113 relations: Adipogenesis, Allan–Herndon–Dudley syndrome, Allostasis, Antidepressant, BPA controversy, Calorie restriction, Carbimazole, Composition of the human body, Congenital hypothyroidism, Daya Kishore Hazra, Decabromodiphenyl ether, Deiodinase, Desiccated thyroid extract, Diiodotyrosine, DIO2, Dwarfism in chickens, Effects of stress on memory, Endocrine gland, Endocrinology, Euthyroid sick syndrome, Flame retardant, Follicular cell, FT3, G protein-coupled bile acid receptor, Glucokinase, Goitrogen, GPR35, Graves' disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Heart rate, Hirsutism, Hyperthyroidism, Hypopituitarism, Hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis, Hypothalamus, Hypothyroidism, Index of biochemistry articles, Index of oncology articles, Iodine, Iodine deficiency, Iodine in biology, Iodised salt, Iodothyronine deiodinase, Iopanoic acid, Ipodate sodium, Levothyroxine, Liothyronine, Liotrix, List of antidepressants, List of biomolecules, ..., List of human blood components, List of human endocrine organs and actions, List of human hormones, List of MeSH codes (D06), List of MeSH codes (D12.125), Management of depression, Maternal physiological changes in pregnancy, Microbiota, Mineral (nutrient), Monocarboxylate transporter 8, Monoiodotyrosine, Neural top–down control of physiology, Ord's thyroiditis, Organoiodine compound, Orthogonal ligand-protein pair, Parathyroid chief cell, PKM2, Polar T3 syndrome, Polychlorinated biphenyl, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Propylthiouracil, Proteinogenic amino acid, Radiation-induced thyroiditis, Reference ranges for blood tests, Releasing and inhibiting hormones, Reverse triiodothyronine, Rosalind Pitt-Rivers, Selenium deficiency, Sex hormone-binding globulin, SLCO1B3, STAR*D, Sum activity of peripheral deiodinases, T3, Thiamazole, Thioamide, Thyroglobulin, Thyroid, Thyroid disease, Thyroid disease in women, Thyroid function tests, Thyroid hormone receptor alpha, Thyroid hormone receptor beta, Thyroid hormone resistance, Thyroid hormones, Thyroid nodule, Thyroid peroxidase, Thyroid storm, Thyroid's secretory capacity, Thyroid-stimulating hormone, Thyroidectomy, Thyronamine, Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis, Thyrotropin receptor, Thyroxine 5-deiodinase, Thyroxine-binding globulin, Toxic multinodular goitre, Treatment-resistant depression, Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate, Tyrosine, USP20, Wilson's temperature syndrome, 1952 in science, 3,3'-Diiodothyronine. Expand index (63 more) » « Shrink index
Adipogenesis is the process of cell differentiation by which pre-adipocytes become adipocytes.
Allan–Herndon–Dudley syndrome is a rare X-linked inherited disorder of brain development that causes both moderate to severe intellectual disability and problems with speech and movement.
Allostasis is the process of achieving stability, or homeostasis, through physiological or behavioral change.
Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.
Bisphenol A controversy centers on concerns and debates about the biomedical significance of bisphenol A (BPA), which is a precursor to polymers that are used in some consumer products, including some food containers.
Calorie restriction, or caloric restriction, or energy restriction, is a dietary regimen that reduces calorie intake without incurring malnutrition or a reduction in essential nutrients.
Carbimazole is used to treat hyperthyroidism.
Body composition may be analyzed in terms of molecular type e.g., water, protein, connective tissue, fats (or lipids), hydroxylapatite (in bones), carbohydrates (such as glycogen and glucose) and DNA.
Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is a condition of thyroid hormone deficiency present at birth.
Daya Kishore Hazra is an Indian medical doctor, known for his expertise in nuclear medicine and endocrinology.
Decabromodiphenyl ether (also known as decaBDE, deca-BDE, DBDE, deca, decabromodiphenyl oxide, DBDPO, or bis(pentabromophenyl) ether) is a brominated flame retardant which belongs to the group of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs).
Deiodinase (or iodide peroxidase or "Monodeiodinase") is a peroxidase enzyme that is involved in the activation or deactivation of thyroid hormones.
Desiccated thyroid or thyroid extract refers to porcine or bovine thyroid glands, dried and powdered for therapeutic use.
Diiodotyrosine (DIT) is a precursor in the production of thyroid hormone, and results from iodization of monoiodotyrosine at the other meta- position on the phenol ring.
Type II iodothyronine deiodinase (iodothyronine 5'-deiodinase, iodothyronine 5'-monodeiodinase) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the DIO2 gene.
Dwarfism in chickens is an inherited condition found in chickens consisting of a significant delayed growth, resulting in adult individuals with a distinctive small size in comparison with normal specimens of the same breed or population.
The effects of stress on memory include interference with a person's capacity to encode memory and the ability to retrieve information.
Endocrine glands are glands of the endocrine system that secrete their products, hormones, directly into the blood rather than through a duct.
Endocrinology (from endocrine + -ology) is a branch of biology and medicine dealing with the endocrine system, its diseases, and its specific secretions known as hormones.
Euthyroid sick syndrome (ESS), sick euthyroid syndrome (SES), thyroid allostasis in critical illness, tumours, uremia and starvation (TACITUS), non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) or low T3 low T4 syndrome is a state of adaptation or dysregulation of thyrotropic feedback control wherein the levels of T3 and/or T4 are abnormal, but the thyroid gland does not appear to be dysfunctional.
The term flame retardants subsumes a diverse group of chemicals which are added to manufactured materials, such as plastics and textiles, and surface finishes and coatings.
Follicular cells (also called thyroid epithelial cells or thyrocytes) are cells in the thyroid gland that are responsible for the production and secretion of thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3).
FT3 or ft3 may refer to.
The G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (GPBAR1) also known G-protein coupled receptor 19 (GPCR19), membrane-type receptor for bile acids (M-BAR) or TGR5 as is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GPBAR1 gene.
Glucokinase is an enzyme that facilitates phosphorylation of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate.
Goitrogens are substances that disrupt the production of thyroid hormones by interfering with iodine uptake in the thyroid gland.
G protein-coupled receptor 35 also known as GPR35 is a G protein-coupled receptor which in humans is encoded by the GPR35 gene.
Graves' disease, also known as toxic diffuse goiter, is an autoimmune disease that affects the thyroid.
Hashimoto's thyroiditis, also known as chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis and Hashimoto's disease, is an autoimmune disease in which the thyroid gland is gradually destroyed.
Heart rate is the speed of the heartbeat measured by the number of contractions of the heart per minute (bpm).
Hirsutism is excessive body hair in men and women on parts of the body where hair is normally absent or minimal, such as on the chin or chest in particular, or the face or body in general.
Hyperthyroidism is the condition that occurs due to excessive production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland.
Hypopituitarism is the decreased (hypo) secretion of one or more of the eight hormones normally produced by the pituitary gland at the base of the brain.
The hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis (HPT axis for short, a.k.a. thyroid homeostasis or thyrotropic feedback control) is part of the neuroendocrine system responsible for the regulation of metabolism.
The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.
Hypothyroidism, also called underactive thyroid or low thyroid, is a disorder of the endocrine system in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone.
Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms.
This is a list of terms related to oncology.
Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.
Iodine deficiency is a lack of the trace element iodine, an essential nutrient in the diet.
SBHarris 05:41, 26 July 2009 (UTC)--> Iodine is an essential trace element for life, the heaviest element commonly needed by living organisms, and the second-heaviest known to be used by any form of life (only tungsten, a component of a few bacterial enzymes, has a higher atomic number and atomic weight).
Iodised salt (also spelled iodized salt) is table salt mixed with a minute amount of various salts of the element iodine.
Iodothyronine deiodinases (and) are a subfamily of deiodinase enzymes important in the activation and deactivation of thyroid hormones.
Iopanoic acid is an iodine-containing radiocontrast medium used in cholecystography.
Ipodate sodium (sodium iopodate) is an iodine-containing radiopaque contrast media used for X-rays.
Levothyroxine, also known as -thyroxine, is a manufactured form of the thyroid hormone, thyroxine (T4).
Liothyronine is a synthetic form of triiodothyronine (T3), a thyroid hormone used to treat hypothyroidism and myxedema coma.
Liotrix is a 4:1 mixture of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) made synthetically.
This is a complete list of clinically approved prescription antidepressants throughout the world, as well as clinically approved prescription drugs used to augment antidepressants, by pharmacological and/or structural classification.
This is a list of articles that describe particular biomolecules or types of biomolecules.
In blood banking, the fractions of Whole Blood used for transfusion are also called components.
The pituitary gland (or hypophysis) is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing in humans.
The following is a list of hormones found in Homo sapiens.
This is the fourth part of the list of the "D" codes for MeSH.
This is part of the list of the "D" codes for MeSH.
Management of depression may involve a number of different therapies: medications, behavior therapy, and medical devices.
Maternal physiological changes in pregnancy are the adaptations during pregnancy that a woman’s body undergoes to accommodate the growing embryo or fetus.
A microbiota is an "ecological community of commensal, symbiotic and pathogenic microorganisms" found in and on all multicellular organisms studied to date from plants to animals.
In the context of nutrition, a mineral is a chemical element required as an essential nutrient by organisms to perform functions necessary for life.
Monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) is an active transporter protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC16A2 gene.
Monoiodotyrosine is a precursor of thyroid hormone and results from halogenation of tyrosine at the meta-position of the benzene ring.
Neural top–down control of physiology concerns the direct regulation by the brain of physiological functions (in addition to smooth muscle and glandular ones).
Ord's thyroiditis is a common form of thyroiditis, an autoimmune disease where the body's own antibodies fight the cells of the thyroid.
Organoiodine compounds are organic compounds that contain one or more carbon–iodine bonds.
Orthogonal ligand-protein pairs (also known as re-engineered ligand-receptor interfaces or re-engineered enzyme-substrate interactions) are a protein-ligand binding pair made to be independent of the original binding pair.
Parathyroid chief cells (also called parathyroid principal cells or simply parathyroid cells) are one of the two cell types of the parathyroid glands, along with oxyphil cells.
Pyruvate kinase isozymes M1/M2 (PKM1/M2), also known as pyruvate kinase muscle isozyme (PKM), pyruvate kinase type K, cytosolic thyroid hormone-binding protein (CTHBP), thyroid hormone-binding protein 1 (THBP1), or opa-interacting protein 3 (OIP3), is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PKM2 gene.
Polar T3 syndrome is a condition found in polar explorers, caused by a decrease in levels of the thyroid hormone T3.
A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) is an organic chlorine compound with the formula C12H10−xClx.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)Acceptable variants of this term exist; see the Terminology section in this article.
Propylthiouracil (PTU) is a medication used to treat hyperthyroidism.
Proteinogenic amino acids are amino acids that are incorporated biosynthetically into proteins during translation.
Radiation-induced thyroiditis is a form of painful, acute thyroiditis resulting from radioactive therapy to treat hyperthyroidism or from radiation to treat head and neck cancer or lymphoma.
Reference ranges for blood tests are sets of values used by a health professional to interpret a set of medical test results from blood samples.
Releasing hormones and inhibiting hormones are hormones whose main purpose is to control the release of other hormones, either by stimulating or inhibiting their release.
Reverse triiodothyronine (3,3’,5’-triiodothyronine, reverse T3, or rT3) is an isomer of triiodothyronine (3,5,3’ triiodothyronine, T3).
Rosalind Venetia Lane Fox Pitt-Rivers FRS (4 March 1907 – 14 January 1990) was a British biochemist.
Selenium deficiency is relatively rare in healthy well-nourished individuals.
Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) or sex steroid-binding globulin (SSBG) is a glycoprotein that binds to the two sex hormones: androgen and estrogen.
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B3 (SLCO1B3) also known as organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B3 (OATP1B3) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLCO1B3 gene.
Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) was a collaborative study on the treatment of depression, funded by the National Institute of Mental Health.
The sum activity of peripheral deiodinases (GD, also referred to as deiodination capacity, total deiodinase activity or SPINA-GD) is the maximum amount of triiodothyronine produced per time-unit under conditions of substrate saturation.
T3 or T-3 may refer to.
Thiamazole, also known as methimazole, is an antithyroid drug, and part of the thioamide group.
A thioamide (rarely, thionamide, but also known as thiourylenes) is a functional group with the general structure R–CS–NR′R″, where R, R′, and R″ are organic groups.
Thyroglobulin (Tg) is a 660 kDa, dimeric protein produced by the follicular cells of the thyroid and used entirely within the thyroid gland.
The thyroid gland, or simply the thyroid, is an endocrine gland in the neck, consisting of two lobes connected by an isthmus.
Thyroid disease is a medical condition that affects the function of the thyroid gland (the endocrine organ found at the front of the neck that produces thyroid hormones).
Thyroid disease in women is an autoimmune disease that affects the thyroid in women.
Thyroid function tests (TFTs) is a collective term for blood tests used to check the function of the thyroid.
Thyroid hormone receptor alpha (TR-alpha) also known as nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group A, member 1 (NR1A1), is a nuclear receptor protein that in humans is encoded by the THRA gene.
Thyroid hormone receptor beta (TR-beta) also known as nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group A, member 2 (NR1A2), is a nuclear receptor protein that in humans is encoded by the THRB gene.
Thyroid hormone resistance (sometimes Refetoff syndrome) describes a rare syndrome in which the thyroid hormone levels are elevated but the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level is not suppressed, or not completely suppressed as would be expected.
Thyroid hormones are two hormones produced and released by the thyroid gland, namely triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4).
Thyroid nodules are nodules (raised areas of tissue or fluid) which commonly arise within an otherwise normal thyroid gland.
Thyroid peroxidase, also called thyroperoxidase (TPO) or iodide peroxidase, is an enzyme expressed mainly in the thyroid where it is secreted into colloid.
Thyroid storm or thyrotoxic crisis is a rare but severe and potentially life-threatening complication of hyperthyroidism (overactivity of the thyroid gland).
Thyroid's secretory capacity (GT, also referred to as thyroid's incretory capacity, maximum thyroid hormone output, T4 output or, if calculated from levels of thyroid hormones, as SPINA-GT) is the maximum stimulated amount of thyroxine that the thyroid can produce in a given time-unit (e.g. one second).
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as thyrotropin, thyrotropic hormone, TSH, or hTSH for human TSH) is a pituitary hormone that stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroxine (T4), and then triiodothyronine (T3) which stimulates the metabolism of almost every tissue in the body.
A thyroidectomy is an operation that involves the surgical removal of all or part of the thyroid gland.
Thyronamine refers both to a molecule, and to derivatives of that molecule: a family of decarboxylated and deiodinated metabolites of the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3).
Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) is a condition featuring attacks of muscle weakness in the presence of hyperthyroidism (overactivity of the thyroid gland).
The thyrotropin receptor (or TSH receptor) is a receptor (and associated protein) that responds to thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as "thyrotropin") and stimulates the production of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3).
Thyroxine 5-deiodinase also known as type III iodothyronine deiodinase (EC number 184.108.40.206) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the DIO3 gene.
Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) is a globulin that binds thyroid hormones in circulation.
Toxic multinodular goiter (also known as toxic nodular goiter, or Plummer's disease) is a multinodular goiter associated with hyperthyroidism.
Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) or treatment-refractory depression is a term used in clinical psychiatry to describe cases of major depressive disorder (MDD) that do not respond adequately to appropriate courses of at least two antidepressants.
Tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl)phosphate (TDCPP) is a chlorinated organophosphate. Organophosphate chemicals have a wide variety of applications and are used as flame retardants, pesticides, plasticizers, and nerve gases. TDCPP is structurally similar to several other organophosphate flame retardants, such as tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) and tris(chloropropyl)phosphate (TCPP). TDCPP and these other chlorinated organophosphate flame retardants are all sometimes referred to as "chlorinated tris".
Tyrosine (symbol Tyr or Y) or 4-hydroxyphenylalanine is one of the 20 standard amino acids that are used by cells to synthesize proteins.
Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase 20 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the USP20 gene.
Wilson's (temperature) syndrome, also called Wilson's thyroid syndrome or WTS, is an alternative medicine concept which is not recognized as a medical condition by evidence-based medicine.
The year 1952 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below.
3,3'-Diiodothyronine, also known as 3,3'-T2, is a metabolite of thyroid hormone.