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Weightlifting Championships, Wrestling at the 2017 Asian Indoor and Martial Arts Games, Writing, Xanthocrambus saxonellus, Xestia trifida, Xələc, Nakhchivan, Xo‘jayli, Xorazm Region, Ya'qub ibn al-Layth al-Saffar, Yacht Club Yelken, Yanardag, Yaqut al-Hamawi, Yarim Tepe (Iran), Yaylym Berdiyev, Yaz culture, Yazdegerd III, Yıldız (disambiguation), Yellow ground squirrel, Yellow-breasted tit, Yellow-eyed pigeon, Yemen at the 2017 Asian Indoor and Martial Arts Games, Yeni Kərki, Yenikeyev, Yerevan, YGLP, Yklymberdi Paromov, Ymamnazar, Yomut carpet, Yossi Maiman, Younis Mahmoud, YouTube, Ypsolopha albiramella, Ypsolopha ephedrella, Ypsolopha satellitella, Ypsolopha seniculella, Ypsolopha trichonella, Yuliy Kim, Yuliy Meitus, Yuri Knorozov, Yuri Magdiýew, Yuri Shchekochikhin, Yury Kuznetsov (artist), Yusup Atabayev, Yves Brodeur, Yves Pozzo di Borgo, Yyldyz Hotel, Zablon Simintov, Zabrus morio, Zafar Babajanow, Zaisan mole vole, ZALA Aero, Zalmay Khalilzad, Zaman (newspaper), Zarudny's jird, Zarudny's sparrow, Zähmet Stadium, Zehinli Nesil, ZESCO United F.C., Zeynab Khanlarova, Zeynalabdin Shirvani, Zhuk-class patrol boat, Zinc, Zolotaya Korona, Zoroaster, `Abdu'l-Bahá, `Abdu'l-Bahá's journeys to the West, .tm, 10th century in literature, 1221, 1257 Samalas eruption, 128th Mountain Assault Brigade (Ukraine), 12th ECO Summit, 13th ECO Summit, 15th World Scout Jamboree (cancelled), 16th Summit of the Non-Aligned Movement, 1893 Quchan earthquake, 1895 in rail transport, 1954 in science, 1975 in aviation, 1990–99 world oil market chronology, 1990s, 1991, 1991 in aviation, 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt, 1992 Ýokary Liga, 1992 Summer Olympics, 1993 Ýokary Liga, 1994 Ýokary Liga, 1995 Ýokary Liga, 1995 Central Asian Games, 1996 Ýokary Liga, 1996 Summer Olympics, 1996 Summer Olympics national flag bearers, 1997 Central Asian Games, 1997 West Asian Games, 1997 Women's Islamic Games, 1997 world oil market chronology, 1997–98 Ýokary Liga, 1998 FIFA World Cup qualification (AFC), 1998–99 Ýokary Liga, 1999 Central Asian Games, 1999 world oil market chronology, 1Malaysia Development Berhad, 1st ECO Summit, 2000 Ýokary Liga, 2000 in Afghanistan, 2000 Summer Paralympics, 2000 Turkmenistan earthquake, 2001 Ýokary Liga, 2001 in Afghanistan, 2001 in archaeology, 2001 Women's Islamic Games, 2002 Ýokary Liga, 2002 PFC CSKA Moscow season, 2002 Turkmenistan President's Cup, 2002 World Monuments Watch, 2003 Ýokary Liga, 2003 Bam earthquake, 2003 Central Asian Games, 2003 in Afghanistan, 2003 PFC CSKA Moscow season, 2004 AFC Asian Cup qualification, 2004 AFC Cup, 2004 AFC Youth Championship qualification, 2004 Ýokary Liga, 2004 Indonesia national football team results, 2004 PFC CSKA Moscow season, 2004 Summer Paralympics, 2005 AFC Cup, 2005 Ýokary Liga, 2005 Moscow Victory Day Parade, 2005 PFC CSKA Moscow season, 2005 World Championships in Athletics – Men's 110 metres hurdles, 2005–06 Russia–Ukraine gas dispute, 2006 AFC Cup, 2006 AFC U-17 Championship qualification, 2006 Ýokary Liga, 2006 in rail transport, 2006 PFC CSKA Moscow season, 2007 AFC Asian Cup Final, 2007 AFC Cup, 2007 Ýokary Liga, 2007 in Austria, 2007 in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2007 PFC CSKA Moscow season, 2008 Ýokary Liga, 2008 Central Asia energy crisis, 2008 in rail transport, 2009 Ýokary Liga, 2009 Turkmenistan Cup, 2010 Ýokary Liga, 2010 Moscow Victory Day Parade, 2010 Pakistan floods, 2010 Turkmenistan Cup, 2011 Ýokary Liga, 2011 in Malaysia, 2011 Indonesia national football team results, 2011 Turkmenistan Cup, 2012 Ýokary Liga, 2012 Chicago summit, 2012 in Turkmenistan, 2012 Turkmenistan Cup, 2012 World Monuments Watch, 2013 Ýokary Liga, 2014 Ýokary Liga, 2014 FIBA Asia Champions Cup, 2014 in Malaysia, 2015 Ankara bombings, 2015 Ýokary Liga, 2015 FC Istiklol season, 2015 PDC Pro Tour, 2015–16 in Indian football, 2016 Ýokary Liga, 2016 PDC Pro Tour, 2016 Silk Way Airlines Antonov An-12 crash, 2017 Asian Indoor and Martial Arts Games, 2017 Asian Weightlifting Championships, 2017 Asian Winter Games, 2017 Ýokary Liga, 2017 FC Istiklol season, 2017 in Turkmenistan, 2017 PDC Pro Tour, 2017 UCI Track Cycling World Championships, 2017 World Weightlifting Championships – Men's 94 kg, 2018 Ýokary Liga, 2018 Baku fire, 2018 FC Istiklol season, 2018 in Turkmenistan, 2018–19 Bengaluru FC season, 252, 27th Mechanized Corps (Soviet Union), 2nd ECO Summit, 344th Rifle Division, 3rd ECO Summit, 4th ECO Summit, 5 ft and 1520 mm gauge railways, 56th Guards Air Assault Brigade, 5M Inşaat Tekstil Ithalat Sanayi Ticaret LTD Sti, 747, 7th Special Operations Squadron, 955. 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The term a feather in your cap is an English idiomatic phrase believed to have derived from the general custom in some cultures of a warrior adding a new feather to their head-gear for every enemy slain, or in other cases from the custom of establishing the success of a hunter as being the first to bag a game bird by plucking off the feathers of that prey and placing them in the hat band.
Aakash a.k.a. Ubislate 7+,.
Aýrybaba (since 2004 officially Beýik Saparmyrat Türkmenbaşy belentligi - Mount of the Great Saparmyrat Turkmenbashi) is a mountain in Central Asia.
Abadan District (formerly Buzmein) is a district of Aşgabat in Turkmenistan.
Abadan is a district of Ashgabat, the capital of Turkmenistan.
The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Abbottina rivularis (Chinese false gudgeon or Amur false gudgeon) is a species of ray-finned fish in the family Cyprinidae, the carps and minnows.
Abdal-Latif Mirza,(c. 1420 – 9 May 1450) was the great-grandson of Central Asian emperor Timur.
Abdalelah Haroun Hassan (عبد الإله هارون; born 1 January, 1997) is a Qatari track and field sprinter.
Abdallah ibn Amir (عبدالله بن عامر) was a governor of Busra (647–656) and a notably successful military general during the reign of Rashidun Caliph Uthman ibn Affan.
Abdulla Abdo Omar Yasser (born 27 March 1988) is a Bahraini professional footballer who plays as a defender who currently plays for Al-Muharraq and Bahrain.
Abdullah Abkar Mohammed (born January 1, 1997) is a Saudi sprinter competing in the 100 metres.
Abdullah Gül (born 29 October 1950) is a Turkish politician who served as the 11th President of Turkey, in office from 2007 to 2014.
Abdullah Khan (Abdollah Khan Ozbeg) (1533/4–1598), known as "The old Khan", was an Uzbek/Turkoman ruler of the Khanate of Bukhara (1500–1785).
Abiward or Abi-ward, was an ancient Sassanid city in modern-day Turkmenistan.
Abortion law permits, prohibits, restricts, or otherwise regulates the availability of abortion.
Aboureihan Educational Complex (Persian: مجتمع آموزشی ابوریحان) is a high school and middle school complex located in Qeitarie district, Saba Blvd.
Absurdistan is a term sometimes used to satirically describe a country in which absurdity is the norm, especially in its public authorities and government.
Absurdistan is a 2006 novel by Gary Shteyngart.
Muhammad Mirza Mirza Abū Saʿīd Baig Mohammed Khan or Abū Saʿīd Mirza (Chagatay/ابو سعید میرزا) was an important member of the Timurid dynasty.
Abu Mansur Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Daqiqi Tusi (935/942-976/980:Sources vary, treat all dates as estimates. ابو منصور محمد بن احمد دقیقی), sometimes referred to as Daqiqi (also Dakiki, Daghighi, دقیقی), was an early Persian poet who is said to have been born in Tus in Iran; or in Balkh, located in modern-day Afghanistan; as well as in Samarqand or Bukhara, both in today's Uzbekistan and Marv in today's Turkmenistan.
Acalyptris arenosus is a moth of the family Nepticulidae.
Acalyptris brevis is a moth of the Nepticulidae family.
Acalyptris desertellus is a moth of the Nepticulidae family.
Acalyptris egidijui is a moth of the Nepticulidae family.
Acalyptris falkovitshi is a moth of the Nepticulidae family.
Acalyptris galinae is a moth of the Nepticulidae family.
Acalyptris kizilkumi is a moth of the family Nepticulidae.
Acalyptris pallens is a moth of the Nepticulidae family.
Acalyptris repeteki is a moth of the Nepticulidae family.
Acalyptris shafirkanus is a moth of the Nepticulidae family.
Acalyptris turcomanicus is a moth of the Nepticulidae family.
Acalyptris vannieukerkeni is a moth of the Nepticulidae family.
Acalyptris vittatus is a moth of the Nepticulidae family.
Acartauchenius asiaticus is a species of sheet weaver found in Turkmenistan.
Acleris napaea is a species of moth of the family Tortricidae.
Acleris rhombana, the rhomboid tortrix, is a moth of the family Tortricidae.
Acrobasis niveicinctella is a species of snout moth in the genus Acrobasis.
Adjara (აჭარა), officially known as the Autonomous Republic of Adjara (Georgian: აჭარის ავტონომიური რესპუბლიკა), is a historical, geographic and political-administrative region of Georgia.
Adzhiyab is a town in far south-western Turkmenistan about 15 km from the border with Iran.
Aedophron venosa is a species of moth of the family Noctuidae.
Aegle subflava is a moth of the Noctuidae family.
Aelurillus is a genus of spiders in the family Salticidae (jumping spiders).
Aelurillus brutus is a jumping spider species in the genus Aelurillus.
Aelurillus kopetdaghi is a jumping spider species in the genus Aelurillus that lives in Turkmenistan.
Aeluropus is a genus of Eurasian and African plants in the grass family, found primarily in desert regions.
Aethes atlasi is a species of moth of the Tortricidae family.
Aethes bilbaensis is a species of moth of the Tortricidae family.
Aethes dilucidana, the short-barred yellow conch, is a species of moth of the family Tortricidae.
Aethes pardaliana is a moth of the family Tortricidae.
Aethes xanthina is a species of moth of the family Tortricidae.
The Afghan Hound is a hound that is distinguished by its thick, fine, silky coat and its tail with a ring curl at the end.
The Afghan pika (Ochotona rufescens) is a species of small mammal in the pika family, Ochotonidae.
The Afghan snowfinch (Pyrgilauda theresae) is a passerine bird of the sparrow family Passeridae, endemic to the northern parts of the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan.
Afghan Turkestan (ترکستان افغانستان) is a region in northern Afghanistan, on the border with the former Soviet republics of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan.
The Afghan vole (Blanfordimys afghanus) is a species of rodent in the family Cricetidae.
or Afghanistan is a Japanese yonkoma manga, originally published as a webcomic, by Timaking (ちまきing).
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Afghanistan will participate in the 2017 Asian Indoor and Martial Arts Games in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan from 17-27 September 2017.
The Afghanistan national football team (Pashto: د افغانستان د فوټبال ملي لوبډله Da Afghānestān da Fūṭbāl Millī Lobḍala, Dari: تیم ملی فوتبال افغانستان), also known as the Lions of Khurasan, is the national football team of Afghanistan and is controlled by the Afghanistan Football Federation.
The Afghanistan national futsal team is controlled by the Afghanistan Football Federation, the governing body for futsal in Afghanistan and represents the country in international futsal competitions.
The Afghanistan Oil Pipeline was a project proposed by several oil companies to transport oil from Azerbaijan and Central Asia through Afghanistan to Pakistan or/and India.
The Afghanistan: Energy Supply Improvement Investment Program is a proposed electric power transmission link intended to supply Afghanistan with power from other central Asian countries,, BBC Monitoring, 2016-05-16, accessed 2016-07-24 as well as interconnecting the ten separate power grids within Afghanistan.
Afghanistan–Turkmenistan relations refer to bilateral relations between Afghanistan and Turkmenistan.
The Uzbekistan–Afghanistan barrier is a border barrier, built by Uzbekistan along its 137-kilometres border with Afghanistan along the Amu Darya River.
The Afsharid dynasty (افشاریان) were members of an Iranian dynasty that originated from the Turkic Afshar tribe in Iran's north-eastern province of Khorasan, ruling Persia in the mid-eighteenth century.
Army General Agageldi Mammetgeldiyevich Mammetgeldiyev (Turkmen:Agageldy Mämmetgeldiýewiç Mämmetgeldiýew; Born:September 10, 1946 in Ashgabat) is a Turkmen military officer who served as Minister of Defense of Turkmenistan from 2003 to 2009.
Agar is a town in eastern Turkmenistan near the border with Afghanistan.
Agdistis chardzhouna is a moth of the Pterophoridae family.
Agdistis falkovitshi is a moth of the Pterophoridae family.
Agdistis flavissima is a moth in the Pterophoridae family.
Agdistis huemeri is a moth in the Pterophoridae family.
Agdistis ingens is a moth in the Pterophoridae family.
Agdistis karabachica is a moth of the Pterophoridae family.
Agdistis karakalensis is a moth in the Pterophoridae family.
Agdistis paralia is a moth in the Pterophoridae family.
Agdistis protecta is a moth in the Pterophoridae family.
Agdistis sissia is a moth in the Pterophoridae family.
The tamarisk plume (Agdistis tamaricis) is a moth of the Pterophoridae family.
Agdistis turkestanica is a moth of the Pterophoridae family.
The age of consent is the age below which a minor is considered to be legally incompetent to consent to sexual acts.
The legal age of consent for sexual activity varies by jurisdiction across Asia, from age 12 to 21.
An aggressor squadron or adversary squadron (in the US Navy and USMC) is a squadron that is trained to act as an opposing force in military wargames.
Agimsaly Duzelkhanov (born August 19, 1951) is a Kazakhstani artist.
Agnippe conjugella is a moth of the family Gelechiidae.
Agnippe deserta is a moth of the Gelechiidae family.
Agnippe pseudolella is a moth of the family Gelechiidae.
Agonopterix coenosella is a moth in the Depressariidae family.
Agonopterix stigmella is a moth in the Depressariidae family.
Agriculture in Central Asia provides a brief regional overview of agriculture in the five contiguous states of former Soviet Central Asia – Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan.
Tajikistan is a highly agrarian country, with its rural population at more than 70% and agriculture accounting for 60% of employment and around 30% of GDP.
Agriphila tersellus is a species of moth in the Crambidae family.
The AgroEurasia International Agriculture Fair (Avrasya Tarim) is one of the largest agricultural exhibitions in Eurasia.
The Light Feathered Rustic (Agrotis cinerea) is a moth of the Noctuidae family.
Agrotis lasserrei is a moth of the Noctuidae family.
Aghstafa (Ağstafa; Акстафа) is a rayon in the northwestern Azerbaijan.It has two farmland exclaves inside Armenia, Jaradollo both of which came under Armenian control during the Nagorno-Karabakh War.
The AgustaWestland AW101 is a medium-lift helicopter used in both military and civil applications.
Asian Highway 5 (AH5) is an east-west route of the Asian Highway Network, running 10,380 km (6,450 miles) from Shanghai, China via Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia to the border between Turkey and Bulgaria west of Istanbul where it connects to AH1 and.
Asian Highway 75 (AH75) is a road in the Asian Highway Network running 1920 km (1190 miles) from Tejen, Turkmenistan to Chabahar, Iran.
Asian Highway 77 (AH77) is a road in the Asian Highway Network running 1298 km (811 miles) from Jabal Saraj, Afghanistan to Mary, Turkmenistan.
Asian Highway 78 (AH78) is a road in the Asian Highway Network running 1110 km (690 miles) from Ashgabat, Turkmenistan to Kerman, Iran.
Ahal Football Club (Ahal futbol kluby) is a Turkmen association football club based in the Ahal Province.
Ahal Region (Ahal welaýaty; from Persian آخال Axāl) is one of the regions of Turkmenistan.
Ahmet Çalık is a Turkish businessman.
Ahmet Yalçınkaya (born December 1963) is a Turkish poet and academician.
Al-Ahnaf Ibn Qays was a Muslim general who lived during the time of prophet Muhammad.
Aida Steshenko (born August 11, 1968) is a table tennis player from Turkmenistan who participated in the 1996 and 2000 Summer Olympics and five World Table Tennis Championships.
Aidar Kazov (Айдар Қазов; born 21 February 1995 in Magzhan Zhumabaev District, North Kazakhstan Region, Kazakhstan) is a Kazakh weightlifter who competes in the men's 77 kg weight category.
Ajy also known as Adzhi or Uch-Adzhi is a town in eastern Turkmenistan.
Ajyguýy is a town in western Turkmenistan.
Ak Welsapar (Russian Ак Вельсапар; born September 19, 1956 in Mary, Turkmenistan) is a Turkmenistan journalist and writer.
Ak-Altyn is a town in northern Turkmenistan near the border with Uzbekistan.
Ak-Bulak is a settlement in Turkmenistan.
Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani (Akbar Hāshemī Rafsanjānī or Hashemi Bahramani; 25 August 1934 – 8 January 2017) was an influential Iranian politician, writer and one of the founding fathers of the Islamic Republic who was the fourth President of Iran from 3 August 1989 until 3 August 1997.
Akbugdaý, (formerly Gäwers) is a town and capital of Akbugdaý District in the Ahal Province of southern Turkmenistan.
Akbugdaý District is a district of Ahal Province in Turkmenistan.
Akdepe is a town and capital of Akdepe District in the Daşoguz Province of Turkmenistan.
Akdepe District (Akdepe etraby, Акдепе этрабы) is a district of Daşoguz Province in Turkmenistan.
The Akhal-Teke (or; from Turkmen Ahalteke) is a horse breed from Turkmenistan, where they are a national emblem.
Akhchadepe is a town in southern Turkmenistan about 20 km from the border with Iran.
Akja Täjiýewna Nurberdiýewa (born 1957) is a Turkmen politician who has served as the Chairperson of the Assembly of Turkmenistan from 2006 to 2018.
Akmyrat Jumanazarow (born 5 November 1987) is a Turkmenistan footballer currently playing for HTTU Asgabat.
Akmyrat Rejepow is a Turkmen general and governmental hierarch, having served as Saparmurat Niyazov's Chief of Security.
Aksoltan Toreyevna Ataeva (Aksoltan Töreýewna Ataýewa Аксолтан Тореевна Атаева; born 6 November 1944, Ashgabat, Turkmenistan, former USSR) has been the Permanent Representative of Turkmenistan to the United Nations since 23 February 1995.
Al-Asmaʿi (أبو سعيد عبد الملك ابن قريب الأصمعي, ʿAbd al-Malik ibn Quraib as-Aṣmaʿī; -828, also known as Asmai) was one of the earliest Arabic lexicographers and one of the three leaders of the Basra school of Arabic grammar.
Abū Rayḥān Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Al-Bīrūnī (Chorasmian/ابوریحان بیرونی Abū Rayḥān Bērōnī; New Persian: Abū Rayḥān Bīrūnī) (973–1050), known as Al-Biruni (البيروني) in English, was an IranianD.J. Boilot, "Al-Biruni (Beruni), Abu'l Rayhan Muhammad b. Ahmad", in Encyclopaedia of Islam (Leiden), New Ed., vol.1:1236–1238.
Al-Farabi (known in the West as Alpharabius; c. 872 – between 14 December, 950 and 12 January, 951) was a renowned philosopher and jurist who wrote in the fields of political philosophy, metaphysics, ethics and logic.
Al-Nasā'ī (214 – 303 AH; 829 – 915 CE), full name Abū `Abd ar-Raḥmān Aḥmad ibn Shu`ayb ibn Alī ibn Sīnān al-Nasā'ī, was a noted collector of hadith (sayings of Muhammad),Ludwig W. Adamec (2009), Historical Dictionary of Islam, p.138.
Alaja, (Аладжа), is a small populated place in Balkan Province in western Turkmenistan on the Caspian Sea.
Albert Jan Maat (born 8 February 1953 in Heino, Overijssel) is a Dutch politician and Member of the European Parliament.
Albert Linder (Альберт Линдер; born 13 January 1996 in Taldykorgan, Kazakhstan) is a Kazakh weightlifter who competes in the men's 69 kg weight category.
Alburnoides holciki is a species of small (10.2 cm max length) freshwater fish in the Cyprinidae family.
Alburnoides varentsovi is a fish species of the family Cyprinidae, known from Turkmenistan.
The ALCO RSD-1 was a diesel-electric locomotive built by American Locomotive Company (ALCO).
Aleksander Boliyan (born 27 July 1989) is a Turkmen international footballer.
Aleksandr Krokhmal (born 22 November 1978 in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan) is a Kazakhstani football striker of Ukrainians and Russians descent who played for the clubs Megasport, Pakhtakor, Borysfen, Ordabasy, Zhetysu.
Aleksey Nikolayevich Kuropatkin (Алексе́й Никола́евич Куропа́ткин; March 29, 1848January 16, 1925) was the Russian Imperial Minister of War from 1898 to 1904, and often held responsible for major Russian defeats in the Russo-Japanese War, most notably at the Battle of Mukden and the Battle of Liaoyang.
Alem Cultural and Entertainment Center is a cultural center in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan.
The Sloe Carpet or Kent Mocha (Aleucis distinctata) is a moth of the family Geometridae.
Alex Petriashvili (ალექსი პეტრიაშვილი) (born 24 August 1970) is a Georgian politician who served as the State Minister of Georgia on European and Euro-Atlantic Integration from 2012 until 2014.
Prince Alexander Bekovich-Cherkassky (Алекса́ндр Беко́вич-Черка́сский), born Devlet-Girei-mırza (Девлет-Гирей-мурза) (died 1717), was a Russian officer of Circassian origin who led the first Russian military expedition into Central Asia.
Alexander Vasilyevich MosolovMosolov's name is transliterated variously and inconsistently between sources.
Alexander Rumyantsev (Румянцев, Александр Юрьевич), born July 26, 1945 in Kushka, Turkmen SSR is a Russian scientist, academician, minister, and ambassador.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Countess Alexandra Tolstoy FRGS (born Alexandra Tolstoy-Miloslavsky, 1974; married name Alexandra Galimzyanova) is a British equine adventurer, broadcaster and businesswoman, a fellow of the Royal Geographical Society.
Alfredia is a genus of flowering plants in the daisy family described as a genus in 1816.
Alhagi maurorum is a species of legume commonly known, variously, as camelthorn, camelthorn-bush, Caspian manna, and Persian mannaplant.
Ali Hashemi (علی هاشمی born 1 November 1991) is an Iranian weightlifter who won the bronze medal in the Men's 94 kg weight class at the 2015 Asian Weightlifting Championships.
The Ali Ili were one of the ten major tribal divisions in Turkmenistan.
Aliasker Bashirov (born June 27, 1979) is an amateur boxer from Ashgabat, Turkmenistan, who fought at the 2004 and 2008 Olympics at welterweight.
Alibek Sapayev (born 16.06.1987) is a Turkmenian professional football referee.
Alijor Aşurmamadov (Алиёр Ашурмамадов; born on 20 August 1970) is a former Tajikistani footballer who played for Lokomotiv Moscow, Anzhi Makhachkala, and FC Irtysh.
Alik Haýdarow (born 27 April 1981) is an Turkmenistan footballer who plays as a defender for Altyn Asyr FK in the Ýokary Liga.
The all-time medal table for all Olympic Games from 1896 to 2018, including Summer Olympic Games, Winter Olympic Games, and a combined total of both, is tabulated below.
The alligator gar (Atractosteus spatula) is a ray-finned euryhaline fish related to the bowfin in the infraclass Holostei (ho'-las-te-i).
Allium atroviolaceum, the broadleaf wild leek, is a plant species native to Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, Syria, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Turkmenistan, Turkey, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, southern European Russia and the Caucasus, but widely cultivated in other regions as a food source and for its ornamental value.
Allium borszczowii is a plant species native to Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan.
Allium caspium is a species of onions named for the Caspian Sea.
Allium cristophii, common name Persian onion or Star of Persia; is a species of onion native to Turkey, Iran, and Turkmenistan, though grown as an ornamental bulbous plant in many parts of the world.
Allium dictyoprasum is a Southwest Asian species of onion in the amaryllis family, found in Israel, Palestine, Lebanon, Turkey, Caucasus, Iran, Iraq, Turkmenistan and Saudi Arabia.
Allium giganteum, common name giant onion, is an Asian species of onion, native to central and southwestern Asia but cultivated in many countries as a flowering garden plant.
Allium macleanii is an Asian species of wild onion found at high elevations in Pakistan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, Afghanistan, Nepal, Tajikistan, and northern India.
Allium oreophilum, common name pink lily leek, is a plant species native to Xinjiang, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Iran, Iraq, Turkmenistan, European Russia, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia Allium oreophilum produces one spherical bulb up to in diameter.
Allium paradoxum, the few-flowered garlic or few-flowered leek, is an Asian species of wild onion in the Amaryllis family.
Allium sabulosum is a Eurasian species of wild onion native to European Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Iran, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Xinjiang.
Allium stipitatum, Persian shallot, is an Asian species of onion native to central and southwestern Asia.
Allium umbilicatum is an Asian species of wild onion native to Pakistan, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Iran, and Tajikistan.
Alma Gol Lake (دریاچه آلماگل), also called Lake Ulmagol, is a freshwater lake in Golestān Province, Iran near the Turkmenistan border.
Almar is a district in the southwestern part of Faryab Province, Afghanistan.
Almas Ildyrym (Almas İldırım), born Ildyrym Almaszadeh (25 March 1907, Baku – 14 January 1952, Elazığ, Turkey), was an Azerbaijani poet.
Almaz Sharman (born January 1, 1960) is the President of the Academy of Preventive Medicine of Kazakhstan and the co-founder of HealthCity network of clinics.
Alsophylax pipiens, also known as the even-fingered gecko, is a species of gecko found in Mongolia and Kazakhstan, south to Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and Afghanistan.
Altenia wagneriella is a moth of the family Gelechiidae.
Altymyrat Annadurdyýew (born April 13, 1993) is a professional Turkmen football player who played in FC Altyn Asyr.
Altyn Asyr (Алтын Асыр) is the state owned mobile operator in Turkmenistan.
Oriental bazaar Altyn Asyr (Altyn Asyr gündogar bazary) also known locally as Täze jygyldyk (Новая Толкучка; New tolkuchka) is the largest market in Turkmenistan, and the fifth-largest in Central Asia.
Football Club Altyn Asyr (Altyn Asyr futbol kluby) is a Turkmen football club based in Ashgabat.
"Altyn Ay" Medal (Golden Moon) is a medal of Hero of Turkmenistan, a special decoration of a Hero of Turkmenistan.
Altyndepe (Алтын-Депе, the Turkmen for "Golden Hill") is a Bronze Age (BMAC) site in Turkmenistan, near Aşgabat, inhabited in the 3rd to 2nd millennia BC, abandoned around 1600 BC.
Alvaradoia is a genus of moths of the Noctuidae family.
Alysh as a part of belt wrestling competition was contested at the 2017 Asian Indoor and Martial Arts Games in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan from 22 to 23 September 2017.
Amangeldy Gumirovich "Aman" Tuleyev (Амангельды (Аман) Гумирович Тулеев, Амангелді Молдағазыұлы Төлеев, Amangeldi Moldaǵazıulı Tóleev), born 13 May 1944, is a Russian statesman.
Amangeldy Hydyr (born 1951 in Arapjik, Balkan Province, Turkmenistan) is a Turkmenistani painter.
Amangul Berdieva (married name since 2011, born Amangul Durdyeva) is an English draughts and International draughts champion from Turkmenistan.
Amanmurad Hommadov (Turkmen: Amanmyrat Hommadow; born January 28, 1989 in Tejen, Turkmenistan, Soviet Union) is a Turkmenistani hammer thrower.
Ambrogio Fogar (IPA:; 13 August 1941 – 23 August 2005) was an Italian sailor, writer, rally driver and all-round adventurer.
American Samoa competed at the 2017 Asian Indoor and Martial Arts Games held in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan from September 17 to 27.
Amir Aliýewiç Gurbani (born October 24, 1987) is a professional Turkmen football player currently playing for FC Dordoi Bishkek in Kyrgyzstan League.
Amu Dar'ya, sometimes written Amu Dar'ja, is a town in Lebap, Turkmenistan, on the river of the same name opposite the town of Atamurat.
The Amu Darya, also called the Amu or Amo River, and historically known by its Latin name Oxus, is a major river in Central Asia.
The Amu Darya Pipeline Bridge is a suspension bridge on the Amu Darya river.
The Amu Darya sturgeon or false shovelnose sturgeon (Pseudoscaphirhynchus kaufmanni) is a species of fish in the Acipenseridae family.
Amyderýa Nature Reserve is a nature reserve (zapovednik) of north-eastern Turkmenistan.
Anacamptis collina is a species of orchid.
Analectis pala is an extinct lamprid of the Family Turkmenidae.
Anarsia eburnella is a moth in the family Gelechiidae.
Anarsia eleagnella is a moth of the Gelechiidae family.
Anarsia halimodendri is a moth in the family Gelechiidae.
Anastasiya Prenko (born 12 March 1993 in Ashgabat) is a Turkmen tennis player.
Anatol Şalaru (born 7 February 1962, Văratic, Rîșcani) is a Moldovan politician.
Anatoli Gennadyevich Nezhelev (Анатолий Геннадьевич Нежелев; born 25 May 1985) is a Russian professional footballer.
Anatolian High School or Anadolu High School (Anadolu Lisesi), refers to public high schools in Turkey that admits their students according to high nationwide standardized test (TEOG) scores.
Anau (also spelled Annau, Änew) is a city in Turkmenistan.
Ancient history is the aggregate of past events, "History" from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the post-classical history.
Ancylodes dealbatella is a species of snout moth in the genus Ancylodes.
Ancylolomia kuznetzovi is a moth in the Crambidae family.
Ancylosis is a genus of snout moth.
Ancylosis aspilatella is a species of snout moth in the genus Ancylosis.
Ancylosis ochricostella is a species of snout moth in the genus Ancylosis.
Ancylosis sulcatella is a species of snout moth in the genus Ancylosis.
Ancylosis versicolorella is a species of snout moth in the genus Ancylosis.
Ancylosoma is a monotypic snout moth genus described by Rolf-Ulrich Roesler in 1973.
Anders' Army was the informal yet common name of the Polish Armed Forces in the East in the 1941–42 period, in recognition of its commander Władysław Anders.
Andkhoy (اندخوی) is a town and district in northern Afghanistan, Faryab Province, is located at, 316 m altitude.
Andrachne is a genus of flowering plants in the family Phyllanthaceae described by Linnaeus in 1753.
Andrey Molchanov (born July 16, 1987) is an Olympic swimmer from the Turkmenistan.
Andrei Vasilyevich Martynov (Андрей Васильевич Мартынов; born September 17, 1965) is a retired Turkmenistani professional footballer.
Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov (p; 21 May 192114 December 1989) was a Russian nuclear physicist, dissident, and activist for disarmament, peace and human rights.
Andrei Aleksandrovich Zavyalov (Андрей Александрович Завьялов; Андрій Олександрович Зав'ялов, Andriy Oleksandrovych Zavyalov; born 2 January 1971 in Bila Tserkva) is an Ukraine-born Turkmenistani football coach and former player.
Andrej Benedejčič (born November 21, 1970 in Ljubljana) is a Slovenian diplomat, currently serving as the Permanent Representative of the Republic of Slovenia to the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe and other International Organizations in Vienna.
Andrejs Auzāns (1871–1953) was a Latvian general and topographer.
The Andronovo culture is a collection of similar local Bronze Age cultures that flourished c. 2000–900 BC in western Siberia and the central Eurasian Steppe.
The Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran, also known as Anglo-Soviet invasion of Persia, was the invasion of the Imperial State of Iran during the Second World War by Soviet, British and other Commonwealth armed forces.
Annagul Annakuliyeva (Russian: Аннагуль АннаКулиева) (December 31, 1924 – July 18, 2009) was a Turkmen soprano opera singer and film actress.
Annaguly Deryayev (born 1973) is a Turkmen politician and the head of the state oil company Türkmennebit.
Annakurban Amanklychev is a Turkmenistani human rights activist currently serving a prison sentence in Turkmenbashi.
Annasoltan Seidovna Kekilova (1942 – June 19, 1983) was a Soviet-era poet and dissident from Turkmenistan.
Anne Ferreira (born 18 March 1961, in Saint-Quentin, Aisne) is a French politician and Member of the European Parliament for the Île-de-France.
Annemarie Minna Renée Schwarzenbach (23 May 1908 – 15 November 1942) was a Swiss writer, journalist, photographer and traveler.
The Anti-Narcotics Force (انسداد منشیات پولیس, reporting name: ANF) is a Federal Executive bureau of the Government of Pakistan, tasked with combating the narcotics smuggling and use within Pakistan.
Anti-Turkism, also known as Turkophobia or anti-Turkish sentiment, is hostility, intolerance, or racism against Turkish or Turkic people, Turkish culture, Turkic countries, or Turkey itself.
Anto Gvozdenović (Анто Гвозденовић; 26 January 1853 – 2 September 1935) was a Montenegrin, Russian, and French general, a member of the Imperial Russian Privy Council, and a diplomat and statesman.
Antonio Di Pietro (born October 2, 1950) is an Italian politician and lawyer.
Anvari (1126–1189), full name Awhad ad-Din 'Ali ibn Mohammad Khavarani or Awhad ad-Din 'Ali ibn Mahmud (اوحد الدین علی ابن محد انوری) was a Persian poet.
The Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh were nineteen eminent early followers of Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith.
April is the fourth month of the year in the Gregorian calendar, the fifth in the early Julian, the first of four months to have a length of 30 days, and the second of five months to have a length of less than 31 days.
Aqina (Persian/Pashto: اقينه) is a border checkpoint and border crossing in northern Faryab Province of Afghanistan.
Brine shrimp have the ability to produce dormant eggs, known as cysts.
The Arabic script is the writing system used for writing Arabic and several other languages of Asia and Africa, such as Azerbaijani, Pashto, Persian, Kurdish, Lurish, Urdu, Mandinka, and others.
The Aral Sea was an endorheic lake (one with no outflow) lying between Kazakhstan (Aktobe and Kyzylorda Regions) in the north and Uzbekistan (Karakalpakstan autonomous region) in the south.
The Aral–Caspian Depression is a lowland depression straddling Europe and Asia around the Aral Sea and Northern Caspian Sea.
Arbatan (also, Arbat) is a village and municipality in the Sharur District of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, Azerbaijan.
Archabil Avenue (Arçabil şaýoly) is the most modern high-speed motorway in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan.
Archabil District is a district of Aşgabat in Turkmenistan.
Arçabil Hotel (former President Hotel) is a five star hotel located in the Ashgabat, Turkmenistan along the Archabil Freeway on 18 km far from Ashgabat Airport and 12 km far from Ashgabat Railway Station.
The archaeogenetics of the Near East is the study of the genetics of past human populations (archaeogenetics) in the Ancient Near East using DNA from ancient remains.
Archaeology South-East (ASE) is a large contracts division in southern England which provides professional archaeological services for public and private sector clients.
Archaeus ("the ancient") is a prehistoric genus of jackfish from the Paleogene of Europe.
Traditionally, Iranian architects were known as Mi'mars.
The Architecture of Central Asia, which is generally considered as comprising Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan has been influenced by a diverse array of architectural traditions such as Russian architecture during the eras of tsarist and Soviet rule, Islamic architecture which came earlier, Persian architecture, and Chinese architecture.
Archman is a town in south-western Turkmenistan in Ahal Province on the northern rim of the Kopet Dag mountain range.
An area is an administrative unit of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), which typically is composed of multiple stakes and missions.
Arge ochropus, the rose sawfly, is a species belonging to the family Argidae subfamily Arginae.
Ariana, the Latinized form of the Ancient Greek Ἀρ(ε)ιανή Ar(e)ianē (inhabitants: Ariani; Ἀρ(ε)ιανοί Ar(e)ianoi), was a general geographical term used by some Greek and Roman authors of the ancient period for a district of wide extent between Central Asia and the Indus River, compromising the eastern provinces of the Achaemenid Empire that covered the whole of modern-day Afghanistan, as well as the easternmost part of Iran and up to the Indus River in Pakistan (former Northern India).
Arif Mirzoýew (born January 13, 1980) is a professional Turkmen football player, currently playing for FC Altyn Asyr.
Arkady Mikhailovich Chernetsky (Арка́дий Миха́йлович Черне́цкий) (born May 8, 1950) is a Russian politician who has served as Mayor of Yekaterinburg, Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia since January 1992 to November 2, 2010.
The Armed Forces of Turkmenistan (Türkmenistanyň Ýaragly Güýçleri, Түркменистаның Йараглы Гүйчлери) consists of an Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Border Troops, and Internal Troops, and a National Guard.
The dram (դրամ; sign: ֏; code: AMD) is the monetary unit of Armenia and the neighboring unrecognized Republic of Artsakh (Nagorno-Karabakh).
Armenians in Central Asian states: Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan, were mainly settled there during the Soviet era for various reasons.
Aroga aristotelis is a moth of the family Gelechiidae.
Around the World in 80 Days is a British travel documentary series made to support the annual BBC Children in Need charity appeal in 2009.
Arsen Bagdasaryan is a Turkmenistan football Defender who played for Turkmenistan in the 2004 Asian Cup.
Arslanbek Açilow (born 1 July 1993) is a middleweight amateur boxer from Turkmenistan.
Artýom Nazarow is a Turkmen football midfielder who played for Turkmenistan in the 2004 AFC Asian Cup.
Arthrobotrys oligospora was discovered in Europe in 1850 by Georg Fresenius.
Arto Halonen (born 11 January 1964, Joensuu) is a documentary filmmaker from Finland.
Artur Gevorkyan (born 22 November 1984) is a professional Turkmen footballer who currently plays for Qizilqum Zarafshon and the Turkmenistan national football team.
Abu al-‘Abbās ‘Abdu'llāh ibn Muhammad al-Saffāḥ, or Abul `Abbas as-Saffaḥ (أبو العباس عبد الله بن محمد السفّاح) (b. 721/722 AD – d. 10 June 754) was the first caliph of the Abbasid caliphate, one of the longest and most important caliphates (Islamic dynasties) in Islamic history.
Ascalenia vanelloides is a moth in the Cosmopterigidae family.
Ascom Group is the largest oil and gas company in Moldova.
Ashgabat (Aşgabat,; ɐʂxɐˈbat) — named Poltoratsk (p) between 1919 and 1927, is the capital and the largest city of Turkmenistan in Central Asia, situated between the Karakum Desert and the Kopet Dag mountain range.
Ashgabat Park (Aşgabat seýilgähi) is among the oldest public parks at the center of Ashgabat in Turkmenistan.
The Ashgabat agreement is a multimodal transport agreement between India, Iran, Kazakhstan, Oman, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan for creating an international transport and transit corridor facilitating transportation of goods between Central Asia and the Persian Gulf.
Ashgabat Cable Car (Подвесная канатная дорога) is a cableway between Ashgabat and the foothills of the Kopetdag.
The Complex of game sports is an indoor arena located in Olympic Complex, Ashgabat, Turkmenistan.
The Ashgabat Flagpole is the 5th tallest free-standing flagpole in the world, at tall.
The Ashgabat Fountain in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan contains the world's greatest number of fountain pools in a public place.
The Ashgabat indoor tennis arena (Aşgabat tennis toplumy) is a tennis complex in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan.
Ashgabat International Airport, formerly known as Saparmurat Türkmenbaşy International Airport, is one of three international airports in Turkmenistan.
The Ashgabat International School is an international school in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan.
The Ashgabat Monorail is a monorail line on the Olympic Village in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan.
The Ashgabat National Museum of History is a history museum in Ashgabat, the capital city of Turkmenistan.
Ashgabat railway station (Aşgabat demirýol menzili) is the main railway station in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan.
The Ashgabat Stadium (Aşgabat stadiony) is a multi-purpose stadium in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan.
The Ashgabat Trauma Center (Şikesleri bejeriş halkara merkezi) is a large orthopedic center in the south-western part of Ashgabat, the capital of Turkmenistan.
The Ashgabat Sports Complex Velodrome (Turkmen Welotrek Sport Toplumy) is a velodrome constructed in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan.
Ashgabat Watersports Complex is a large indoor sports facility accommodating the 50-meter swimming pool.
An Ashik was traditionally a singer who accompanied his song— be it a dastan (traditional epic story, also known as hikaye) or a shorter original composition—with a long necked lute (bağlama) in Azerbaijani culture and related Turkic cultures.
Ashiq Qarib (Aşıq Qərib, literally "the wandering ashik") is an anonymous romantic dastan, composed not earlier than the 16—17th centuries and popular in Transcaucasia and Central Asia.
Ashkhabad was a Turkmen folklore band formed in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
The Levant barbastelle (Barbastella leucomelas) is a species of vesper bat.
The Asian Highway Network (AH), also known as the Great Asian Highway, is a cooperative project among countries in Asia and Europe and the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), to improve the highway systems in Asia.
The Asian Indoor and Martial Arts Games, also known as AIMAG, is a pancontinental multi-sport event held every four years among athletes from all over Asia, after the merger of the Asian Indoor Games and the Asian Martial Arts Games.
The Asian snake-eyed skink (Ablepharus pannonicus) is a species of skink.
The Asian Weightlifting Championships is a weightlifting championship organised by the Asian Weightlifting Federation for competitors from the Asian countries.
The Asiatic cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus venaticus), also known as Iranian cheetah, is a Critically Endangered cheetah subspecies surviving today only in Iran.
Asoke Kumar Mukerji (born December 1955) is a former Indian diplomat and writer.
Aspiolucius esocinus or the pike asp is a species of cyprinid fish native to rivers (Amu Darya and Syr Darya) and occasionally lakes in Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.
The Assembly (Mejilis) is the legislative branch of Turkmenistan.
The Assistant Secretary of State for South and Central Asian Affairs is the head of the Bureau of South and Central Asian Affairs within the United States Department of State, which handles U.S. foreign policy and relations in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan.
The Association of Turkmens of the World (also Humanitarian Association of Turkmen of the World, or HATW) is the organization meant to bring together Turkmen people in Turkmenistan and other parts of the world.
The Atamyrat-Kerkichi Bridge is a bridge at Atamyrat, in Lebap Province of Turkmenistan, built over the river Amu Darya.
Atatürk Square is a park named after Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, founder of the Turkish Republic located in the center of Ashgabat.
Athamanthia is an Eastern Palearctic genus of butterfly in the family Lycaenidae.
Athamanthia phoenicura is a butterfly of the family Lycaenidae.
Athrips autumnella is a moth of the Gelechiidae family.
Athrips falkovitshi is a moth of the Gelechiidae family.
Athrips mongolorum is a moth of the Gelechiidae family.
Athrips rancidella, the cotoneaster webworm, is a moth of the Gelechiidae family.
Athrips tigrina is a moth of the Gelechiidae family.
The Atrek (اترک, Etrek derýasy), also known as the Attruck, Atrak, and Etrek, is a fast-moving river which begins in the mountains of north-eastern Iran, and flows westward draining into the south-eastern corner of the Caspian Sea in Turkmenistan.
Atropa is a genus of flowering plants in the nightshade family, Solanaceae: tall, calcicole, herbaceous perennials (rhizomatous hemicryptophytes), bearing large leaves and glossy berries particularly dangerous to children, due to their combination of an attractive, cherry-like appearance with a high toxicity.
Atropa pallidiflora is a close relative of the infamous deadly nightshade and, like it, is an extremely poisonous plant, containing a variety of tropane alkaloids valued in medicine for their anticholinergic, antispasmodic and mydriatic properties and deliriant in excess.
Atypus muralis is a mygalomorph spider from Central Europe to Turkmenistan.
August is the eighth month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendars, and the fifth of seven months to have a length of 31 days.
Australia competed at the 2017 Asian Indoor and Martial Arts Games held in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan from September 17 to 27.
Austria–Turkmenistan relations are bilateral relations between Austria and Turkmenistan.
An autocracy is a system of government in which supreme power (social and political) is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control (except perhaps for the implicit threat of a coup d'état or mass insurrection).
An Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (ASSR) of the Soviet Union (автономная советская социалистическая республика, АССР) was a type of administrative unit in the Soviet Union created for certain nations.
Autophila einsleri is a moth of the Noctuidae family.
Autophila libanotica is a moth of the Noctuidae family.
Autophila limbata is a moth of the Noctuidae family.
Auxacia is a genus of snout moths.
The Avars (аварал / магIарулал, awaral / maⱨarulal; "mountaineers" constitute a Caucasus native ethnic group, the most predominant of several ethnic groups living in the Russian republic of Dagestan. The Avars reside in a region known as the North Caucasus between the Black and Caspian Seas. Alongside other ethnic groups in the North Caucasus region, the Caucasian Avars live in ancient villages located approximately 2,000 m above sea level. The Avar language spoken by the Caucasian Avars belongs to the family of Northeast Caucasian languages and is also known as Nakh–Dagestanian. Sunni Islam has been the prevailing religion of the Avars since the 13th century.
Avestan, also known historically as Zend, is a language known only from its use as the language of Zoroastrian scripture (the Avesta), from which it derives its name.
Avestan geography, is the geographical references in the Avesta, which are limited to the regions on the eastern Iranian plateau up to Indo-Iranian border.
Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.
Avitoluvarus ("Ancient Louvar") is a genus of extinct louvar that lived in the Tethys Ocean during the early Paleogene.
Awaza (or Avaza) is a touristic zone in Turkmenistan.
Awdy Kulyýew (July 30, 1936 in Ashgabad – April 10, 2007 in Oslo) served as the first Foreign Minister of Turkmenistan.
Axiopoena maura is a moth of the family Erebidae.
Aýdere is a town in the Kopet Dag mountains of far south-western Turkmenistan in Balkan Province near the border with Iran.
Aygyl Tajiyeva (? – July 22, 2009) was a Turkmen activist and politician.
Ayna Television (means "mirror" in Turkish) was the first commercial television station broadcasting from Mazari Sharif, Afghanistan.
Seyed Ayoub Mousavi (سید ایوب موسوی, born April 21, 1995) is an Iranian weightlifter who won a silver medal at the 2016 Asian Weightlifting Championships.
Azād Khān Afghān (آزاد خان افغان), or Azād Shāh Afghān (آزاد شاه افغان) (died 1781), was a Pashtun military commander and a major contender for supremacy in western Iran after the death of Nader Shah Afshar in 1747.
Azat Khodzhageldyyevich Bairyyev (Азат Ходжагельдыевич Байрыев; born 17 February 1989) is a Russian football player.
Azat Muhadow (born 21 June 1981) is a Turkmenistan footballer currently playing for FC Talyp Sporty as a defender.
The Organization for Economic Co-operation is an intergovernmental organization established in 1985 with cooperation of Turkey, Iran and Pakistan.
This article details the fixtures and results of the Azerbaijan national football team in 1990s (between 1992 and 1999).
Azerbaijani art has developed over the ancient history of Azerbaijan and Iranian Azerbaijan.
The Azerbaijani diaspora are the communities of Azerbaijanis living outside the places of their ethnic origin: Azerbaijan and the Iranian region of Azerbaijan.
Azerbaijani folklore is the folk tradition of Azerbaijanis which has developed throughout the centuries.
Azerbaijanis in Turkmenistan (Türkmənistan azərbaycanlıları) are part of the Azerbaijani diaspora.
Çaşkent or Chashkent is a village in Mary Province, Turkmenistan.
Çagagüzer is a town in eastern Turkmenistan near the border with Afghanistan.
Çalik Enerji is a Turkish energy company of the Çalık Holding, which was established in 1998.
Since the 1980s, Çalık Holding has been operating in the areas of energy, construction, mining, textile, finance, and telecom sectors.
Çäçe is a town in southern Turkmenistan near the border with Iran.
Çärjew District (formerly Türkmenabat/Serdarabat District) is a district of Lebap Province in Turkmenistan.
Çemenebit (also known as Çemenibit or Chemen-i-Bid) is a town in Mary, Turkmenistan.
Çemenebit Sanctuary is a sanctuary (zakaznik) of Turkmenistan.
Ömer Lütfü Topal, sometimes spelled Lütfi (1942, Doğanşehir, Malatya Province – July 28, 1996, Istanbul), was a Turkish businessman, who was deeply involved in the Susurluk scandal.
Üçajy (also known as Utsch-Adshi or Uch-Adzhi) is a town in Mary, Turkmenistan.
Umurbek Bazarbayev (born September 17, 1981 in Ýylanly, Dasoguz Province, Turkmenistan) is a Turkmenistani weightlifter.
Ýaňyl Kawisowa (born 1 January 1997) is a Turkmenistan female Muaythai practitioner.
Yagmyrmyrat Annamyradov (Ýagmyrmyrat Annamyradow; born 19 October 1982) is a Turkmen footballer who plays for Turkmen club FC Balkan.
Yazguly Hojageldiyev (Ýazguly Hojageldyýew; born 16 February 1977) is a Turkmen football manager and former professional footballer who is currently the manager of the Altyn Asyr FK.
Yedigen Football Team (Ýedigen futbol topary) is a Turkmenistan professional football club based in Ashgabat.
Yekaterina Arabova (born August 10, 1983 in Ashgabat) is a Turkmenistan sport shooter.
Yelena Ryabova (Елена Рябова, born November 3, 1990) is a Turkmenistan short-distance runner.
Ýewgeniý Naboýçenko (born 17 May 1970), also spelled Eygeniy Naboychenko, is a Turkmen football goalkeeper who played for Turkmenistan in the 2004 AFC Asian Cup.
Ýewgeniý Zemskow (Евгений Земсков; born 17 March 1982) is a Turkmen football striker who played for Turkmenistan in the 2004 AFC Asian Cup.
The Turkmenistan Higher League, also called Turkmenistan Yokary Liga (Turkmen: Türkmenistanyň Ýokary Ligasy; Russian: Высшая лига Туркменистана) — is the top division of football in Turkmenistan, and is operated under the auspices of the Turkmenistan Football Federation It was founded in 1992.
Ýolöten or Ioloten ('Way passes over the)' (Ёлётен, یوْلؤتن) is a town and capital of Ýolöten District in the Mary Province of Turkmenistan.
Ýolöten District is a district of Mary Province in Turkmenistan.
Ýylanly or Yilanli is a town and capital of Gurbansoltan Eje District in the Daşoguz Province of Turkmenistan.
İzmir is a metropolitan city in the western extremity of Anatolia and the third most populous city in Turkey, after Istanbul and Ankara.
Shagadam Football Club (Şagadam futbol kluby) is a Turkmenistan football club based in Türkmenbaşy.
Shagadam Stadium is a stadium in Turkmenbashi, Turkmenistan.
Şarlawuk (pronounced: sharlawuck) is a town in far south-western Turkmenistan in Balkan Province.
Şasenem Sanctuary is a sanctuary (zakaznik) of Turkmenistan.
Şatlyk is a town located in the Mary Region of eastern Turkmenistan.
Şöhrat Söýünow (born 8 March 1992) is a Turkmenistan footballer currently playing for FC Altyn Asyr.
Baýram Durdyýew (Байрам Овезович Дурдыев; born 1955 in Aşgabat, USSR) is a Turkmen professional football player and manager.
Baýramaly (formerly Bayram-Ali, بایرام علی) is a city of Turkmenistan, a seat of Baýramaly District within Mary Province.
Baýramaly District is a district of Mary Province in Turkmenistan.
Baýramdurdi Meredow (27 March, 1979 in Turkmenistan) is a Turkmen football defender who played for Turkmenistan in the 2004 AFC Asian Cup.
Babadaýhan (from Persian بابادهقان Bâbâdehqân/Bābā-Dihqān) is a town and capital of Babadaýhan District in the Ahal Province of Turkmenistan.
Babadaýhan District (Babadaýhan etraby, Бабадайхан этрабы) is a district of Ahal Province in Turkmenistan.
Bactria or Bactriana was the name of a historical region in Central Asia.
The Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex (short BMAC), also known as the Oxus civilisation, is the modern archaeological designation for a Bronze Age civilisation of Central Asia, dated to c. 2300–1700 BC, located in present-day northern Afghanistan, eastern Turkmenistan, southern Uzbekistan and western Tajikistan, centred on the upper Amu Darya (Oxus River).
The Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) is a large, even-toed ungulate native to the steppes of Central Asia.
Bactrianoscythris satyrella is a moth of the Scythrididae family.
Badgers are short-legged omnivores in the family Mustelidae, which also includes the otters, polecats, weasels, and wolverines.
Bādghīs (Pashto/بادغیس) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, located in the northwest of the country next to Turkmenistan.
The Badhyz State Nature Reserve is a protected area (zapovednik) in south-western Turkmenistan that was established in 1941 and extends over in the Mary and Akhal Provinces.
Bagdadia salicicolella is a moth in the Gelechiidae family.
Bagtyýarlyk is a large contractual PSA territory consisting of several natural gas fields located in Lebap Province of Turkmenistan.
Bagtyyarlyk District is a district of Aşgabat in Turkmenistan.
Baharly (formerly Bäherden) is a town and seat of Baharly District in south-western Turkmenistan in Ahal Province.
Baharly District is a district of Ahal Province in Turkmenistan.
The Bahá'í Faith is a diverse and widespread religion founded by Bahá'u'lláh in the 19th century in Iran.
The Bahá'í Faith in Kazakhstan began during the policy of oppression of religion in the former Soviet Union.
The history of the Bahá'í Faith (Вера Бахаи) in Russia began soon after the founding in 1844 of the Bábí religion, viewed by Bahá'ís as the direct predecessor of the Bahá'í Faith, with Russian diplomats to Qajar Persia observing, reacting to, and sending updates about the Bábís.
The Bahá'í Faith in Turkmenistan begins before Russian advances into the region when the area was under the influence of Persia.
The Bahá'í Faith in Uzbekistan began in the lifetime of Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the religion.
A Bahá'í House of Worship, sometimes referred to by the name of mašriqu-l-'aḏkār (مشرق اﻻذكار), an Arabic phrase meaning "Dawning-place of the remembrances of God", is the designation of a place of worship, or temple, of the Bahá'í Faith.
The Bahá'í House of Worship (or Bahá'í Temple) is a temple in Wilmette, Illinois.
The following is a basic timeline of the Bábí and Bahá'í religions emphasizing dates that are relatively well known.
Bahtiyar Hojaahmedov (Bahtiýar Hojaahmedow; born 14 February 1985) is a Turkmen footballer who plays for Turkmen club FC Altyn Asyr.
Bakhargul Kerimova is a writer from Turkmenistan.
Baku (Bakı) is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region, with a population of 2,374,000.
The Baku–Tbilisi–Kars (BTK), or Baku-Tbilisi-Akhalkalaki-Kars railway (BTAK), became operational on October 30, 2017.
Balkan is a newspaper published in Balkanabat, Turkmenistan.
Balkan Football Club (Balkan futbol kluby) is a Turkmenistan football club based in Balkanabat.
The Balkan mountain range (Bulgarian and Стара планина, Latin Serbian Stara planina, "Old Mountain") is a mountain range in the eastern part of the Balkan Peninsula.
Balkan Region (Balkan welaýaty, Балкан велаяты, بلقان ولايتى) is one of the regions of Turkmenistan.
Balkanabat (Балканабат, بلخان آباد), formerly Nebit Dag and Neftedag, is a city in western Turkmenistan and the capital of Balkan Province, the largest province in the country.
Balkanabat Airport, also known as Nebit Dag Airport, is a provincial airport located southeast of Balkanabat in Turkmenistan.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
Balkh (Pashto and بلخ, Balx) is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the north of the country.
The Balkh River or Balkhab is a river in Balkh Province, Afghanistan.
The Baloch diaspora refers to Baloch people, and their descendants, who have emigrated to places outside the Balochistan region of South-West Asia – a region stretching from southwestern Pakistan to southeastern Iran and southern Afghanistan.
Balochi (بلؤچی, transliteration: balòči) is the principal language of the Baloch people spoken primarily in Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan.
Bangladesh competed at the 2017 Asian Indoor and Martial Arts Games held in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan from September 17 to 27.
Bank Saderat Iran (BSI) (lit. "Export Bank of Iran") is an Iranian multinational banking and financial services company headquartered in Tehran, Iran.
The bar-tailed treecreeper (Certhia himalayana), or the Himalayan treecreeper is a species of bird in the family Certhiidae.
Barbarea vulgaris, also called bittercress, herb barbara, rocketcress, yellow rocketcress, winter rocket, and wound rocket, is a biennial herb of the genus Barbarea, belonging to the mustard family.
The Barbary falcon (Falco pelegrinoides) is a medium-sized falcon about the size of a crow.
Barchaniella inspersus is a moth in the Cossidae family.
Barchaniella sacara is a moth in the Cossidae family.
Barnett Richard Rubin (born January 10, 1950), a political scientist, is a leading expert on Afghanistan and South Asia.
Bashkortostan participated in the Turkvision Song Contest 2014 with the song "Kuray Şarkısı", and performed by Diana Ishniyazova.
Batash is a town in eastern Turkmenistan.
For Lomakin's defeat at the same place in 1879 see Battle of Geok Tepe (1879) The Battle of Geok Tepe in 1881 was the main event in the 1880/81 Russian campaign to conquer the Tekke Turkomans.
The First Battle of Geok Tepe was the main event in the 1879 Russian expedition against the Akhal Tekke Turcomans during the Russian conquest of Turkestan.
The Battle of Merv (or Marv) occurred on 2 December 1510 as a result of the Uzbek invasion of Khorasan.
The Battle of Oxus River was a significant battle in the 7th century, fought between the combined armies of the Sassanid and Göktürk Empires against the Muslim Arab army that had overrun Persia.
The Battle of the Arius was an engagement that was fought in 208 BC between the Seleucid Empire and the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom.
The Battle of the Caucasus is a name given to a series of Axis and Soviet operations in the Caucasus area on the Eastern Front of World War II.
Batyr Ataýewiç Berdiýew (Батыр Бердиев, Batyr Berdiyev, born October 3, 1960) is a former politician in Turkmenistan, specializing in the country's foreign relations.
Baxtiyor Rahimov (Russified form Bakhtiyar Rahimov is also used; Бахтия́р Раги́мов) (born c. 1963) is a rebel leader in Uzbekistan who advocates an Islamic republic.
Bayan Shirey is a high-quality local grape variety native to Azerbaijan.
The surname Bayat or Baiyat is a Turkic clan name.
The Bayat tribe (Bayat tayfası, Bayat boyu, Baýat taýpasy, بیات) is one of the Oghuz tribes in Turkmenistan, Iran, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Iraq, and Syria.
"Bayatılar" is an Azerbaijani 1989 composition by Eldar Mansurov with lyrics by Vahid Aziz.
Bazaria is a genus of snout moths.
Bazaria gilvella is a species of snout moth in the genus Bazaria.
Bazaria pempeliella is a species of snout moth in the genus Bazaria.
Bazaria sieversi is a species of snout moth in the genus Bazaria.
Beýik Türkmenbashy District (formerly Saparmyrat Nyýazow District) is a district of Lebap Province in Turkmenistan.
Beekeeping (or apiculture) is the maintenance of bee colonies, commonly in man-made hives, by humans.
Beer in Asia began when beer was produced in Sumer, Mesopotamia (ancient Iraq) circa 6000 years ago.
Begazy-Dandybai culture is Bronze Age culture of mixed economy in the territory of ancient central Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, dated from the 2nd millennium BCE to 8th century BCE, centered at (Sary-Arka) desert river.
Begenchmuhammed Kuliyev (بگنچ كولييو, born 4 April 1977 in Turkmenistan) is a Turkmen football player.
Begli Nurmyradow (born May 27, 1981) is a Turkmen footballer (defender) playing currently for HTTU Aşgabat.
The Beijing Garrison Honor Guard, also known as the PLA Honor Guard is a ceremonial honor guard and police unit of the Chinese People's Liberation Army.
Belarus–Turkmenistan relations refers to the bilateral relationship between Belarus and Turkmenistan.
Belarusian (беларуская мова) is an official language of Belarus, along with Russian, and is spoken abroad, mainly in Ukraine and Russia.
Belt wrestling was contested at the 2017 Asian Indoor and Martial Arts Games in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan from 19 September to 20 September 2017.
Beluch or the Baloch of Turkmenistan are a small part of the greater Baloch people who live primarily in Pakistan, Iran and Afghanistan.
Bembecia sanguinolenta is a moth of the Sesiidae family.
Bembecia stiziformis is a moth of the Sesiidae family.
Benedikt Jónsson (born 25 November 1954, in Reykjavík, curriculum vitæ, Foreign Ministry of Iceland (pdf), retrieved 6 February 2015) is the current Icelandic ambassador to Armenia, Belarus, Denmark, Ireland, Kyrgyzstan, Malta, Portugal, Tajikistan, the United Kingdom (since 2009) and Uzbekistan,, Foreign Ministry of Iceland, retrieved 6 February 2015 and also Permanent Secretary of State.
Benetti is an Italian shipbuilding and Boat building company based in Viareggio, Livorno, and Fano, owned by Azimut.
Benjamin Walker (25 November 1913 – 30 July 2013) was the truncated pen name of George Benjamin Walker, who also wrote under the pseudonym Jivan Bhakar.
Benthophiloides turcomanus is a tiny species of gobiid fish native to the Caspian Sea.
Benthophilus pinchuki, Pinchuk's pugolovka, is a species of gobiid fish found along the eastern and western coasts of the Caspian Sea, but absent on the middle part.
Berdymyrat Nurmyradow (Бердымурад Нурмурадов; born 28 August 1968 in USSR) is a Turkmenistan professional football player and manager.
Bereket, formerly Gazandjyk or Kazandzhik (Казанджик or Газанджык gɑˈzɑnd͡ʒik), is a city in Balkan Province in western Turkmenistan.
Bereket is a city in western Turkmenistan, formerly known as Kazandjik or Gazandjyk.
Bereket District (Bereket etraby) (formerly Gazanjyk District) is a district of Balkan Region in Turkmenistan.
Bereket Railway Depot (or Bereket RD) (Bereket demirýol deposy) is a railway depot in Bereket city where locomotives are serviced and maintained.
Bereket railway station can refer to the following two stations.
Bereket railway station (Bereket demirýol menzili) is the main railway station in the city of Bereket, Turkmenistan.
State Natural Reserve Bereketli Garagum (Bereketli Garagum goraghanasy) is a desert nature reserve (zapovednik) of Turkmenistan, located in Ahal Province, south Karakum Desert.
Berkararlyk District is a district of Aşgabat in Turkmenistan.
Bernadette Bourzai (born 28 May 1945 in Lapleau) is a French politician and Member of the Senate of France representing the Department of Corrèze.
Bernard Poignant (born 19 September 1945 in Vannes, Brittany) is a French politician and Member of the European Parliament for the west of France.
Beruniy (Beruniy/Беруний; Biruniy/Бируний; Беруни) is a small city in the Karakalpakstan, Uzbekistan.
Festive beshbarmak served with kazy sausage Beshbarmak (бешбармак, бишбармаҡ, бишбармак — "five finger") is the national dish among nomadic Turkic peoples in Central Asia and Russia.
The Best Footballer in Asia 2013 was the inaugural Best Footballer in Asia.
The 2014 Best Footballer in Asia, given to the best football player in Asia as judged by a panel of sports journalists, was awarded to Son Heung-min on 28 November 2014.
The 2015 Best Footballer in Asia, given to the best football player in Asia as judged by a panel of 20 sports journalists, was awarded to Son Heung-min on the 28th December, 2015.
The 2016 Best Footballer in Asia, given to the best football player in Asia as judged by a panel of 38 sports journalists, was awarded to Shinji Okazaki on Dec 26th, 2016.
The 2017 Best Footballer in Asia, given to the best football player in Asia as judged by a panel of 42 sports journalists, was awarded to Son Heung-min on January 5, 2018.
Bharatpur District is a district of Rajasthan state in western India also known as Jat Kingdom.
Bharatpur is a city and a municipal corporation in the Indian state of Rajasthan.
Bhutan competed at the 2017 Asian Indoor and Martial Arts Games held in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan.
Bian Ka (卞卡, born 5 January 1993) is a Chinese athlete specialising in the shot put.
The terms big man, big man syndrome, and bigmanism, within the context of political science, refer to corrupt, autocratic and often totalitarian rule of countries by a single person.
Bimal Gharti Magar (विमल घर्ती मगर; born on 26 January 1998) is a Nepalese footballer who plays as a forward for Nepalese club Three Star Club and the Nepal national team.
Birata (formerly Darganata) is a town and capital of Birata District in the Lebap Province of Turkmenistan.
Bischofite (bischofit) is a hydrous magnesium chloride mineral with formula MgCl2·6H2O.
Bitarap Turkmenistan Avenue (Bitarap Türkmenistan şaýoly meaning "Neutrality") is the main avenue and one of the largest arteries of Ashgabat.
The black francolin (Francolinus francolinus) is a gamebird in the pheasant family Phasianidae of the order Galliformes, gallinaceous birds.
The black redstart (Phoenicurus ochruros) is a small passerine bird in the redstart genus Phoenicurus.
The black-tailed skimmer (Orthetrum cancellatum) is a dragonfly belonging to the family Libellulidae.
Blackwell–Tonkawa Municipal Airport is a public use airport located in Kay County, Oklahoma, United States.
Blanford's jerboa, or Jaculus blanfordi, is a species of rodent in the family Dipodidae.
International Blasphemy Day encourages individuals and groups to openly express criticism of religion and blasphemy laws.
Blue Stream is a major trans-Black Sea gas pipeline that carries natural gas from Russia into Turkey.
The blue whistling thrush (Myophonus caeruleus) is a whistling thrush present in the mountains of Central Asia, China and Southeast Asia.
Boýnyuzyn (Russian: Боюн-Узун) is a town and capital of Garaşsyzlyk District in the Lebap Province of Turkmenistan.
Bobrinski's jerboa (Allactodipus bobrinskii) is a species of rodent in the family Dipodidae.
Bobrinski's serotine (Eptesicus bobrinskoi) is a species of vesper bat.
The Boeing 777 is a family of long-range wide-body twin-engine jet airliners developed and manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes.
The Boeing CH-47 Chinook is an American twin-engine, tandem-rotor, heavy-lift helicopter developed by American rotorcraft company Vertol and manufactured by Boeing Vertol (later known as Boeing Rotorcraft Systems).
Boiga trigonata, commonly known as the Indian gamma snake or common cat snake, is a species of rear-fanged colubrid endemic to South Asia.
The Bokhara horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus bocharicus) is a species of bat in the family Rhinolophidae.
Boldumsaz is a town and capital of Boldumsaz District in the Daşoguz Province of Turkmenistan.
Boldumsaz District is a district of Daşoguz Province in Turkmenistan.
The Book of Dede Korkut or Book of Korkut Ata (Dede Korkut or Korkut Ata; Dədə Qorqud, دده قورقود; Gorkut Ata) is the most famous among the epic stories of the Oghuz Turks.
A border barrier is a separation barrier that runs along an international border.
The Borders of Azerbaijan define the land and maritime borders of Azerbaijan.
Boris Shikhmuradov (Turkmen:Boris Orazowiç Şyhmyradow, Russian:Бори́с Ора́зович Шихмура́дов, born 25 May 1949 in Ashgabat, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty.) was Minister of Foreign Affairs of Turkmenistan from 1995 to 2000.
Boris Grigoryants (Russian: Борис Григорьянц) is a Turkmen football manager.
Boris Andreyevich Lavrenyov (Борис Андреевич Лавренёв) (real name Sergeyev), born July 5 (17), 1891 in Kherson, died January 7, 1959 in Moscow, was a Soviet Russian writer and playwright.
Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin (p; 1 February 1931 – 23 April 2007) was a Soviet and Russian politician and the first President of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999.
Borys Todurov (born 2 January 1965, Kyiv) is a Ukrainian cardiac surgeon, professor, honored doctor of Ukraine, director of The Heart Institute, public figure, blogger.
Bothriomyrmex turcomenicus is a species of ant in the genus Bothriomyrmex.
Botta's serotine (Eptesicus bottae) is a species of vesper bat, one for 25 in the genus Eptesicus.
Armenia has a massive production of bottled mineral and spring water, with a large number of water bottling companies.
Bowling at the 2017 Asian Indoor and Martial Arts Games was held in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan from 21 to 27 September 2017 at the Bowling Center.
Brachinus ejaculans is a species of ground beetle in the Brachininae subfamily that can be found in Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Hungary, Moldova, Luxembourg, Romania, Ukraine, southern part of Russia, and in every state of former Yugoslavia, but it is doubtful whether it is present in Slovenia.
Bradt Travel Guides is a publisher of travel guides founded in 1974 by Hilary Bradt and her husband George, who co-wrote the first Bradt Guide on a river barge on a tributary of the Amazon,.
Brahui (براهوئی) is a Dravidian language spoken primarily by the Brahui people in the central part of Baluchistan province in Pakistan, and in scattered parts of Afghanistan, Iran, and Turkmenistan, and by expatriate Brahui communities in Qatar, United Arab Emirates, and Iraq.
The Brahui (Brahui: براہوئی) or Brahvi people are an ethnic group of about 2.2 million people with the vast majority found in Baluchistan, Pakistan.
The Brandt's mountain finch or black-headed mountain-finch (Leucosticte brandti) is a species of finch in the Fringillidae family.
The Petroleum Production Company Nobel Brothers, Limited, or Branobel (short for братьев Нобель "brat'yev Nobel" — "Nobel Brothers" in Russian), was an oil company set up by Ludvig Nobel and Baron Peter von Bilderling, mainly in Baku, Azerbaijan but also in Cheleken, Turkmenistan.
Brass is a metallic alloy that is made of copper and zinc.
With railways, a break of gauge occurs where a line of one gauge meets a line of a different gauge.
Bridas Corporation is an independent oil and gas holding company based in Argentina.
Bride kidnapping, also known as marriage by abduction or marriage by capture, is a practice in which a man abducts the woman he wishes to marry.
Bristow Helicopters Limited is a British civil helicopter operator originally based at Aberdeen Airport, Scotland which is now part of the U.S.-based Bristow Group (S&P 600 component) which in turn has its corporate headquarters in Houston, Texas.
The British Caspian Flotilla was a naval force of the Royal Navy established in the Caspian Sea in 1918.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
Bromus sterilis is an annual or biennial species of bromegrass known as barren brome, poverty brome, and sterile brome.
Brooks's leaf warbler (Phylloscopus subviridis) is a species of Old World warbler in the family Phylloscopidae.
The brown accentor (Prunella fulvescens) is a species of bird in the Prunellidae family.
The brown bear (Ursus arctos) is a bear that is found across much of northern Eurasia and North America.
Brunei competed at the 2017 Asian Indoor and Martial Arts Games held in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan from September 17 to 27.
Bryotropha arabica is a moth of the Gelechiidae family.
Bryotropha desertella is a moth of the Gelechiidae family.
Bryotropha domestica is a moth of the Gelechiidae family.
Bryotropha hendrikseni is a moth of the Gelechiidae family.
Bucculatrix formosa is a moth in the Bucculatricidae family.
Bucculatrix paliuricola is a moth in the family Bucculatricidae.
Bucculatrix pectinella is a moth of the family Bucculatricidae.
Bucculatrix ulmicola is a moth in the family Bucculatricidae.
The Bucharian vole (Blanfordimys bucharicus) is a species of rodent in the family Cricetidae.
Buddhism in Central Asia refers to the forms of Buddhism that existed in Central Asia, which were historically especially prevalent along the Silk Road.
Buddhism in Iran dates back to the 2nd century, when Parthians, such as An Shigao, were active in spreading Buddhism in China.
Bukhara (Uzbek Latin: Buxoro; Uzbek Cyrillic: Бухоро) is a city in Uzbekistan.
Bukhara Region (Buxoro Region) (Buxoro viloyati/Бухоро вилояти, بۇحارا ۋىلايەتى) is a region of Uzbekistan located in the southwest of the country.
Bukharan Jews, also Bukharian Jews or Bukhari Jews (Бухарские евреи Bukharskie evrei; בוכרים Bukharim; Tajik and Bukhori Cyrillic: яҳудиёни бухороӣ Yahudiyoni bukhoroī (Bukharan Jews) or яҳудиёни Бухоро Yahudiyoni Bukhoro (Jews of Bukhara), Bukhori Hebrew Script: and), are Jews of the Mizrahi branch from Central Asia who historically spoke Bukhori, a Tajik dialect of the Persian language.
The Bukharan markhor, or Tajik markhorCastello J. R. (2016. — Princeton University Press. — Pp. 320—325. — 664 p. — (Capra falconeri heptneri) is an endangered goat-antelope, native to Tajikistan, Pakistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, possibly also Afghanistan. Today it is found in few scattered populations, for example in Kugitang Nature Reserve in easternmost Turkmenistan. The population of the Bukharan markhor is at around 5,750 animals.
The Bukharan People's Soviet Republic (Buxoro Xalq Shoʻro Jumhuriyati; Ҷумҳурии Халқии Шӯравии Бухоро; r) was a short-lived Soviet state that governed the former Emirate of Bukhara during the years immediately following the Russian Revolution.
Bulgaria will participate in the Turkvision Song Contest for the first time at the Turkvision Song Contest 2014 to be held in Kazan, Tatarstan.
The Bureau of South and Central Asian Affairs (SCA) is an agency within the United States Department of State that is responsible for the U.S. government's relations with countries in the South and Central Asian region.
Burguchi is a town in eastern Turkmenistan near the border with Afghanistan.
Burren Energy plc was a British oil exploration and production company founded in 1994 by Finian O’Sullivan who served as its CEO and, latterly, president.
Byashim Yusupovich Nurali (1900–1965) was a Turkmen primitive painter active during Soviet times.
The Cabinet of Ministers of Turkmenistan is the chief executive body in Turkmenistan.
Cadra furcatella is a moth of the family Pyralidae described by Gottlieb August Wilhelm Herrich-Schäffer in 1849.
A calendar date is a reference to a particular day represented within a calendar system.
Callipeltis is a genus of flowering plants in the Rubiaceae family.
Calomyscus elburzensis, also known as Goodwin's calomyscus or Goodwin's brush-tailed mouse is a species of mouse-like hamster.
Calophasia angularis is a moth of the Noctuidae family.
Caloptilia acerivorella is a moth of the Gracillariidae family.
Caloptilia onustella is a moth of the Gracillariidae family.
Cambodia competed at the 2017 Asian Indoor and Martial Arts Games held in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan.
Cameraria obliquifascia is a moth of the Gracillariidae family.
Cameraria saliciphaga is a moth of the Gracillariidae family.
A canonical territory is a geographical area seen as belonging to a particular patriarchate or autocephalous Church as its own.
Capital punishment is a legal penalty in Singapore.
Capital punishment in Turkmenistan was originally allowed by Article 20 of the 1992 Constitution, where it was described as "an exceptional punishment for the heaviest of crimes".
Capoeta, also known as scrapers, is a genus of fish in the family Cyprinidae found in Western Asia.
Capperia celeusi is a moth of the family Pterophoridae.
Capperia salanga is a moth of the family Pterophoridae.
Carabus maurus is a species of beetle from Carabidae family, that can be found in Near East, and countries like Armenia, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey, Turkmenistan, and on Cyprus.
The caracal (Caracal caracal) is a medium-sized wild cat native to Africa, the Middle East, Central Asia, and India.
Carcharodus orientalis, the Oriental skipper, or Oriental marbled skipper, is a butterfly of the family Hesperiidae.
CARICC - Central Asian Regional Information and Coordination Centre for Combating Illicit Trafficking of Narcotic Drugs, Psychotropic Substances and their Precursors In response to the need to improve inter-agency cooperation between law enforcement agencies at a national, regional and international level to counter the problem of drug trafficking from Afghanistan, in late 2004 the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) together with the parties to a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) on sub-regional drug control cooperation Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan launched a project to establish a Central Asian Regional Information and Coordination Centre (CARICC).
Carlos Alberto Bulgheroni (March 9, 1945 – September 3, 2016) was an Argentine businessman prominent in the nation's energy sector, and the country's richest man at the time of his death.
Carolyn Drake (born in 1971 in California) is a North American photographer based in Athens, Georgia.
A carpet is a textile floor covering typically consisting of an upper layer of pile attached to a backing.
The Caspian cobra (Naja oxiana), also called the Central Asian cobra, Oxus cobra or Russian cobra, a member of the family Elapidae found in Central Asia.
The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.
The Caspian tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) is an extinct tiger population.
The Caspian turtle or striped-neck terrapin (Mauremys caspica) is a species of turtle in the family Geoemydidae (.
The Catacomb culture (c. 2800–2200 BC) is a group of related cultures in the early Bronze Age occupying essentially what is present-day eastern Ukraine and southern Russia.
Cataonia erubescens is a species of moth in the Crambidae family.
Catatinagma stenoptera is a moth of the Gelechiidae family.
The Catholic Church in Turkmenistan is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope in Rome.
Catocala remissa is a moth of the Erebidae family.
Catopta hyrcanus is a moth in the Cossidae family.
The Caucasus field mouse (Apodemus hyrcanicus) is a species of rodent in the family Muridae.
The Caucasus-Anatolian-Hyrcanian temperate forests is a composite ecoregion of southern Europe and West Asia, designated by the World Wildlife Fund as one of their Global 200 ecoregions, a list of priority ecoregions for conservation.
Cavalry (from the French cavalerie, cf. cheval 'horse') or horsemen were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback.
The Cave of Dzhebel is an archeological site in the vicinity of Balkan Region Türkmenbaşy, in Soviet times known as Nebit Dag (Balkanabat), in Turkmenistan, on the Krasnovodsk Gulf of the Caspian Sea.
Caviar (less often, caviare) is a delicacy consisting of salt-cured roe of the Acipenseridae family.
Cecryphalus nubila is a moth in the Cossidae family.
Cedicoides is a genus of spiders in the family Cybaeidae made up of four species.
Censorship is a tactic used by governments to maintain control over their people by preventing the public from viewing information deemed by the state as possessing the potential to incite a rebellion.
Video-sharing platform YouTube is the second-most popular website as of 2017, according to Alexa Internet.
Centaurea triumfettii, common names: Squarrose Knapweed, is a plant belonging to the genus Centaurea of the Asteraceae family.
A center of origin (or centre of diversity) is a geographical area where a group of organisms, either domesticated or wild, first developed its distinctive properties.
Central Asia Gas Pipeline, Ltd.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
Central Asia Monitor was in publication from 1992 to 2002.
The Central Asia plus Japan dialogue is a political initiative between Japan and the Central Asian nations of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, with the goal to create “a new framework for cooperation, thereby elevating relations between Japan and Central Asia to a new level”.
The Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC) Program is a program established in 1997 by the Asian Development Bank (ADB) to encourage economic cooperation among countries in the Central Asian region.
The Central Asia – Center gas pipeline system is a Gazprom controlled system of natural gas pipelines, which run from Turkmenistan via Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan to Russia.
The Central Asia–China gas pipeline (known also as Turkmenistan–China gas pipeline) is a natural gas pipeline system from Central Asia to Xinjiang in the People's Republic of China.
Central Asian art is visual art created in Central Asia by the largely Turkic peoples of modern Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Tajikistan, Mongolia, Tibet, Afghanistan, Pakistan and parts of China and Russia.
In Central Asian countries such as Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan, the tunic and loose trousers ensemble forms part of traditional costume.
The Central Asian Flyway (CAF), Central Asian-Indian Flyway, or Central Asian-South Asian Flyway is a flyway covering a large continental area of Eurasia between the Arctic Ocean and the Indian Ocean and the associated island chains.
The Central Asian Games (CAG), inaugurated in 1995, is a multi-sport event held biennially among athletes from the five Central Asian republics formerly members of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
The Central Asian Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone (CANWFZ) treaty is a legally binding commitment by Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan not to manufacture, acquire, test, or possess nuclear weapons.
The Central Asian Shepherd Dog is an ancient breed of dog from the regions of Central Asia.
The Central Asian Union (CAU), later called the Central Asian Economic Union, was an intergovernmental organisation for economic integration between the Central Asian post-Soviet republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan between 1994 and 2004.
Central Asian-American Enterprise Fund (CAAEF) was a non-profit corporation funded by a United States government initiative to promote and create private enterprise in the five Central Asian states of Kazakhstan, The Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, created from the disbanding of the Soviet Union in 1991.
The Central Bank of Turkmenistan is the national bank of Turkmenistan.
Established in 1954, the Centre international de formation européenne （Abbreviation: CIFE.
Centrometopia atrisparsella is a species of snout moth.
Centrometopia interruptella is a species of snout moth.
Cephalorrhynchus is a genus of flowering plants in the dandelion family.
Ceratoxanthis externana is a species of moth of the family Tortricidae.
Chābahār (چابهار, چھبار-Čahbàr; meaning four springs or spring well; formerly Bandar Beheshtī) is a city and capital of Chah Bahar County, Sistan and Baluchestan Province, Iran.
Chabahar Port (بندر چابهار) is a seaport in Chabahar located in southeastern Iran, on the Gulf of Oman.
Chaetocnema orientalis is a species of beetle from Chrysomelidae family.
Chagatai (جغتای) is an extinct Turkic language which was once widely spoken in Central Asia, and remained the shared literary language there until the early 20th century.
Chaghri Beg (Çağrı Bey, full name: Abu Suleiman Dawud Chaghri-Beg ibn Mikail) (989 - 1060), Da'ud b. Mika'il b. Saljuq, also spelled Chaghri, was the co-ruler of the early Seljuq empire.
Chahchaheh (چهچهه) is a village in Pasakuh Rural District, Zavin District, Kalat County, Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran.
Chal, or shubat (шұбат), is a Turkic (especially Turkmen and Kazakh) beverage of fermented camel milk, sparkling white with a sour flavor, popular in Central Asia — particularly in Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan.
The Chalcolithic (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998), p. 301: "Chalcolithic /,kælkəl'lɪθɪk/ adjective Archaeology of, relating to, or denoting a period in the 4th and 3rd millennium BCE, chiefly in the Near East and SE Europe, during which some weapons and tools were made of copper. This period was still largely Neolithic in character. Also called Eneolithic... Also called Copper Age - Origin early 20th cent.: from Greek khalkos 'copper' + lithos 'stone' + -ic". χαλκός khalkós, "copper" and λίθος líthos, "stone") period or Copper Age, in particular for eastern Europe often named Eneolithic or Æneolithic (from Latin aeneus "of copper"), was a period in the development of human technology, before it was discovered that adding tin to copper formed the harder bronze, leading to the Bronze Age.
Chalcoscirtus lepidus is a jumping spider species in the genus Chalcoscirtus that lives in Turkmenistan.
Chamaegeron is a genus of flowering plants in the daisy family.
Chamaesphacos is a genus of plants in the Lamiaceae, first described in 1841.
Chamaesphecia schmidtiiformis is a moth of the Sesiidae family.
Chandybil District is a district of Aşgabat in Turkmenistan.
The Chapel of the Transfiguration or the Chapel of the Transfiguration of the Lord, is the name given to a religious building that is part of the Apostolic Nunciature of the Holy See in the city of Ashkhabad, the capital of the Asian country of Turkmenistan.
Charshanga, sometimes written Carsanga or Charshangngy, is a town in Lebap, Turkmenistan.
The Cheleken Peninsula (Челекен полуостров) is a peninsula located in western Turkmenistan, in the eastern shores of the Caspian Sea.
Chen Po-liang (born August 11, 1988) is a professional Taiwanese footballer who currently plays as a midfielder for China League One side Hangzhou Greentown.
Chersotis andereggii is a moth of the Noctuidae family.
Chersotis fimbriola is a moth of the Noctuidae family.
Chersotis larixia is a moth of the Noctuidae family.
Cheshmeh-ye Yanbolaq is a village in Badghis Province in north western Afghanistan.
Chess at the 2017 Asian Indoor and Martial Arts Games was held in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan from 21 to 27 September 2017 at the Chess Arena.
Chicken eggs are graded by size, for the purpose of sales.
Children's Day is a day recognised to celebrate children.
A children's railway or pioneer railway is an extracurricular educational institution, where teenagers learn railway professions.
The People's Republic of China competed at the 2017 Asian Indoor and Martial Arts Games in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan, from 17 to 27 September 2017.
This article lists the results for the China PR national football team between 1990 and 1999.
The China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC)A common shortname for the corporation in Chinese, Zhongguo Shiyou (中国石油), formerly shared the same name as the Chinese Petroleum Corporation, the Republic of China (Taiwan)'s state-owned fuel corporation.
The China University of Petroleum - Beijing (CUPB) is a Chinese university with campuses in Beijing and Karamay.
The Chinese Taipei national football team is the official name given by FIFA to the national association football team of Taiwan aka Republic of China.
This article details the fixtures and results of the Taiwan national football team.
Christians, most of whom are ethnic Russians, constitute less than 9% of the population in Turkmenistan.
Christophia callipterella is a species of snout moth in the genus Christophia.
Christophia litterella is a species of snout moth in the genus Christophia.
This is a chronology of the early European exploration of Asia.
Chronological summary of the expedition of Alexander the Great into Asia against the Persian Empire of king Darius III, with indication of the countries/places visited or simply crossed, including the most important battles/sieges and the cities founded (Alexandrias).
Chrysocrambus linetella is a species of moth in the Crambidae family.
The Church of the Transfiguration is the name given to a religious building of the Catholic Church which was in Ashgabat in what is now the capital of Turkmenistan.
This article deals with activities of the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency related to transnational crime, including the illicit drug trade.
The Cinema of Central Asia refers to the cinema of the five Central Asian countries (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan).
CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, also known as the Washington Convention) is a multilateral treaty to protect endangered plants and animals.
This articles lists cities located along the Silk Road.
Cleistogenes is a genus of Eurasian flowering plants in the grass family.
Clepsis zelleriana is a species of moth of the family Tortricidae.
Cnephasia asiatica is a species of moth of the Tortricidae family.
Compressed natural gas (CNG) carrier ships are designed for transportation of natural gas under high pressure.
Coca-Cola İçecek A.Ş. is an anchor bottler and a part of the Coca-Cola System.
Cochlicopa nitens is a species of small air-breathing land snail, a terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family Cochlicopidae.
Cochylimorpha asiana is a species of moth of the Tortricidae family.
Cochylimorpha emiliana is a species of moth of the Tortricidae family.
Cochylimorpha fucatana is a species of moth of the Tortricidae family.
Cochylimorpha nomadana is a species of moth of the Tortricidae family.
Cochylimorpha straminea, the straw conch, is a species of moth of the Tortricidae family.
Cochylimorpha tamerlana is a species of moth of the Tortricidae family.
Coleophora acompha is a moth of the Coleophoridae family that is endemic to Turkmenistan.
Coleophora afghana is a moth of the Coleophoridae family that can be found in Afghanistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.
Coleophora agasta is a moth of the Coleophoridae family that is endemic to Turkmenistan.
Coleophora agathella is a moth of the Coleophoridae family that is endemic to Turkmenistan.
Coleophora amentastra is a moth of the Coleophoridae family that can be found in Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Turkey, and Uzbekistan.
Coleophora amseliella is a moth of the Coleophoridae family that can be found in Afghanistan, Iran and Turkmenistan.
Coleophora arachnias is a moth of the family Coleophoridae.
Coleophora astragalorum is a moth of the Coleophoridae family that can be found in Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.
Coleophora azyma is a moth of the Coleophoridae family that is endemic to Turkmenistan.
Coleophora berlandella is a moth of the Coleophoridae family.
Coleophora botaurella is a moth of the Coleophoridae family.
Coleophora denigrella is a moth of the Coleophoridae family.
Coleophora dipalliata is a moth of the Coleophoridae family.
Coleophora discomaculella is a moth of the Coleophoridae family.
Coleophora eremosparti is a moth of the Coleophoridae family.
Coleophora hymenocrateri is a moth of the Coleophoridae family.
Coleophora mausolella is a moth of the family Coleophoridae.
Coleophora microspinella is a moth of the Coleophoridae family.
Coleophora mosasaurus is a moth of the Coleophoridae family.
Coleophora niphomesta is a moth of the Coleophoridae family.
Coleophora salviella is a moth of the Coleophoridae family.
Coleophora stylosa is a moth of the Coleophoridae family that is endemic to Turkmenistan.
Coleophora sublata is a moth of the Coleophoridae family that is endemic to Turkmenistan.
Coleophora sublineariella is a moth of the Coleophoridae family that can be found in Afghanistan and Turkmenistan.
Coleophora subula is a moth of the Coleophoridae family.
Coleophora synchrona is a moth of the Coleophoridae family.
Coleophora tollamseliella is a moth of the Coleophoridae family.
Colias staudingeri is a butterfly in the Pieridae family.
Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.
Colotis fausta, the large salmon Arab, is a small butterfly of the family Pieridae, that is, the yellows and whites, which is found in Israel, Syria, Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, India, Arabia, Chad, Somalia Also found in Egypt.
The comb-toed jerboa (Paradipus ctenodactylus) is a species of rodent in the family Dipodidae.
The United Nations Commission on Science and Technology for Development (CSTD) is a subsidiary body of the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), one of the six main organs of the United Nations.
The Committee on Human Rights of Scientists of the New York Academy of Sciences "was formed in 1978 to pursue the advancement of the basic human rights of scientists throughout the world.
The Committees of the European Parliament are designed to aid the European Commission in initiating legislation.
The common bent-wing bat, Schreibers' long-fingered bat, or Schreibers' bat (Miniopterus schreibersii) is a species of bat in the family Miniopteridae.
The common myna or Indian myna (Acridotheres tristis), sometimes spelled mynah, is a member of the family Sturnidae (starlings and mynas) native to Asia.
The common starling (Sturnus vulgaris), also known as the European starling, or in the British Isles just the starling, is a medium-sized passerine bird in the starling family, Sturnidae.
A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good.
The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS; r), also nicknamed the Russian Commonwealth (in order to distinguish it from the Commonwealth of Nations), is a political and economic intergovernmental organization of nine member states and one associate member, all of which are former Soviet Republics located in Eurasia (primarily in Central to North Asia), formed following the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
The Communist Party of Turkmenistan (in Turkmen: Türkmenistanyň Kommunistik Partiyasy (TKP), in Russian: Коммунистическая партия Туркменистана) is a communist political party in Turkmenistan that was founded in 1998.
This is a comparison of the IOC, FIFA, and ISO 3166-1 three-letter codes, combined into one table for easy reference.
The Constitution of Turkmenistan adopted on 18 May 1992 is the supreme law of Turkmenistan (Article 5).
In economics, consumer debt is the amount owed by consumers, as opposed to that of businesses or governments.
This is a list of notable content from the United States diplomatic cables leak that shows the United States' opinion of related affairs.
Content from the United States diplomatic cables leak has depicted Asia and Oceania subjects extensively.
The Convention relating to the Status of Stateless Persons is a 1954 United Nations multilateral treaty that aims to protect stateless individuals.
Cook Islands competed at the 2017 Asian Indoor and Martial Arts Games held in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan from September 17 to 27.
Coptosia cinerascens is a species of beetle in the family Cerambycidae.
Coptosia elyandti is a species of beetle in the family Cerambycidae.
Coptotriche rosella is a moth of the Tischeriidae family.
Coretti Genrichovna Arle-Titz (Also known as Corette Alefred), (December 5, 1883 – December 15, 1951) was an American-born jazz, spiritual and pop music singer (lyrical and dramatic soprano), dancer and actress who was well known in the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union.
Corning Municipal Airport is a city owned public use airport located one nautical mile (2 km) west of the central business district of Corning, a city in Adams County, Iowa, United States.
Corruption in Equatorial Guinea is high by world standards and considered among the worst of any country on earth.
Corruption in Tajikistan is a widespread phenomenon that is found in all spheres of Tajik society.
Corruption in Turkmenistan is considered by many independent sources as a serious problem.
Corruption is a widespread problem in Ukrainian society.
Corruption in Zimbabwe has become endemic within its political, private and civil sectors.
The corsac fox (Vulpes corsac), also known simply as a corsac, is a medium-sized fox found in steppes, semi-deserts and deserts in Central Asia, ranging into Mongolia and northeastern China.
Cory in the House is an American television series which aired on the Disney Channel from January 12, 2007, to September 12, 2008, and was a spin-off from the Disney show That's So Raven.
Cossacks (козаки́, translit, kozaky, казакi, kozacy, Czecho-Slovak: kozáci, kozákok Pronunciations.
Cossulus intractatus is a moth in the Cossidae family.
Cossulus mollis is a moth in the Cossidae family.
Cossulus mucosus is a moth in the Cossidae family.
Cossulus putridus is a moth in the Cossidae family.
Cossulus turcomanica is a moth in the Cossidae family.
Cotton production in Uzbekistan is important to the national economy of the country.
There are,, 162 members of the International Organization for Standardization.
Country code top-level domains with commercial licenses are Internet country code top-level domain that have adopted a policy for worldwide commercial use.
Cousiniopsis is a genus of flowering plants in the daisy family.
Coyne Airways is an all cargo airline based in London, United Kingdom.
Crime in Russia is combated by the Russian police and other agencies.
Croatia–Turkmenistan relations are foreign relations between Croatia and Turkmenistan.
Crocallis tusciaria, the smoky scalloped oak, is a species of moth of the Geometridae family.
Cryphia amasina is a moth of the Noctuidae family.
Cryptocala chardinyi is a species of moth of the Noctuidae family.
Ctenolepisma is a genus of primitive insects (order Zygentoma.
Cucullia argentina is a moth of the Noctuidae family.
Cucullia calendulae is a moth of the Noctuidae family.
Cucullia improba is a moth of the Noctuidae family.
Cue sports for the 2017 Asian Indoor and Martial Arts Games in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan was held at the Billiard Sports Arena.
The culture of Asia encompasses the collective and diverse customs and traditions of art, architecture, music, literature, lifestyle, philosophy, politics and religion that have been practiced and maintained by the numerous ethnic groups of the continent of Asia since prehistory.
The Culture of Azerbaijan (Azerbaijani:Azərbaycan mədəniyyəti) developed under the influence of Iranian, Turkic and Caucasian heritage as well as Russian influences due to its former status as a Soviet republic.
The culture of Northern Cyprus is the pattern of human activity and symbolism associated with Northern Cyprus and Turkish Cypriots.
Cybalomia fractilinealis is a moth in the family Crambidae.
Cynosurus is a genus of Eurasian and North African plants in the grass family.
Numerous Cyrillic alphabets are based on the Cyrillic script.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
Daýançgylyç Urazow is a Turkmen football striker who played for Turkmenistan in the 2004 AFC Asian Cup.
Daşköpri (also known as Tashkepri) is a town in Mary, Turkmenistan.
Daşoguz (Дашогу́з, also Dashoguz, Dasoguz; roughly "stone spring" in Turkmen), formerly known as Tashauz (until 1992; Ташау́з) and Dashkhovuz (1992-1999; Дашхову́з), is a city in northern Turkmenistan and the capital of Daşoguz Province.
Daşoguz Airport (also spelled Dashoguz) is a provincial airport located 15 km.
Daşoguz Region (Daşoguz welaýaty, formerly Daşhowuz) is one of the regions of Turkmenistan.
Also See Dabhol Power Station and Enron Scandal The Dabhol Power Company (now called RGPPL - Ratnagiri Gas and Power Private Limited) was a company based in Maharashtra, India, formed in 1992 to manage and operate the controversial Dabhol Power Plant.
The Roman Dactylorhiza (Dactylorhiza romana) is a species of orchid.
The Dahae, also known as the Daae, Dahas or Dahaeans --> (Dahae; Δάοι, Δάαι, Δαι, Δάσαι Dáoi, Dáai, Dai, Dasai; Sanskrit: Dasa; Chinese Dayi 大益)(p. 19. were a people of ancient Central Asia. A confederation of three tribes – the Parni, Xanthii and Pissuri – the Dahae lived in an area now comprising much of modern Turkmenistan. The area has consequently been known as Dahestan, Dahistan and Dihistan. Relatively little is known about their way of life. For example, according to the Iranologist A. D. H. Bivar, the capital of "the ancient Dahae (if indeed they possessed one) is quite unknown.". The Dahae dissolved, apparently, some time before the beginning of the 1st millennium. One of the three tribes of the Dahae confederation, the Parni, emigrated to Parthia (present-day north-eastern Iran), where they founded the Arsacid dynasty.
Daimler AG is a German multinational automotive corporation.
The Danata Formation (or Danatinskaya, Danatinsk) is an Upper Paleocene to Middle Eocene sedimentary succession located in Turkmenistan.
Danatinia casca is an extinct lamprid from Danata Formation Lagerstatten, of the Upper Paleocene of Turkmenistan.
Dancesport at the 2017 Asian Indoor and Martial Arts Games was held in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan from 25 to 26 September 2017 at the Taekwondo and Dancesport Arena.
Dangatar Ovezov (Дангатар Овезов; January 1, 1911 – May 5, 1966) was a Turkmenistani composer.
Danil Vadimovich Poluboyarinov (Данил Вадимович Полубояринов; born 4 February 1997) is a Russian football player who plays for FC Spartak Moscow and its professional farm-club FC Spartak-2 Moscow.
Daniyar Ismayilov (born 3 February 1992) is a Turkmen weightlifter currently competing for Turkey.
The Danube bleak or Caspian shemaya (Alburnus chalcoides) is a species of freshwater fish in the family Cyprinidae.
Darganata District (formerly Birata District) is a district of Lebap Province in Turkmenistan.
Dargin writing is a written form of communication representing the North East Caucasian Dargin language.
Derweze (Persian: The Gate, also known as Darvaza) is a village in Turkmenistan of about 350 inhabitants, located in the middle of the Karakum Desert, about 260 km north from Ashgabat.
The Darvaza gas crater (Jähennem derwezesi, Җәхеннем дервезеси), known locally as the "Door to Hell" or Gates of Hell", is a natural gas field collapsed into an underground cavern located in Derweze, Turkmenistan.
Dasypyrum is a genus of Eurasian and North African plants in the grass family, native to the basins of the Mediterranean, Black, and Caspian Seas.
Dasypyrum villosum is a species of annual grass in the Poaceae family, found in It is native to eastern and southern Europe and Western Asia from the Balearic Islands to Turkmenistan, including in the Mediterranean and the Caucasus regions.
The legal and cultural expectations for date formats vary among populations.
* Since its founding in 1949, the People's Republic of China (PRC) has had a diplomatic tug-of-war with its rival in Taiwan, the Republic of China (ROC).
The Dauletabad Gas Field (also Döwletabat, Dauletabad-Donmez, and until 1991 known as Sovietabad) is a large natural gas field located in Mary, Mary province, Turkmenistan.
The Dauletabad–Sarakhs–Khangiran pipeline (also known as Dauletabad–Salyp Yar pipeline) is a natural gas pipeline from the Dauletabad gas field in Turkmenistan to Khangiran in Iran, where it is connected with the Iran Gas Trunkline system.
David Russell Harris, FSA, FBA (14 December 1930 – 25 December 2013) was a British geographer, anthropologist, archaeologist and academic, well known for his detailed work on the origins of agriculture and the domestication of plants and animals.
David Wallechinsky (born David Wallace, February 5, 1948) is an American populist historian and television commentator, the president of the International Society of Olympic Historians (ISOH) and the founder and editor-in-chief of AllGov.com.
David Viktorovich Yurchenko (Давид Викторович Юрченко; born 27 March 1986) is a Russian football goalkeeper.
Dawid Sarkisow (born 20 November 1982) is a Turkmenistan footballer currently playing for Aşgabat FK.
Neutrality Day of Turkmenistan (Bitaraplyk baýramy) is the second most important state holiday in Turkmenistan.
Dayahatyn (also spelled Dayakhatyn or Daya-khatyn or Bai Khatyn in folk) is a medieval caravanserai, sitting on the left bank of Amu Darya.
Most areas in North America and Europe, and some areas in the Middle East, observe daylight saving time (DST), while most areas of Africa and Asia do not.
As of 2017, daylight saving time is used in the following Asian countries.
Days of Eclipse (Дни затмения) (or, The Days of Eclipse, Dni Zatmenija, Días de eclipse) is an award-winning 1988 Soviet film directed by Aleksandr Sokurov.
Dänew District (formerly Galkynyş District) is a district of Lebap Province in Turkmenistan.
Döwlet Baýramow, born 8 August 1985, is a Turkmenistani footballer who is a Midfielder.
Döwletli District is a district of Lebap Province in Turkmenistan.
Döwran Allanazarow (born February 23, 1986) is a Turkmen footballer who is presently playing for FC HTTU and is also a former player of the Turkmenistan national football team.
Dübəndi (Dübəndi; also, Dyubendi and Dyubendy, Kishlak) is an Azerbaijan port on the Caspian Sea and oil depot, approximately 50 km northeast from Baku.
The M. H. de Young Memorial Museum, commonly referred as the de Young, is a fine arts museum located in San Francisco's Golden Gate Park, and one of the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco along with the Legion of Honor.
The following is a list of notable deaths in June 2017.
December is the twelfth and final month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian Calendars and is the seventh and last of seven months to have a length of 31 days.
Decolonization (American English) or decolonisation (British English) is the undoing of colonialism: where a nation establishes and maintains its domination over one or more other territories.
The defection of Viktor Belenko took place on September 6, 1976 when Lieutenant Viktor Belenko of the Soviet Air Defence Forces flew his Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-25P “Foxbat” aircraft from near Vladivostok in the Far East of the Soviet Union to Hakodate Airport in Hokkaido Prefecture of Japan.
The title Defence Minister, Minister for Defence, Minister of National Defense, Secretary of Defence, Secretary of State for Defense or some similar variation, is assigned to the person in a cabinet position in charge of a Ministry of Defence, which regulates the armed forces in sovereign states.
Defender of the Fatherland Day (День защитника Отечества Den' zashchitnika Otechestva); Отан қорғаушы күні; Рӯзи артиши миллӣ; Мекенди коргоочулардын күнү; Дзень абаронцы Айчыны) is a holiday observed in Russia, Turkmenistan, Belarus, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan and Tajikistan. It is celebrated on 23 February, except in Kazakhstan, where it is celebrated on 7 May.
The former city of Dehistan/Mashhad-i Misrian, now in the Balkan Region of western Turkmenistan, was a major economic center from the 10th to the 14th centuries CE.
Delhi Multan Road (دہلى مُلتان روڈ), ancient route had existed since the time of king Ashoka or earlier, was renovated by the Delhi Sultanate ruler Sher Shah Suri (1486–1545) in order to improve transit in the areas between Delhi and Multan, leading to Kandhar and Herat in Afghanistan, eventually to Mashhad capital of Khorasan province of Iran, providing access to capital city Ashgabat of Turkmenistan.".
Delplanqueia nobilella is a species of moth in the family Pyralidae.
Delta Blues (subtitled: In a Land of Cotton) is a documentary film shot in 2000.
Deltophora maculata is a moth of the Gelechiidae family.
The Democratic Party of Turkmenistan (Türkmenistanyň Demokratik partiýasy) (TPD) is a political party in Turkmenistan.
Demographic transition (DT) is the transition from high birth and death rates to lower birth and death rates as a country or region develops from a pre-industrial to an industrialized economic system.
Accurate demographics of atheism are difficult to obtain since conceptions of atheism vary across different cultures and languages from being an active concept to being unimportant or not developed.
Central Asia is a diverse land with many ethnic groups, languages, religions and tribes.
The following demographic statistics are from the Statistics Norway, unless otherwise indicated.
The Demographics of Turkmenistan is about the demographic features of the population of Turkmenistan, including population growth, population density, ethnicity, education level, health, economic status, religious affiliations, and other aspects of the population.
A demonym (δῆμος dẽmos "people, tribe", ὄόνομα ónoma "name") is a word that identifies residents or natives of a particular place, which is derived from the name of that particular place.
Denis Vladimirovich Peremenin (Денис Владимирович Переменин; born 4 January 1976 in Chelyabinsk) is a former Russian football player.
The Department of Central Eurasian Studies, often abbreviated as CEUS, is a specialized academic department in the School of Global and International Studies at the Bloomington campus of Indiana University, in Bloomington, Indiana.
Depressaria despoliatella is a moth in the Depressariidae family.
Depressaria krasnowodskella is a moth of the Depressariidae family.
Depressaria longipennella is a moth in the Depressariidae family.
Depressaria rjabovi is a moth in the Depressariidae family.
Depressaria ruticola is a moth in the Depressariidae family.
Derweze District is a district of Ahal Province in Turkmenistan.
The desert lidless skink (Ablepharus deserti) is a species of skink native to southern Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, northern Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and eastern Turkmenistan.
The desert whitethroat (Sylvia minula) is a typical warbler.
Deserticossus arenicola is a species of moth of the Cossidae family.
Deserticossus praeclarus is a moth in the Cossidae family.
Deserticossus pulverulentus is a species of moth of the Cossidae family.
Deuterotinea longipennis is a moth in the Eriocottidae family.
Deuterotinea macropodella is a moth in the Eriocottidae family.
Deuterotinea stschetkini is a moth in the Eriocottidae family.
Dev-Kesken, or Dev Kesken qala, is an archaeological site in the Dashoguz region of northern Turkmenistan, 62 km west of Koneurgench.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
The Development Assistance Database (DAD) is an Aid Information Management System (AIMS) developed by Synergy International Systems, for tracking development aid and managing official development assistance with transparency and accountability.
Dexagria ushinskyi is a species of true flies in the family Sarcophagidae.
Dextellia dorsilineella is a moth of the Gracillariidae family.
A dialect continuum or dialect chain is a spread of language varieties spoken across some geographical area such that neighbouring varieties differ only slightly, but the differences accumulate over distance so that widely separated varieties are not mutually intelligible.
The dice snake (Natrix tessellata) is a European nonvenomous snake belonging to the family Colubridae, subfamily Natricinae.
Dichagyris celebrata is a moth of the family Noctuidae.
Dichagyris devota is a moth of the family Noctuidae.
Dichagyris singularis is a moth of the family Noctuidae.
Didar Durdyýew (born 16 July 1993) is a Turkmenistan footballer currently playing for FC Hazyna in the Ýokary Liga.
Didargylyç Urazow (27 February 1977 – 7 June 2016) was a Turkmen footballer as a striker.
Dieida ahngeri is a moth in the Cossidae family.
The Eurasian eagle-owl (Bubo bubo) may well be the most powerful extant species of owl, able to attack and kill large prey far beyond the capacities of most other living owls.
The golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) is one of the most powerful predators in the avian world.
In sociolinguistics, digraphia refers to the use of more than one writing system for the same language.
Dinmukhamed Kanatuly Kudaibergen (Дінмұхаммед Қанатұлы Құдайберген), born May 24, 1994 in Aktobe, Kazakhstan, known as Dimash Kudaibergen (Димаш Құдайберген; sometimes transcribed in English as Dimash Kudaibergenov), is a Kazakh singer, songwriter and multi-instrumentalist.
The Diocese in Europe (short form for "The Diocese of Gibraltar in Europe") is geographically the largest diocese of the Church of England and the largest diocese in the Anglican Communion, covering some one-sixth of the Earth's landmass, including Morocco, Europe (excluding the British Isles), Turkey, Mongolia and the territory of the former Soviet Union.
Discovery Networks CEEMEA (Discovery Networks Central & Eastern Europe, Middle East and Africa) is a branch of Discovery Networks International headquartered in Warsaw, Poland.
Dmitri Ivanovich Khomukha (Дмитрий Иванович Хомуха, Dmitriý Iwanowiç Homuha) (born August 23, 1969 in Ashgabat) is a retired Turkmenistani footballer who is the current manager of Latvian football club Riga FC.
Dmitri Gennadyevich Nezhelev (Дмитрий Геннадьевич Нежелев; born 27 February 1970 in Turkmen SSR) is a retired Turkmenistani professional footballer.
Dmitri Trofimovich Shepilov (Дми́трий Трофи́мович Шепи́лов, Dmitrij Trofimovič Šepilov; – 18 August 1995) was a Soviet politician and Minister of Foreign Affairs who joined the abortive plot to oust Nikita Khrushchev from power in 1957.
Dmitriý Mihaýlowiç Korj (Дмитро Михайлович Корж; born 29 October 1971) is a retired Turkmenistani footballer, and current assistant coach of the Altyn Asyr FK.
Doclea (also Dioclea or Diocleia) was a Roman city, the seat (but not permanently exclusively) of the Late Roman province of Praevalitana, and Metropolitan Archbishopric, which is now a Latin Catholic titular see.
The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris when considered a subspecies of the gray wolf or Canis familiaris when considered a distinct species) is a member of the genus Canis (canines), which forms part of the wolf-like canids, and is the most widely abundant terrestrial carnivore.
Dolichophis schmidti, the red-bellied racer, is a species of snake in the family Colubridae.
The dombyra (домбыра) is a long-necked Kazakh lute and a musical string instrument.
The domestic policy of Vladimir Putin concerns the internal Russian policies of Vladimir Putin during his tenure as President of Russia, as well as the effects of Putinism and the Putin legislative program within Russia.
Donald Ibrahím Swann (30 September 1923 – 23 March 1994) was a Welsh-born composer, musician and entertainer.
Dorcadion sulcipenne is a species of beetle in the family Cerambycidae.
The Double, in association football, is the achievement of winning a country's top tier division and its primary cup competition in the same season.
The DPR Korea League is the football league-system championship in North Korea.
Dracocephalum moldavica (Moldavian dragonhead) is an annual herbaceous plant.
Dragomir Janićije Karić (Драгомир Карић; born October 21, 1949) is an entrepreneur and politician in Serbia.
Dragon Oil plc is an independent international oil and gas exploration, development and production business.
Drasteria aberrans is a moth of the Erebidae family.
Drasteria caucasica is a moth of the Erebidae family.
Drasteria herzi is a moth of the Erebidae family.
Drasteria picta is a moth of the Erebidae family.
Drasteria saisani is a moth of the Erebidae family.
Drasteria sesquilina is a moth of the Erebidae family.
Drasteria sesquistria is a moth of the Erebidae family.
Drasteria sinuosa is a moth of the Erebidae family.
Draughts (British English) or checkers (American English) is a group of strategy board games for two players which involve diagonal moves of uniform game pieces and mandatory captures by jumping over opponent pieces.
Drepanocaryum is a genus of flowering plant in the Lamiaceae family, first described in 1954.
Druk Star FC is a football club from Thimphu, Bhutan and have twice been champions of Bhutan.
The laws of driving under the influence vary between countries.
The Dry tree (or Solitary tree) is a legendary tree.
The Dungan language is a Sinitic language spoken primarily in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan by the Dungan people, an ethnic group related to the Hui people of China.
Established in December 1917, Dunsterforce was an Allied military force named after its commander, General Lionel Dunsterville.
Durdy Bayramov (Russian: Дурды Байрамов; April 14, 1938 - February 14, 2014) was an academician and artist who was awarded the highest honorary title in his country: “People’s Artist of Turkmen SSR”.
Durdy Bayramov Art Foundation is a non-profit organization located in Toronto, Canada, dedicated to celebrating the life and legacy of the Turkmen artist Durdy Bayramov (1938-2014).
Durdy Durdyýew, (often referred to in the Western media by his Russianized name: Дурды Дурдыев Durdy Durdyiev) is the Deputy Tourism and Sports Minister of Turkmenistan.
The Durrani dynasty (د درانيانو کورنۍ) was founded in 1747 by Ahmad Shah Durrani at Kandahar, Afghanistan. He united the different Pashtun tribes and created the Durrani Empire with his Baloch allies, which at its peak included the modern-day Afghanistan, Pakistan, as well as some parts of northeastern Iran, eastern Turkmenistan, and northwestern India including the Kashmir region. The Durranis were replaced by the Barakzai dynasty during the early half of the 19th century. Ahmad Shah and his descendants were from the Sadozai line of the Durranis (formerly known as Abdalis), making them the second Pashtun rulers of Kandahar after the Hotak dynasty. The Durranis were very notable in the second half of the 18th century mainly due to the leadership of Ahmad Shah Durrani.
The Durrani Empire (د درانیانو واکمني), also called the Afghan Empire (د افغانانو واکمني), was founded and built by Ahmad Shah Durrani.
Dushak (Duşak) is a small town in the Karakum Desert on the rim of the Kopet Dag mountains of Ahal Province, Turkmenistan.
Dushanbe (Душанбе) is the capital and largest city of Tajikistan.
The Dushanbe Flagpole is a flagpole located in front of the Palace of Nations in Dushanbe, Tajikistan.
Dushi district is located in the central part of Baghlan Province, Afghanistan.
The dwarf sturgeon, little shovelnose sturgeon, or small Amu-dar shovelnose sturgeon (Pseudoscaphirhynchus hermanni) is a species of fish in the Acipenseridae family.
Dying to Win: The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism is Robert Pape's analysis of suicide terrorism from a strategic, social, and psychological point of view.
Dynamo, also Dinamo, (Belarusian: Дынама, დინამო) is a sports and fitness society created in 1923 in the Soviet Union.
Dysgonia rogenhoferi is a moth of the Noctuidae family.
Dyspessa albosignata is a species of moth of the Cossidae family.
Dyspessa thianshanica is a species of moth of the Cossidae family.
Jahan Rejepowna Pollyýewa (Джахан Реджеповна Поллыева; born April 15, 1960 in Ashkhabad, Turkmenistan) is the Chief of Staff of the State Duma of Russia.
Dzhamaldin Abdukhalitovich Khodzhaniyazov (Джамалдин Абдухалитович Ходжаниязов, Džamaldin Abduchalitovič Chodžanijazov, Jamaldin Abduhalitowiç Hojanyýazow, Җамалдин Абдухалитович Хоҗаныязов; born 18 July 1996) is a Turkmen-Russian professional football player who plays for FC Baltika Kaliningrad.
Dzhuma Durdy Karayev (10 January 1910 – 4 May 1960) was a Turkmen politician who served as General Secretary of the Communist Party of Turkmenistan.
E-Dostluk (in Turkmen, Online Friendship) is a social network service for Turkmens and Turkmen language speakers.
The Early Dynastic period (abbreviated ED period or ED) is an archaeological culture in Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq) that is generally dated to c. 2900–2350 BC and was preceded by the Uruk and Jemdet Nasr periods.
East-West Group is a holding company based out of Luxembourg which operates a network of internationally based service companies focused on the Central Asian, Caucasus, Russian and Middle Eastern energy markets.
The East–West pipeline is a natural gas pipeline in Turkmenistan.
The Eastern Catholic Churches or Oriental Catholic Churches, also called the Eastern-rite Catholic Churches, and in some historical cases Uniate Churches, are twenty-three Eastern Christian particular churches sui iuris in full communion with the Pope in Rome, as part of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Based on the numbers of adherents, the Eastern Orthodox Church (also known as Eastern Orthodoxy) is the second largest Christian communion in the world after the Roman Catholic Church.
Eastern Orthodoxy in Turkmenistan is a major proportion of Christianity in Turkmenistan.
The Persian nuthatch or the eastern rock-nuthatch (Sitta tephronota) is a species of bird in the Sittidae family.
Eastern Slavic naming customs are the traditional ways of identifying a person by name in countries influenced by East Slavic languages (Russian, Ukrainian and Belorussian: in Russia, Belarus, Ukraine. They are also used in some countries using South Slavic languages, including Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia and Macedonia, as well as some countries using non-Slavic languages (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan) because of the expansion of Russia, with its Russification. The full name uses the following standard structure.
Echis (common names: saw-scaled vipers, carpet vipersSpawls S, Branch B. 1995. The Dangerous Snakes of Africa. Dubai: Ralph Curtis Books. Oriental Press. 192 pp..) is a genus of venomous vipers found in the dry regions of Africa, the Middle East, Pakistan, India, and Sri Lanka.
Echis carinatus is a venomous viper species found in parts of the Middle East and Central Asia, and especially the Indian subcontinent.
Echis carinatus multisquamatus is a venomous viper subspecies found in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Iran, Afghanistan, and Pakistan.
The Economic Cooperation Organization or ECO is a Eurasian political and economic intergovernmental organization which was founded in 1985 in Tehran by the leaders of Iran, Pakistan and Turkey.
The Economic Cooperation Organization Free Trade Agreement or ECOTA was an agreement reached on 17 July 2003 at the ECO summit in Islamabad whereby a free trade region was formed between the countries of Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.
The economic history of Azerbaijan is a historical review of the development of the Azerbaijani economy from the beginning of the 20th century to the modern economy of the Republic of Azerbaijan.
Azerbaijan has an economy that has completed its post-Soviet transition into a major oil based economy (with the completion of the Baku–Tbilisi–Ceyhan pipeline), from one where the state played the major role.
The economy of Gibraltar consists largely of the services sector.
Since independence, Tajikistan gradually followed the path of transition economy, reforming its economic policies.
Turkmenistan is one of the world's fastest-growing economies.
Ectoedemia albida is a moth of the Nepticulidae family.
Ectoedemia lacrimulae is a moth of the Nepticulidae family.
Ectoedemia leptognathos is a moth of the Nepticulidae family.
Ectoedemia obtusa is a moth of the Nepticulidae family.
Ectoedemia spinosella is a moth of the Nepticulidae family.
The Ministry of Education of Turkmenistan is responsible for Education in Turkmenistan at all levels.
Edward Apau Mantey is a retired Ghanaian Vice-Air marshal Ghana Air Force and diplomat.
Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA) is a block of countries that includes Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan.
Eirenis medus is a species of snake of the family Colubridae.
Ekerem (Окарем), is a small populated place in Balkan Province in western Turkmenistan on the Caspian Sea coast.
Elachista amseli is a moth of the Elachistidae family.
Elachista anatoliensis is a moth of the Elachistidae family.
Elachista cretula is a moth species in the Elachistidae family.
Elachista enochra is a moth species in the Elachistidae family.
Elachista levasi is a moth of the Elachistidae family.
Elachista pallens is a moth of the Elachistidae family.
Elachista puplesisi is a moth of the Elachistidae family that is endemic to Turkmenistan.
Elachista spinigera is a moth of the Elachistidae family.
The Elburz Range forest steppe ecoregion is an arid, mountainous 1,000-kilometer arc south of the Caspian Sea, stretching across northern Iran from the Azerbaijan border to near the Turkmenistan border.
Eldar Bahram oglu Mansurov (Eldar Bəhram oğlu Mansurov; born February 28, 1952, Baku, Azerbaijan SSR) is an Azerbaijani musician, composer and songwriter.
Elethyia subscissa is a moth in the Crambidae family.
The Eleventh constituency for French residents overseas (onzième circonscription des Français établis hors de France) is one of eleven constituencies each electing one representative of French citizens overseas to the French National Assembly.
Elman Tagaýew (born June 2, 1989 in Ashgabat) is a Turkmen international football midfielder of Azerbaijani descent, who last played for Sabail FK.
The Embassy of the Kingdom of Norway in Astana is the chief diplomatic mission of Norway to Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan.
The Embassy of Turkmenistan in Moscow is the diplomatic mission of Turkmenistan to the Russian Federation.
The Embassy of Turkmenistan in Washington, D.C. is the diplomatic mission of Turkmenistan to the United States.
The Embassy of Turkmenistan in London is the diplomatic mission of Turkmenistan in the United Kingdom.
The State Emblem of Turkmenistan was created after Turkmenistan gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. Like other post-Soviet republics whose symbols do not predate the October Revolution, the current emblem retains some components of the Soviet one such as cotton, wheat and rug. The eight-point green starburst (known as the Rub El Hizb (۞), a symbol of Islam, to which a majority of Turkmen profess) with golden edges features in its center a red circular disc which carries sheaves of wheat, five carpet guls, and centered upon that a smaller blue circle with a lifelike (rather than heraldized) depiction of former President Saparmurat Niyazov's pet Akhal-Teke horse Yanardag, a source of pride for the Turkmen people. A round variant of the emblem was used from 1992 until 2003.
The Emirate of Bukhara (امارت بخارا; Buxoro amirligi) was a Central Asian state that existed from 1785 to 1920, which is now modern-day Uzbekistan.
Turkmenistan had a total primary energy supply (TPES) of 26.75 Mtoe in 2014.
Kazakhstan owns large reserves of energy resources, and therefore the energy policy of Kazakhstan has influence over the world's overall energy supply.
Russia’s energy policy is set out in the government’s Energy Strategy document, first approved in 2000, which sets out the government’s policy to 2020.
English draughts (British English) or checkers (American English; see spelling differences), also called American checkers or straight checkers, is a form of the strategy board game draughts.
An ENI number (European Number of Identification or European Vessel Identification Number) is a registration for ships capable of navigating on inland European waters.
The future enlargement of the Eurasian Economic Union is theoretically open to any Post-Soviet states and potentially any country of Europe or Asia.
Enterpia laudeti is a species of moth of the Noctuidae family.
The major environmental issues in Kyrgyzstan are summarized in the 2007 Concept of Ecological Security of Kyrgyz Republic and discussed in other environmental and environmental policy documents such as National Environmental Action Plan (1995), Country Development Strategy for 2009–2011, Strategy on Biological Diversity (2002), 2nd Environmental Performance Review of Kyrgyzstan (2008), etc.
Environmental issues in Turkmenistan are most visible in three significant areas: desertification, the drying of the Aral Sea, and chemical pollution.
Eospinus daniltshenkoi is an extinct tetraodontid bony fish from the Eocene.
Epermenia wockeella is a moth of the family Epermeniidae.
Ephedra foliata, with the common name shrubby horsetail, is a species of Ephedra.
Ephedra strobilacea is a species of Ephedra that is native to Iran and Central Asia (Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan).
Epinotia thapsiana is a moth of the Tortricidae family.
Epischnia nervosella is a species of snout moth in the genus Epischnia.
Epomis circumscriptus is a species of ground beetle native to the Palearctic, the Near East, and North Africa.
Equestrian jumping was contested at the 2017 Asian Indoor and Martial Arts Games from 21 September to 23 September 2017.
Erbent (also known as Yerbent or Ýerbent) is a village in Ahal Province, Turkmenistan.
Eremocossus asema is a moth in the Cossidae family.
Eremopoa is a genus of Eurasian and Egyptian plants in the grass family.
Eresus is a genus of velvet spiders comprising several species.
Erin Routliffe (born April 11, 1995) is a New Zealand professional tennis player who has previously represented Canada.
Ersari (Ärsary, where Er - brave man, master; sari - light, bright, yellow) are one of the major tribes of the Turkmen people of Central Asia and one of the five major tribes of the country of Turkmenistan.
Ertugrul (ارطغرل, Ertuğrul Gazi, Erṭoġrıl; often with the title Gazi) (died c. 1280) was the father of Osman I, the founder of the Ottoman Empire.
Ertuğrul Gazi Mosque or Ärtogrul Gazy Mosque is a mosque in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan.
Erysimum siliculosum is a biennial or perennial herb from Xinjiang, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Turkmenistan, reaching 30-90(100)cm tall.
Eryx is a genus of nonvenomous boas found in southeastern Europe, northern Africa, the Middle East, and southwestern Asia.
Eryx elegans (Central Asian sand boa, elegant sand boa) is a nonvenomous boa species endemic to western Central Asia.
Eryx miliaris, known commonly as the Dwarf sand boa, is a species of snake in the Boidae family.
Esenguly (formerly Gasan-Kuli) is a town in Turkmenistan, part of the Balkan Province.
Esenguly District is a district of Balkan Province in Turkmenistan.
Eser is an international construction company based in Ankara, Turkey, and active in the Middle East, Central Asia, East Europe and Sub-Saharan Africa.
Esfarayen County (شهرستان اسفراین) is a county in North Khorasan Province in Iran.
Eslām Chūngar (also known as Islam Chomgar) is a small town in the province of Jowzjan, northern Afghanistan.
Esophageal cancer is cancer arising from the esophagus—the food pipe that runs between the throat and the stomach.
Eteobalea sumptuosella is a moth of the family Cosmopterigidae.
An eternal flame is a flame, lamp or torch that burns continuously for an indefinite period.
Ethiopia–Russia relations (Российско-эфиопские отношения) is the relationship between the two countries, Ethiopia and Russia.
Ethmia distigmatella is a moth in the Depressariidae family.
Ethmia turkmeniella is a moth in the family Depressariidae.
Ethmia vittalbella is a moth in the Depressariidae family.
In terms of Asian people, there is an abundance of ethnic groups in Asia, with adaptations to the climate zones of the continent, which include Arctic, subarctic, temperate, subtropical or tropical, as well as extensive desert regions in Central and Western Asia.
A majority of the population of Iran (approximately 67–80%) consists of Iranic peoples.
An Etrap (plural: etraplar) is a second tier administrative division of Turkmenistan.
Etrek District is a district (estrap) in Balkan Province, Turkmenistan.
The Etruscan shrew (Suncus etruscus), also known as the Etruscan pygmy shrew or the white-toothed pygmy shrew, is the smallest known mammal by mass, weighing only about on average.
Euchromius gratiosella is a species of moth in the Crambidae family.
Euchromius jaxartella is a moth in the Crambidae family.
Euchromius scobiolae is a moth in the Crambidae family.
Euchromius zagulajevi is a moth in the Crambidae family.
Euclasta splendidalis is a species of moth in the Crambidae family.
Euclidia amudarya is a moth of the Erebidae family.
Euclidia munita is a moth of the Erebidae family.
Eudiaphora is a monotypic genus of tiger moths in the Erebidae family.
Eugnosta plusiana is a species of moth of the family Tortricidae.
Euleia heraclei, known as the celery fly or the hogweed picture-wing fly is a species of tephritid or fruit flies in the genus Euleia of the family Tephritidae.
Eumeces schneideri, commonly known as Schneider's skink or the Berber skink, is a species of skink endemic to Central Asia, Western Asia, and North Africa.
Eupithecia breviculata is a moth of the Geometridae family.
Eupithecia cingulata is a moth in the family Geometridae.
Eupithecia conviva is a moth in the family Geometridae.
Eupithecia dechkanata is a moth in the family Geometridae.
Eupithecia demetata is a moth in the family Geometridae.
Eupithecia gluptata is a moth in the family Geometridae.
Eupithecia gratiosata is a moth in the family Geometridae.
Eupithecia hilariata is a moth in the family Geometridae.
Eupithecia illaborata is a moth in the family Geometridae.
Eupithecia kopetdaghica is a moth in the family Geometridae.
Eupithecia kruusi is a moth in the family Geometridae.
Eupithecia minusculata is a moth in the family Geometridae.
Eupithecia opistographata is a moth in the family Geometridae.
Eupithecia parallelaria is a moth in the family Geometridae.
Eupithecia relaxata is a moth in the family Geometridae.
Eupithecia scalptata is a moth in the family Geometridae.
Eupithecia stigmaticata is a moth in the family Geometridae.
Eupithecia terrenata is a moth in the family Geometridae.
Eupithecia turkmena is a moth in the family Geometridae.
Euplagia quadripunctaria, the Jersey tiger, is a day-flying moth of the family Erebidae.
Eurasia Foundation (EF) is a publicly and privately funded, privately managed grantmaker and program implementer working to strengthen civil society, advance private enterprise and promote public policy and administration in the successor states of the former Soviet Union—Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan.
Eurasia Foundation Central Asia is a publicly funded, privately managed grant maker and program implementer working to mobilize public and private resources with the goal of strengthening the ability of organizations and communities in Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan to represent their social and economic interests and to participate in civil society.
The Eurasian eagle-owl (Bubo bubo) is a species of eagle-owl that resides in much of Eurasia.
The Eurasian Land Bridge (Yevraziyskiy sukhoputniy most), sometimes called the New Silk Road (Новый шёлковый путь, Noviy shyolkoviy put'), or Belt and Road Initiative is the rail transport route for moving freight and passengers overland between Pacific seaports in the Russian Far East and China and seaports in Europe.
The Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) is a medium-sized wild cat native to Siberia, Central, Eastern, and Southern Asia, Northern, Central and Eastern Europe.
The Eurasian Patent Convention (EAPC) (Евразийская патентная конвенция) is an international patent law treaty instituting both the Eurasian Patent Organization (EAPO) and the legal system pursuant to which Eurasian patents are granted.
The Eurasian Patent Organization (EAPO) is a regional organization set up in 1995 by the Eurasian Patent Convention (EAPC).
The Eurasian Scout Region (Региональное Бюро Евразия) is the divisional office of the World Scout Bureau of the World Organization of the Scout Movement, (in Russian Всемирной Организации Скаутского Движения or ВОСД) headquartered in Kiev, formerly located at Gurzuf near Yalta-Krasnokamianka, Ukraine, with a branch office in Moscow.
The Eurasian teal or common teal (Anas crecca) is a common and widespread duck which breeds in temperate Eurasia and migrates south in winter.
The Euro-Asia Division of Seventh-day Adventists is a sub-entity of the General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, which oversees the Church's work in the nations of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan.
The European badger (Meles meles) also known as the Eurasian badger or simply badger, is a species of badger in the family Mustelidae and is native to almost all of Europe and some parts of West Asia.
The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) is an international financial institution founded in 1991.
The European green woodpecker (Picus viridis) is a member of the woodpecker family Picidae.
E 003 is a European B class road in Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, connecting the cities Uchkuduk – Daşoguz – Ashgabat – Gaudan.
E 121 is a European A class road in Russia, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan, connecting the cities Samara - Oral - Atyrau - Beyneu - Türkmenbaşy.
European route E 40 is the longest European route, more than long, connecting Calais in France via Belgium, Germany, Poland, Ukraine, Russia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and Kyrgyzstan, with Ridder in Kazakhstan near the border with Russia and China.
A European Union Association Agreement (for short, Association Agreement or AA) is a treaty between the European Union (EU), its Member States and a non-EU country that creates a framework for co-operation between them.
Eurygaster integriceps is a species of shield bug in the family Scutelleridae, commonly known as the sunn pest or corn bug.
Euxoa clauda is a moth of the Noctuidae family.
Euxoa hilaris is a moth of the Noctuidae family.
Euxoa mustelina is a moth of the Noctuidae family.
Euzophera subcribrella is a species of snout moth in the genus Euzophera.
Euzopherodes liturosella is a species of snout moth in the genus Euzopherodes.
The Evangelical Lutheran Church in Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Central Asia (Евангелическо-лютеранская церковь в России, Украине, в Казахстане и Средней Азии), also known as the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Russia and the Other States (ELCROS), is a Lutheran denomination that itself comprises seven regional Lutheran denominations in Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan as well as individual congregations in Azerbaijan, Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan.
Evergestis nomadalis is a species of moth in the Crambidae family.
Exaeretia fuscicostella is a moth in the Depressariidae family.
Exaeretia ledereri is a moth of the Depressariidae family.
Exaeretia montuesellus is a moth in the Depressariidae family.
Exaeretia vladimiri is a moth in the Depressariidae family.
Exellia is a genus of extinct spadefish that lived in the Tethys Ocean during the early Paleogene.
The Exhibition Hall of the Ministry of Culture (Sergi köşgi) is an important government building in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan.
Exophyla rectangularis is a moth of the Noctuidae family.
Expo 2012 Yeosu Korea was an International Exposition recognised by the Bureau International des Expositions (BIE) held in Yeosu, South Korea which opened May 12, 2012 and ran until August 12, 2012.
Expo 2015 was a universal exposition hosted by Milan, Italy.
The Export Land Model, or Export-Land Model, refers to work done by Dallas geologist Jeffrey Brown, building on the work of others, and discussed widely on The Oil Drum.
The Extraordinary State Commission was a Soviet government agency formed by the Council of People's Commissars on 2 November 1942, by a decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet.
This is a list of the extreme points of Turkmenistan: the points that are farther north, south, east or west than any other location, as well as the highest and lowest points in the country.
Fahhad Mohammed Al-Subaie (born 4 February 1994) is a Saudi athlete who specialises in the 200 metres.
Fairytales is the debut studio album by the Belarusian-Norwegian artist Alexander Rybak.
Falkovitshella asema is a moth of the Scythrididae family.
Falkovitshella asthena is a moth of the Scythrididae family.
The fall webworm (Hyphantria cunea) is a moth in the family Erebidae known principally for its larval stage, which creates the characteristic webbed nests on the tree limbs of a wide variety of hardwoods in the late summer and fall.
A hereditary dictatorship, or family dictatorship, in political science terms a personalistic regime, is a form of dictatorship that occurs in a nominally or formally republican or socialist regime, but operates in practice like an absolute monarchy or despotate, in that political power passes within the dictator's family.
Farap is a town and capital of Farap District in the Lebap Province of Turkmenistan.
Farap District is a district of Lebap Province in Turkmenistan.
Farhad Italmazov (Farhad Italmazow; born 19 April 1993) is a Turkmen footballer who plays for Turkmen club FC Ahal.
Farkhat Reimbergenovich Bazarov (Фархат Реимбергенович Базаров; born January 31, 1980) is a Turkmen professional football player.
Faryab (فاریاب) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, which is located in the north of the country bordering neighboring Turkmenistan.
Fastron-Metro TV Europe Asia Expedition is an Indonesian expedition team who travel around the world by surface using 4x4 vehicles.
Fazilka is a town and a municipal council in Punjab, India.
International Federation of Amateur Sambo (Fédération Internationale de Sambo) is the world governing body for the sport of Sambo.
Aşgabat Football Club is a Turkmenistani football club based in Ashgabat.
FC Lebap is a Turkmenistan football club based in Türkmenabat.
FC Energetik is a Turkmen association football club based in the Mary city, Mary Province.
Gara Altyn Balkanabat is a Turkmenistani football club based in Balkanabat.
Talyp Sporty Aşgabat is a Turkmen football club based in Aşgabat.
Federated States of Micronesia competed at the 2017 Asian Indoor and Martial Arts Games held in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan.
The Federation of Asian Bishops' Conferences (FABC) is an association of episcopal conferences of Catholic Church in South, Southeast, East and Central Asia.
Felino A. Palafox, Jr. is a Filipino architect, urban planner.
Felis chaus chaus is the nominate subspecies of the jungle cat.
Felix Henry Sater (born Felix Mikhailovich Sheferovsky; Феликс Михайлович Шеферовский; March 2, 1966) is an American former mobster, real estate developer and former managing director of Bayrock Group LLC, a real estate conglomerate based out of New York City, New York.
The FESPIC Games or the Far East and South Pacific Games for the Disabled, was a multi-sports games in Asia and the South Pacific region which is considered to be a precursor to the Asian Para Games.
FEST is an annual film festival held in Belgrade, Serbia since 1971.
Fiji competed at the 2017 Asian Indoor and Martial Arts Games held in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan.
Filistata insidiatrix is a species of spiders that occurs in the Mediterranean through to Turkmenistan and on the Cape Verde Islands.
Firoz Shah Palace Complex is located in front of Hisar Bus Stand in the city of Hisar in Haryana, India.
Fitzrovia is a district in central London, near London's West End lying partly in the City of Westminster (in the west), and partly in the London Borough of Camden (in the east); north of Oxford Street and Soho between Bloomsbury and Marylebone.
The national flag of Turkmenistan (Türkmenistanyň baýdagy, Түркменистаның байдагы) features a white crescent (symbol of Islam) and five stars; those stars represent the five regions of the country.
This is a gallery of international and national flags used in Asia.
The Flags of the Soviet Socialist Republics were all defaced versions of the flag of the Soviet Union, which featured a golden hammer and sickle, (the only exception being the Georgian SSR, which used a red hammer and sickle), and a gold-bordered red star on a red field.
In aviation and aviation meteorology, a flight level (FL) is defined as a vertical altitude at standard pressure, nominally expressed in hundreds of feet.
The FM broadcast band, used for FM broadcast radio by radio stations, differs between different parts of the world.
A folk costume (also regional costume, national costume, or traditional garment) expresses an identity through costume, which is usually associated with a geographic area or a period of time in history.
A folk dance is developed by people that reflect the life of the people of a certain country or region.
The Football Federation of Turkmenistan (Türkmenistanyň Futbol Federasiýasy) is the governing body of football in Turkmenistan.
Football for Friendship (ФУТБОЛ ДЛЯ ДРУЖБЫ) is an annual International Children's social program implemented by Gazprom.
Football is the most popular sport in Turkmenistan, a country that gained independence in 1991.
This is a list of foreign football players in Ukrainian Vyscha Liha/Premier-Liha by clubs (35 teams).
The Foreign policy of the Russian Empire covers Russian foreign relations down to 1917.
The foreign policy of Vladimir Putin concerns the policies of Russia's president Vladimir Putin with respect to other nations.
Armenia has maintained a policy of complementarism by trying to have positive and friendly relations with Iran, Russia, and the West, including the United States and the European Union since its independence.
Many historians trace modern Ethiopia's foreign policy to the reign of Emperor Tewodros II, whose primary concerns were the security of Ethiopia's traditional borders, obtaining technology from Europe (or modernization), and to a lesser degree Ethiopian rights to the monastery of Dar-es-Sultan in the city of Jerusalem.
Foreign relations of Iran refers to inter-governmental relationships between the Islamic Republic of Iran and other countries.
When Sultan Qaboos bin Said Al Said assumed power in 1970, Oman had limited contacts with the outside world, including neighbouring Arab states.
Pakistan is the second largest Muslim-majority country in terms of population (after Indonesia) and its status as a declared nuclear power, being the only Muslim majority nation to have that status, plays a part in its international role.
The foreign relations of the Russian Federation is the policy of the government of Russia by which it guides the interactions with other nations, their citizens and foreign organizations.
The foreign relations of South Korea (officially the Republic of Korea) are South Korean relations with other governments.
The foreign relations of the Republic of China (ROC), referred to by many states as Taiwan, are the relations between the Republic of China and other countries.
Foreign relations of Tajikistan are based on a desire to secure foreign investment and promote regional security while ensuring Tajikistan's independence.
The foreign relations of Ireland are substantially influenced by its membership of the European Union, although bilateral relations with the United States and United Kingdom are also important to the state.
Turkmenistan's declaration of "permanent neutrality" was formally recognized by the United Nations in 1995.
Uzbekistan joined the Commonwealth of Independent States in December 1991.
Fort McPherson was a U.S. Army military base located in Atlanta, Georgia, bordering the northern edge of the city of East Point, Georgia.
The Foundations of Geopolitics: The Geopolitical Future of Russia is a geopolitical book by Aleksandr Dugin.
Four Knights may refer to.
Framework Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Caspian Sea is a regional convention signed by the official representatives of the five littoral Caspian states: Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russian Federation and Turkmenistan in Tehran (Iran) on 4 November 2003.
French-Turkmen relations refers to the bilateral relations between France and Turkmenistan.
Francine Alicia Villeneuve (born July 22, 1964, Ottawa) is a retired Canadian thoroughbred jockey and racing pioneer.
Frank-Walter Steinmeier (born 5 January 1956) is a German politician serving as President of Germany since 19 March 2017.
Fraser Andrew Wilson MBE (born 6 May 1949) is the former British Ambassador to Albania, a post he held from 27 November 2006 until his retirement in 2009.
Frédéric Gracia (born 1959 in Paris) is a French artist, who is known for his trompe-l'œil murals, often in a hyperrealistic style and often on large exterior surfaces such as water towers and industrial chimneys.
Free economic zones (FEZ), free economic territories (FETs) or free zones (FZ) are a class of special economic zone (SEZ) designated by the trade and commerce administrations of various countries.
The Constitution provides for freedom of religion and does not establish a state religion; however, in practice the Government imposes legal restrictions on all forms of religious expression.
Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or sanction.
Freedom of speech is the concept of the inherent human right to voice one's opinion publicly without fear of censorship or punishment.
Freedom of speech in Kazakhstan is defined as the right guaranteed by the constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan to freely search, receive, transmit, produce and disseminate information in any legal way.
Freedom of the press or freedom of the media is the principle that communication and expression through various media, including printed and electronic media, especially published materials, should be considered a right to be exercised freely.
Fritillaria gibbosa is an Asian species of herbaceous perennials in the lily family, native to Pakistan, Iran, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, and South Caucasus.
Fritillaria karelinii is an Asian species of herbaceous perennials in the lily family, native to Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Iran, Pakistan, and Xinjiang.
Frontlines: Fuel of War is a first-person shooter game for Microsoft Windows and Xbox 360.
Fryday is one of the largest networking clubs for professionals organising series of social and business networking events across Eastern Europe and Central Asia.
Fulvio Martusciello (born 25 May 1968 in Naples) is an Italian politician, and a member of the European Parliament since 2014.
Furkat Tursunov (Furkat Tursunow; born 5 February 1991) is a Turkmen footballer who plays for Turkmen club Altyn Asyr.
Future Leaders Exchange (FLEX) is a scholarship student exchange program administered by the U.S. Department of State through funding from the Freedom Support Act.
Gafur Gulberdiyev (Russian: Гафур Gulberdiyev born 23 August 1995) is a Turkmen footballer born in Istanbul and captain of FC Saxan in Moldova.
The Gagauzes are a Turkic people living mostly in southern Moldova (Gagauzia, Taraclia District, Basarabeasca District), southwestern Ukraine (Budjak), northeastern Bulgaria, Greece, Brazil, the United States and Canada.
Gal-Erdenegiin Soyol-Erdene (Гал-Эрдэнэгийн Соёл-Эрдэнэ; born 16 March 1996) is a Mongolian footballer who plays for the Erchim FC of the Mongolian Premier League, and the Mongolian national team.
Galaýmor is a town in Mary, Turkmenistan.
Galium palustre, the common marsh bedstraw or simply marsh-bedstraw, is a herbaceous annual plant of the family Rubiaceae.
Galium spurium or false cleavers is a plant species of the Rubiaceae.
Hockey Club Galkan (Galkan hokkeý topary, Хоккейный клуб Галкан; Shield), is a Turkmen professional ice hockey team based in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan.
The Galkan Winter Sports Centre (Galkan gyşgy görnüşleri boýunça sport toplumy) is a hockey indoor arena in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan.
Galkynyş is a town and capital of Galkynyş District in the Lebap Province of Turkmenistan.
Galkynysh is a presidential yacht acquired by the Turkmenistan government in 2008, the first such boat in the Caspian Sea.
The Galkynysh Gas Field, formerly known as Iolotan gas field or South Yolotan – Osman field, is a large natural gas field near Ýolöten in Mary Province of Turkmenistan.
Galkynysh Square is a Square in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan.
This gallery of sovereign state coats of arms shows the coat of arms, an emblem serving a similar purpose or both (such as greater and lesser coat of arms, national emblem or seal) of each of the countries in the list of countries.
This gallery of head of state standards shows the Presidential or Royal Standards, a flag that is related to the head of state of that country.
Gandhāran Buddhism refers to the Buddhist culture of ancient Gandhāra which was a major center of Buddhism in the Indian subcontinent from the 3rd century BCE to approximately 1200 CE.
Gaplaňgyr or Kaplankyr is a mountain plateau and nature reserve (zapovednik) of northern Turkmenistan.
Garaşsyzlyk District (formerly Boýnyuzyn District) is a district of Lebap Province in Turkmenistan.
Garaşsyzlyk Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in Daşoguz, Turkmenistan.
Garabekewül is a town and capital of Garabekewül District in the Lebap Province of Turkmenistan.
Garabekewül District is a district of Lebap Province in Turkmenistan.
Garabogaz is a city in Turkmenistan, part of the Balkan Province.
The Garabogazköl Aylagy, alternatively the Kara-Bogaz-Gol, (Кара-Богаз-Гол, black (or mighty) strait lake) is a shallow inundated depression in the northwestern corner of Turkmenistan.
Karakum District is a district of Mary Province in Turkmenistan.
Garhadiolus is a genus of Asian plants in the dandelion tribe within the daisy family.
Garlyk Sanctuary is a sanctuary (zakaznik) of Turkmenistan.
Garrygala (formerly Kara-Kala, Кара-Кала) is a town in far south-western Turkmenistan in Balkan Province.
The usage and pricing of gasoline (or petrol) results from factors such as crude oil prices, processing and distribution costs, local demand, the strength of local currencies, local taxation, and the availability of local sources of gasoline (supply).
The gates of hell are various places on the surface of the world that have acquired a legendary reputation for being entrances to the underworld.
Gavan McDonell is an Australian civil engineer, economist and political sociologist in the fields of national infrastructure policy reform, international development and academic education for advanced sustainability studies.
Gazojak (Gazojak) is a town in Lebap Province, Turkmenistan.
Public Joint Stock Company Gazprom (Публи́чное акционе́рное о́бщество «Газпром», Publichnoe Aktsionernoe Obshchestvo Gazprom, abbreviated PAO Gazprom, ПАО «Газпром») is a large Russian company founded in 1989, which carries on the business of extraction, production, transport, and sale of natural gas.
Gämi is a village and suburb on the southeastern outskirts of Ashgabat, Turkmenistan, approximately 5 kilometres from the city centre.
Gököz is a village in the district of Keles, Bursa Province, Turkey.
Gökdepe District (Gökdepe etraby, Гɵкдепе этрабы) is a district of Ahal Province in Turkmenistan.
Görogly District (formerly Tagta District) is a district of Daşoguz Province in Turkmenistan.
Gülşat Sakhyevna Mämmedowa (born 1964) is a Turkmenistan politician and deputy chair (Speaker) of the Turkmen Parliament, the Mejlis.
Gulbadam Babamuratova (Turkmen Cyrillic: Гулбадам Бабамуратова; born August 24, 1991) is a Turkmenistan judoka and sambo in the category up to 52 kg.
The Güldenstädt's redstart (Phoenicurus erythrogastrus) also sometimes called the white-winged redstart, is a species of bird in the genus Phoenicurus, family Muscicapidae.
Gülnar Hatun (aka Büyük Ece, 731-769) was a semi legendary Turkish female hero.
Gürkan Genç (born January 15, 1979 in Ankara) is a Turkish traveler touring around the world on his bicycle since September 2012 having started from Turkey.
Geng Huichang (born November 1951), was the Minister of State Security of the People's Republic of China and a former President of the China Institute of Contemporary International Relations, an influential think tank.
Geoffroy's bat (Myotis emarginatus) is a species of vesper bat.
This article details the geographical distribution of Russian speakers.
Afghanistan is a landlocked mountainous country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Geography of Asia reviews geographical concepts of classifying Asia, the central and eastern part of Eurasia, comprising approximately fifty countries.
Europe is traditionally defined as one of seven continents.
Geographically, Iran is located in West Asia and borders the Caspian Sea, Persian Gulf, and Gulf of Oman.
Kazakhstan is located in Central Asia and Eastern Europe at.
Kyrgyzstan is a landlocked nation in Central Asia, west of the People's Republic of China.
Tajikistan is nestled between Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan to the north and west, China to the east, and Afghanistan to the south.
Turkmenistan is a landlocked country in Central Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea to the west, Iran and Afghanistan to the south, Uzbekistan to the north-east, and Kazakhstan to the north-west.
Uzbekistan is a country of Central Asia, located north of Turkmenistan and Afghanistan.
Geok Tepe, Gökdepe or Gokdepe is a former fortress of the Turkmens, in Turkmenistan, in the oasis of Ahal, on the Transcaspian railway, 28 miles north-west of Ashgabat.
George Bermann is an American lawyer and scholar of international law.
George Joseph (c. 1951 – June 1, 2017) was an Indian career diplomat who served as India's Ambassador to Turkmenistan from 1997 to 2001, Ambassador to Qatar from October 2005 to January 2009 and Ambassador to Bahrain from January 2009 until October 2010.
George Soros, Hon (Soros György,; born György Schwartz; August 12, 1930) is a Hungarian-American investor, business magnate, philanthropist, political activist and author.
Georgiy Ruslanovich Gongadze (Георгій Русланович Ґонґадзе; გიორგი ღონღაძე; 21 May 1969 – 17 September 2000) was a Georgian politician and Ukrainian journalist and film director who was kidnapped and murdered in 2000.
Central Asia has long been a geostrategic location because of its proximity to the interests of several great powers and regional powers.
A gerbil is a small mammal of the subfamily Gerbillinae in the order Rodentia.
Ghorban Dordi Tourani (1952 – 22 November 2005), also called Ghorban Tori (قربان دردى تورانى in Persian), was an Iranian convert to Christianity and a lay-minister.
Ghormach (غورماچ ولسوالۍ) is a district situated in the northwest of Faryab Province of Afghanistan.
Ghost Train to the Eastern Star is a 2008 train travel book by Paul Theroux.
Shah Abdullah alias Shah Ghulam Ali Dehlavi (1743–1824, Urdu) was a very prominent Sufi Shaykh in Delhi during early 19th century.
Sardar Ghulam Muhammad Khan Tarzi (born Kandahar, April 30, 1830 – 1900/1901)http://www.royalark.net/Afghanistan/tarzi.htm Royal Ark son of Sardar Rahim Dil Khan (and grandson of Sardar Painda Khan Mohammadizi) was a ruler of Kandahar and Baluchistan.
The GIDS Uqab (lit. GIDS Eagle) is a tactical unmanned reconnaissance aerial vehicle built and developed by the Global Industrial Defence Solutions (GIDS) for the joint drone program of the Pakistan Navy and Pakistan Army.
The Global 200 is the list of ecoregions identified by WWF, the global conservation organization, as priorities for conservation.
The Global War on Terrorism Expeditionary Medal (GWOT-EM) is a United States Armed Forces award created by George W. Bush on 12 March 2003, through Executive Order 13289.
Global Witness is an international NGO established in 1993 that works to break the links between natural resource exploitation, conflict, poverty, corruption, and human rights abuses worldwide.
Gloydius is a genus of venomous pitvipers endemic to Asia, also known as Asian moccasins or Asian ground pit vipers.
Gloydius halys is a venomous pitviper species found within a wide range that stretches across Asia, from Russia, east of the Urals, eastwards through China.
Gloydius intermedius is a venomous pitviper species endemic to northern Asia.
Gnorimoschema nordlandicolella is a moth in the family Gelechiidae.
Goçguly Hangulyýewiç Goçgulyýew (born 26 May 1977) is a retired Turkmenistani footballer, and current assistant coach of the Altyn Asyr FK.
The goitered or black-tailed gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa) is a gazelle found in Georgia, Azerbaijan, Iran, parts of Iraq and Pakistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, India, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan and in northwest China and Mongolia.
Golden Age Lake known as Altyn Asyr locally, is the name of a man made lake under construction in the Karashor depression in the Karakum Desert of Turkmenistan.
Goniographa marcida is a moth of the Noctuidae family.
Gonur Tepe is an archaeological site located about 60 km north of Mary (ancient Merv), Turkmenistan consisting of a large early Bronze Age settlement.
The goose step is a special marching step performed on formal military parades and other ceremonies.
GOST (Russian: ГОСТ) refers to a set of technical standards maintained by the Euro-Asian Council for Standardization, Metrology and Certification (EASC), a regional standards organization operating under the auspices of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS).
GOST 7.67 or ISO 3166-88 is GOST standard for country codes.
The Gowurdak mine is a large salt mine located in eastern Turkmenistan in Lebap Province, close to Magdanly.
Gozel Muradovna Nuraliyeva (Гозель Мурадовна Нуралиева) (Nuralyýewa Gözel) (born 1954) is a Turkmenistani politician.
Gracillaria loriolella is a moth of the Gracillariidae family.
The Grand Turkmen Hotel is a five-star hotel in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan.
Graphoderus bilineatus is a species of beetle in family Dytiscidae.
Gratiana was an ancient city and bishopric in Roman Africa, which remains a latin catholic titular see.
The Great Balkhan mouse-like hamster (Calomyscus mystax) is a species of rodent in the family Calomyscidae.
The great bustard (Otis tarda) is a bird in the bustard family, the only member of the genus Otis.
The great gerbil (Rhombomys opimus) is a large gerbil found throughout much of Central Asia.
The great jerboa (Allactaga major) is a species of rodent in the family Dipodidae.
The great tit (Parus major) is a passerine bird in the tit family Paridae.
Greater Iran (ایران بزرگ) is a term used to refer to the regions of the Caucasus, West Asia, Central Asia, and parts of South Asia that have significant Iranian cultural influence due to having been either long historically ruled by the various imperial dynasties of Persian Empire (such as those of the Medes, Achaemenids, Parthians, Sassanians, Samanids, Safavids, and Afsharids and the Qajars), having considerable aspects of Persian culture due to extensive contact with the various imperial dynasties of Iran (e.g., those regions and peoples in the North Caucasus that were not under direct Iranian rule), or are simply nowadays still inhabited by a significant amount of Iranic peoples who patronize their respective cultures (as it goes for the western parts of South Asia, Bahrain and Tajikistan).
Khorasan (Middle Persian: Xwarāsān; خراسان Xorāsān), sometimes called Greater Khorasan, is a historical region lying in northeast of Greater Persia, including part of Central Asia and Afghanistan.
Greek Muslims, also known as Greek-speaking Muslims, are Muslims of Greek ethnic origin whose adoption of Islam (and often the Turkish language and identity) dates to the period of Ottoman rule in the southern Balkans.
Gregorempista is a monotypic snout moth genus described by Rolf-Ulrich Roesler in 1969.
The grey hypocolius or simply hypocolius (Hypocolius ampelinus) is a small passerine bird species.
The grey-necked bunting (Emberiza buchanani), sometimes referred to as grey-hooded bunting (a name also in use for chestnut-eared bunting) is a species of bird in the Emberizidae family.
GSM-R, Global System for Mobile Communications – Railway or GSM-Railway is an international wireless communications standard for railway communication and applications.
Guam competed at the 2017 Asian Indoor and Martial Arts Games held in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan from September 17 to 27.
The Guam national football team is the national association football team for the United States territory of Guam and is controlled by the Guam Football Association.
Guards units are elite units and formations in the armed forces of the former Soviet Union and currently in the armed forces of Belarus and Russia.
Gubadag is a city and capital of Gubadag District in the Daşoguz Province of Turkmenistan.
Gubadag District is a district of Daşoguz Province in Turkmenistan.
The term Gujarati Muslims (گجراتی مسلمان) is usually used to signify an Indian Muslim from the state of Gujarat in North-western coast of India.
Gujurly Nesil education center - privately owned institution providing short courses on languages, mathematics and computer skills.
Gulanly is a town and capital of Oguzhan District in the Mary Province of Turkmenistan.
Gulran District is situated in northwestern part of Herat province, Afghanistan and borders Iran to the west, Turkmenistan to the north, Kushk District to the east, and Zinda Jan District and Kohsan District to the south.
Gumdag (formerly Kum-Dag) is a city in south-western Turkmenistan in Balkan Province.
Gurbangeldi Batyrow (born 28 July 1988) is a Turkmenistan footballer currently playing for HTTU Asgabat.
Gurbanguly Mälikgulyýewiç Berdimuhamedow (born June 29, 1957) IPA:, is a Turkmen politician who has served as the President of Turkmenistan since February 2007.
The Gurbanguly Hajji Mosque (Gurbanguly Hajy metjidi) is a mosque in Mary, Turkmenistan.
Gurbannazar Aşirow (born 1974 in Ashgabat) is a Turkmen politician.
Gurbansoltan Eje ("Mother of Gurbansoltan"; born 1913 in Gypjak, Turkmenistan; died 5 or 6 October 1948 in Aşgabat during the 1948 Ashgabat earthquake) was the mother of the first post-Soviet president Saparmurat Niyazov ("Türkmenbaşy").
Gurbansoltan Eje District (formerly Yilanly District) is a district of Daşoguz Province in Turkmenistan.
Gurlen or Gurlan (Gurlan, Гурлан, گۇرلەن; Гурлен) is a town and seat of Gurlen District in Xorazm Region in Uzbekistan.
Guryhowdan Sanctuary is a sanctuary (zakaznik) of Turkmenistan.
Gustav Krist (29 July 1894 – 1937) was an Austrian adventurer, prisoner-of-war, carpet-dealer and author.
Guvanch Abylov (Guwanç Abylow; born 30 March 1988) is a Turkmen footballer playing for FC Hazyna of the Ýokary Liga as a midfielder.
Guwanç Hangeldiýew (born August 9, 1987) is a Turkmen footballer (midfielder) playing currently for HTTU Aşgabat.
Guwanç Nurmuhammedov (also spelled Guvanch; born November 17, 1976) is a male judoku from Turkmenistan.
Guwançmuhammet Öwekow (born February 2, 1981 in Aşgabat, Turkmenistan) is a former professional Turkmen football player.
Gymnospermium albertii (syn. Leontice alberti)Matthew, Brian.
Gypjak (also known as Kipchak) is a small village about 10 kilometers away from the Turkmen capital of Aşgabat.
Gyzyl Daýhan is a town in eastern Turkmenistan near the border with Afghanistan.
Gyzyletrek (Etrek, also Bayat-Khadzhi, Kyzyl-Atrek) is a town in western Turkmenistan.
Gyzylgaya is a town in western Turkmenistan.
Gyzyljar Sanctuary is a sanctuary (zakaznik) of Turkmenistan.
Hadena drenowskii is a species of moth of the family Noctuidae.
Hadena gueneei is a species of moth of the family Noctuidae.
Hadena magnolii is a species of moth of the family Noctuidae.
Hadena persimilis is a species of moth of the Noctuidae family.
Hadena silenes is a species of moth of the family Noctuidae.
Haemaphysalis pospelovashtromae, "Pospelova-Shtrom’s USSR mountain haemaphysalid," is an ixodid tick native to Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, and the Republic of Georgia that parasitizes cattle and goats.
Hairatan is a border town and a port in the north of Balkh province, Afghanistan.
Haji Alakbar Mosque (Hacı Ələkbər məscidi) is an Azerbaijani mosque located in Fizuli, Karabakh region of Azerbaijan southwest of capital Baku but is currently under control of Armenian forces since the occupation of Fizuli in 1993.
Hajibala Ibrahim oglu Abutalybov (Hacıbala İbrahim oğlu Abutalıbov, born May 13, 1944) is a Turkmen Azerbaijani politician and the current Mayor of Baku, the capital of Azerbaijan.
Halaç is a town and capital of Halaç District in the Lebap Province of Turkmenistan.
Halaç District is a district of Lebap Province in Turkmenistan.
Halk Bank ("People's Bank"), or Halkbank, is a Turkmen state-owned bank, headquartered in Ashgabat.
Halk Hakydasy Memorial Complex (People's memory) is a memorial complex to the honor of those killed in battle Geok Tepe, World War II, and the commemoration of the victims of the 1948 Ashgabat earthquake.
Halostachys is a genus of flowering plants in the plant family Amaranthaceae, containing a single species, Halostachys belangeriana.
Haloterrigena turkmenica is an aerobic chemo organotrophic archeon originally found in Turkish salt lakes.
Halothamnus auriculus is a species of the plant genus Halothamnus, that belongs to the subfamily Salsoloideae of the family Amaranthaceae, (formerly Chenopodiaceae).
Halothamnus glaucus is a species of the plant genus Halothamnus, that belongs to the subfamily Salsoloideae of the family Amaranthaceae, (formerly Chenopodiaceae).
Halothamnus iliensis is a species of the plant genus Halothamnus, that belongs to the subfamily Salsoloideae of the family Amaranthaceae, (formerly Chenopodiaceae).
Halothamnus subaphyllus is a species of the plant genus Halothamnus, that belongs to the subfamily Salsoloideae within the family Amaranthaceae, (formerly Chenopodiaceae).
The saxaul, black saxaul, sometimes sacsaoul or saksaul (saksaul, which is from seksevil, scientific name Haloxylon ammodendron), is a plant belonging to the Amaranthaceae.
Haloxylon persicum, the white saxaul, is a small tree belonging to the family Amaranthaceae.
Hamza Kashgari Mohamad Najeeb (often Hamza Kashgari, حمزة كاشغري; born 1989) is a Saudi poet and a former columnist for the Saudi daily newspaper Al-Bilad.
Han Ahmedowiç Ahmedow (in Russian: Хан Ахмедов, Khan Akhmedovich Akhmedov, June 16, 1936 – December 6, 2006) was Prime Minister of Turkmenistan from December 1989 to May 1992.
The Hanafi (حنفي) school is one of the four religious Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh).
Handszar Odeev (born 27 January 1972) is a Turkmen chess grandmaster (2004).
Hanhowuz, also known as Khauz-Khan is a reservoir in Ahal Province of southeastern Turkmenistan.
Johannes (Hans) Blokland (born 5 March 1943 in Oegstgeest, South Holland) is a former Dutch politician and former Member of the European Parliament.
Haplogroup F, also known as F-M89 and previously as Haplogroup FT is a very common Y-chromosome haplogroup.
Haplogroup P also known as P-P295 and K2b2 is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup in human genetics.
Haplogroup Q or Q-M242 is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. It has one primary subclade, Haplogroup Q1 (L232/S432), which includes numerous subclades that have been sampled and identified in males among modern populations. Q-M242 is the predominant Y-DNA haplogroup among Native Americans and several peoples of Central Asia and Northern Siberia. It is also the predominant Y-DNA of the Akha tribe in northern Thailand and the Dayak people of Indonesia.
Haplogroup R is a widely distributed human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.
Haplogroup U is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup (mtDNA).
Hardeep Singh (born 20 December 1990) is a male Greco-Roman wrestler from India.
The Heray Rud River (Dari: هری رود Hari Rūd, Heray Rūd, i.e. "Herat River") is a river flowing from the mountains of central Afghanistan to Turkmenistan, where it disappears in the Kara-Kum desert forming the Tejend oasis.
Harpactea is a genus of spiders from the family Dysderidae, with more than 150 described species.
Hassan Taftian (حسن تفتیان; born 4 May 1993 in Torbat-e Heydarieh) is an Iranian sprinter.
Hatice Kumbaraci Gürsöz (born 1945) is a Turkish painter.
Havar (هاور, also Romanized as Hāvar and, on Google Earth, as Haver) is a village in Almeh Rural District, Samalqan District, Maneh and Samalqan County, North Khorasan Province, Iran.
Hazar Nature Reserve is a nature reserve (zapovednik) of Turkmenistan.
Hazar (formerly known as Çeleken, also written Cheleken; Челекен; Persian: Chaharken چهارکن) is a city located on the Cheleken Peninsula of the Caspian Sea.
Hazyna Sport Club (Hazyna sport kluby) was a Turkmenistan professional football club based in Ashgabat, formerly of the Ýokary Liga.
Hockey Club Bagtyyarlyk (Багтыярлык, Bagtyýarlyk, Happiness), also known as Burgut, is a Turkmenian professional ice hockey team based in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan.
In the post-Soviet era, reduced funding has put the health system in poor condition.
This article provides a brief overview of the health systems of the world, sorted by continent.
For health issues in Iran see Health in Iran. Healthcare in Iran is based on three pillars: the public-governmental system, the private sector, and NGOs.
The heating value (or energy value or calorific value) of a substance, usually a fuel or food (see food energy), is the amount of heat released during the combustion of a specified amount of it.
Hebdomochondra syrticola is a species of moth of the Noctuidae family.
Hecatera fixseni is a species of moth of the Noctuidae family.
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
The Helsinki Foundation for Human Rights is the name of non-governmental organizations in a number of countries established under the now defunct International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights.
Hemaris syra (broad-bordered bee hawkmoth) is a moth of the family Sphingidae.
Hemaýat Kömekow (born 3 May 1991) is a Turkmenistan footballer currently playing for HTTU Asgabat.
Hemipepsis is a genus of large pepsine spider wasps found throughout the tropics.
Hemorrhois ravergieri, commonly called the spotted whip snake, is a species of snake found in Western Asia, Central Asia, and South-Central Asia.
Henrardia is a genus of Asian plants in the grass family.
The Hephthalites (or Ephthalites) were a people of Central Asia who were militarily important circa 450–560.
Herat (هرات,Harât,Herât; هرات; Ἀλεξάνδρεια ἡ ἐν Ἀρίοις, Alexándreia hē en Aríois; Alexandria Ariorum) is the third-largest city of Afghanistan.
Herat (persian/Dari: هرات) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, located in the western part of the country.
Herceg Novi (Montenegrin Cyrillic: Херцег Нови) is a coastal town in Montenegro located at the entrance to the Bay of Kotor and at the foot of Mount Orjen.
The title of Hero is presented by various governments in recognition of acts of self-sacrifice to the state, and great achievements in combat or labor.
The title Hero of Turkmenistan is a state award of Turkmenistan.
Heteroderis is a genus of flowering plants in the dandelion family.
Heterogynaidae is a minor family (only eight described species in a single genus, Heterogyna) of small spheciform wasps occurring in Madagascar, Botswana, Turkmenistan, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and the Eastern Mediterranean area.
Heteropalpia profesta is a moth of the Noctuidae family.
The Himalayan rubythroat (Calliope pectoralis) is a species of passerine bird in the family Muscicapidae.
Hindaun is a Block in Karauli district of the Indian state of Rajasthan in Northern India.
Hipparchia is a genus of butterflies within the family Nymphalidae.
Jewish population centers have shifted tremendously over time, due to the constant streams of Jewish refugees created by expulsions, persecution, and officially sanctioned killing of Jews in various places at various times.
The history of art focuses on objects made by humans in visual form for aesthetic purposes.
Batumi (ბათუმი) is the capital city of Adjara, an autonomous republic in southwest Georgia, located on the eastern coast of the Black Sea.
The history of Buddhism spans from the 5th century BCE to the present.
The history of Central Asia concerns the history of the various peoples that have inhabited Central Asia.
The history of Iran, commonly also known as Persia in the Western world, is intertwined with the history of a larger region, also to an extent known as Greater Iran, comprising the area from Anatolia, the Bosphorus, and Egypt in the west to the borders of Ancient India and the Syr Darya in the east, and from the Caucasus and the Eurasian Steppe in the north to the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman in the south.
Kazakhstan, the largest country of the Eurasian Steppe, has been a historical "crossroads" and home to numerous different peoples, states and empires throughout history.
The history of Nishapur begins with the city's founding during the Sasanian dynasty (and given the title of New Shapur); the city is located in the eastern province of Khorasan and served as the seat of the governor and commander in chief of the province.
The history of Peshawar, a region of modern-day Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, covers thousands of years.
In Russia, the largest country in the world, its geography of N.-S. rivers and E.-W. commerce made it very suited to develop railroads as its basic mode of transportation.
In 1855 Alexander II began his reign as Tsar of Russia, and presided over a period of political and social reform, notably the emancipation of serfs in 1861 and the lifting of censorship.
The history of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union is generally conceived as also covering that of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party from which it evolved.
The history of the Eastern Orthodox Church is traced back to Jesus Christ and the Apostles.
The history of the India national football team dates back to the 1930s.
Jews in the Russian Empire have historically constituted a large religious diaspora; the vast territories of the Russian Empire at one time hosted the largest population of Jews in the world.
The Kurds (Kurdish: کورد, Kurd), also the Kurdish people (Kurdish: گەلی کورد, Gelê Kurd), are a Northwestern Iranic ethnic group in the Middle East.
The Latin script is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world.
Uyghur nationalist historians in the People's Republic of China posit that the Uyghur people is millennia-old, and can be divided into four distinct phases: Pre-Imperial (300 BC – AD 630), Imperial (AD 630–840), Idiqut (AD 840–1200), and Mongol (AD 1209–1600), with perhaps a fifth modern phase running from the death of the Silk Road in AD 1600 until the present.
The history of Turkmenistan is largely shrouded in mystery, its past since the arrival of Indo-European Iranian tribes around 2000 BC is often the starting point of the area's discernible history.
This is a summary history of diplomatic relations of the United States listed by country.
Hizb ut-Tahrir (حزب التحرير Ḥizb at-Taḥrīr; Party of Liberation) is an international, pan-Islamist political organization, which describes its ideology as Islam, and its aim as the re-establishment of the Islamic Khilafah (Caliphate) or Islamic state to resume the Islamic way of life.
Hizb ut-Tahrir (حزب التحرير Ḥizb at-Taḥrīr; Party of Liberation, often abbreviated as HT) is a pan-Islamist and fundamentalist group seeking to re-establish "the Islamic Khilafah (Caliphate)" as an Islamic "superstate" where Muslim-majority countries are unifiedAhmed & Stuart, ''Hizb Ut-Tahrir'', 2009: p.3 and ruled under Islamic Shariah law, and which eventually expands globally to include non-Muslim states.
Hodgesiella quagella is a moth of the family Cosmopterigidae described by Hugo Theodor Christoph in 1887.
Hojaburjybelent Sanctuary is a sanctuary (zakaznik) of Turkmenistan.
Hojagarawul Sanctuary is a sanctuary (zakaznik) of Turkmenistan.
Hojambaz or Hodzhambas is a town and capital of Hojambaz District in the Lebap Province of Turkmenistan.
Hojambaz District is a district of Lebap Province in Turkmenistan.
Hojamuhammet Toychyyev (born) is a Turkmenistan male weightlifter, competing in the +105 kg category and representing Turkmenistan at international competitions.
Hojapil Sanctuary is a sanctuary (zakaznik) of Turkmenistan.
Holcocerus gloriosus is a species of moth of the Cossidae family.
Holcocerus holosericeus is a species of moth of the Cossidae family.
Holcocerus nobilis is a moth in the Cossidae family.
Holcocerus tancrei is a moth in the Cossidae family.
Holocacista rivillei is a species of moth of the family Heliozelidae.
Holoterpna diagrapharia is a moth of the family Geometridae.
The honey badger (Mellivora capensis), also known as the ratel, is the only species in the mustelid subfamily Mellivorinae and its only genus Mellivora.
This is a list of the Hong Kong national football team results from 2000 to 2009.
Hoplopholcus forskali is a cellar spider species found from Eastern Europe to Turkmenistan.
Hornets (insects in the genera Vespa and Provespa) are the largest of the eusocial wasps, and are similar in appearance to their close relatives yellowjackets.
Horse burial is the practice of burying a horse as part of the ritual of human burial, and is found among many Indo-European peoples and others, including Chinese and Turkic peoples.
The Hotak dynasty (د هوتکيانو ټولواکمني) was an Afghan monarchy of the Ghilji Pashtuns, established in April 1709 by Mirwais Hotak after leading a successful revolution against their declining Persian Safavid overlords in the region of Loy Kandahar ("Greater Kandahar") in what is now southern Afghanistan.
HTTU Stadium (Halkara turkmen-turk uniwersiteti stadiony) is a stadium in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan.
The topic of Human Rights in Asia is one that encompasses an immense number of states, international governmental organizations, and non-governmental organizations.
As a successor to the Soviet Union the Russian Federation remains bound by such human rights instruments, adopted by the USSR, as the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (fully).
Turkmenistan's human rights record has been heavily criticized by various countries and scholars worldwide.
Human trafficking is the trade of humans for the purpose of forced labour, sexual slavery, or commercial sexual exploitation for the trafficker or others.
The Kyrgyz Republic is a source, transit, and to a lesser extent a destination country for men and women trafficked from Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan for purposes of forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation.
Turkey is a top destination for victims of human trafficking, according to a report produced by the UNDOC.
Turkmenistan is a source country for women subjected to human trafficking, specifically forced prostitution and for men in forced labor.
Husein Huseinov (born 22 September 1951 in Ashgabat) is a Turkmen painter and art director in films.
Hyacinthus is a small genus of bulbous, fragrant flowering plants in the family Asparagaceae, subfamily Scilloideae.
A hybrid camel is a hybrid between a Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) and dromedary (Camelus dromedarius).
Hyles apocyni is a moth of the family Sphingidae.
Hyles centralasiae is a moth of the family Sphingidae.
Hyles hippophaes (seathorn hawk-moth) is a species of moth in the family Sphingidae.
Hyles robertsi (spurge hawkmoth) is a moth of the family Sphingidae.
Hyles siehei is a moth of the family Sphingidae.
Hyles zygophylli (bean-caper hawkmoth) is a moth of the family Sphingidae.
Hymenocrater is a genus of plants from the mint family.
Hypermnestra helios is a species of swallowtail butterfly belonging to the Parnassinae family and is the sole member of the genus Hypermnestra.
Hypotia cribellalis is a species of snout moth in the genus Hypotia.
Hypotia speciosalis is a species of snout moth in the genus Hypotia.
Ian Alexander Hill is a New Zealand diplomat with the (MFAT).
An IATA airport code, also known as an IATA location identifier, IATA station code or simply a location identifier, is a three-letter code designating many airports around the world, defined by the International Air Transport Association (IATA).
Işanguly Nuryýew (often referred to in the Western media as: Ишангулы Нурыев Ishanguly Nuryiev) (born 1953 in Balkanabat) is the Deputy Oil and Gas Industry and Natural Resources Minister of Turkmenistan.
Ḥájí Mírzá Muḥammad-Taqí (died 1917), known as Ibn-i-Abhar (ابن ابهر), was an eminent follower of Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith.
The ICAO airport code or location indicator is a four-letter code designating aerodromes around the world.
Ice hockey is a minor sport in Turkmenistan.
An ice palace or ice castle is a castle-like structure made of blocks of ice.
Idrissia is a primitive genus of the order Stomiiformes, and is an extinct relative of marine hatchetfish and viperfish.
Igor Kislov (born 19 July 1966 in Donetsk) is a Ukraine-born former Turkmenistani international footballer, who played as a forward.
Igor Viktorovich Makarov is a Russian businessman.
Igor Pirekeyev (Игорь Пирекеев; born May 16, 1971 in Ashgabat, Turkmen SSR) is a former Turkmenistani and current Kazakh shooter and two-time gold medalist at the Asian Games.
Ijaz Ahmed (b: 26 April 1981) Official Asian Games website.
Ilýa Tamurkin (born 9 May 1989) is a Turkmenistani footballer who plays for Merw FK in the Ýokary Liga and the Turkmenistan national football team, as a midfielder.
The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate (ایلخانان, Ilxānān; Хүлэгийн улс, Hu’legīn Uls), was established as a khanate that formed the southwestern sector of the Mongol Empire, ruled by the Mongol House of Hulagu.
Ilyas Malayev (January 12, 1936 – May 2, 2008) (Ильяс Малаев, Илёс Маллаев) was an Uzbekistani musician and poet.
The impact of the Arab Spring concerns protests or by the way attempts to organize growing protest movements that were inspired by or similar to the Arab Spring in the Arab-majority states of North Africa and the Middle East, according to commentators, organisers, and critics.
Imperium, published in 1993, is a book by Polish journalist Ryszard Kapuściński about his travels to the Soviet Union, and more broadly about his personal relationship with that country.
Independence Day of Turkmenistan (Garaşsyzlyk baýramy, Гарашсызлык бaйрaмы.) is the main state holiday in Turkmenistan.
The "Independence Monument" is a monument located in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan.
An independence referendum is a type of referendum in which the citizens of a territory decide whether the territory should become an independent sovereign state.
Independence Square is a square in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan.
Independent Olympic Athletes (IOA) competed under the IOA flag at the 2017 Asian Indoor and Martial Arts Games which was held in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan from September 17 to 27.
The list of Turkmenistan-related articles is below.
India competed at the 2017 Asian Indoor and Martial Arts Games held in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan from September 16 to 27.
In June 2011, the Election Commission of India (ECI), established the India International Institute of Democracy and Election Management (IIIDEM) to advance its professional competence in election management, promote peoples participation, contribute to developing stronger democratic institutions and support the efforts of ECI in carrying out its mandate and functions.
The following represents the recent as well as the past results of the India national football team.
India–Iran relations refers to the bilateral relations between the countries India and Iran.
Indian–Kazakhstani relations are foreign relations between India and Kazakhstan.
Indo-Russian relations (Российско-индийские отношения भारत-रूस सम्बन्ध) refer to the bilateral relations between the Republic of India and the Russian Federation.
The bilateral relations between the Republic of India and the Republic of Tajikistan have developed considerably owing to both nations' co-operation on security and strategic issues.
India–Turkmenistan relations refers to the bilateral relationship between India and Turkmenistan.
Indo-Aryan migration models discuss scenarios around the theory of an origin from outside South Asia of Indo-Aryan peoples, an ascribed ethnolinguistic group that spoke Indo-Aryan languages, the predominant languages of North India.
Indo-European migrations were the migrations of pastoral peoples speaking the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE), who departed from the Yamnaya and related cultures in the Pontic–Caspian steppe, starting at.
Indonesia participated in the 2017 Asian Indoor and Martial Arts Games in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan on 17–27 September 2017.
The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC), or Harappan Civilisation, was a Bronze Age civilisation (5500–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of South Asia, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India.
Infurcitinea amseli is a moth of the Tineidae family.
Ingush (ГӀалгӀай,, pronounced) is a Northeast Caucasian language spoken by about 500,000 people, known as the Ingush, across a region covering the Russian republics of Ingushetia and Chechnya.
Inner Asia refers to regions within East Asia and North Asia that are today part of western China, Mongolia and eastern Russia.
INOGATE was an international energy co-operation programme between the European Union (EU), the littoral states of the Black and Caspian seas and their neighbouring countries.
Inspiration Square (Ylham seýilgähi) is a public park at the center of Ashgabat in Turkmenistan.
The Institute of International Relations (Russian: Институт международных отношений, Turkmen: Halkara Gatnaşyklary Instituty) of Turkmenistan is that country's "national school of diplomacy."Institute of International Relations of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Turkmenistan (brochure) It was formally created on March 20, 2008, by decree of Turkmenistan's President Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow.
Intamin Worldwide is a designing and manufacturing company in Wollerau, Switzerland.
The Intergovernmental Agreement on Dry Ports is a 2013 United Nations treaty designed to promote the cooperation of the development of dry ports in the Asia-Pacific region.
An interior ministry (sometimes ministry of internal affairs or ministry of home affairs) is a government ministry typically responsible for policing, emergency management, national security, registration, supervision of local governments, conduct of elections, public administration and immigration matters.
The Nice Classification, established by the Nice Agreement (1957), is a system of classifying goods and services for the purpose of registering trademarks.
The Statute of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) defines eight areas from which candidate governments for election to the IAEA Board of Governors are chosen.
The Afghanistan Compact was the outcome of the London Conference on Afghanistan in 2006.
On March 31, 2009 an International Conference on Afghanistan (subtitled: The Afghanistan Conference 2009: A Comprehensive Strategy in a Regional Context) was held in the World Forum Convention Center in The Hague where members of the international community discussed the future of Afghanistan.
The International Cotton Advisory Committee (ICAC) is an association of governments of cotton producing, consuming and trading countries which acts as the international commodity body for cotton and cotton textiles.
The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) is a multilateral treaty adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 16 December 1966, and came in force from 3 January 1976.
The International Equestrian Sports Complex (Halkara atçylyk sport toplumy) is the largest horse racing hippodrome in Turkmenistan.
Figure skating is a sport with participants across the world.
The International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF; Fédération internationale de hockey sur glace; Internationale Eishockey-Föderation) is a worldwide governing body for ice hockey and in-line hockey.
An International Motor Insurance Card System is an arrangement between authorities and insurance organizations of multiple states to ensure that victims of road traffic accidents do not suffer from the fact that injuries or damage sustained by them were caused by a visiting motorist rather than a motorist resident in the same country.
The International North–South Transport Corridor (INSTC) is a 7,200-km-long multi-mode network of ship, rail, and road route for moving freight between India, Iran, Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Russia, Central Asia and Europe.
International Oil and Gas University (Halkara nebit we gaz uniwersitety) is a university located in Ashgabat, the main university of the Turkmenistan oil and gas community.
The International Organization of Turkic Culture (Turkish: Uluslararası Türk Kültürü Teşkilatı, Türksoy) is an international cultural organization of countries with Turkic populations, speaking languages belonging to the Turkic language family.
International Passenger Bus Terminal of Ashgabat (Aşgabat şäherindäki halkara ýolagçy awtomenzili), is the main bus station of Ashgabat, Turkmenistan.
International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS) are a set of accounting standards issued by the IPSAS Board for use by public sector entities around the world in the preparation of financial statements.
These are the international rankings of Turkmenistan.
Reactions to the 2009 Iranian presidential election varied across the world.
International Turkmen-Turkish University (Halkara Türkmen-Türk uniwersiteti, Uluslararası Türkmen-Türk Üniversitesi, abbreviated as ITTU) is a university located in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan.
The International University for Humanities and Development (Turkmen: Halkara Ynsanperwer Ylymlary we Ösüş Uniwersiteti) was opened in September 2014 as an English-medium institution of higher education in Turkmenistan.
The Interstate Aviation Committee (IAC; Межгосударственный авиационный комитет, МАК) is a supervising body overseeing the use and management of civil aviation in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS).
The Intervision Song Contest (ISC) is an international song contest consisting of both Post-Soviet states and members of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation.
The Iomud is a breed of light horse from Turkmenistan.
The Iowa International Center (previously known as the Iowa Council for International Understanding) is a non-profit organization based in Des Moines, Iowa.
The IPS/UPS is a wide area synchronous transmission grid of some CIS countries with a common mode of operation and centralized supervisory control.
Irakli Alasania (ირაკლი ალასანია) (born 21 December 1973) is a Georgian politician, soldier and former diplomat who served as the Minister of Defense of Georgia from 2012 to 2014.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iran participated at the 2017 Asian Indoor and Martial Arts Games in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan from 17 to 27 September 2017.
Iran Khodro (ایرانخودرو), branded as IKCO, is an Iranian multinational automaker headquartered in Tehran. The company's original name was Iran National (ایران ناسیونال). IKCO was founded in 1962 and it produced 688,000 passenger cars in 2009. IKCO manufactures vehicles, including Samand, Peugeot and Renault cars, and trucks, minibuses and buses.
The following is a list of Iran national football team results in its official international matches.
Iran Scout Organization (Persian: سازمان پیشاهنگی ایران) was founded in 1925 under the rule of Reza Shah Pahlavi.
Iran–Kazakh relations are the foreign relations and diplomatic ties between Iran and Kazakhstan.
Relations between the Grand Duchy of Moscow and the Persian Empire (Iran), officially commenced in 1521, with the Safavids in power.
The Iran–Turkmenistan Friendship Dam (or Doosti Reservoir Dam) is a dam on the Hariroud River, which forms part of the international boundary between Iran and Turkmenistan.
Iran and Turkmenistan share a common border of more than 1000 km.
The term Iranian Intermezzo represents a period in history which saw the rise of various native Iranian Muslim dynasties in the Iranian plateau.
Iranian Kazakhs live mainly in the Golestān Province in northern Iran.
The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages in the Indo-European language family.
The Iranian peoples, or Iranic peoples, are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of the Iranian languages.
The Iranian Plateau or the Persian Plateau is a geological formation in Western Asia and Central Asia.
Presidential elections were held in Iran on 19 May 2017, the twelfth such election in Iran.
The Irano-Anatolian region is a biodiversity hotspot designated by Conservation International, extending across portions of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iraq, Iran, Turkey, and Turkmenistan.
Iraq competed at the 2017 Asian Indoor and Martial Arts Games in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan from September 17 to 27.
The Iraqi Clubs in the AFC Champions League and AFC Cup.
The Iraqi Turkmens (also spelled Turcomans, Turkomens, and Turkmans; Irak Türkmenleri), also referred to as Iraqi Turks, or Turks of Iraq (تركمان العراق, Irak Türkleri), are Iraqi citizens of Turkic origin who mostly adhere to a Turkish heritage and identity.
Irfan Fandi Ahmad (born August 13, 1997) is a Singaporean professional footballer who can play as a defender, midfielder or forward for S.League club Young Lions and the Singapore national team.