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Thyroid hormones

Index Thyroid hormones

Thyroid hormones are two hormones produced and released by the thyroid gland, namely triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). [1]

324 relations: Abnormal basal metabolic rate, Acyl-CoA:lysocardiolipin acyltransferase-1, Adolescence, African clawed frog, Alkaptonuria, Allostasis, Amiodarone, Amniote, AMP-activated protein kinase, Amphenone B, Amphibian, Andrew Benson, Androstenedione, Angina, Animal heme-dependent peroxidases, Anterior pituitary, Anti-obesity medication, Antithyroid agent, Apolipoprotein, Appetite, Arginine:glycine amidinotransferase, Aromatic amino acid, Aromatization, Ataxia, ATC code H03, Axolotl, Ben Barres, Beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase, Bile acid sequestrant, Biochemical cascade, Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, Blood sugar regulation, Bone, Bone growth factor, Bovidae, Breast development, C15H11I4NO4, Calcium supplement, Canada goose, Carbimazole, Causes of autism, Cell signaling, Cellulite, Charles Harington (chemist), Chemotaxonomy, Chernobyl necklace, Child health and nutrition in Africa, Chondroblast, Choosing Wisely Canada, Cofactor (biochemistry), ..., Cold nodule, Composition of the human body, Congenital hypothyroidism, Congenital iodine deficiency syndrome, Craniosynostosis, CRYM, Cytochalasin B, David Lytton, Deiodinase, Demyelinating disease, Desiccated thyroid extract, Diabetes mellitus, Diiodotyrosine, DIO2, Down syndrome, Doxepin, Drug interaction, Dual oxidase 2, Dwarfism in chickens, Edward Calvin Kendall, Effects of stress on memory, Endemic goitre, Endocrine disease, Endocrine gland, Endocrinology, Equine metabolic syndrome, Eugen Baumann, Euthyroid sick syndrome, Familial hypercholesterolemia, Fenclofenac, Flame retardant, Follicular cell, Follicular thyroid cancer, Frog, G protein-coupled bile acid receptor, Gena Lee Nolin, Genome-wide complex trait analysis, George Barger, George R. Price, Goitre, Goitrin, Goitrogen, Gonadal dysgenesis, Graves' disease, Graves' ophthalmopathy, Halocarbon, Halogen, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Hashitoxicosis, Hürthle cell adenoma, Heart, Heart rate, Heat intolerance, Heterodimeric amino-acid transporter, Hirsutism, Histology of the vocal folds, Hologenome theory of evolution, Homeopathy, Hormone, Hormone receptor, Hormone therapy, HR (gene), Human nutrition, Human serum albumin, Hyperemesis gravidarum, Hypermetabolism, Hyperthyroidism, Hyperthyroxinemia, Hypokalemia, Hypopituitarism, Hypothalamic disease, Hypothalamic–pituitary hormone, Hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis, Hypothalamus, Hypothyroidism, IGSF1, Immune system, Index of biochemistry articles, Index of oncology articles, Integrin, Intractable pain, Iodide, Iodine, Iodine deficiency, Iodine in biology, Iodised salt, Iodothyronine deiodinase, Iodotyrosine deiodinase, Iopanoic acid, Ipodate sodium, Jod-Basedow phenomenon, Joseph M. 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Life, Ord's thyroiditis, Organo anion transporter family, Organoiodine compound, Orthogonal ligand-protein pair, P4HB, Palpation thyroiditis, Parathyroid chief cell, Pendred syndrome, Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid, Perfluorooctanoic acid, Period 5 element, Permissiveness (biology), Peter C. Whybrow, Peter Tishler, Pipecolic acid, Pituitary apoplexy, Plastic pollution, Polar T3 syndrome, Polybrominated diphenyl ethers, Polychlorinated biphenyl, Polyestradiol phosphate, Polystyrene sulfonate, Postpartum depression, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Potassium iodide, Preterm birth, Progoitrin, Prolactin, Propylthiouracil, Protein moonlighting, Proteinogenic amino acid, Proteins produced and secreted by the liver, Radiation-induced thyroiditis, Raphanin, Reference ranges for blood tests, Releasing and inhibiting hormones, Restriction enzyme mediated integration, Ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides, Salamander, Salt, SECISBP2, Selenium, Selenium deficiency, Selenium in biology, Serpin, Serum albumin, Sex hormone-binding globulin, Short stature, SLC10A1, SLCO1B3, Sodium-iodide symporter, South West England, Southern hairy-nosed wombat, SOX2, Steve Asmussen, Stewart Adams (chemist), Sulfonylurea, Sum activity of peripheral deiodinases, Sweat gland, T4, Tafamidis, Teratoma, Tetrabromobisphenol A, TH, The Ancestor's Tale, Thermogenesis, Thiamazole, Thioamide, Thiocyanate, Thiomorpholine-carboxylate dehydrogenase, Three Stories, Thyroglobulin, Thyroid, Thyroid adenoma, Thyroid cancer, Thyroid disease, Thyroid disease in pregnancy, Thyroid disease in women, Thyroid dyshormonogenesis, Thyroid function tests, Thyroid hormone binding ratio, Thyroid hormone receptor, Thyroid hormone resistance, Thyroid hormones, Thyroid neoplasm, Thyroid nodule, Thyroid peroxidase, Thyroid storm, Thyroid's secretory capacity, Thyroid-stimulating hormone, Thyroidectomy, Thyronamine, Thyronine, Thyrotoxic myopathy, Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis, Thyrotoxicosis factitia, Thyrotropin receptor, Thyroxine 5-deiodinase, Thyroxine-binding globulin, Thyroxine-binding proteins, Tiratricol, Toxic multinodular goitre, Trace amine-associated receptor, Transthyretin, Treatment of bipolar disorder, Tricyanoaminopropene, Triiodothyronine, Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate, Tropic hormone, Tyrosine, Uncoupling protein, University of Edinburgh Medical School, USP20, Vasopressin, Ventricular-brain ratio, Vitamin D and neurology, VLDL receptor, Whale feces, William Conan Davis, Wilson's temperature syndrome, Witch's milk, Wolff–Chaikoff effect, Yves Rumpler, 1914 in science, 1952 in science, 2008 Irish pork crisis, 3,3'-Diiodothyronine, 3,5-Diiodothyronine, 3-Iodotyrosine, 4-Aminosalicylic acid. Expand index (274 more) »

Abnormal basal metabolic rate

Abnormal basal metabolic rate refers to a high or low basal metabolic rate (BMR).

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Acyl-CoA:lysocardiolipin acyltransferase-1

Acyl-CoA:lysocardiolipin acyltransferase-1 (ALCAT1) is a polyglycerophospholipid acyltransferase of the endoplasmic reticulum which is primarily known for catalyzing the acylation of monolysocardiolipin back into cardiolipin, although it does catalyze the acylation of other polyglycerophospholipids.

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AdolescenceMacmillan Dictionary for Students Macmillan, Pan Ltd.

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African clawed frog

The African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis, also known as the xenopus, African clawed toad, African claw-toed frog or the platanna) is a species of African aquatic frog of the family Pipidae.

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Alkaptonuria is a rare inherited genetic disorder in which the body cannot process the amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine, which occur in protein.

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Allostasis is the process of achieving stability, or homeostasis, through physiological or behavioral change.

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Amiodarone is an antiarrhythmic medication used to treat and prevent a number of types of irregular heartbeats.

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Amniotes (from Greek ἀμνίον amnion, "membrane surrounding the fetus", earlier "bowl in which the blood of sacrificed animals was caught", from ἀμνός amnos, "lamb") are a clade of tetrapod vertebrates comprising the reptiles, birds, and mammals.

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AMP-activated protein kinase

5' AMP-activated protein kinase or AMPK or 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase is an enzyme (EC that plays a role in cellular energy homeostasis.

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Amphenone B

Amphenone B, or simply amphenone, also known as 3,3-bis(p-aminophenyl)butan-2-one, is an inhibitor of steroid hormone and thyroid hormone biosynthesis which was never marketed but has been used as a tool in scientific research to study corticosteroids and the adrenal glands.

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Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.

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Andrew Benson

Andrew Alm Benson (September 24, 1917 – January 16, 2015) was an American biologist and a professor of biology at the University of California, San Diego, until his retirement in 1989.

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Androstenedione, or 4-androstenedione (abbreviated as A4 or Δ4-dione), also known as androst-4-ene-3,17-dione, is an endogenous weak androgen steroid hormone and intermediate in the biosynthesis of estrone and of testosterone from dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).

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Angina, also known as angina pectoris, is chest pain or pressure, usually due to not enough blood flow to the heart muscle.

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Animal heme-dependent peroxidases

Animal heme-dependent peroxidases is a family of peroxidases.

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Anterior pituitary

A major organ of the endocrine system, the anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis or pars anterior), is the glandular, anterior lobe that together with the posterior lobe (posterior pituitary, or the neurohypophysis) makes up the pituitary gland (hypophysis).

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Anti-obesity medication

Anti-obesity medication or weight loss drugs are pharmacological agents that reduce or control weight.

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Antithyroid agent

An antithyroid agent is a hormone antagonist acting upon thyroid hormones.

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Apolipoproteins are proteins that bind lipids (oil-soluble substances such as fat and cholesterol) to form lipoproteins.

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Appetite is the desire to eat food, sometimes due to hunger.

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Arginine:glycine amidinotransferase

L-Arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) is the enzyme that catalyses the transfer of an amidino group from L-arginine to glycine.

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Aromatic amino acid

An aromatic amino acid (AAA) is an amino acid that includes an aromatic ring.

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Aromatization is a chemical reaction in which an aromatic system is formed.

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Ataxia is a neurological sign consisting of lack of voluntary coordination of muscle movements that includes gait abnormality.

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ATC code H03


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The axolotl (from āxōlōtl) also known as a Mexican salamander (Ambystoma mexicanum) or a Mexican walking fish, is a neotenic salamander, closely related to the tiger salamander.

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Ben Barres

Ben A. Barres (September 13, 1954 – December 27, 2017) was an American neurobiologist at Stanford University.

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Beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase

In enzymology, β-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase is an enzyme with systematic name beta-carotene:oxygen 15,15'-dioxygenase (bond-cleaving).

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Bile acid sequestrant

The bile acid sequestrants are a group of resins used to bind certain components of bile in the gastrointestinal tract.

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Biochemical cascade

A biochemical cascade, also known as a signaling cascade or signaling pathway, is a series of chemical reactions which are initiated by a stimulus (first messenger) acting on a receptor that is transduced to the cell interior through second messengers (which amplify the initial signal) and ultimately to effector molecules, resulting in a cell response to the initial stimulus.

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Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate

Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, diethylhexyl phthalate, DEHP; dioctyl phthalate, DOP) is an organic compound with the formula C6H4(CO2C8H17)2.

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Blood sugar regulation

Blood sugar regulation is the process by which the levels of blood sugar, primarily glucose, are maintained by the body within a narrow range.

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A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton.

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Bone growth factor

A bone growth factor is a growth factor that stimulates the growth of bone tissue.

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The Bovidae are the biological family of cloven-hoofed, ruminant mammals that includes bison, African buffalo, water buffalo, antelopes, wildebeest, impala, gazelles, sheep, goats, muskoxen, and domestic cattle.

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Breast development

Breast development, also known as mammogenesis, is a complex biological process in primates that takes place throughout a female's life.

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The molecular formula C15H11I4NO4 may refer to.

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Calcium supplement

Calcium supplements are salts of calcium used in a number of conditions.

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Canada goose

The Canada goose (Branta canadensis), also called the Canadian goose, is a large wild goose species with a black head and neck, white cheeks, white under its chin, and a brown body.

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Carbimazole is used to treat hyperthyroidism.

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Causes of autism

Many causes of autism have been proposed, but understanding of the theory of causation of autism and the other autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is incomplete.

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Cell signaling

Cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions.

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Cellulite (also known as adiposis edematosa, dermopanniculosis deformans, status protrusus cutis, gynoid lipodystrophy, and orange peel syndrome) is the herniation of subcutaneous fat within fibrous connective tissue that manifests topographically as skin dimpling and nodularity, often on the pelvic region (specifically the buttocks), lower limbs, and abdomen.

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Charles Harington (chemist)

Sir Charles Robert Harington, KBE, FRS (1 August 1897 – 4 February 1972) was a chemist, best known for synthesizing thyroxine.

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Merriam-Webster defines chemotaxonomy as the method of biological classification based on similarities in the structure of certain compounds among the organisms being classified.

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Chernobyl necklace

A Chernobyl necklace is the horizontal scar left on the base of the neck after a surgery to remove a thyroid cancer caused by fallout from a nuclear accident.

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Child health and nutrition in Africa

Child health and nutrition in Africa is concerned with the health care of children through adolescents in the various countries of Africa.

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Chondroblasts, or perichondrial cells, is the name given to mesenchymal progenitor cells in situ which, from endochondral ossification, will form chondrocytes in the growing cartilage matrix.

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Choosing Wisely Canada

Choosing Wisely Canada (CWC) is a Canadian-based health education campaign launched on April 2, 2014 under the leadership of Dr.

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Cofactor (biochemistry)

A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme's activity.

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Cold nodule

A cold nodule is a thyroid nodule that does not produce thyroid hormone.

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Composition of the human body

Body composition may be analyzed in terms of molecular type e.g., water, protein, connective tissue, fats (or lipids), hydroxylapatite (in bones), carbohydrates (such as glycogen and glucose) and DNA.

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Congenital hypothyroidism

Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is a condition of thyroid hormone deficiency present at birth.

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Congenital iodine deficiency syndrome

Congenital iodine deficiency syndrome, previously known as Cretinism, is a condition of severely stunted physical and mental growth owing to untreated congenital deficiency of thyroid hormone (congenital hypothyroidism) usually owing to maternal hypothyroidism.

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Craniosynostosis (from cranio, cranium; + syn, together; + ostosis relating to bone) is a condition in which one or more of the fibrous sutures in an infant (very young) skull prematurely fuses by turning into bone (ossification), thereby changing the growth pattern of the skull.

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Mu-crystallin homolog also known as NADP-regulated thyroid-hormone-binding protein (THBP) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYM gene.

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Cytochalasin B

Cytochalasin B, the name of which comes from the Greek cytos (cell) and chalasis (relaxation), is a cell-permeable mycotoxin.

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David Lytton

David Lytton (21 April 1948 – 11 or 12 December 2015), formerly known as David Keith Lautenberg and after the discovery of his body by the placeholder name Neil Dovestone, was a previously unidentified man found dead on Saddleworth Moor, in the South Pennines of Northern England on 12 December 2015.

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Deiodinase (or iodide peroxidase or "Monodeiodinase") is a peroxidase enzyme that is involved in the activation or deactivation of thyroid hormones.

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Demyelinating disease

A demyelinating disease is any disease of the nervous system in which the myelin sheath of neurons is damaged.

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Desiccated thyroid extract

Desiccated thyroid or thyroid extract refers to porcine or bovine thyroid glands, dried and powdered for therapeutic use.

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Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.

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Diiodotyrosine (DIT) is a precursor in the production of thyroid hormone, and results from iodization of monoiodotyrosine at the other meta- position on the phenol ring.

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Type II iodothyronine deiodinase (iodothyronine 5'-deiodinase, iodothyronine 5'-monodeiodinase) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the DIO2 gene.

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Down syndrome

Down syndrome (DS or DNS), also known as trisomy 21, is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of a third copy of chromosome 21.

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Doxepin is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) used as a pill to treat major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, chronic hives, and for short-term help with trouble remaining asleep after going to bed (a form of insomnia).

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Drug interaction

A drug interaction is a situation in which a substance (usually another drug) affects the activity of a drug when both are administered together.

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Dual oxidase 2

Dual oxidase 2, also known as DUOX2 or ThOX2 (for thyroid oxidase), is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the DUOX2 gene.

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Dwarfism in chickens

Dwarfism in chickens is an inherited condition found in chickens consisting of a significant delayed growth, resulting in adult individuals with a distinctive small size in comparison with normal specimens of the same breed or population.

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Edward Calvin Kendall

Edward Calvin Kendall (March 8, 1886 – May 4, 1972) was an American chemist.

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Effects of stress on memory

The effects of stress on memory include interference with a person's capacity to encode memory and the ability to retrieve information.

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Endemic goitre

Endemic goiter is a type of goitre that is associated with dietary iodine deficiency.

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Endocrine disease

Endocrine diseases are disorders of the endocrine system.

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Endocrine gland

Endocrine glands are glands of the endocrine system that secrete their products, hormones, directly into the blood rather than through a duct.

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Endocrinology (from endocrine + -ology) is a branch of biology and medicine dealing with the endocrine system, its diseases, and its specific secretions known as hormones.

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Equine metabolic syndrome

Equine metabolic syndrome (EMS), is an endocrinopathy affecting horses and ponies.

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Eugen Baumann

Eugen Baumann (12 December 1846 – 3 November 1896) was a German chemist.

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Euthyroid sick syndrome

Euthyroid sick syndrome (ESS), sick euthyroid syndrome (SES), thyroid allostasis in critical illness, tumours, uremia and starvation (TACITUS), non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) or low T3 low T4 syndrome is a state of adaptation or dysregulation of thyrotropic feedback control wherein the levels of T3 and/or T4 are abnormal, but the thyroid gland does not appear to be dysfunctional.

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Familial hypercholesterolemia

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic disorder characterized by high cholesterol levels, specifically very high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL, "bad cholesterol"), in the blood and early cardiovascular disease.

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Fenclofenac is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) previously used in rheumatism.

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Flame retardant

The term flame retardants subsumes a diverse group of chemicals which are added to manufactured materials, such as plastics and textiles, and surface finishes and coatings.

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Follicular cell

Follicular cells (also called thyroid epithelial cells or thyrocytes) are cells in the thyroid gland that are responsible for the production and secretion of thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3).

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Follicular thyroid cancer

Follicular thyroid cancer or follicular thyroid carcinoma accounts for 15% of thyroid cancer and occurs more commonly in women over 50 years of age.

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A frog is any member of a diverse and largely carnivorous group of short-bodied, tailless amphibians composing the order Anura (Ancient Greek ἀν-, without + οὐρά, tail).

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G protein-coupled bile acid receptor

The G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (GPBAR1) also known G-protein coupled receptor 19 (GPCR19), membrane-type receptor for bile acids (M-BAR) or TGR5 as is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GPBAR1 gene.

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Gena Lee Nolin

Gena Lee Nolin (born November 29, 1971) is an Haitian-influenced American actress and model.

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Genome-wide complex trait analysis

Genome-wide complex trait analysis (GCTA) GREML is a statistical method for variance component estimation in genetics which quantifies the total narrow-sense (additive) contribution to a trait's heritability of a particular subset of genetic variants (typically limited to SNPs with MAF >1%, hence terms such as "chip heritability"/"SNP heritability").

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George Barger

George Barger FRS FRSE FCS LLD (4 April 1878 – 5 January 1939) was a British chemist.

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George R. Price

George Robert Price (October 6, 1922 – January 6, 1975) was an American population geneticist.

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A goitre or goiter is a swelling in the neck resulting from an enlarged thyroid gland.

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Goitrin is a sulfur-containing oxazolidine, a cyclic thiocarbamate, that reduces the production of thyroid hormones such as thyroxine.

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Goitrogens are substances that disrupt the production of thyroid hormones by interfering with iodine uptake in the thyroid gland.

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Gonadal dysgenesis

Gonadal dysgenesis is classified as any congenital developmental disorder of the reproductive system in the male or female.

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Graves' disease

Graves' disease, also known as toxic diffuse goiter, is an autoimmune disease that affects the thyroid.

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Graves' ophthalmopathy

Graves ophthalmopathy (also known as thyroid eye disease (TED), dysthyroid/thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO), Graves' orbitopathy (GO)) is an autoimmune inflammatory disorder of the orbit and periorbital tissues, characterized by upper eyelid retraction, lid lag, swelling, redness (erythema), conjunctivitis, and bulging eyes (exophthalmos).

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Halocarbon compounds are chemicals in which one or more carbon atoms are linked by covalent bonds with one or more halogen atoms (fluorine, chlorine, bromine or iodine –) resulting in the formation of organofluorine compounds, organochlorine compounds, organobromine compounds, and organoiodine compounds.

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The halogens are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).

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Hashimoto's thyroiditis

Hashimoto's thyroiditis, also known as chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis and Hashimoto's disease, is an autoimmune disease in which the thyroid gland is gradually destroyed.

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Hashitoxicosis, which can be abbreviated "Htx", is a transient hyperthyroidism caused by inflammation associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis disturbing the thyroid follicles, resulting in excess release of thyroid hormone.

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Hürthle cell adenoma

Hürthle cell adenoma is a rare benign tumor, typically seen in women between the ages of 70 and 80 years old.

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The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.

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Heart rate

Heart rate is the speed of the heartbeat measured by the number of contractions of the heart per minute (bpm).

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Heat intolerance

Heat intolerance is a symptom reported by people who feel uncomfortable in hot environments.

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Heterodimeric amino-acid transporter

Heterodimeric amino-acid transporters are a family of transport proteins that facilitate the transport of certain amino acids across cell membranes.

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Hirsutism is excessive body hair in men and women on parts of the body where hair is normally absent or minimal, such as on the chin or chest in particular, or the face or body in general.

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Histology of the vocal folds

Histology is the study of the minute structure, composition, and function of tissues.

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Hologenome theory of evolution

The hologenome theory of evolution recasts the individual animal or plant (and other multicellular organisms) as a community or a "holobiont" – the host plus all of its symbiotic microbes.

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Homeopathy or homœopathy is a system of alternative medicine developed in 1796 by Samuel Hahnemann, based on his doctrine of like cures like (similia similibus curentur), a claim that a substance that causes the symptoms of a disease in healthy people would cure similar symptoms in sick people.

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A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.

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Hormone receptor

A hormone receptor is a receptor molecule that binds to a specific hormone.

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Hormone therapy

Hormone therapy or hormonal therapy is the use of hormones in medical treatment.

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HR (gene)

Protein hairless is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HR gene.

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Human nutrition

Human nutrition deals with the provision of essential nutrients in food that are necessary to support human life and health.

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Human serum albumin

Human serum albumin is the serum albumin found in human blood.

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Hyperemesis gravidarum

Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) is a pregnancy complication that is characterized by severe nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and possibly dehydration.

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Hypermetabolism is the physiological state of increased rate of metabolic activity and is characterized by an abnormal increase in the body’s basal metabolic rate.

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Hyperthyroidism is the condition that occurs due to excessive production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland.

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Hyperthyroxinemia or hyperthyroxinaemia is a thyroid disease where the serum levels of thyroxine are higher than expected.

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Hypokalemia, also spelled hypokalaemia, is a low level of potassium (K+) in the blood serum.

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Hypopituitarism is the decreased (hypo) secretion of one or more of the eight hormones normally produced by the pituitary gland at the base of the brain.

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Hypothalamic disease

Hypothalamic disease is a disorder presenting primarily in the hypothalamus, which may be caused by damage resulting from malnutrition, including anorexia and bulimia eating disorders,Sylvia L., A. (2004).

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Hypothalamic–pituitary hormone

Hypothalamic–pituitary hormones are hormones that are produced by the hypothalamus and pituitary gland.

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Hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis

The hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis (HPT axis for short, a.k.a. thyroid homeostasis or thyrotropic feedback control) is part of the neuroendocrine system responsible for the regulation of metabolism.

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The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.

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Hypothyroidism, also called underactive thyroid or low thyroid, is a disorder of the endocrine system in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone.

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Immunoglobulin superfamily, member 1 is a plasma membrane glycoprotein encoded by the IGSF1 gene, which maps to the X chromosome in humans and other mammalian species.

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Immune system

The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.

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Index of biochemistry articles

Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms.

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Index of oncology articles

This is a list of terms related to oncology.

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Integrins are transmembrane receptors that facilitate cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion.

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Intractable pain

Intractable pain, also known as Intractable Pain Disease or IP, is a severe, constant pain that is not curable by any known means and which causes a bed or house-bound state and early death if not adequately treated, usually with opioids and/or interventional procedures.

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An iodide ion is the ion I−.

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Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.

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Iodine deficiency

Iodine deficiency is a lack of the trace element iodine, an essential nutrient in the diet.

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Iodine in biology

SBHarris 05:41, 26 July 2009 (UTC)--> Iodine is an essential trace element for life, the heaviest element commonly needed by living organisms, and the second-heaviest known to be used by any form of life (only tungsten, a component of a few bacterial enzymes, has a higher atomic number and atomic weight).

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Iodised salt

Iodised salt (also spelled iodized salt) is table salt mixed with a minute amount of various salts of the element iodine.

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Iodothyronine deiodinase

Iodothyronine deiodinases (and) are a subfamily of deiodinase enzymes important in the activation and deactivation of thyroid hormones.

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Iodotyrosine deiodinase

Iodotyrosine deiodinase, also known as iodotyrosine dehalogenase 1, is a type of deiodinase enzyme that scavenges iodide by removing it from iodinated tyrosine residues in the thyroid gland.

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Iopanoic acid

Iopanoic acid is an iodine-containing radiocontrast medium used in cholecystography.

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Ipodate sodium

Ipodate sodium (sodium iopodate) is an iodine-containing radiopaque contrast media used for X-rays.

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Jod-Basedow phenomenon

The Jod-Basedow effect (also Jod-Basedow syndrome and Jod-Basedow phenomenon) is hyperthyroidism following administration of iodine or iodide, either as a dietary supplement or as contrast medium.

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Joseph M. Papp

Joseph Michael "Joe" Papp (born 25 May 1975) is an American former professional road racing cyclist and U.S. National cycling team member, author and anti-doping advocate.

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Jostel's TSH index

Jostel's TSH index (TSHI or JTI), also referred to as Thyroid Function index (TFI) is a method for estimating the thyrotropic (i.e. thyroid stimulating) function of the anterior pituitary lobe in a quantitative way.

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Kaufman oculocerebrofacial syndrome

Kaufman oculocerebrofacial syndrome is an autosomal recessive congenital disorder characterized by mental retardation, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, eye abnormalities, and highly arched palate.

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Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily E member 2 (KCNE2), also known as MinK-related peptide 1 (MiRP1), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KCNE2 gene on chromosome 21.

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Kenneth Sterling

Kenneth J. Sterling was a medical doctor and prominent researcher on the topic of thyroid hormone and human metabolism.

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The Kir2.6 also known as inward rectifier potassium channel 18 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KCNJ18 gene.

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Levothyroxine, also known as -thyroxine, is a manufactured form of the thyroid hormone, thyroxine (T4).

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Liothyronine is a synthetic form of triiodothyronine (T3), a thyroid hormone used to treat hypothyroidism and myxedema coma.

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Liotrix is a 4:1 mixture of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) made synthetically.

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List of antidepressants

This is a complete list of clinically approved prescription antidepressants throughout the world, as well as clinically approved prescription drugs used to augment antidepressants, by pharmacological and/or structural classification.

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List of biomolecules

This is a list of articles that describe particular biomolecules or types of biomolecules.

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List of drugs by year of discovery

The following is a table with drugs organized by year of discovery and begins with firs drugs formed in the universe; Hydrogen, Helium and Lithium that were formed during the first three minutes after the big bang, bigger elements and molecules were formed by stellar nucleosynthesis and other forms of nucleosynthesis thousands and millions of years after the Big Bang, such as water, sodium chloride, after it, more complex molecules were formed and evolved into self-replicating molecules.

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List of drugs: Lf-Ln

No description.

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List of Greek and Latin roots in English/T

Category:Lists of words.

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List of human blood components

In blood banking, the fractions of Whole Blood used for transfusion are also called components.

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List of human endocrine organs and actions

The pituitary gland (or hypophysis) is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing in humans.

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List of human hormones

The following is a list of hormones found in Homo sapiens.

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List of MeSH codes (D06)

This is the fourth part of the list of the "D" codes for MeSH.

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List of MeSH codes (D12.125)

This is part of the list of the "D" codes for MeSH.

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List of University of Edinburgh medical people

List of University of Edinburgh medical people is a list of notable graduates as well as non-graduates, and academic staffs of the University of Edinburgh Medical School in Scotland.

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Lithium (medication)

Lithium compounds, also known as lithium salts, are primarily used as a psychiatric medication.

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Liver X receptor alpha

Liver X receptor alpha (LXR-alpha) is a nuclear receptor protein that in humans is encoded by the NR1H3 gene (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group H, member 3).

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Locoweed (also crazyweed and loco) is a common name in North America for any plant that produces swainsonine, a phytotoxin harmful to livestock.

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Lofepramine, sold under the brand names Gamanil, Lomont, and Tymelyt among others, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) which is used to treat depression.

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Louis Ptáček

Louis Ptáček is an American neurologist and professor who contributed greatly to the field of genetics and neuroscience.

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Major depressive disorder

Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.

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Major urinary proteins

Major urinary proteins (Mups), also known as α2u-globulins, are a subfamily of proteins found in abundance in the urine and other secretions of many animals.

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Maternal hypothyroidism

Maternal hypothyroidism is hypothyroidism in pregnant mothers.

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Maternal physiological changes in pregnancy

Maternal physiological changes in pregnancy are the adaptations during pregnancy that a woman’s body undergoes to accommodate the growing embryo or fetus.

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A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.

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Metamorphosis is a biological process by which an animal physically develops after birth or hatching, involving a conspicuous and relatively abrupt change in the animal's body structure through cell growth and differentiation.

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Mineral (nutrient)

In the context of nutrition, a mineral is a chemical element required as an essential nutrient by organisms to perform functions necessary for life.

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Mitochondrial trifunctional protein

Mitochondrial trifunctional protein (MTP) is a protein attached to the inner mitochondrial membrane which catalyzes three out of the four steps in beta oxidation.

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Monoamine neurotransmitter

Monoamine neurotransmitters are neurotransmitters and neuromodulators that contain one amino group that is connected to an aromatic ring by a two-carbon chain (such as -CH2-CH2-). All monoamines are derived from aromatic amino acids like phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, and the thyroid hormones by the action of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase enzymes.

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Monocarboxylate transporter 8

Monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) is an active transporter protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC16A2 gene.

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Monoiodotyrosine is a precursor of thyroid hormone and results from halogenation of tyrosine at the meta-position of the benzene ring.

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Monolysocardiolipin acyltransferase

Monolysocardiolipin acyltransferase (MLCL AT-1) is a mitochondrial acyltransferase that facilitates the remodeling of monolysocardiolipin (MLCL) into cardiolipin.

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Myelinogenesis is generally the proliferation of myelin sheaths throughout the nervous system, and specifically the progressive myelination of nerve axon fibers in the central nervous system.

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MYH7 is a gene encoding a myosin heavy chain beta (MHC-β) isoform (slow twitch) expressed primarily in the heart, but also in skeletal muscles (type I fibers).

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M-protein, also known as Myomesin-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MYOM2 gene.

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Myxedematous psychosis

Myxedema psychosis, more colloquially known as myxedema madness, is a relatively uncommon consequence of hypothyroidism, such as in Hashimoto's thyroiditis or in patients who have had the thyroid surgically removed and are not taking thyroxine.

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-ATPase (sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase, also known as the pump or sodium–potassium pump) is an enzyme (an electrogenic transmembrane ATPase) found in the plasma membrane of all animal cells.

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Nadolol (Corgard) is a non-selective beta blocker used in the treatment of high blood pressure and chest pain.

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National Institute for Medical Research

The National Institute for Medical Research (commonly abbreviated to NIMR), was a medical research institute based in Mill Hill, on the outskirts of London, England.

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Neuroethology is the evolutionary and comparative approach to the study of animal behavior and its underlying mechanistic control by the nervous system.

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Newborn screening

Newborn screening is a public health program of screening in infants shortly after birth for a list of conditions that are treatable, but not clinically evident in the newborn period.

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Newborn Screening Saves Lives Reauthorization Act of 2013

The Newborn Screening Saves Lives Reauthorization Act of 2013 is a bill that would amend the Public Health Service Act to reauthorize grant programs and other initiatives to promote expanded screening of newborns and children for heritable disorders.

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Noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features

Noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) is an indolent thyroid tumor that was previously classified as an encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma, necessitating a new classification as it was recognized that encapsulated tumors without invasion have an indolent behavior, and may be over-treated if classified as a type of cancer.

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Nuclear receptor

In the field of molecular biology, nuclear receptors are a class of proteins found within cells that are responsible for sensing steroid and thyroid hormones and certain other molecules.

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Nuggehalli Raghuveer Moudgal

Nuggehalli Raghuveer Moudgal (4 March 1931 – 8 May 2011) was an Indian reproductive biologist, endocrinologist and the chairman of the Department of Biochemistry and dean of Faculty of Science at the Indian Institute of Science.

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Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism.

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The olm or proteus (Proteus anguinus) is an aquatic salamander in the family Proteidae, the only exclusively cave-dwelling chordate species found in Europe.

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Once Upon a Time... Life

Il était une fois...

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Ord's thyroiditis

Ord's thyroiditis is a common form of thyroiditis, an autoimmune disease where the body's own antibodies fight the cells of the thyroid.

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Organo anion transporter family

Members of the Organo Anion Transporter (OAT) Family catalyze electrogenic anion uniport or more frequently, anion exchange, and are part of the major facilitator superfamily.

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Organoiodine compound

Organoiodine compounds are organic compounds that contain one or more carbon–iodine bonds.

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Orthogonal ligand-protein pair

Orthogonal ligand-protein pairs (also known as re-engineered ligand-receptor interfaces or re-engineered enzyme-substrate interactions) are a protein-ligand binding pair made to be independent of the original binding pair.

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Protein disulfide-isomerase, also known as the beta-subunit of prolyl 4-hydroxylase (P4HB), is an enzyme that in humans encoded by the P4HB gene.

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Palpation thyroiditis

Palpation thyroiditis refers to the development of thyroid inflammation due to mechanical damage to thyroid follicles.

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Parathyroid chief cell

Parathyroid chief cells (also called parathyroid principal cells or simply parathyroid cells) are one of the two cell types of the parathyroid glands, along with oxyphil cells.

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Pendred syndrome

Pendred syndrome is a genetic disorder leading to congenital bilateral (both sides) sensorineural hearing loss and goitre with euthyroid or mild hypothyroidism (decreased thyroid gland function).

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Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid

Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (conjugate base perfluorooctanesulfonate) (PFOS) is an anthropogenic fluorosurfactant and global pollutant.

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Perfluorooctanoic acid

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (conjugate base perfluorooctanoate), also known as C8, is a synthetic perfluorinated carboxylic acid and fluorosurfactant.

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Period 5 element

A period 5 element is one of the chemical elements in the fifth row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements.

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Permissiveness (biology)

In endocrinology, permissiveness is a biochemical phenomenon in which the presence of one hormone is required in order for another hormone to exert its full effects on a target cell.

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Peter C. Whybrow

Peter C. Whybrow is an English psychiatrist and award-winning author whose primary research focus has been on understanding the metabolic role of thyroid hormones in the adult brain and how to apply this knowledge to the treatment of mood disorder, especially bipolar disorder.

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Peter Tishler

Peter Verveer Tishler, M.D. (born July 18, 1937) is a researcher in human genetics and orphan diseases, educator, and clinician especially in the areas of genetic diseases, including polycystic kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Fabry disease, and the porphyrias.

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Pipecolic acid

Pipecolic acid (piperidine-2-carboxylic acid) is a small organic molecule which accumulates in pipecolic acidemia.

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Pituitary apoplexy

Pituitary apoplexy or pituitary tumor apoplexy is bleeding into or impaired blood supply of the pituitary gland at the base of the brain.

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Plastic pollution

Plastic pollution is the accumulation of plastic products in the environment that adversely affects wildlife, wildlife habitat and humans.

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Polar T3 syndrome

Polar T3 syndrome is a condition found in polar explorers, caused by a decrease in levels of the thyroid hormone T3.

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Polybrominated diphenyl ethers

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers or PBDEs, are organobromine compounds that are used as flame retardant.

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Polychlorinated biphenyl

A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) is an organic chlorine compound with the formula C12H10−xClx.

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Polyestradiol phosphate

Polyestradiol phosphate (PEP), sold under the brand name Estradurin, is a medication which is used primarily in the treatment of prostate cancer in men.

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Polystyrene sulfonate

Polystyrene sulfonates are polymers derived from polystyrene by the addition of sulfonate functional groups.

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Postpartum depression

Postpartum depression (PPD), also called postnatal depression, is a type of mood disorder associated with childbirth, which can affect both sexes.

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Posttraumatic stress disorder

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)Acceptable variants of this term exist; see the Terminology section in this article.

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Potassium iodide

Potassium iodide is a chemical compound, medication, and dietary supplement.

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Preterm birth

Preterm birth, also known as premature birth, is the birth of a baby at fewer than 37 weeks gestational age.

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Progoitrin is a biochemical from the glucosinolate family that is found in some food, which is inactive but after ingestion is converted to goitrin.

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Prolactin (PRL), also known as luteotropic hormone or luteotropin, is a protein that is best known for its role in enabling mammals, usually females, to produce milk.

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Propylthiouracil (PTU) is a medication used to treat hyperthyroidism.

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Protein moonlighting

Protein moonlighting (or gene sharing) is a phenomenon by which a protein can perform more than one function.

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Proteinogenic amino acid

Proteinogenic amino acids are amino acids that are incorporated biosynthetically into proteins during translation.

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Proteins produced and secreted by the liver

The liver plays the major role in producing proteins that are secreted into the blood, including major plasma proteins, factors in hemostasis and fibrinolysis, carrier proteins, hormones, prohormones and apolipoprotein.

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Radiation-induced thyroiditis

Radiation-induced thyroiditis is a form of painful, acute thyroiditis resulting from radioactive therapy to treat hyperthyroidism or from radiation to treat head and neck cancer or lymphoma.

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Raphanin is the main sulfur component found in radish seeds of Raphanus sativus and is also found in broccoli and red cabbage.

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Reference ranges for blood tests

Reference ranges for blood tests are sets of values used by a health professional to interpret a set of medical test results from blood samples.

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Releasing and inhibiting hormones

Releasing hormones and inhibiting hormones are hormones whose main purpose is to control the release of other hormones, either by stimulating or inhibiting their release.

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Restriction enzyme mediated integration

Restriction enzyme mediated integration (abbreviated as REMI) is a technique for integrating DNA (linearised plasmid) into the genome sites that have been generated by the same restriction enzyme used for the DNA linearisation.

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Ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides

Ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs), also known as ribosomal natural products, are a diverse class of natural products of ribosomal origin.

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Salamanders are a group of amphibians typically characterized by a lizard-like appearance, with slender bodies, blunt snouts, short limbs projecting at right angles to the body, and the presence of a tail in both larvae and adults.

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Salt, table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.

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SECIS-binding protein 2 (commonly referred to as SBP2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SECISBP2 gene.

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Selenium is a chemical element with symbol Se and atomic number 34.

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Selenium deficiency

Selenium deficiency is relatively rare in healthy well-nourished individuals.

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Selenium in biology

Although it is toxic in large doses, selenium is an essential micronutrient for animals.

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Serpins are a superfamily of proteins with similar structures that were first identified for their protease inhibition activity and are found in all kingdoms of life.

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Serum albumin

Serum albumin, often referred to simply as blood albumin, is an albumin (a type of globular protein) found in vertebrate blood.

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Sex hormone-binding globulin

Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) or sex steroid-binding globulin (SSBG) is a glycoprotein that binds to the two sex hormones: androgen and estrogen.

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Short stature

Short stature refers to a height of a human being which is below typical.

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Sodium/bile acid cotransporter also known as the Na+-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) or liver bile acid transporter (LBAT) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC10A1 (solute carrier family 10 member 1) gene.

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Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B3 (SLCO1B3) also known as organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B3 (OATP1B3) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLCO1B3 gene.

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Sodium-iodide symporter

A sodium/iodide symporter (NIS), also known as a sodium/iodide cotransporter or solute carrier family 5, member 5 (SLC5A5) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC5A5 gene.

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South West England

South West England is one of nine official regions of England.

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Southern hairy-nosed wombat

The southern hairy-nosed wombat (Lasiorhinus latifrons) is one of three extant species of wombats.

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SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2, also known as SOX2, is a transcription factor that is essential for maintaining self-renewal, or pluripotency, of undifferentiated embryonic stem cells.

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Steve Asmussen

Steven Mark Asmussen (born November 18, 1965) is an American Thoroughbred racehorse trainer.

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Stewart Adams (chemist)

Professor Stewart Sanders Adams OBE (born 1923), is a British chemist, who was the main part of a team from Boots that developed ibuprofen in the early 1960s.

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Sulfonylureas (UK: sulphonylurea) are a class of organic compounds used in medicine and agriculture.

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Sum activity of peripheral deiodinases

The sum activity of peripheral deiodinases (GD, also referred to as deiodination capacity, total deiodinase activity or SPINA-GD) is the maximum amount of triiodothyronine produced per time-unit under conditions of substrate saturation.

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Sweat gland

Sweat glands, also known as sudoriferous or sudoriparous glands,, are small tubular structures of the skin that produce sweat.

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T4 or T-4 may refer to.

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Tafamidis (trade name Vyndaqel) is a drug used to delay loss of peripheral nerve function in adults with familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP), an orphan disease.

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A teratoma is a tumor made up of several different types of tissue, such as hair, muscle, or bone.

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Tetrabromobisphenol A

Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is a brominated flame retardant.

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Th or TH may refer to.

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The Ancestor's Tale

The Ancestor's Tale: A Pilgrimage to the Dawn of Life is a 2004 popular science book by Richard Dawkins, with contributions from Dawkins' research assistant Yan Wong.

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Thermogenesis is the process of heat production in organisms.

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Thiamazole, also known as methimazole, is an antithyroid drug, and part of the thioamide group.

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A thioamide (rarely, thionamide, but also known as thiourylenes) is a functional group with the general structure R–CS–NR′R″, where R, R′, and R″ are organic groups.

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Thiocyanate (also known as rhodanide) is the anion −. It is the conjugate base of thiocyanic acid.

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Thiomorpholine-carboxylate dehydrogenase

In enzymology, a thiomorpholine-carboxylate dehydrogenase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction The 3 substrates of this enzyme are thiomorpholine 3-carboxylate, NAD+, and NADP+, whereas its 4 products are 3,4-dehydro-thiomorpholine-3-carboxylate, NADH, NADPH, and H+.

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Three Stories

"Three Stories" is the twenty-first episode of the first season of House, which premiered on Fox on May 17, 2005.

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Thyroglobulin (Tg) is a 660 kDa, dimeric protein produced by the follicular cells of the thyroid and used entirely within the thyroid gland.

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The thyroid gland, or simply the thyroid, is an endocrine gland in the neck, consisting of two lobes connected by an isthmus.

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Thyroid adenoma

A thyroid adenoma is a benign tumor of the thyroid gland.

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Thyroid cancer

Thyroid cancer is cancer that develops from the tissues of the thyroid gland.

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Thyroid disease

Thyroid disease is a medical condition that affects the function of the thyroid gland (the endocrine organ found at the front of the neck that produces thyroid hormones).

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Thyroid disease in pregnancy

Thyroid disease in pregnancy can affect the health of the mother as well as the child before and after delivery.

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Thyroid disease in women

Thyroid disease in women is an autoimmune disease that affects the thyroid in women.

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Thyroid dyshormonogenesis

Thyroid dyshormonogenesis (or dyshormogenetic goiter) is a rare condition due to genetic defects in the synthesis of thyroid hormones.

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Thyroid function tests

Thyroid function tests (TFTs) is a collective term for blood tests used to check the function of the thyroid.

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Thyroid hormone binding ratio

Thyroid hormone binding ratio (THBR) is a Thyroid Function Test that measures the "uptake" of T3 or T4 tracer by Thyroid Binding Globulin (TBG) in a given serum sample.

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Thyroid hormone receptor

The thyroid hormone receptor (TR) is a type of nuclear receptor that is activated by binding thyroid hormone.

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Thyroid hormone resistance

Thyroid hormone resistance (sometimes Refetoff syndrome) describes a rare syndrome in which the thyroid hormone levels are elevated but the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level is not suppressed, or not completely suppressed as would be expected.

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Thyroid hormones

Thyroid hormones are two hormones produced and released by the thyroid gland, namely triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4).

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Thyroid neoplasm

Thyroid neoplasm is a neoplasm or tumor of the thyroid.

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Thyroid nodule

Thyroid nodules are nodules (raised areas of tissue or fluid) which commonly arise within an otherwise normal thyroid gland.

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Thyroid peroxidase

Thyroid peroxidase, also called thyroperoxidase (TPO) or iodide peroxidase, is an enzyme expressed mainly in the thyroid where it is secreted into colloid.

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Thyroid storm

Thyroid storm or thyrotoxic crisis is a rare but severe and potentially life-threatening complication of hyperthyroidism (overactivity of the thyroid gland).

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Thyroid's secretory capacity

Thyroid's secretory capacity (GT, also referred to as thyroid's incretory capacity, maximum thyroid hormone output, T4 output or, if calculated from levels of thyroid hormones, as SPINA-GT) is the maximum stimulated amount of thyroxine that the thyroid can produce in a given time-unit (e.g. one second).

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Thyroid-stimulating hormone

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as thyrotropin, thyrotropic hormone, TSH, or hTSH for human TSH) is a pituitary hormone that stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroxine (T4), and then triiodothyronine (T3) which stimulates the metabolism of almost every tissue in the body.

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A thyroidectomy is an operation that involves the surgical removal of all or part of the thyroid gland.

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Thyronamine refers both to a molecule, and to derivatives of that molecule: a family of decarboxylated and deiodinated metabolites of the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3).

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Thyronine is a deiodinated form of thyroxine.

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Thyrotoxic myopathy

Thyrotoxic myopathy (TM) is a neuromuscular disorder that develops due to the overproduction of the thyroid hormone thyroxine.

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Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) is a condition featuring attacks of muscle weakness in the presence of hyperthyroidism (overactivity of the thyroid gland).

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Thyrotoxicosis factitia

Thyrotoxicosis factitia refers to a condition of thyrotoxicosis caused by the ingestion of exogenous thyroid hormone.

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Thyrotropin receptor

The thyrotropin receptor (or TSH receptor) is a receptor (and associated protein) that responds to thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as "thyrotropin") and stimulates the production of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3).

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Thyroxine 5-deiodinase

Thyroxine 5-deiodinase also known as type III iodothyronine deiodinase (EC number is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the DIO3 gene.

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Thyroxine-binding globulin

Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) is a globulin that binds thyroid hormones in circulation.

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Thyroxine-binding proteins

A thyroxine-binding protein is any of several transport proteins that bind thyroid hormone and carry it around the bloodstream.

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Tiratricol (also known as TRIAC or triiodothyroacetic acid) is a thyroid hormone analogue.

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Toxic multinodular goitre

Toxic multinodular goiter (also known as toxic nodular goiter, or Plummer's disease) is a multinodular goiter associated with hyperthyroidism.

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Trace amine-associated receptor

Trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs), sometimes referred to as trace amine receptors (TAs or TARs), are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that were discovered in 2001.

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Transthyretin (TTR) is a transport protein in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid that carries the thyroid hormone thyroxine (T4) and retinol-binding protein bound to retinol.

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Treatment of bipolar disorder

The emphasis of the treatment of bipolar disorder is on effective management of the long-term course of the illness, which can involve treatment of emergent symptoms.

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Tricyanoaminopropene (TRIAP, TCAP, Malononitrile Dimer, 1,1,3-tricyano-2-amino-1-propene) is a nootropic drug which mimics the function of nerve growth factor and increases the growth of nerves and tissue regeneration both in isolated tissues and in vivo.

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Triiodothyronine, also known as T3, is a thyroid hormone.

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Tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl)phosphate (TDCPP) is a chlorinated organophosphate. Organophosphate chemicals have a wide variety of applications and are used as flame retardants, pesticides, plasticizers, and nerve gases. TDCPP is structurally similar to several other organophosphate flame retardants, such as tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) and tris(chloropropyl)phosphate (TCPP). TDCPP and these other chlorinated organophosphate flame retardants are all sometimes referred to as "chlorinated tris".

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Tropic hormone

Tropic hormones are hormones that have other endocrine glands as their target.

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Tyrosine (symbol Tyr or Y) or 4-hydroxyphenylalanine is one of the 20 standard amino acids that are used by cells to synthesize proteins.

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Uncoupling protein

An uncoupling protein (UCP) is a mitochondrial inner membrane protein that is a regulated proton channel or transporter.

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University of Edinburgh Medical School

The University of Edinburgh Medical School (also known as Edinburgh Medical School) is the medical school of the University of Edinburgh in Scotland and part of the College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, the head of which is Sir John Savill.

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Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase 20 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the USP20 gene.

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Vasopressin, also named antidiuretic hormone (ADH), arginine vasopressin (AVP) or argipressin, is a hormone synthesized as a peptide prohormone in neurons in the hypothalamus, and is converted to AVP.

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Ventricular-brain ratio

Ventricular-brain ratio (VBR), also known as the ventricle-to-brain ratio or ventricle-brain ratio, is the ratio of total ventricle area to total brain area, which can be calculated with planimetry from brain imagining techniques such as CT scans.

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Vitamin D and neurology

Vitamin D is a steroid hormone that plays a vital role in calcium and phosphate absorption.

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VLDL receptor

The very-low-density-lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) is a transmembrane lipoprotein receptor of the low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) receptor family.

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Whale feces

Whale feces, the excrement of whales, has a significant role in the ecology of the oceans, and whales have been referred to as "marine ecosystem engineers".

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William Conan Davis

William Conan Davis (born August 22, 1926) is a professor emeritus and was chair of natural sciences at St. Philip's College in San Antonio, Texas.

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Wilson's temperature syndrome

Wilson's (temperature) syndrome, also called Wilson's thyroid syndrome or WTS, is an alternative medicine concept which is not recognized as a medical condition by evidence-based medicine.

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Witch's milk

Witch's milk or neonatal milk is milk secreted from the breasts of some newborn human infants of either sex.

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Wolff–Chaikoff effect

The Wolff–Chaikoff effect, discovered by Drs.

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Yves Rumpler

Yves Rumpler (born 1938), is a French researcher and primatologist.

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1914 in science

The year 1914 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below.

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1952 in science

The year 1952 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below.

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2008 Irish pork crisis

The Irish pork crisis of 2008 was a dioxin contamination incident in Ireland that led to an international recall of pork products from Ireland produced between September and early December of that year.

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3,3'-Diiodothyronine, also known as 3,3'-T2, is a metabolite of thyroid hormone.

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3,5-Diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) is an active thyroid hormone within the class of iodothyronines.

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3-Iodotyrosine is a reversible inhibitor of the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase.

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4-Aminosalicylic acid

4-Aminosalicylic acid, also known as para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) is an antibiotic primarily used to treat tuberculosis.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thyroid_hormones

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