the brand name Estradurin, is a medication which is used primarily in the treatment of prostate cancer in men.
Prasterone, also known as dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and sold under the brand names Gynodian Depot (as an ester) and Intrarosa among others, is a medication as well as supplement which is used to correct DHEA deficiency due to adrenal insufficiency or old age, as a component of menopausal hormone therapy, to treat painful sexual intercourse due to vaginal atrophy, and to prepare the cervix for childbirth among other uses.
Pregnenolone (P5), or pregn-5-en-3β-ol-20-one, is an endogenous steroid and precursor/metabolic intermediate in the biosynthesis of most of the steroid hormones, including the progestogens, androgens, estrogens, glucocorticoids, and mineralocorticoids.
Prenatal Testosterone Transfer (also known as prenatal androgen transfer or prenatal hormone transfer) refers to the phenomenon in which testosterone synthesized by a developing male fetus transfers to one or more developing fetuses within the womb and influences development.
Prevotella intermedia (formerly Bacteroides intermedius) is a gram-negative, obligate anaerobic pathogenic bacterium involved in periodontal infections, including gingivitis and periodontitis, and often found in acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis.
Protein arginine N-methyltransferase-4 (PRMT4/CARM1) methylation of arginine residues within proteins plays a critical key role in transcriptional regulation (see the PRMT4 pathway on the left).
Progesterone is a medication and naturally occurring steroid hormone.
Maternal use of androgens or high doses of certain weakly androgenic synthetic progestogens (progestins) structurally related to testosterone can masculinize (virilize) the external genitalia of a female fetus during susceptible times in pregnancy.
Progestogens, also sometimes spelled progestagens or gestagens, are a class of steroid hormones that bind to and activate the progesterone receptor (PR).
Puberty is the process of physical changes through which a child's body matures into an adult body capable of sexual reproduction.
Resistance-nodulation-division (RND) family transporters are a category of bacterial efflux pumps, especially identified in Gram-negative bacteria and located in the cytoplasmic membrane, that actively transport substrates.
Revival Soy is a brand of soy food and supplement products developed by Physicians Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a private, family-owned company located in Kernersville, North Carolina.
Richard Anthony Jefferson (born 1956) is an American-born molecular biologist and social entrepreneur who developed the widely used reporter gene system GUS, conducted the world's first biotech crop release, proposed the Hologenome theory of evolution, pioneered Biological Open Source and founded.
The ruff (Calidris pugnax) is a medium-sized wading bird that breeds in marshes and wet meadows across northern Eurasia.
Saliva testing is a diagnostic technique that involves laboratory analysis of saliva to identify markers of endocrine, immunologic, inflammatory, infectious, and other types of conditions.
Sapogenins are the aglycones, or non-saccharide, portions of the family of natural products known as saponins.
Second messengers are intracellular signaling molecules released by the cell in response to exposure to extracellular signaling molecules—the first messengers.
Serum albumin, often referred to simply as blood albumin, is an albumin (a type of globular protein) found in vertebrate blood.
Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) or sex steroid-binding globulin (SSBG) is a glycoprotein that binds to the two sex hormones: androgen and estrogen.
Sex steroids, also known as gonadocorticoids and gonadal steroids, are steroid hormones that interact with vertebrate androgen or estrogen receptors.
Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response.
Sodium/bile acid cotransporter also known as the Na+-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) or liver bile acid transporter (LBAT) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC10A1 (solute carrier family 10 member 1) gene.
The soybean (Glycine max), or soya bean, is a species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean, which has numerous uses.
Spirolactones are a class of functional group in organic chemistry featuring a cyclic ester attatched spiro to another ring system.
Spironolactone, sold under the brand name Aldactone among others, is a medication that is primarily used to treat fluid build-up due to heart failure, liver scarring, or kidney disease.
Squalene is a natural 30-carbon organic compound originally obtained for commercial purposes primarily from shark liver oil (hence its name, as Squalus is a genus of sharks), although plant sources (primarily vegetable oils) are now used as well, including amaranth seed, rice bran, wheat germ, and olives.
A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.
In enzymology, a steroid Δ5-isomerase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, a 3-oxo-Δ5-steroid, and one product, a 3-oxo-Δ4-steroid.
Steroid hormone receptors are found in the nucleus, cytosol, and also on the plasma membrane of target cells.
Steroid sulfates are endogenous sulfate esters of steroids.
A steroidogenesis inhibitor, also known as a steroid biosynthesis inhibitor, is a type of drug which inhibits one or more of the enzymes that are involved in the process of steroidogenesis, the biosynthesis of endogenous steroids and steroid hormones.
Steroidogenic enzymes, or steroid-metabolizing enzymes, are enzymes that are involved in steroidogenesis and steroid metabolism.
Steroids is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering all aspects of steroid hormones.
Sterols, also known as steroid alcohols, are a subgroup of the steroids and an important class of organic molecules.
Physiological or biological stress is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition.
TAS-108, also known as SR-16234, is a drug discovered by Masato Tanabe and under development by SRI International and Taiho Pharmaceutical.
Testolactone (brand name Teslac) is a non-selective, irreversible, steroidal aromatase inhibitor which is used as an antineoplastic drug to treat advanced-stage breast cancer.
In human biology, the testosterone-cortisol ratio describes the ratio between testosterone, the primary male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid, and cortisol, another steroid hormone, in the human body.
The Great Pheromone Myth is a book on pheromones and their application to chemosensation in mammals by Richard Doty, director of the University of Pennsylvania's Smell and Taste Center in Philadelphia.
Thomas Christian Südhof (born December 22, 1955) is a German-American biochemist known for his study of synaptic transmission.
Thymosin beta-4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TMSB4X gene.
A topical medication is a medication that is applied to a particular place on or in the body.
Topical progesterone, also known as transdermal or percutaneous progesterone, is a formulation and route of administration of progesterone in which the hormone is supplied in the form of a cream or gel that is applied to the skin.
Toxicodynamics, termed pharmacodynamics in pharmacology, describes the dynamic interactions of a toxicant with a biological target and its biological effects.
Li Shizhen's (1597) Bencao gangmu, the classic materia medica of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), included 35 human drugs, including organs, bodily fluids, and excreta.
Tropic hormones are hormones that have other endocrine glands as their target.
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B17 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the UGT2B17 gene.
UGT2B7 (UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase-2B7) is a phase II metabolism isoenzyme found to be active in the liver, kidneys, epithelial cells of the lower gastrointestinal tract and also has been reported in the brain.
Vaginal adenosis is a benign abnormality in the vagina, commonly thought to be caused by intrauterine and neonatal exposure of diethylstilbestrol and other progestagens and nonsteroidal estrogens, however it has also been observed in otherwise healthy women and has been considered at times idiopathic or congenital.
Werner Emmanuel Bachmann (November 13, 1901 – March 22, 1951) was an American chemist.
Yuliya Andreyevna Yefimova (Юлия Андреевна Ефимова), also romanized Efimova; born 3 April 1992) is a Russian competitive swimmer. A three-time Olympian, she made her Olympic debut in 2008, before going on to win the bronze medal in the 200 metres breaststroke in 2012, and silver medals in the 100 metres and 200 metres breaststroke in 2016. In 2013, she failed a drug test and was suspended from competition for 16 months. Yefimova is a five-time World Champion, winning the 50 metres breaststroke in 2009 and 2013, the 100 metres breaststroke in 2015, and the 200 metres breaststroke in 2013 and 2017. She is a former world record holder in the 50 metres breaststroke.
Zinc transporter ZIP9 also known as Zrt- and Irt-like protein 9 (ZIP9) and solute carrier family 39 member 9 (SLC39A9) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC39A9 gene.
11-Deoxycorticosterone (DOC), or simply deoxycorticosterone, also known as 21-hydroxyprogesterone, as well as desoxycortone (INN), deoxycortone, and cortexone, is a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal gland that possesses mineralocorticoid activity and acts as a precursor to aldosterone.
11-Deoxycortisol, also known as cortodoxone (INN) or cortexolone, as well as 17α,21-dihydroxyprogesterone or 17α,21-dihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione, is a glucocorticoid steroid hormone.
11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD-11β or 11β-HSD) is a family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of inert 11 keto-products (cortisone) to active cortisol, or vice versa, thus regulating the access of glucocorticoids to the steroid receptors: Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are 11beta-hydroxysteroid and NADP+, whereas its 3 products are 11-oxosteroid, NADPH, and H+.
16α-Hydroxyprogesterone (16α-OHP), also known as 16α-hydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione, is a minor endogenous progestogen steroid hormone and a metabolite of progesterone that is formed in lower amounts than 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17α-OHP).
17α-Hydroxyprogesterone (17α-OHP), or hydroxyprogesterone (OHP), is an endogenous progestogen steroid hormone related to progesterone.
20α,22R-Dihydroxycholesterol, or (3β)-cholest-5-ene-3,20,22-triol is an endogenous, metabolic intermediate in the biosynthesis of the steroid hormones from cholesterol.
Steroid 21-hydroxylase, also called steroid 21-monooxygenase, 21α-Hydroxylase, P450 21A2, and, less commonly 21β-Hydroxylase, is a cytochrome P450 enzyme that is involved with the biosynthesis of the steroid hormones aldosterone and cortisol.
22R-Hydroxycholesterol, or (3β)-cholest-5-ene-3,22-diol is an endogenous, metabolic intermediate in the biosynthesis of the steroid hormones from cholesterol.
3β-Androstanediol, also known as 5α-androstane-3β,17β-diol, and often shortened to 3β-diol, is an endogenous steroid hormone.
5α-Dihydrocorticosterone (5α-DHC, 5α-DHB), also known as 11β,21-dihydroxy-5α-pregnane-3,20-dione, is a naturally occurring, endogenous glucocorticoid steroid hormone and neurosteroid.
5α-Dihydroethisterone (5α-DHET; developmental code name HE-3562) is an active metabolite of the formerly clinically used but now-discontinued progestin ethisterone and the experimental and never-marketed hormonal antineoplastic agent ethynylandrostanediol (HE-3235).
7α-Thioprogesterone (7α-TP4; developmental code name SC-8365; also known as 7α-mercaptopregn-4-ene-3,20-dione) is a synthetic, steroidal, and potent antimineralocorticoid (putative) and antiandrogen which was developed by G. D. Searle & Co and was described in the late 1970s and early 1980s but was never developed or introduced for medical use.