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Terra Mariana

Index Terra Mariana

Terra Mariana (Medieval Latin for "Land of Mary") was the official name for Medieval Livonia or Old Livonia (Alt-Livland, Vana-Liivimaa, Livonija), which was formed in the aftermath of the Livonian Crusade in the territories comprising present day Estonia and Latvia. [1]

115 relations: Alūksne Castle, Archbishopric of Bremen, Archbishopric of Riga, Baltic Germans, Baltic governorates, Baltic nobility, Baltic states, Battle of Ergeme, Battle of Turaida, Battle of Wilkomierz, Bauska, Bishopric of Ösel–Wiek, Bishopric of Courland, Bishopric of Dorpat, Courland, Crusader states, Curonian Kings, Dominant minority, Duchy of Courland and Semigallia, Duchy of Livonia, Duke Adolf Friedrich of Mecklenburg, Ecclesiastical fief, Estland, Estonia, Estonia–Russia relations, February 2, Frydag, Gotthard Kettler, Governorate of Livonia, Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, Gulf of Finland, Hanseatic League, Hermann of Dorpat, High Middle Ages, History of Estonia, History of Europe, History of Latvia, History of Lithuania, History of Poland during the Jagiellonian dynasty, Ilūkste, Ivan III of Russia, Jürgen von Farensbach, Jens Grand, Johannes Ambundii, Kingdom of Jerusalem, Kingdom of Livonia, Kuressaare, Landtag, Language policy in Latvia, Latvia, ..., Latvian language, Lääne County, List of alternative country names, List of predecessors of sovereign states in Europe, List of sovereign states in 1528, List of state leaders in 1348, List of states during the Middle Ages, List of states in the Holy Roman Empire, List of states in the Holy Roman Empire (L), List of wars 1500–1799, List of wars involving Denmark, List of wars involving Estonia, List of wars involving Lithuania, List of wars involving Poland, List of wars involving Russia, List of wars involving Ukraine, Livonia, Livonia (disambiguation), Livonian Brothers of the Sword, Livonian Crusade, Livonian Order, Livonian War, Ludwig August Mellin, Magnus, Duke of Holstein, Mariana, Maryland (disambiguation), Narva River, Narva-Jõesuu, Northern Crusades, Oprichnina, Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana, Ostsiedlung, Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War, Prince-bishop, Riga, Roman Catholic Diocese of Reval, Russians in Latvia, Russo-Swedish War (1554–57), Sakala County, Siege of Narva (1558), State of the Teutonic Order, Tartu, Tālava, Terra Mariana, Timeline of Estonian history, Timeline of Russian history, Timeline of sovereign states in Europe, Treaty of Mozhaysk, Treaty of Pozvol, Treaty of Vilnius (1561), United Baltic Duchy, Valga County, Valga, Estonia, Valka, Vasknarva, Vastseliina Castle, Vidzeme, Walk, Livonia, Welles Declaration, Wilhelm Dietrich von Buddenbrock, Wolter von Plettenberg, 1202, 1207, 13th century, 1560. Expand index (65 more) »

Alūksne Castle

Alūksne Castle (Marienburgas pils, Alūksnes pils; Marienburg) is a castle of Teutonic Knights in current Alūksne, North-Eastern Latvia.

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Archbishopric of Bremen

The Archdiocese of Bremen (also Archdiocese of Hamburg-Bremen, Erzbistum Bremen, not to be confused with the modern Archdiocese of Hamburg, founded in 1994) is a historical Roman Catholic diocese (787–1566/1648) and formed from 1180 to 1648 an ecclesiastical state (continued under other names until 1823), named Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen (Erzstift Bremen) within the Holy Roman Empire.

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Archbishopric of Riga

The Archbishopric of Riga (Archiepiscopatus Rigensis, Erzbisdom Riga) was an archbishopric in Medieval Livonia, a subject to the Holy See.

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Baltic Germans

The Baltic Germans (Deutsch-Balten or Deutschbalten, later Baltendeutsche) are ethnic German inhabitants of the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea, in what today are Estonia and Latvia.

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Baltic governorates

The Baltic governorates (Прибалтийские губернии), originally the Ostsee governorates (Ostseegouvernements, Остзейские губернии), was a collective name for the administrative units of the Russian Empire set up in the territories of Swedish Estonia, Swedish Livonia (1721) and, afterwards, of Duchy of Courland and Semigallia (1795).

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Baltic nobility

The Baltic or Baltic German nobility was the privileged social class in the territories of today's Estonia and Latvia.

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Baltic states

The Baltic states, also known as the Baltic countries, Baltic republics, Baltic nations or simply the Baltics (Balti riigid, Baltimaad, Baltijas valstis, Baltijos valstybės), is a geopolitical term used for grouping the three sovereign countries in Northern Europe on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.

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Battle of Ergeme

The Battle of Ergeme (also Battle of Ermes) (Härgmäe lahing; Schlacht bei Ermes; сражение при Эрмесе; Ērģemes kauja) was fought on 2 August 1560 in present-day Latvia (near Valga) as part of the Livonian War between the forces of Ivan IV of Russia and the Livonian Confederation.

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Battle of Turaida

The Battle of Turaida or Treiden (also known as the Battle on Aa) was fought on June 1, 1298 on the banks of the Gauja River (Livländische Aa) near the Turaida Castle (German: Treiden).

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Battle of Wilkomierz

The Battle of Wilkomierz (see other names) took place on September 1, 1435, near Ukmergė in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

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Bauska

Bauska is a town in Bauska Municipality, in the Zemgale region of southern Latvia.

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Bishopric of Ösel–Wiek

The Bishopric of Ösel–Wiek (Saare-Lääne piiskopkond; Bistum Ösel–Wiek; Low German: Bisdom Ösel–Wiek; contemporary Ecclesia Osiliensis) was a Roman Catholic diocese and semi-independent prince-bishopric (parto of Terra Mariana, i.e. Livonia) in the Holy Roman Empire, covering what are now Saare, Hiiu and Lääne counties of Estonia.

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Bishopric of Courland

The Bishopric of Courland (Episcopatus Curoniensis, Low German: Bisdom Curland) was the second smallest (4500 km2) ecclesiastical state in the Livonian Confederation founded in the aftermath of the Livonian Crusade.

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Bishopric of Dorpat

The Bishopric of Dorpat (Tartu piiskopkond; Bisdom Dorpat; Ecclesia Tarbatensis) was a medieval prince-bishopric, i;e; both a diocese of the Roman Catholic Church and a temporal principality ruled by the bishop of the diocese.

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Courland

Courland, or Kurzeme (in Latvian; Kurāmō; German and Kurland; Curonia/Couronia; Курляндия; Kuršas; Kurlandia), is one of the historical and cultural regions in western Latvia.

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Crusader states

The Crusader states, also known as Outremer, were a number of mostly 12th- and 13th-century feudal Christian states created by Western European crusaders in Asia Minor, Greece and the Holy Land, and during the Northern Crusades in the eastern Baltic area.

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Curonian Kings

Curonian Kings (Kurische Könige; Kuršu ķoniņi) are a Latvian cultural group, originally lesser vassals and free farmers that lived in seven villages between Goldingen (Kuldīga) and Hasenpoth (Aizpute) in Courland.

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Dominant minority

A dominant minority is a minority group that has overwhelming political, economic, or cultural dominance in a country, despite representing a small fraction of the overall population (a demographic minority).

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Duchy of Courland and Semigallia

The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia (Ducatus Curlandiæ et Semigalliæ, Księstwo Kurlandii i Semigalii, Herzogtum Kurland und Semgallen, Kurzemes un Zemgales hercogiste) was a duchy in the Baltic region that existed from 1561 to 1569 as a vassal state of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and from 1569 to 1726 to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, incorporated into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth by Sejm in 1726, On 28 March 1795, it was annexed by the Russian Empire in the Third Partition of Poland.

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Duchy of Livonia

The Duchy of Livonia (Księstwo Inflanckie; Livonijos kunigaikštystė; Ducatus Ultradunensis; Üleväina-Liivimaa hertsogkond; Pārdaugavas hercogiste; also referred to as Polish Livonia or Inflanty) was a territory of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania—and later the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth—that existed from 1561 to 1621.

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Duke Adolf Friedrich of Mecklenburg

Adolf Friedrich Albrecht Heinrich, Duke of Mecklenburg (German: Adolf Friedrich Albrecht Heinrich, Herzog zu Mecklenburg; 10 October 1873 – 5 August 1969), was a German explorer in Africa, a colonial politician, the elected Duke of the United Baltic Duchy from 5 November to 28 November 1918, and the first president of the National Olympic Committee of West Germany (1949–1951).

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Ecclesiastical fief

In the feudal system of the European Middle Ages, an ecclesiastical fief, held from the Catholic Church, followed all the laws laid down for temporal fiefs.

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Estland

* Estland is the modern name for Estonia in German, Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, Dutch and some other Germanic languages, with the notable exception of modern English (Old English did use the term).

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Estonia

Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.

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Estonia–Russia relations

Estonia–Russia relations (Российско-эстонские отношения, Eesti-Vene suhted) refers to bilateral foreign relations between Estonia and Russia.

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February 2

No description.

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Frydag

Frydag family (also: Vrydach, Freytag, Friday and various other slightly different spellings) is a noble German family, known since the beginning of the 14th century, and who originated from the Uradel of Westphalia and were first documented between 1198 and 1217 with the person of Wecelo Vriedach.

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Gotthard Kettler

Gotthard von Kettler (also Ketteler, Gotthard Kettler, Herzog von Kurland; 2 February 1517 – 17 May 1587) was the last Master of the Livonian Order and the first Duke of Courland and Semigallia.

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Governorate of Livonia

The Governorate of Livonia (Лифляндская губерния, Liflyandskaya guberniya; Gouvernement Livland, Livländisches Gouvernement; Vidzemes guberņa, after the Latvian inhabited Vidzeme region) was one of the Baltic governorates of the Russian Empire, now divided between the Republic of Latvia and the Republic of Estonia.

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Grand Master of the Teutonic Order

The Grand Master (Hochmeister; Magister generalis) is the holder of the supreme office of the Teutonic Order. It is equivalent to the grand master of other military orders and the superior general in non-military Roman Catholic religious orders. Hochmeister, literally "high master", is only used in reference to the Teutonic Order, as Großmeister ("grand master") is used in German to refer to the leaders of other orders of knighthood. An early version of the full title in Latin was Magister Hospitalis Sanctae Mariae Alemannorum Hierosolymitani. Since 1216, the full title Magister Hospitalis Domus Sanctae Mariae Teutonicorum Hierosolymitani ("Master of the Hospital House of the Blessed Virgin Mary of the Germans of Jerusalem") was used. The offices of Hochmeister and Deutschmeister (Magister Germaniae) were united in 1525. The title of Magister Germaniae had been introduced in 1219 as the head of the bailiwicks in the Holy Roman Empire, from 1381 also those in Italy, raised to the rank of a prince of the Holy Roman Empire in 1494, but merged with the office of grand master under Walter von Cronberg in 1525, from which time the head of the order had the title of Hoch- und Deutschmeister.

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Gulf of Finland

The Gulf of Finland (Suomenlahti; Soome laht; p; Finska viken) is the easternmost arm of the Baltic Sea.

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Hanseatic League

The Hanseatic League (Middle Low German: Hanse, Düdesche Hanse, Hansa; Standard German: Deutsche Hanse; Latin: Hansa Teutonica) was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe.

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Hermann of Dorpat

Hermann of Dorpat (or Hermann I, or Hermann von Buxhövden) (1163–1248) was the first Prince-Bishop of the Bishopric of Dorpat (1224–1248) within the Livonian Confederation.

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High Middle Ages

The High Middle Ages, or High Medieval Period, was the period of European history that commenced around 1000 AD and lasted until around 1250 AD.

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History of Estonia

The history of Estonia forms a part of the history of Europe.

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History of Europe

The history of Europe covers the peoples inhabiting Europe from prehistory to the present.

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History of Latvia

The history of Latvia began around 9000 BC with the end of the last glacial period in northern Europe.

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History of Lithuania

The history of Lithuania dates back to settlements founded many thousands of years ago, but the first written record of the name for the country dates back to 1009 AD.

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History of Poland during the Jagiellonian dynasty

The rule of the Jagiellonian dynasty in Poland between 1386 and 1572 spans the late Middle Ages and early Modern Era in European history.

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Ilūkste

Ilūkste (Alūksta, Ilūkšta; Illuxt) is a town and a seat of Ilūkste Municipality, southeastern Latvia.

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Ivan III of Russia

Ivan III Vasilyevich (Иван III Васильевич; 22 January 1440, Moscow – 27 October 1505, Moscow), also known as Ivan the Great, was a Grand Prince of Moscow and Grand Prince of all Rus'.

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Jürgen von Farensbach

Jürgen von Farensbach (1551–1602) (Юрий Францбек, Georg Farensbach, Jerzy Farensbach) was a Baltic German nobleman and Livonian general.

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Jens Grand

Dr.

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Johannes Ambundii

Johannes VI Ambundii, Archbishopric of Riga 1418-1424, secular name Johannes Ambundii de Swan, also Abundi, Ambundij, Habundi, Habendi, Habindi, Almanni and ~ von Schwan (born 1384 - died on June 16, 1424) was a German ecclesiastic.

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Kingdom of Jerusalem

The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem was a crusader state established in the Southern Levant by Godfrey of Bouillon in 1099 after the First Crusade.

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Kingdom of Livonia

The Kingdom of Livonia was a nominal state in what is now the territory of Estonia and Latvia.

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Kuressaare

Kuressaare, also known as Arensburg, is a town and a municipality on Saaremaa island in Estonia.

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Landtag

A Landtag (State Diet) is a representative assembly (parliament) in German-speaking countries with legislative authority and competence over a federated state (Land).

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Language policy in Latvia

Articles 4 and 114 of the Constitution of Latvia form the foundation for language policy in Latvia, declaring Latvian to be the official state language and affirming the rights of ethnic minorities to preserve and develop their languages.

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Latvia

Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.

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Latvian language

Latvian (latviešu valoda) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.

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Lääne County

Lääne County (Lääne maakond), or Läänemaa (literally "Western land"; Wiek, Rotalia), is one of 15 counties of Estonia.

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List of alternative country names

Most List of sovereign states have alternative names.

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List of predecessors of sovereign states in Europe

This is a list of all present sovereign states in Europe and their predecessors.

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List of sovereign states in 1528

No description.

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List of state leaders in 1348

No description.

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List of states during the Middle Ages

Post-classical history (also called the Post-classical Era) is the period of time that immediately followed the end of ancient history.

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List of states in the Holy Roman Empire

This list of states which were part of the Holy Roman Empire includes any territory ruled by an authority that had been granted imperial immediacy, as well as many other feudal entities such as lordship, sous-fiefs and allodial fiefs.

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List of states in the Holy Roman Empire (L)

This is a list of states in the Holy Roman Empire beginning with the letter L.

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List of wars 1500–1799

This is a list of wars that began between 1500 to 1799. Other wars can be found in the historical lists of wars and the list of wars extended by diplomatic irregularity.

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List of wars involving Denmark

This is a list of wars involving the Kingdom of Denmark.

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List of wars involving Estonia

Below is a list of military conflicts in which Estonians participated on a larger scale or took place on Estonian territory.

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List of wars involving Lithuania

This is a list of military conflicts in which Lithuanian military forces participated.

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List of wars involving Poland

This is a chronological list of military conflicts in which Polish armed forces won or took place on Polish territory from the reign of Mieszko I (960–992) to the ongoing military operations.

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List of wars involving Russia

The following is an incomplete list of armed conflicts and wars fought by Russia, by Russian people, from antiquity to the present day.

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List of wars involving Ukraine

The following is an incomplete list of major wars fought by Ukraine, by Ukrainian people or regular armies during periods when independent Ukrainian states existed, from antiquity to the present day.

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Livonia

Livonia (Līvõmō, Liivimaa, German and Scandinavian languages: Livland, Latvian and Livonija, Inflanty, archaic English Livland, Liwlandia; Liflyandiya) is a historical region on the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea.

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Livonia (disambiguation)

Livonia is a historical region now divided between Estonia and Latvia.

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Livonian Brothers of the Sword

The Livonian Brothers of the Sword (Fratres militiæ Christi Livoniae, Schwertbrüderorden, Ordre des Chevaliers Porte-Glaive) was a Catholic military order established by Albert, the third bishop of Riga (or possibly by Theoderich von Treyden), in 1202.

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Livonian Crusade

The Livonian Crusade refers to the conquest of the territory constituting modern Latvia and Estonia during the pope-sanctioned Northern Crusades, performed mostly by Germans from the Holy Roman Empire and Danes.

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Livonian Order

The Livonian Order was an autonomous branch of the Teutonic Order, formed in 1237.

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Livonian War

The Livonian War (1558–1583) was fought for control of Old Livonia (in the territory of present-day Estonia and Latvia), when the Tsardom of Russia faced a varying coalition of Denmark–Norway, the Kingdom of Sweden, and the Union (later Commonwealth) of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Poland.

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Ludwig August Mellin

Count Ludwig August Mellin (23 January 1754 in Tuhala, Governorate of Reval – 12 March 1835 in Riga, Governorate of Livonia) was a Baltic German politician, cartographer, writer and publicist.

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Magnus, Duke of Holstein

Magnus of Denmark or Magnus of Holstein (–) was a Prince of Denmark, Duke of Holstein, and a member of the House of Oldenburg.

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Mariana

Mariana may refer to.

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Maryland (disambiguation)

Maryland or Marylands may refer to.

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Narva River

The Narva (Narva jõgi, Нарва) (or Narova) is a river flowing into the Baltic Sea, the largest river in Estonia by discharge.

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Narva-Jõesuu

Narva-Jõesuu (Усть-Нарва, Ust'-Narva) is a town in Ida-Viru County, in north-eastern Estonia.

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Northern Crusades

The Northern Crusades or Baltic Crusades were religious wars undertaken by Catholic Christian military orders and kingdoms, primarily against the pagan Baltic, Finnic and West Slavic peoples around the southern and eastern shores of the Baltic Sea, and to a lesser extent also against Orthodox Christian Slavs (East Slavs).

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Oprichnina

The oprichnina (опри́чнина) was a state policy implemented by Tsar Ivan the Terrible in Russia between 1565 and 1572.

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Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana

The Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana (Maarjamaa Risti teenetemärk, sometimes translated as the Order of the Cross of St. Mary’s Land) was instituted by the President of Estonia, Lennart Meri, in 1995 to honour the independence of the Estonian state.

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Ostsiedlung

Ostsiedlung (literally east settling), in English called the German eastward expansion, was the medieval eastward migration and settlement of Germanic-speaking peoples from the Holy Roman Empire, especially its southern and western portions, into less-populated regions of Central Europe, parts of west Eastern Europe, and the Baltics.

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Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War

The Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War or Great War occurred between 1409 and 1411, pitting the allied Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania against the Teutonic Knights.

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Prince-bishop

A prince-bishop is a bishop who is also the civil ruler of some secular principality and sovereignty.

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Riga

Riga (Rīga) is the capital and largest city of Latvia.

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Roman Catholic Diocese of Reval

The Bishopric of Reval was created in Duchy of Estonia by Valdemar II of Denmark in 1240.

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Russians in Latvia

Russians have been the largest ethnic minority in Latvia for the last two centuries.

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Russo-Swedish War (1554–57)

The Russo-Swedish War of 1554–1557, considered a prelude to the Livonian War of 1558–1583, arose out of border skirmishes.

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Sakala County

Sakala County (Estonian: Sakala, Latin: Saccalia) was an ancient Estonian county first mentioned in print by Henry of Latvia in the beginning of the 13th Century.

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Siege of Narva (1558)

The Siege of Narva (Narva piiramine; Осада Нарвы) was a Russian siege of the Livonian city of Narva (in modern-day eastern Estonia) from April through May 1558, during the Livonian War.

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State of the Teutonic Order

The State of the Teutonic Order (Staat des Deutschen Ordens; Civitas Ordinis Theutonici), also called Deutschordensstaat or Ordensstaat in German, was a crusader state formed by the Teutonic Knights or Teutonic Order during the 13th century Northern Crusades along the Baltic Sea.

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Tartu

Tartu (South Estonian: Tarto) is the second largest city of Estonia, after Estonia's political and financial capital Tallinn.

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Tālava

Tālava was a Latgalian county in the northern Vidzeme and northern Latgale region of today's Latvia.

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Terra Mariana

Terra Mariana (Medieval Latin for "Land of Mary") was the official name for Medieval Livonia or Old Livonia (Alt-Livland, Vana-Liivimaa, Livonija), which was formed in the aftermath of the Livonian Crusade in the territories comprising present day Estonia and Latvia.

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Timeline of Estonian history

This is a timeline of Estonian history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Estonia and its predecessor states.

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Timeline of Russian history

This is a timeline of Russian history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Russia and its predecessor states.

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Timeline of sovereign states in Europe

This timeline lists sovereign states in Europe, both current and defunct, since the 11th century.

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Treaty of Mozhaysk

The Treaty of Mozhaysk (also Moshaisk or other transliterations of Можайск) was a Danish-Russian treaty concluded on 7 August 1562, during the Livonian War.

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Treaty of Pozvol

The Treaty or Peace of Pozvol, Pasvalys or Pozwol was a peace treaty and an alliance concluded on 5 and 14 September 1557 between the Livonian Confederation and the Polish-Lithuanian union, whereby the former put its territories under Polish-Lithuanian protection.

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Treaty of Vilnius (1561)

The Treaty of Vilnius or Vilna was concluded on 28 November 1561, during the Livonian War, between the Livonian Confederation and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth at Vilnius (Vilna, Wilna, Wilno).

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United Baltic Duchy

The proposed United Baltic Duchy, (Vereinigtes Baltisches Herzogtum, Balti Hertsogiriik, Apvienotā Baltijas hercogiste) also known as the Grand Duchy of Livonia, was a state proposed by the Baltic German nobility and exiled Russian nobility after the Russian Revolution and German occupation of the Courland, Livonian, and Estonian governorates of the Russian Empire.

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Valga County

Valga County (Valga maakond), or Valgamaa is the first-level administrative unit in Estonia and one of 15 counties of Estonia.

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Valga, Estonia

Valga (Walk) is a town in southern Estonia and the capital of Valga County.

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Valka

Valka (Walk) is a city and municipality in northern Latvia, on the border with Estonia along both banks of the river Pedele.

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Vasknarva

Vasknarva (Сыренец, Syrenets; Neuschloss) is a village in Alutaguse Parish, Ida-Viru County in northeastern Estonia.

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Vastseliina Castle

Vastseliina Castle ('Vastseliina piiskopilinnus', 'Neuhausen', Novgorodok) was a castle of the Livonian Order, Bishopric of Dorpat.

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Vidzeme

Vidzeme (Vidžemė, Vidūmō) is one of the historical and cultural regions of Latvia.

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Walk, Livonia

Walk was the historical German name for the town that is since 1920 divided into Valga in Estonia and Valka in Latvia.

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Welles Declaration

The Welles Declaration was a diplomatic statement issued on July 23, 1940 by Sumner Welles, the United States' acting Secretary of State, condemning the June 1940 occupation by the Soviet Union of the three Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, and refusing to recognize their annexation as Soviet Republics.

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Wilhelm Dietrich von Buddenbrock

Wilhelm Dietrich Freiherr von Buddenbrock (15 March 1672 – 28 March 1757) was a Prussian Generalfeldmarschall and cavalry leader.

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Wolter von Plettenberg

Wolter (or Walter) von Plettenberg (c. 1450 – February 28, 1535) was the Master (Landmeister) of the Livonian Order from 1494 to 1535 and one of the greatest leaders of the Teutonic knights.

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1202

Year 1202 (MCCII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1207

Year 1207 (MCCVII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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13th century

As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was the century which lasted from January 1, 1201 through December 31, 1300 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Common Era.

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1560

Year 1560 (MDLX) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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Redirects here:

Livonia Confederation, Livonian Confederation, Medieval Livonia, Old Livonia.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terra_Mariana

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