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Ural Mountains

Index Ural Mountains

The Ural Mountains (p), or simply the Urals, are a mountain range that runs approximately from north to south through western Russia, from the coast of the Arctic Ocean to the Ural River and northwestern Kazakhstan. [1]

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Alexis Johnson, Uchaly (town), Udea uralica, Udmurtia, Ufa, Ufa River, Ugric languages, Ukrainian War of Independence, Ukrainians in Russia, Ukrainians in Siberia, Ulmus glabra, Ulmus laciniata, Ulmus laevis, Ural, Ural (region), Ural Automotive Plant, Ural Mountains in Nazi planning, Ural Ocean, Ural River, Ural State Mining University, Ural State Technical University, Ural-batyr, Ural-Siberian method, Uralian orogeny, Uralic languages, Uralmash, Urals montane tundra and taiga, Urals oil, Uralsky Sledopyt, Ursus ingressus, Usa River (Komi Republic), Ust-Shchuger, Uy River (Tobol basin), Uzbek Khanate, Vanadinite, Variscan orogeny, Vasily Zaytsev, Vassili Samarsky-Bykhovets, Vasyl Stus, Vasyl Sukhomlynsky, Vauquelinite, Vazif Meylanov, Veliky Novgorod, Verblyuzhka, Verkhniye Sergi, Verkhoturye, Victor Starffin, Victoria Foust, Vienna Document, Viktorin Molchanov, Vilva River, Violin Sonata No. 2 (Prokofiev), Virgin Komi Forests, Visim Nature Reserve, Vitaly Bianki, Vitaly Naumkin, Vitus Bering, Vladilen Mashkovtsev, Vladimir Kovalevsky, Vladimir Littauer, Vladimir Motyl, Volborthite, Volcanic Seven Summits, Volga Germans, Volga region, Votkinsk Machine Building Plant, Vritramimosaurus, Vyatka horse, Vychegda River, Vysokaya Mount, Walsall, Walter Ciszek, West Kazakhstan Region, West Siberian petroleum basin, West Siberian Plain, West Siberian taiga, Western capercaillie, Western Palaearctic, White wagtail, White-letter hairstreak, White-tailed eagle, Wiehen Hills, Wild horse, Wild Russia, Wildlife of Russia, With God in Russia, Wood warbler, Woodsia alpina, Woodsia ilvensis, Xavras Wyżryn, Xestia collina, Xestia kollari, Xestia tecta, Xystophora carchariella, Xystophora pulveratella, Yakov Sverdlov, Yakov Yurovsky, Yamal Railway, Yarensk, Yaroslavl, Yekaterina Larionova, Yekaterina Mikhailova-Demina, Yekaterinburg, Yekaterinburg Metro, Yellow-browed warbler, Yellow-necked mouse, Yellow-tail, Yemanzhelinsk, Yermak Timofeyevich, Yevgeni Panfilov (choreographer), Yevgeni Preobrazhensky, YIVO, Ynglinga saga, Yorgia, Yugra, Yulia Chicherina, Yulia Savicheva, Yuryuzan River, Zakamensk, Zapovednik, Zashiversk, Zaynulla Rasulev, Zbigniew Brzezinski, Zemarchus, Zerynthia polyxena, Zhiguli Hydroelectric Station, Zhuz, ZIL-E-167, Zinaida Krutikhovskaia, ZIS-5 (truck), Zygmunt Szczotkowski, 1639, 1829–51 cholera pandemic, 1905 Russian Revolution, 1959, 1959 in the Soviet Union, 1960s in France, 1st Czechoslovak Army Corps in the USSR, 2010 Russian wildfires, 2011 in Russia, 2014 Winter Olympics, 2094 Magnitka, 20th-century events, 2120 Tyumenia, 2ES10, 2nd millennium BC, 57th Rifle Division (Soviet Union), 7th Congress of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks). Expand index (1325 more) »

Abashevo culture

The Abashevo culture is a later Bronze Age (ca. 2500–1900 BCE) archaeological culture found in the valleys of the Volga and Kama River north of the Samara bend and into the southern Ural Mountains.

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Abugach

The Abugach or, to the Russians, Abugachaevtsy, were a people from the region around the Ural Mountains and believed to have been of Samoyed ancestry.

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Acarospora thamnina

Acarospora thamnina is a shiny, black tinged, variously brown squamulose crustose lichen.

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Actebia squalida

Actebia squalida is a moth of the Noctuidae family.

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Administrative divisions of Russia in 1708–1710

The administrative division reform of 1708 was carried out by Russian Tsar Peter the Great in an attempt to improve the manageability of the vast territory of Russia.

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Administrative divisions of the Novgorod Republic

The administrative division of Novgorod Republic is not definitely known; the country was divided into several tysyachas (lit. thousands) and volosts.

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Administrative divisions of the Republic of Tatarstan

This is a list of units of administrative division of the Republic of Tatarstan, a federal subject of Russia.

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Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld

Baron Nils Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld (18 November 1832, Helsinki, Finland12 August 1901, Dalbyö in Södermanland, Sweden) was a Finnish baron, geologist, mineralogist and Arctic explorer.

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Adzhigardak

Adzhigardak is the name of a mountain in south Urals near Asha (town) on the border of Chelyabinsk oblast and Bashkiria, Russia, and of a ski resort based on it.

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Aerial Forest Protection Service (Russia)

The Aerial Forest Protection Service (Авиалесоохрана, or Avialesookhrana) is a Russian government agency charged primarily with the aerial management of forest fires.

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Aeroflot

PJSC AeroflotRussian Airlines (ПАО "Аэрофло́т — Росси́йские авиали́нии"), commonly known as Aeroflot (Аэрофлот, English translation: "air fleet"), is the flag carrier and largest airline of the Russian Federation.

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Aethes atlasi

Aethes atlasi is a species of moth of the Tortricidae family.

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Aethes francillana

Aethes francillana, the long-barred yellow conch, is a moth of the family Tortricidae.

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Agapeta hamana

Agapeta hamana is a moth of the family Tortricidae.

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Age of Discovery

The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (approximately from the beginning of the 15th century until the end of the 18th century) is an informal and loosely defined term for the period in European history in which extensive overseas exploration emerged as a powerful factor in European culture and was the beginning of globalization.

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Agrochola lychnidis

Agrochola lychnidis, the beaded chestnut, is a moth of the family Noctuidae.

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Agrotis characteristica

Agrotis characteristica is a moth of the Noctuidae family.

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AH6

Asian Highway 6 (AH6) is a route in the Asian Highway Network in Asia and Europe.

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Aikinite

Aikinite is a sulfide mineral of lead, copper and bismuth with formula PbCuBiS3.

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Aili Jõgi

Aili Jõgi (née Aili Jürgenson, born 25 May 1931 in Tallinn) is an Estonian schoolgirl who on the night of 8 May 1946, together with her school friend Ageeda Paavel, blew up a Soviet War reburial monument (a wooden memorial topped with a star): the preceding monument to the Bronze Soldier in Tallinn.

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Aituaria nataliae

Aituaria nataliae is the type species of Aituaria, a genus of araneomorph spiders of the family Nesticidae.

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Ak Bars Kazan

Hockey Club Ak Bars (Ак Барс, Snow Leopard), also known as Ak Bars Kazan, is a Russian professional ice hockey team based in Kazan.

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Akhtenskite

Akhtenskite is a manganese oxide mineral with the chemical formula of MnO2 (or: ε-Mn4+O2) that was named after the Akhtensk deposit in Russia, where it was first discovered and noted in 1979.

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Akinfiy Nikitich Demidov

Akinfiy Nikitich Demidov (Акинфий Никитич Демидов) (1678 – 5 August 1745) was a Russian industrialist of the Demidov family.

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Aktobe Region

Aktobe (translit) (Aktyubinskaya oblast) is a region of Kazakhstan.

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Alapayevsk

Alapayevsk (Алапа́евск) is a town in Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia, located at the confluence of the Neyva and Alapaikha Rivers.

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Aleksandr Bartenev

Aleksandr Nikolaevich Bartenev (Александр Николаевич Бартенев; 1882 — 1946) was a Russian zoologist.

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Aleksandr Vitberg

Karl Magnus Vitberg (26 January 1787 — 24 January 1855) was a Russian Neoclassical architect of Swedish stock.

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Alexander Alexandrovich Morozov

Alexander Aleksandrovich Morozov (Oleksándr Oleksándrovych Morózov, 16 on October (29) 1904, Bezhitsa, nowadays within Bryansk – 1979) – the Soviet designer of tanks, the general – the major-engineer (1945), the doctor of technical sciences (1972), twice Hero of the Socialistic Work (1942, 1974).

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Alexander Chizhevsky

Alexander Chizhevsky Алекса́ндр Леони́дович Чиже́вский (also Aleksandr Leonidovich Tchijevsky) (7 February 1897 – 20 December 1964) was a Soviet-era interdisciplinary scientist, a biophysicist who founded "heliobiology" (study of the sun’s effect on biology) and "aero-ionization" (study of effect of ionization of air on biological entities).

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Alexander Dutov

Alexander Ilyich Dutov (1879—1921), one of the leaders of the Cossack counterrevolution in the Urals, Lieutenant General (1919).

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Alexander Fersman

Alexander Yevgenyevich Fersman (1883–1945) was a prominent Soviet Russian geochemist and mineralogist, and Academician of the Soviet Academy of Sciences (1919).

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Alexander Gorlov

Alexander M. Gorlov (March 23, 1931 – June 10, 2016) was a Russian mechanical engineer who was Professor Emeritus and Director of Hydro-Pneumatic Power Laboratory at Northeastern University in Boston, Massachusetts.

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Alexander Ivanovich Uspensky

Alexander Ivanovich Uspensky (Александр Иванович Успенский) (1902 – January 28, 1940) was a senior leader of the Cheka, the GPU and the NKVD.

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Alexander Izgoev

Alexander Solomonovich Izgoev (1872-1935) was a Russian journalist and political activist in the Kadet Party.

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Alexander Karpinsky

Alexander Petrovich Karpinsky (Алекса́ндр Петро́вич Карпи́нский; 7 January 1847 (NS) – 15 July 1936) was a prominent Russian and Soviet geologist and mineralogist, and the president of the Russian Academy of Sciences, and later Academy of Sciences of the USSR, in 1917–1936.

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Alexander Kolchak

Alexander Vasilyevich Kolchak CB (Алекса́ндр Васи́льевич Колча́к, – 7 February 1920) was an Imperial Russian admiral, military leader and polar explorer who served in the Imperial Russian Navy, who fought in the Russo-Japanese War and the First World War.

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Alexander Men

Alexander Vladimirovich Men (Александр Владимирович Мень; 22 January 1935 – 9 September 1990) was a Russian Orthodox priest, an outstanding theologian, Biblical scholar and writer on theology, Christian history, and other religions.

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Alexander Ostrovsky

Alexander Nikolayevich Ostrovsky (Алекса́ндр Никола́евич Остро́вский;, Moscow, Russian Empire, Shchelykovo, Kostroma Governorate, Russian Empire) was a Russian playwright, generally considered the greatest representative of the Russian realistic period.

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Alexander Sibiryakov

Alexander Mikhaylovich Sibiryakov (Алекса́ндр Миха́йлович Сибиряко́в) (Irkutsk – 1933) was a Russian gold mine and factories owner and explorer of Siberia.

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Alexander Stepanovich Popov

Alexander Stepanovich Popov (sometimes spelled Popoff; Алекса́ндр Степа́нович Попо́в; –) was a Russian physicist who is acclaimed in his homeland and some eastern European countries as the inventor of radio.

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Alexander von Schrenk

Alexander Gustav von Schrenk (4 February 1816 – 25 June 1876) was a Baltic German naturalist born near Tula in what was then the Russian Empire.

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Alexander von Volborth

Alexander von Volborth/Aleksandr Fedorovich von Volborth (b. 1800, Mogilev - d. 1876, Kiev), was a Russian palaeontologist.

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Alexandra Kim

Alexandra Petrovna Kim (Russian: Александра Петровна Ким; born Kim Aerim; February 22, 1885 – September 16, 1918) was a Korean revolutionary political activist.

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Alexei Rezepkin

Alexei Rezepkin (Алексей Дмитриевич Резепкин; born 25 March 1949) is a Russian archaeologist who made some significant archeological discoveries.

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Alexei Yepishev

Alexei Alexeevich Yepishev, also spelled Epishev (Russian: Алексей Алексеевич Епишев; - September 15, 1985) was a Soviet political officer, politician and diplomat.

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Alfred Käärmann

Alfred Käärmann (14 September 1922 in Hargla – 4 February 2010) was an Estonian resistance fighter, also known as Forest brother, as the Estonians call their guerrillas, and author.

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Alfred Rittmann

Alfred Rittmann (23 March 1893 – 19 September 1980) was a leading volcanologist.

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Aliettite

Aliettite is a complex phyllosilicate mineral of the smectite group with a formula of (Ca0.2Mg6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4·4H2O) or (Ca0.5,Na)0.33(Al,Mg,Fe2+)2–3(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2·n(H2O).

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Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War

The Allied intervention was a multi-national military expedition launched during the Russian Civil War in 1918.

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Almazbek Atambayev

Almazbek Sharshenovich Atambayev (Almazbek Şarşenoviç (Şarşen uulu) Atambayev; born 17 September 1956) was the President of Kyrgyzstan from 1 December 2011 to 24 November 2017.

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Alphonse Munchen

Jean-Pierre Alphonse Munchen (3 September 1850 – 25 January 1917) was a Luxembourgish engineer and politician.

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Alps

The Alps (Alpes; Alpen; Alpi; Alps; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,The Caucasus Mountains are higher, and the Urals longer, but both lie partly in Asia.

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Amata caspia

Amata caspia is a species of moth of the family Arctiidae.

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American mink

The American mink (Neovison vison) is a semiaquatic species of mustelid native to North America, though human intervention has expanded its range to many parts of Europe and South America.

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Ananyino culture

The Ananyino culture is an archeological culture of the late 8th to 3rd centuries BCE in present-day Tatarstan, Russian Federation.

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Anatoli Efimoff

Anatole Efimoff (1897 - 1981) was an artist from Russia.

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Anatoli Lvovich Kaplan

Anatoli (Tankhum) Lvovich Kaplan (Анатолий Львович Каплан), (December 26, 1902 – July 3, 1980) was a Russian painter, sculptor and printmaker, whose works often reflect his Jewish origins.

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Anatoli Vasiliev

Anatoli Ilych Vasiliev (Анато́лий Ильи́ч Васи́льев; 18 March 1917, Petrograd (former Saint Petersburg), Russian Empire – June 4, 1994, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation) was a Russian and Soviet realist painter, who lived and worked in Leningrad.

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Anatoly Karpov

Anatoly Yevgenyevich Karpov (Анато́лий Евге́ньевич Ка́рпов; born May 23, 1951) is a Russian chess grandmaster and former World Champion.

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Andradite

Andradite is a species of the garnet group.

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Andrei Kozitsyn

Andrei Anatolyevich Kozitsyn (born 1960/61) is a Russian billionaire, the CEO of Ural Mining and Metallurgical Company (UMMC), Russia’s leading zinc miner and second-biggest copper producer.

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Andrew Vinius

Andrew Vinius (Андре́й Андре́евич Ви́ниус, Andrey Andreyevich Vinius) (1641–1717) was a Russian statesman and a friend of Peter the Great.

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Andrey Vlasov

Andrey Andreyevich Vlasov or Wlassow (Андрéй Андрéевич Влáсов, – August 1, 1946) was a Russian Red Army general.

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Andronovo culture

The Andronovo culture is a collection of similar local Bronze Age cultures that flourished c. 2000–900 BC in western Siberia and the central Eurasian Steppe.

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Angle shades

The angle shades (Phlogophora meticulosa) is a moth of the family Noctuidae.

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Anikey Stroganov

Anikey Fyodorovich Stroganov (Аникей Фёдорович Строганов) (1488–1570) was an explorer, merchant and eventual monk who lived during the Grand Duchy of Moscow and Tsardom of Russia, the predecessors of the Russian Empire.

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Animal style

Animal style art is an approach to decoration found from China to Northern Europe in the early Iron Age, and the barbarian art of the Migration Period, characterized by its emphasis on animal motifs.

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Anna Alchuk

Anna Alchuk (28 March 195521 March 2008) was a Russian poet and visual artist.

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Anna Pankratova

Anna Pankratova (Анна Михайловна Панкратова, 4 February 1897–25 May 1957) was a leading Soviet historian, educator and member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR.

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Anthem of Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug

The Anthem of the Khanty-Mansi autonomous okrug (Гимн Ханты-Мансийского автономного округа, Gimn Khanty-Mansiyskogo avtonomnogo okruga) is the anthem of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug, a federal subject of Russia.

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Anti-Party Group

The Anti-Party Group (r) was a group within the leadership of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union that unsuccessfully attempted to depose Nikita Khrushchev as First Secretary of the Party in June 1957.

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Antiques Roadshow (series 29)

Antiques Roadshow is a British television series produced by the BBC since 1979.

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Anya Jenkins

Anyanka "Anya" Christina Emanuella Jenkins is a fictional character created by Joss Whedon for the television series Buffy the Vampire Slayer.

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Apamea ophiogramma

Apamea ophiogramma, the double lobed, is a moth of the family Noctuidae.

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Aphelia viburnana

Aphelia viburnana, the bilberry tortrix, is a moth of the family Tortricidae.

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Apollinary Vasnetsov

Apollinary Mikhaylovich Vasnetsov (Аполлина́рий Миха́йлович Васнецо́в; July 25 (August 6 N.S.), 1856 in the village of Riabovo, Vyatka Governorate – January 23, 1933 in Moscow) was a Russian painter and graphic artist whose elder brother was the more famous Viktor Vasnetsov.

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Arab–Khazar wars

The Arab–Khazar wars were a series of conflicts fought between the armies of the Khazar Khaganate and the Umayyad Caliphate (as well as its Abbasid successor) and their respective vassals.

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Arcis-sur-Aube

Arcis-sur-Aube is a French commune in the Aube department in the Grand Est region of north-central France.

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Arctic exploration

Arctic exploration is the physical exploration of the Arctic region of the Earth.

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Areas annexed by Nazi Germany

There were many areas annexed by Nazi Germany both immediately before and throughout the course of World War II.

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Argippaeans

The Argippaeans or Argippaei are a people mentioned by Herodotus in his The Histories. He mentions them as north of the Scythians and much of the scholarship points to them being a tribe near the Ural Mountains.

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Arimaspi

The Arimaspi were a legendary tribe of one-eyed people of northern Scythia who lived in the foothills of the Riphean Mountains, variously identified with the Ural Mountains or the Carpathians.

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Aristotelia subericinella

Aristotelia subericinella is a moth of the Gelechiidae family.

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Arkaim (airline)

Arkaim, LLC (ООО "Аркаим", "Арҡайым" ЯCЙ) is regional Russian airline based in Ufa, Bashkortostan.

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Arkhangelsk

Arkhangelsk (p), also known in English as Archangel and Archangelsk, is a city and the administrative center of Arkhangelsk Oblast, in the north of European Russia.

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Arkhangelsk Oblast

Arkhangelsk Oblast (Арха́нгельская о́бласть, Arkhangelskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast).

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Arno J. Mayer

Arno Joseph Mayer (born June 19, 1926) is a Luxembourg-born American historian who specializes in modern Europe, diplomatic history, and the Holocaust, and is currently Dayton-Stockton Professor of History, Emeritus, at Princeton University.

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Aroga aristotelis

Aroga aristotelis is a moth of the family Gelechiidae.

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Aron Zinshtein

Aron Iosifovich Zinshtein (Арон Иосифович Зинштейн, also Zinstein and Sinnstein) is a Russian artist, born in Ural Mountains city of Nizhniy Tagil, in 1947.

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Artemisia norvegica

Artemisia norvegica is a species of flowering plant in the aster family known by the common names alpine sagewort, boreal sagewort, mountain sagewort, Norwegian mugwort, arctic wormwood, and spruce wormwood.

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Artemy Babinov

Artemy Safronovich Babinov (Артемий Сафронович Бабинов), a Russian explorer from the village of Verkh-Usolka, discovered the shortest path across the Urals from Solikamsk in the Perm region to Verkhoturye in the east in 1597.

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Artinskian

In the geologic timescale, the Artinskian is an age or stage of the Permian.

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Artur Hofmann

Artur Hofmann (born Plauen 24 June 1907: died Berlin 4 May 1987) was a German politician (KPD).

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Asbest

Asbest (Асбе́ст) is a town in Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia, located on the Bolshoy Reft River (right tributary of the Pyshma) on the eastern slopes of the Ural Mountains, northeast of Yekaterinburg.

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Asbestos

Asbestos is a set of six naturally occurring silicate minerals, which all have in common their eponymous asbestiform habit: i.e. long (roughly 1:20 aspect ratio), thin fibrous crystals, with each visible fiber composed of millions of microscopic "fibrils" that can be released by abrasion and other processes.

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Asgard

In Norse religion, Asgard ("Enclosure of the Æsir") is one of the Nine Worlds and home to the Æsir tribe of gods.

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Asia

Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.

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Asian badger

The Asian badger (Meles leucurus), also known as the sand badger is a species of badger native to Mongolia, China, Kazakhstan, the Korean Peninsula and Russia.

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Asian black bear

The Asian black bear (Ursus thibetanus, previously known as Selenarctos thibetanus), also known as the moon bear and the white-chested bear, is a medium-sized bear species native to Asia and largely adapted to arboreal life.

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Aspitates orciferaria

Aspitates orciferaria is a moth of the Geometridae family.

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Asselian

In the geologic timescale, the Asselian is the earliest geochronologic age or lowermost chronostratigraphic stage of the Permian.

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Association football club names

Association Football club names are a part of the sport's culture, reflecting century-old traditions.

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Athanasius Schneider

Athanasius Schneider, O.R.C. (born Anton Schneider on 7 April 1961) is a Kazakhstani Catholic bishop.

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Athetis pallustris

Athetis pallustris, the marsh moth, is a moth of the family Noctuidae.

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Athrips mouffetella

Athrips mouffetella is a moth of the Gelechiidae family.

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Athrips pruinosella

Athrips pruinosella is a moth of the Gelechiidae family.

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Auricupride

Auricupride is a natural alloy that combines copper and gold.

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Autographa pulchrina

The Beautiful Golden Y (Autographa pulchrina) is a moth of the family Noctuoidea.

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Axis and Soviet air operations during Operation Barbarossa

Axis and Soviet air operations during Operation Barbarossa took place over a six-month period, 22 June – December, 1941.

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Axis powers

The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.

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Édouard de Verneuil

Philippe Édouard Poulletier de Verneuil (13 February 1805 – 29 May 1873) was a French paleontologist.

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Ülo Jõgi

Ülo Jõgi (12 March 1921 in Tallinn – 14 May 2007, in Tallinn) was an Estonian war historian who was active in the Estonian resistance against the Soviet occupation of Estonia.

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Świętokrzyskie Mountains

The Świętokrzyskie Mountains (Góry Świętokrzyskie,, Holy Cross Mountains) are a mountain range in central Poland, near the city of Kielce.

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BA-64

The BA-64 (БА-64, from Bronirovaniy Avtomobil, literally "armoured car") was a Soviet four-wheeled armoured scout car.

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Babies switched at birth

Babies switched at birth are babies who, because of either error or malice, are interchanged with each other at birth or very soon thereafter, leading to the babies being unknowingly raised by parents who are not their biological parents.

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Babinov Road

The Babinov Road (Бабиновская дорога) was for a long time the shortest path across the Urals.

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Badzhgard

Badzhgard or Bashkurd, historically Bashkiria (Башҡортостан) is a historical and geographical region in the Urals, the traditional border between Northern Asia and Eastern Europe in modern Russia, inhabited by the Bashkirs.

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Bakal, Russia

Bakal (Бака́л) is a town in Satkinsky District of Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia, located on the western slopes of the Ural Mountains on the Chelyabinsk–Ufa railway branch, west from Chelyabinsk, the administrative center of the oblast.

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Baltic languages

The Baltic languages belong to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Baltic Plate

The Baltic Plate was an ancient tectonic plate that existed from the Cambrian Period to the Carboniferous Period.

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Baltica

Baltica is a paleocontinent that formed in the Paleoproterozoic and now constitutes northwestern Eurasia, or Europe north of the Trans-European Suture Zone and west of the Ural Mountains.

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Barents Basin

The Barents Basin or East Barents Basin is a sedimentary basin underlying the eastern half of the Barents Sea.

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Barents Region

The Barents Region is a name given, by advocates of establishing international cooperation after the fall of the Soviet Union, to the land along the coast of the Barents Sea, from Nordland in Norway to the Kola Peninsula in Russia and beyond all the way to the Ural Mountains and Novaya Zemlya, and south to the Gulf of Bothnia of the Baltic Sea and the great lakes Ladoga and Onega.

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Barthélemy de Lesseps

Jean-Baptiste Barthélemy de Lesseps (27 January 1766 in Sète – 6 April/26 April 1834 in Lisbon) was a French diplomat and writer, member of the scientific expedition of Jean-François de Galaup, comte de La Pérouse (1 August 1785 – January 1788) and uncle of Ferdinand de Lesseps.

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Basegi Nature Reserve

Basegi Nature Reserve (Басеги заповедник) (also Bassegi) is a Russian 'zapovednik' (strict nature reserve) along the Basegi Ridge, in the Middle Ural mountains.

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Bashkir Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic

The Bashkir Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Башҡорт Автономиялы Совет Социалистик Республикаhы; Башкирская Автономная Советская Социалистическая Республика, Bashkirskaya Avtonomnaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika); also known as Soviet Bashkortostan or simply Bashkortostan was an Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic within the Russian SFSR.

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Bashkir horse

The Bashkir is the horse breed of the Bashkir people.

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Bashkirian

The Bashkirian is in the ICS geologic timescale the lowest stage or oldest age of the Pennsylvanian.

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Bashkiriya National Park

Bashkiriya National Park (Bashkort:Башҡортостан милли паркы, Russian: Башкирия (национальный парк)), covers a large contiguous forest on the southern end of the Ural Mountains.

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Bashkiriya Nature Reserve

Bashkirsky Nature Reserve (Zapovednik) (Башкирский) is located in the central part of the Bashkir (Southern) Urals.

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Bashkirs

The Bashkirs (Башҡорттар, Başqorttar,; Башкиры, Baškiry) are a Turkic ethnic group, indigenous to Bashkortostan and to the historical region of Badzhgard, extending on both sides of the Ural Mountains, in the area where Eastern Europe meets North Asia.

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Bashkortostan

The Republic of Bashkortostan (Башҡортостан Республикаһы, p), also historically known as Bashkiria (p), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic (state)).

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Battle of Kiev (1941)

The First Battle of Kiev was the German name for the operation that resulted in a very large encirclement of Soviet troops in the vicinity of Kiev during World War II.

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Battle of the Kalka River

The Battle of the Kalka River (Битва на річці Калка, Битва на реке Калке) was fought between the Mongol Empire, whose armies were led by Jebe and Subutai the Valiant, and a coalition of several Rus' principalities, including Kiev and Galich, and the Cumans.

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Battle of W.l.n.d.r

The Battle of Wlndr was fought in 934 between the allied Hungarian-Pecheneg army and an army composing of the forces of the Byzantine Empire and First Bulgarian Empire, somewhere in the territory which belonged to the Bulgarian empire, near a big city called W.l.n.d.r (maybe Belgrade), by the Arab historian and geographer Al-Masudi, and resulted in a great victory of the firsts, followed by a devastating raid of the victors until the walls of Constantinople, forcing the Byzantine empire to pay them tribute for a long time (until 957).

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Batu Khan

Batu Khan (Бат хаан, Bat haan, Бату хан, Bá dū, хан Баты́й, Μπατού; c. 1207–1255), also known as Sain Khan (Good Khan, Сайн хаан, Sayn hân) and Tsar Batu, was a Mongol ruler and founder of the Golden Horde, a division of the Mongol Empire.

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Baydaratskaya Bay

Baydaratskaya Bay or Baydarata Bay (Байдарацкая губа, Baydaratskaya guba) is a gulf in Russia, located in the southern part of the Kara Sea between the coastline of the Northern termination of the Ural Mountains (Polar Ural) and Yamal Peninsula.

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Baymaksky District

Baymaksky District (Байма́кский райо́н; Баймаҡ районы) is an administrativeConstitution of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Article 64 and municipalLaw #126-z district (raion), one of the fifty-four in the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia.

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Béla Kun

Béla Kun (20 February 1886 – 29 August 1938), born Béla Kohn, was a Hungarian Communist revolutionary and politician who was the de facto leader of the Hungarian Soviet Republic in 1919.

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Beacon Hill, Sedgley

Beacon Hill in Sedgley, England, is one of the highest points in the West Midlands, at above sea level.

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Belaya River (Kama)

Belaya River is a river in Bashkortostan, Russian Federation.

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Beloved Name

"Beloved Name" or "That Dear Name" (Dorogoe imjachko, lit. "The Dear Name") is a folk tale (the so-called skaz) of the Ural region of Siberia collected and reworked by Pavel Bazhov.

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Berezniki

Berezniki (Березники́) is a city in Perm Krai, Russia, located on the banks of the Kama River, in the Ural Mountains.

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Beriev S-13

The Beriev S-13 was a Soviet reverse-engineered copy of the Lockheed U-2C, developed in the Soviet Union in the early 1960s.

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Beringian wolf

The Beringian wolf is an extinct type of wolf (Canis lupus) that lived during the Ice Age.

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Beryl

Beryl is a mineral composed of beryllium aluminium cyclosilicate with the chemical formula Be3Al2(SiO3)6.

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Beryozovo, Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug

Beryozovo (Берёзово) is an urban locality (an urban-type settlement) and the administrative center of Beryozovsky District of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug, Russia, located on the Ob River.

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Bezhin Meadow

Bezhin Meadow (italic-yes, Bezhin lug) is a 1937 Soviet film famous for having been suppressed and believed destroyed before its completion.

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Biarmosuchus

Biarmosuchus is an extinct genus of biarmosuchian therapsids that lived around 267 mya during the Middle Permian period.

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Bityite

Bityite is considered a rare mineral, and it is an endmember to the margarite mica sub-group found within the phyllosilicate group.

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Black stork

The black stork (Ciconia nigra) is a large bird in the stork family Ciconiidae.

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Black-throated accentor

The black-throated accentor (Prunella atrogularis) is a small passerine bird found in the Ural, Tian Shan and Altai Mountains.

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Blast furnace

A blast furnace is a type of metallurgical furnace used for smelting to produce industrial metals, generally pig iron, but also others such as lead or copper.

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Block (meteorology)

Blocks in meteorology are large-scale patterns in the atmospheric pressure field that are nearly stationary, effectively “blocking” or redirecting migratory cyclones.

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Blockade of Germany (1939–1945)

The Blockade of Germany (1939–1945), also known as the Economic War, was carried out during World War II by the United Kingdom and France in order to restrict the supplies of minerals, metals, food and textiles needed by Nazi Germany - and later Fascist Italy - in order to sustain their war efforts.

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BN-600 reactor

The BN-600 reactor is a sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor, built at the Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Station, in Zarechny, Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia.

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Bobak marmot

The bobak marmot (Marmota bobak), also known as the steppe marmot, is a species of marmot that inhabits the steppes of Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

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Bog iron

Bog iron is a form of impure iron deposit that develops in bogs or swamps by the chemical or biochemical oxidation of iron carried in solution.

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Bohemian waxwing

The Bohemian waxwing (Bombycilla garrulus) is a starling-sized passerine bird that breeds in the northern forests of Eurasia and North America.

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Boloria freija

Boloria freija, the Freija fritillary, is a butterfly of the family Nymphalidae with a circumboreal distribution.

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Boloria frigga

Boloria frigga, the Frigga fritillary, is a butterfly of the family Nymphalidae with a circumboreal distribution. It occurs in bogs and tundra in Northern Europe to the north of 60° N, very locally in more southern locations, as well as in the Urals, Siberia, Northern Mongolia, the Russian Far East, western parts of the United States and Canada.Львовский А.Л., Моргун Д.В. 2007. Булавоусые чешуекрылые Восточной Европы. Москва: КМК.. p. 324.Tolman, Tom & Richard Lewington. 1997. Butterflies of Britain and Europe. Field Guide. London: Collins.. Larvae feed on Rubus chamaemorus, Vaccinium oxycoccos and occasionally on Vaccinium uliginosum. In experimentation they accept Polygonum viviparum and Rubus fruticosus. The species produces one generation every two years.

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Boloria thore

Boloria thore, the Thor's fritillary, is a butterfly of the family Nymphalidae. It occurs in damp places in the Alps, Fennoscandia, the south of European Russia, the Urals, Siberia and East Asia.Львовский А.Л., Моргун Д.В. 2007. Булавоусые чешуекрылые Восточной Европы. Москва: КМК.. pp. 328-329.Tolman, Tom & Richard Lewington. 1997. Butterflies of Britain and Europe. Field Guide. London: Collins.. The wingspan is 28–34 mm. The species produces one generation every two years. Larvae feed on species of Viola.

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Bombus sylvarum

Bombus sylvarum, the shrill carder bee or knapweed carder-bee, is a species of bumblebee with a wide distribution across Europe, east to the Ural Mountains, and north to Great Britain, Ireland, and southern Scandinavia.

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Boreal owl

The boreal owl (Aegolius funereus) is a small owl.

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Boris Babochkin

Boris Andreyevich Babochkin (Бори́с Андре́евич Ба́бочкин; 18 January 1904 – 17 July 1975) was a well-known Soviet film and theatre actor and director.

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Boris Fedtschenko

Boris Alexjewitsch (Alexeevich) Fedtschenko (1872–1947) was a Russian plant pathologist and botanist.

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Boris Grakov

Boris Nikolaevich Grakov (Борис Николаевич Граков) (in Onega — September 14, 1970 in Moscow) was a Soviet Russian archaeologist, who specialized in Scythian and Sarmatian archeology, classical philology and ancient epigraphy.

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Boris Rauschenbach

Boris Viktorovich Rauschenbach (Russian language: Борис Викторович Раушенбах) (18 January 1915, Petrograd – 27 March 2001, Moscow) was a preeminent Soviet physicist and rocket engineer, who developed the theory and instruments for interplanetary flight control and navigation in 1955-1960s.

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Boris Shaposhnikov

Boris Mikhailovitch Shaposhnikov (Бори́с Миха́йлович Ша́пошников) (– March 26, 1945) was a Soviet military commander, Chief of the Staff of the Red Army, and Marshal of the Soviet Union.

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Borscht

Borscht is a sour soup popular in several Eastern European cuisines, including Ukrainian, Russian, Polish, Lithuanian, Belarusian, Romanian, Ashkenazi Jewish and Armenian cuisines.

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Botai culture

The Botai culture is an archaeological culture (c. 3700–3100 BC) of ancient Kazakhstan.

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Boundaries between the continents of Earth

The boundaries between the continents of Earth are generally a matter of geographical convention.

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Bratsk

Bratsk (p) is a city in Irkutsk Oblast, Russia, located on the Angara River near the vast Bratsk Reservoir.

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Brian Horrocks

Lieutenant-General Sir Brian Gwynne Horrocks, (7 September 1895 – 4 January 1985) was a British Army officer, chiefly remembered as the commander of XXX Corps in Operation Market Garden and other operations during the Second World War.

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Brigada

Brigada (Бригада), also known as Law of the Lawless, is a Russian 15-episode crime miniseries that debuted in 2002.

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Broadcasting in the Soviet Union

Broadcasting in the Soviet Union was owned by the state, and was under its tight control and Soviet censorship.

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Brocken

The Brocken, also sometimes referred to as the Blocksberg, is the highest peak of the Harz mountain range and also the highest peak of Northern Germany; it is located near Schierke in the German state of Saxony-Anhalt between the rivers Weser and Elbe.

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Brown bear

The brown bear (Ursus arctos) is a bear that is found across much of northern Eurasia and North America.

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Bugulma-Belebey Upland

Bugulma-Belebey Upland is an upland in the eastern part of Eastern European Plain, west of the Urals, in Tatarstan, Bashkortostan and Orenburg Oblast, Russia.

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Bulaqs

The Bulaqs were a Turkic tribe from the Karluks tribal union located in the Altai Mountains.

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Bulat steel

Bulat is a type of steel alloy known in Russia from medieval times; regularly being mentioned in Russian legends as the material of choice for cold steel.

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Buranovskiye Babushki

Buranovskiye Babushki (Бурановские Бабушки,; Брангуртысь песянайёс, Brangurtyś Pesänajos; meaning "Buranovo Grannies") is a Russian (Udmurtian) ethno-pop band containing eight elderly women.

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Burger King franchises

The majority of the locations of international fast-food restaurant chain Burger King are privately owned franchises.

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Buzuluksky Bor National Park

Buzuluksky Bor National Park (Бузулукский бор) encompasses the Buzuluk Pine Forest, which is the largest grove of isolated high pine trees in the world.

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Byzantine Revival architecture

The Byzantine Revival (also referred to as Neo-Byzantine) was an architectural revival movement, most frequently seen in religious, institutional and public buildings.

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Calciborite

Calciborite, CaB2O4, is a rare calcium borate mineral.

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Call of Duty: Black Ops

Call of Duty: Black Ops is a first-person shooter video game, developed by Treyarch and published by Activision.

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Calyptra (moth)

The genus Calyptra is a group of moths in subfamily Calpinae of the family Erebidae.

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Calyptra thalictri

Calyptra thalictri is a moth of the family Erebidae.

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Cancrinite

Cancrinite is a complex carbonate and silicate of sodium, calcium and aluminium with the formula Na6Ca2·2H2O.

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Carboniferous

The Carboniferous is a geologic period and system that spans 60 million years from the end of the Devonian Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Permian Period, Mya.

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Carl Diener

Carl Diener (11 December 1862 in Vienna – 6 January 1928, Vienna) was an Austrian geographer, geologist and paleontologist.

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Carpatolechia aenigma

Carpatolechia aenigma is a moth of the Gelechiidae family.

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Caryocolum blandella

Caryocolum blandella is a moth of the Gelechiidae family.

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Caryocolum huebneri

Caryocolum huebneri is a moth of the Gelechiidae family.

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Caryocolum kroesmanniella

Caryocolum kroesmanniella is a moth of the Gelechiidae family.

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Cathedral of St. Sophia, Novgorod

The Cathedral of St. Sophia (the Holy Wisdom of God) in Veliky Novgorod is the cathedral church of the Archbishop of Novgorod and the mother church of the Novgorodian Eparchy.

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Catocala detrita

Catocala detrita is a moth in the Erebidae family.

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Causes of the Holodomor

The Holodomor (Голодомор) is the name of the famine that ravaged Soviet Ukraine in 1932–1933.

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Cave wolf

The cave wolf (Canis lupus spelaeus) is an extinct type of wolf that lived during the Late Pleistocene Ice Age.

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Celaena haworthii

Haworth's Minor, Celaena haworthii, is a moth of the Noctuidae family.

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Celypha cespitana

Celypha cespitana is a moth of the family Tortricidae.

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Central Asian Orogenic Belt

The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB, also known as Altaids) is one of the largest accretionary orogens on Earth and evolved over some 800 million years from the latest Mesoproterozoic to the early Triassic.

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Central Asians in Ancient Indian literature

Central Asia and Ancient India have long traditions of social-cultural, religious, political and economic contact since remote antiquity.

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Central Uplands

The Central UplandsDickinson (1964), p.18 ff.

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Cephalanthera rubra

Cephalanthera rubra, known as Red Helleborine, is an orchid found in Europe, North Africa and southwest Asia.

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Chalkhill blue

The chalkhill blue (Polyommatus coridon) is a butterfly in the family Lycaenidae.

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Chariot

A chariot is a type of carriage driven by a charioteer using primarily horses to provide rapid motive power.

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Charles de Gaulle

Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general and statesman who led the French Resistance against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 in order to reestablish democracy in France.

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Chelyabinsk

Chelyabinsk (a) is a city and the administrative center of Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia, located in the northeast of the oblast, south of Yekaterinburg, just to the east of the Ural Mountains, on the Miass River, on the border of Europe and Asia.

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Chelyabinsk Oblast

Chelyabinsk Oblast (Челя́бинская о́бласть, Chelyabinskaya oblast) is a federal subject (an oblast) of Russia in the Ural Mountains region, on the border of Europe and Asia.

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Chelyabinsk Pipe Rolling Plant

Chelyabinsk Tube Rolling Plant (also known as ChelPipe; abbreviated as ChTPZ) manufactures every kind of steel pipe, including pipes used for the construction of petroleum, natural gas and water pipelines; and pipes used in manufacturing processes.

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Cherdyn Route

The Cherdyn Road (Чердынская дорога) was the standard route used by the Russians to travel to Siberia in the late 16th century.

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Chersotis andereggii

Chersotis andereggii is a moth of the Noctuidae family.

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Chiang Ching-kuo

Chiang Ching-kuo (Ningbo dialect) (27 April 1910 – 13 January 1988) was a politician in Taiwan.

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Chionodes soella

Chionodes soella is a moth of the Gelechiidae family.

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Chipping Barnet

Chipping Barnet or High Barnet is a market town in the London Borough of Barnet, England. It is a suburban development built around a 12th-century settlement, and is located north north-west of Charing Cross, east from Borehamwood, west from Enfield and south from Potters Bar. Its name is very often abbreviated to just Barnet, which is also the name of the borough of which it forms a part. Chipping Barnet is also the name of the Parliamentary constituency covering the local area - the word "Chipping" denotes the presence of a market, one that was established here at the end of the 12th century and persists to this day. Chipping Barnet is one of the highest-lying urban settlements in London, with the town centre having an elevation of about.

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Chloritoid

Chloritoid is a silicate mineral of metamorphic origin.

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Chorthippus parallelus

Chorthippus parallelus, the meadow grasshopper, is a common species of grasshopper found in non-arid grasslands throughout the well vegetated areas of Europe and some adjoining areas of Asia.

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Chrome chalcedony

Chrome chalcedony is a green variety of the mineral chalcedony, colored by small quantities of chromium.

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Chromium

Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.

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Chrysiridia rhipheus

Chrysiridia rhipheus, the Madagascan sunset moth, is a day-flying moth of the family Uraniidae.

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Chrysoberyl

The mineral or gemstone chrysoberyl is an aluminate of beryllium with the formula BeAl2O4.

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Chrysocrambus craterellus

Chrysocrambus craterellus is a species of moth of the family Crambidae. It was first described by Giovanni Antonio Scopoli in his 1763 Entomologia Carniolica.

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Church of All Saints, Yekaterinburg

The Church on Blood in Honour of All Saints Resplendent in the Russian Land (Khram-na-Krovi vo imya Vsekh svyatykh, v zemle Rossiyskoy prosiyavshikh) is a Russian Orthodox church built on the site of the Ipatiev House in Yekaterinburg, where Nicholas II, the last Emperor of Russia, and his family, along with members of the household, were shot by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War.

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Chusovaya River

The Chusovaya River (Чусова́я) is a river flowing in Perm Krai, Sverdlovsk Oblast and Chelyabinsk Oblast of Russia.

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Chuvashia

The Chuvash Republic (Чува́шская Респу́блика — Чува́шия, Chuvashskaya Respublika — Chuvashiya; Чӑваш Республики, Čăvaš Respubliki), or Chuvashia (Чува́шия Chuvashiya; Чӑваш Ен, Čăvaš Jen), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic).

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Cicerbita alpina

Cicerbita alpina, commonly known as the alpine sow-thistle or alpine blue-sow-thistle is a perennial herbaceous species of plant sometimes placed in the genus Cicerbita of the Asteraceae family, and sometimes placed in the genus Lactuca as Lactuca alpina.

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Clavaria fragilis

Clavaria fragilis, commonly known as fairy fingers, white worm coral, or white spindles, is a species of fungus in the family Clavariaceae.

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Clavariadelphus ligula

Clavariadelphus ligula, commonly known as the strap coral, is an inedible species of fungi in the Gomphaceae family.

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Clee Hills

The Clee Hills are a range of hills in Shropshire, England near Ludlow, consisting of Brown Clee Hill, the highest peak in Shropshire, and Titterstone Clee Hill.

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Clepsis neglectana

Clepsis neglectana is a moth of the family Tortricidae.

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Closed city

A closed city or closed town is a settlement where travel or residency restrictions are applied so that specific authorization is required to visit or remain overnight.

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Clouded border

The clouded border (Lomaspilis marginata) is a moth of the family Geometridae.

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Coal-mining region

Coal mining regions are significant resource extraction industries in many parts of the world.

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Cochylimorpha alternana

Cochylimorpha alternana is a moth from the family Tortricidae.

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Cochylimorpha fucatana

Cochylimorpha fucatana is a species of moth of the Tortricidae family.

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Coleophora anatipennella

Coleophora anatipennella is a moth of the case-bearer family (Coleophoridae).

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Coleophora arkaimella

Coleophora arkaimella is a moth of the Coleophoridae family.

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Coleophora bogdoensis

Coleophora bogdoensis is a moth of the Coleophoridae family.

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Coleophora glaucicolella

Coleophora glaucicolella is a moth of the Coleophoridae family.

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Coleophora orenburgella

Coleophora orenburgella is a moth of the Coleophoridae family.

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Coleophora paragallivora

Coleophora paragallivora is a moth of the Coleophoridae family.

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Coleophora pokrovkella

Coleophora pokrovkella is a moth of the Coleophoridae family.

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Coleophora schibendyella

Coleophora schibendyella is a moth of the Coleophoridae family.

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Coleophora verbljushkella

Coleophora verbljushkella is a moth of the Coleophoridae family.

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Collectivization in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic

Collectivization in Ukraine, officially the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic was part of the policy of Collectivization in the USSR and dekulakization that was pursued between 1928 and 1933 with the purpose to consolidate individual land and labour into collective farms called kolkhoz and to eliminate enemies of the working class.

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Command & Conquer: Red Alert 2

Command & Conquer: Red Alert 2 is a real-time strategy video game by Westwood Pacific, which was released for Microsoft Windows on October 23, 2000 as the follow-up to Command & Conquer: Red Alert.

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Common blackbird

The common blackbird (Turdus merula) is a species of true thrush.

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Common frog

The common frog (Rana temporaria), also known as the European common frog, European common brown frog, European grass frog, or simply a frog, is a semi-aquatic amphibian of the family Ranidae, found throughout much of Europe as far north as Scandinavia and as far east as the Urals, except for most of Iberia, southern Italy, and the southern Balkans.

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Common starling

The common starling (Sturnus vulgaris), also known as the European starling, or in the British Isles just the starling, is a medium-sized passerine bird in the starling family, Sturnidae.

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Communist Party of the Russian Federation

The Communist Party of the Russian Federation (CPRF; Коммунистическая Партия Российской Федерации; КПРФ; Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Rossiyskoy Federatsii, KPRF) is a communist and Marxist–Leninist political party in Russia.

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Composite bow

A composite bow is a traditional bow made from horn, wood, and sinew laminated together, cf., laminated bow.

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Conquest of the Khanate of Sibir

The Khanate of Sibir was a Muslim state located just east of the middle Ural Mountains.

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Continent

A continent is one of several very large landmasses of the world.

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Continental divide

A continental divide is a drainage divide on a continent such that the drainage basin on one side of the divide feeds into one ocean or sea, and the basin on the other side either feeds into a different ocean or sea, or else is endorheic, not connected to the open sea.

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Continuity of government

Continuity of government (COG) is the principle of establishing defined procedures that allow a government to continue its essential operations in case of a catastrophic event such as nuclear war.

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Coregonus sardinella

Coregonus sardinella, known as the sardine cisco, and in North America as the least cisco, is a fresh- and brackishwater species of salmonid fish that inhabits rivers, estuaries and coastal waters of the marginal seas of the Arctic Basin, as well as some large lakes of those areas.

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Coregonus tugun

Coregonus tugun, the tugun, is a species freshwater whitefish from rivers draining to the Arctic Ocean.

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Corylus avellana

Corylus avellana, the common hazel, is a species of hazel native to Europe and western Asia, from the British Isles south to Iberia, Greece, Turkey and Cyprus, north to central Scandinavia, and east to the central Ural Mountains, the Caucasus, and northwestern Iran.

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Counteroffensive of Eastern Front

The Counteroffensive of Eastern Front (April–July 1919) was an episode of the Russian Civil War.

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Country of Towns

In the archaeology of Russia, the Country of Towns (Страна городов, strana gorodov) is a tentative term for a territory in the southern Trans-Urals where a number of middle Bronze Age (~2,000 BC) fortified settlements of the Sintashta culture were found in the 1970s and 1980s.

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Cream wave

The cream wave (Scopula floslactata) is a moth of the Geometridae family.

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Crepis paludosa

Crepis paludosa, the marsh hawk's-beard, is a European species of plants in the dandelion tribe within the sunflower family.

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Crocoite

Crocoite is a mineral consisting of lead chromate, PbCrO4, and crystallizing in the monoclinic crystal system.

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Cupido alcetas

Cupido alcetas, the Provençal short-tailed blue, is a small butterfly that belongs to the family Lycaenidae.

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Cuprite

Cuprite is an oxide mineral composed of copper(I) oxide Cu2O, and is a minor ore of copper.

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Cyclomedusa

Cyclomedusa is a circular fossil of the Ediacaran biota; it has a circular bump in the middle and as many as five circular growth ridges around it.

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Cyclone Tini

Cyclone Tini (also referred to as Storm Darwin in Ireland) was a European windstorm that affected Western Europe, particularly Ireland and the United Kingdom on 12 February 2014.

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Czechoslovak Legion

The Czechoslovak Legion (Československé legie in Czech and Slovak) were volunteer armed forces composed predominantly of Czechs with a small number of Slovaks (approximately 8 percent) fighting together with the Entente powers during World War I. Their goal was to win the Allied Powers' support for the independence of Bohemia and Moravia from the Austrian Empire and of Slovak territories from the Kingdom of Hungary, which were then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

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Dalmatovo

Dalmatovo (Далма́тово) is a town and the administrative center of Dalmatovsky District in Kurgan Oblast, Russia, located east of the Ural Mountains on the north bank of the Iset River (Tobol's tributary; Ob's basin), opposite the mouth of the Techa River, northwest of Kurgan, the administrative center of the oblast.

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Daniel of Erie

Daniel of Erie (secular name Dmitry Borisovich Alexandrov, Дмитрий Борисович Александров; September 15, 1930 – April 26, 2010) was an American Russian Orthodox bishop of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia.

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Darius (Highlander)

Darius is a fictional character from Highlander: The Series, portrayed by actor Werner Stocker.

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Dark Lands

The Dark Lands are a location in the Games Workshop's fictional Warhammer Fantasy setting.

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David Rigert

David Adamovich Rigert (Давид Ада́мович Ри́герт; born 12 March 1947 in the village of Nagornoye, Kokchetav Oblast, Kazakh SSR) was an Olympic weightlifter for the Soviet Union.

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Därdemänd

Zakir Sadíq ulı Rämiev (1859–1921,, Tatar: Закир Садыйк улы Рәмиев, Russian: Закир Садыкович Рамеев, Zakir Ramiyev) who used the pen name Därdemänd or Derdmend (Tatar: Дәрдмәнд) was a famous Tatar poet, manufacturer and patron of arts.

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Declinognathodus

Declinognathodus is an extinct genus of platform conodonts.

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Dekulakization

Dekulakization (раскулачивание, raskulachivanie; розкуркулення, rozkurkulennia) was the Soviet campaign of political repressions, including arrests, deportations, and executions of millions of wealthy peasants and their families in the 1929–1932 period of the First five-year plan.

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Demantoid

Demantoid is the green gemstone variety of the mineral andradite, a member of the garnet group of minerals.

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Demographics of Europe

Figures for the population of Europe vary according to how one defines the boundaries of Europe.

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Denezhkin Kamen Nature Reserve

Denezhkin Kamen Nature Reserve (Денежкин камень заповедник) (also Denezhkin Kamen) is a Russian 'zapovednik' (strict nature reserve), centered on Denezhkin Stone Mountain, on the eastern slope of the Central Ural Mountains.

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Deportation of Germans from Romania after World War II

The deportation of Germans from Romania after World War II, conducted on Soviet order early in 1945, uprooted over 30,000 of Romania's Germans, one tenth of whom lost their lives.

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Diamond simulant

A diamond simulant, diamond imitation or imitation diamond is an object or material with gemological characteristics similar to those of a diamond.

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Diaspore

Diaspore, also known as diasporite, empholite, kayserite, or tanatarite, is an aluminium oxide hydroxide mineral, α-AlO(OH), crystallizing in the orthorhombic system and isomorphous with goethite.

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Dichagyris eremicola

Dichagyris eremicola is a moth of the family Noctuidae.

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Dichagyris multicuspis

Dichagyris multicuspis is a moth of the family Noctuidae.

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Dichonia aprilina

Griposia aprilina, the merveille du jour, is a moth of the family Noctuidae.

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Dina Nurpeisova

Dina Nurpeisova or Nurpeissova (1861- January 31, 1955) was a composer from the Western part of Kazakhstan in the Uralsk area.

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Dissolution of the Soviet Union

The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.

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Division of the Mongol Empire

The division of the Mongol Empire began when Möngke Khan died in 1259 in the siege of Diaoyu castle with no declared successor, precipitating infighting between members of the Tolui family line for the title of Great Khan that escalated to the Toluid Civil War.

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Dmitrii Nikolaevich Taliev

Dmitrii Nikolaevich Taliev (28 May 1908 – 2 July 1952) was a Soviet Russian ichthyologist and limnologist, notable for his work on the Lake Baikal.

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Dmitry Mamin-Sibiryak

Dmitry Narkisovich Mamin-Sibiryak (Дми́трий Нарки́сович Ма́мин-Сибиря́к) (October 25, 1852 – November 2, 1912) was a Russian author most famous for his novels and short stories about life in the Ural Mountains.

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Dmitry Solomirsky

Dmitry Solomirsky (Дмитрий Павлович Соломирский; 1838–1923) was a business magnate and philanthropist in the Russian Empire, the member of the wealthy Turchaninov family.

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Dmitry Ustinov

Dmitriy Fyodorovich Ustinov (Дмитрий Фёдорович Устинов; 30 October 1908 – 20 December 1984) was Minister of Defence of the Soviet Union from 1976 until his death.

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Doctor Zhivago (film)

Doctor Zhivago is a 1965 British-Italian epic romantic drama film directed by David Lean.

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Doctor Zhivago (miniseries)

Doctor Zhivago is a 2002 British television miniseries directed by Giacomo Campiotti and starring Hans Matheson, Keira Knightley and Sam Neill.

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Doctor Zhivago (novel)

Doctor Zhivagois a novel by Boris Pasternak, first published in 1957 in Italy.

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Dodia albertae

Dodia albertae is a moth of the family Erebidae.

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Domestic violence in Russia

In 2008 a representative of the Ministry of Internal Affairs Lt.

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Domestication of the horse

A number of hypotheses exist on many of the key issues regarding the domestication of the horse.

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Donnayite-(Y)

Donnayite-(Y) is a rare-earth carbonate mineral containing the rare-earth metal yttrium.

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Dragon

A dragon is a large, serpent-like legendary creature that appears in the folklore of many cultures around the world.

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Druzhba pipeline

The Druzhba pipeline (нефтепровод «Дружба»; also has been referred to as the Friendship Pipeline and the Comecon Pipeline) is the world's longest oil pipeline and one of the biggest oil pipeline networks in the world.

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Du battant des lames au sommet des montagnes

Du battant des lames au sommet des montagnes (French for "From the beating of the waves to the summit of the mountains" (lit.) or "From the seashore to the mountaintops" (fig.)) is a French expression that formerly served to define the geographic concessions accorded by the French East India Company to the colonists of the island of Réunion when it was still called île Bourbon.

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Dun-bar

The dun-bar (Cosmia trapezina) is a moth of the family Noctuidae.

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Dyatlov Pass incident

The Dyatlov Pass incident (Ги́бель тургру́ппы Дя́тлова) refers to the unsolved deaths of nine ski hikers in the northern Ural Mountains in the Soviet Union (now Russia) between 1 February and 2 February 1959.

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Dysauxes ancilla

Dysauxes ancilla (the handmaid) is a species of moth of the family Erebidae.

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Dyscia fagaria

Dyscia fagaria, the grey scalloped bar, is a moth of the Geometridae family.

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Early human migrations

The earliest migrations and expansions of archaic and modern humans across continents began 2 million years ago with the out of Africa migration of Homo erectus, followed by other archaic humans including H. heidelbergensis.

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East European Craton

The East European Craton (EEC) is the core of the Baltica proto-plate and consists of three crustal regions/segments: Fennoscandia to the northwest, Volgo-Uralia to the east, and Sarmatia to the south.

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East European Plain

The East European Plain (also called the Russian Plain, "Extending from eastern Poland to the Urals, the East European Plain encompasses all of the Baltic states and Belarus, nearly all of Ukraine, and much of the European portion of Russia and reaches north into Finland." — Britannica. predominantly by Russian scientists, or historically the Sarmatic Plain) is a vast interior plain extending east of the North/Central European Plain, and comprising several plateaus stretching roughly from 25 degrees longitude eastward.

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East European Platform

The East European Platform or Russian Platform is a large and flat area covered by sediments in Eastern Europe spanning from the Ural Mountains to the Tornquist Zone and from the Peri-Caspian Basin to the Barents Sea.

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East Line Group

East Line Group (Группа Ист Лайн) is an airport infrastructure business in Russia.

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East Ural Nature Reserve

East Ural Nature Reserve (Восточно-Уральский заповедник) (also) is a Russian 'zapovednik' (strict nature reserve), that is near the site of the 1957 Kyshtym disaster, which involved radiation release.

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Eastern Europe

Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.

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Eastern Front (World War II)

The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.

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Eastern Hungarians

The term Eastern Magyars (Keleti magyarok; or "Eastern Hungarians") is used in scholarship to refer to peoples related to the Proto-Hungarians, that is, theoretically parts of the ancient community that remained in the Ural Mountains (at the European–Asian border) during the Migration Period and as such did not participate in the Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin.

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Eclogitization

Eclogitization is the tectonic process in which the high-pressure, metamorphic facies, eclogite (a very dense rock), is formed.

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Economy of Russia

Russia has an upper-middle income, World Bank mixed economy with state ownership in strategic areas of the economy.

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Economy of the Pskov Republic

Pskov has always played a special role in Russian trade with the West.

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Eduard Berzin

Eduard Petrovich Berzin (Eduards Bērziņš; 1894–1938), born in Latvia, was a soldier and Chekist, but is remembered primarily for setting up Dalstroy, which instituted a system of forced-labour camps in Kolyma, North-Eastern Siberia, where hundreds of thousands of prisoners died.

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Eduard Friedrich Eversmann

Alexander Eduard Friedrich Eversmann (23 January 1794 – 14 April 1860) was a biologist and explorer.

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Edward Kossoy

Edward Kossoy (used the nom de guerre Marcinak; 4 June 1913 – 11 October 2012) was a Polish lawyer, publicist and an activist for victims of Nazism.

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Efremovite

Efremovite is a rare ammonium sulfate mineral with the chemical formula: (NH4)2Mg2(SO4)3.

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Ekaterina Kozitskaya

Ekaterina Ivanovna Kozitskaya, née Myasnikova (1746-1833) was a Russian industrialist.

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Ekaterina Lermontova

Ekaterina Vladimirovna Lermontova (11 February 1889 - 9 January 1942) was a Russian paleontologist responsible for creating the first Cambrian stratigraphy of Siberia.

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Ekibastuz–Kokshetau high-voltage line

The Ekibastuz–Kokshetau high-voltage line is an alternating current electrical power transmission line in Kazakhstan from Ekibastuz to Kokshetau.

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Elena Berezhnaya

Elena Viktorovna Berezhnaya (Елена Викторовна Бережная, born 11 October 1977) is a Russian former pair skater.

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Elevation crater

In the 18th and 19th century the elevation crater theory was an attempt to explain the origin of mountains and orogens.

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Elizabeth Soshkina

Elizabeth Soshkina (1889–1963) was a Soviet geologist and palaeontologist.

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Emil August Fieldorf

Emil August Fieldorf “Nil” (20 March 1895 – 24 February 1953) was a Polish brigadier general and a Second World War hero.

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Emil Tietze

Emil Ernst August Tietze (15 June 1845, Breslau – 4 March 1931, Vienna) was an Austrian geologist.

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Enemy at the Gates

Enemy at the Gates is a 2001 war film written and directed by Jean-Jacques Annaud and based on William Craig's 1973 nonfiction book Enemy at the Gates: The Battle for Stalingrad, which describes the events surrounding the Battle of Stalingrad in the winter of 1942 and 1943.

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Energosuchus

Energosuchus (meaning "active crocodile" in Greek) is an extinct genus of rauisuchian.

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Environmental inequality in Europe

Environmental racism in Europe has been documented in relation to racialized immigrant and migrant populations alongside Romani (Roma/Gypsy), Yenish, Irish Traveller, and communities (such as the Sami, Komi, and Nenets) from within continental borders.

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Environmental issues in Russia

Many of the issues have been attributed to policies during the Soviet Union, a time when officials felt that pollution control was an unnecessary hindrance to economic development and industrialization.

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Eoandromeda

Eoandromeda is an Ediacaran organism consisting of eight radial spiral arms, and known from two taphonomic modes: the standard Ediacara type preservation in Australia, and as carbonaceous compressions from the Doushantuo formation of China, where it is abundant.

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Epidemiology of plague

Globally about 600 cases are reported a year.

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Erich Hartmann

Erich Alfred Hartmann (19 April 1922 – 20 September 1993), nicknamed "Bubi" ("The Kid") by his German comrades and the "Black Devil" by his Soviet adversaries, was a German fighter pilot during World War II and the most successful fighter ace in the history of aerial warfare.

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Ericiolacertidae

Ericiolacertidae is a family of therapsids.

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Ermanaric

Ermanaric (*Aírmanareiks; Ermanaricus; Eormanrīc; Jǫrmunrekr; died 376) was a Greuthungian Gothic King who before the Hunnic invasion evidently ruled a sizable portion of Oium, the part of Scythia inhabited by the Goths at the time.

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Estemmenosuchus

Estemmenosuchus (meaning "crowned crocodile" in Greek) is an extinct genus of large, early omnivorous therapsids.

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Ethmia pusiella

Ethmia pusiella is a moth of the family Depressariidae.

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Euchalcia consona

Euchalcia consona is a moth of the Noctuidae family.

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Euchalcia siderifera

Euchalcia siderifera is a moth of the Noctuidae family.

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Euchalcia variabilis

The purple-shaded gem (Euchalcia variabilis) is a moth of the Noctuidae family.

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Euclase

Euclase is a beryllium aluminium hydroxide silicate mineral (BeAlSiO4(OH)).

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Eucosma pupillana

Eucosma pupillana is a species of moth of the Tortricidae family.

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Eugène Louis Melchior Patrin

Eugène Louis Melchior Patrin (3 April 1742, Lyon – 15 August 1815, Saint-Vallier) was a French mineralogist and naturalist.

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Eugene Smurgis

Eugene Smurgis (19 August 1938 – 15 November 1993) was a Russian Arctic marine explorer, ultra-long distance rower and Arctic rowing pioneer. From 1967 to 1993 Eugene rowed a total of 48,000KM. on oceans, seas and rivers; a distance longer than the circumference of the Earth and the greatest distance ever rowed by a solo ultra-endurance rower. Most of his pioneering rows were completed in the Arctic in a primitive open boat with no cabin or crawl space. He was the first recorded polar ocean rower, as the earlier Antarctic expedition by Ernest Shackleton predominantly relied on sails and used oars only to a marginal degree, therefore not meeting the criteria of ocean rowing.

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Eugnosta lathoniana

Eugnosta lathoniana is a species of moth of the Tortricidae family.

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Eugnosta magnificana

Eugnosta magnificana is a species of moth of the family Tortricidae.

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Eulithis populata

Eulithis populata, the northern spinach, is a moth of the genus Eulithis in the family Geometridae.

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Eupithecia cauchiata

Eupithecia cauchiata is a moth of the Geometridae family.

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Eupithecia plumbeolata

Eupithecia plumbeolata, the lead-coloured pug, is a moth of the family Geometridae.

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Eupithecia selinata

Eupithecia selinata is a moth of the Geometridae family.

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Eupithecia veratraria

Eupithecia veratraria is a moth of the Geometridae family.

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Euplagia quadripunctaria

Euplagia quadripunctaria, the Jersey tiger, is a day-flying moth of the family Erebidae.

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Eupoecilia angustana

Eupoecilia angustana is a moth of the family Tortricidae.

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Eurasia

Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.

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Eurasian beaver

The Eurasian beaver or European beaver (Castor fiber) is a species of beaver which was once widespread in Eurasia.

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Eurasian bittern

The Eurasian bittern or great bittern (Botaurus stellaris) is a wading bird in the bittern subfamily (Botaurinae) of the heron family Ardeidae.

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Eurasian brown bear

The Eurasian brown bear (Ursus arctos arctos) is one of the most common subspecies of the brown bear, and is found in much of Eurasia.

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Eurasian collared dove

The Eurasian collared dove (Streptopelia decaocto), most often simply called the collared dove,Hagemeijer, W. J. M., & Blair, M. J., eds.

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Eurasian eagle-owl

The Eurasian eagle-owl (Bubo bubo) is a species of eagle-owl that resides in much of Eurasia.

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Eurasian Economic Union

The Eurasian Economic Union (officially EAEU, but sometimes called EEU or EAU)The acronym is used in the.

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Eurasian lynx

The Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) is a medium-sized wild cat native to Siberia, Central, Eastern, and Southern Asia, Northern, Central and Eastern Europe.

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Eurasian Steppe

The Eurasian Steppe, also called the Great Steppe or the steppes, is the vast steppe ecoregion of Eurasia in the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome.

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Europe

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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Europe: A Natural History

Europe: A Natural History is a four-part BBC nature documentary series which looks at the events which have shaped the natural history and wildlife of the European continent over the past three billion years.

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European Alert System

The European Alert System (sometimes referred to as the European Alarm System or European Warning System) is an earthquake warning system for member states of the Council of Europe's EUR-OPA Major Hazards Agreement.

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European mink

The European mink (Mustela lutreola), also known as the Russian mink, and Eurasian mink is a semiaquatic species of mustelid native to Europe.

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European Plain

The European Plain or Great European Plain is a plain in Europe and is a major feature of one of four major topographical units of Europe - the Central and Interior Lowlands.

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European polecat

The European polecat (Mustela putorius) – also known as the common ferret, black or forest polecat, or fitch (as well as some other names) – is a species of mustelid native to western Eurasia and north Morocco.

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European route E30

European route E 30 is an A-Class West-East European route, extending from the southern Irish port of Cork in the west to the Russian city of Omsk and then near the Kazakh border in the east.

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European Russia

European Russia is the western part of Russia that is a part of Eastern Europe.

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Euxenite

Euxenite or euxenite-(Y) (a correct mineralogical name) is a brownish black mineral with a metallic luster.

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Evolution of the wolf

The evolution of the wolf occurred over a geologic time scale of 800 thousand years, transforming the first Middle Pleistocene wolf specimen that is recognized as being morphologically similar to Canis lupus into today's dog, dingo and gray wolf.

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Expert (magazine)

Expert or Ekspert magazine (Russian: Журнал "Эксперт") is a Russian weekly business magazine, established in 1995 in Moscow by a group of editors and journalists who departed from Kommersant publishing house.

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Extreme points of Earth

This is a list of extreme points of Earth, the geographical locations that are farther north or south than, higher or lower in elevation than, or farthest inland or out to sea from, any other locations on the landmasses, continents or countries.

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Extreme points of Europe

This is a list of the extreme points of Europe: the geographical points that are higher or farther north, south, east or west than any other location in Europe.

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Fatherland (novel)

Fatherland is a 1992 alternate history detective novel by English writer and journalist Robert Harris.

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February 2

No description.

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Felicija Bortkevičienė

Felicija Bortkevičienė née Povickaitė (1 September 1873 – 21 October 1945) was a Lithuanian politician and long-term publisher of Lietuvos ūkininkas and Lietuvos žinios.

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Felix Lembersky

Felix Samoilovich Lembersky (Феликс Самойлович Лемберский) (Lublin, Poland, November 11, 1913 – Leningrad, currently St. Petersburg, December 2, 1970) was a Russian/Soviet painter, artist, teacher, theater stage designer and an organizer of artistic groups.

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Feodosy Chernyshyov

Feodosy Nikolayevich Chernyshov (Феодо́сий Никола́евич Чернышёв; –) was a geologist and a paleontologist.

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Fersman Mineralogical Museum

Fersman Mineralogical Museum (Минералогический музей им.) is one of the largest mineral museums of the world, located in Moscow, Russia.

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Filatima autocrossa

Filatima autocrossa is a moth of the family Gelechiidae.

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Filipp Goloshchyokin

Filipp Goloshchyokin (Филипп Голощёкин), born Isay Isaakovich Goloshchyokin (Филипп Исаевич Голощёкин), also transliterated as Goloshchekin; (– October 28 1941) was a Russian Jewish Bolshevik, Communist Revolutionary, Soviet politician and party functionary.

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Finnhorse

The Finnhorse or Finnish Horse (Suomenhevonen, literally "horse of Finland"; nickname: Suokki, or Finskt kallblod, literally "finnish cold-blood") is a horse breed with both riding horse and draught horse influences and characteristics, and is the only breed developed fully in Finland.

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Finnish language

Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.

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Finno-Permic languages

The Finno-Permic languages (also Finno-Permian and Fenno-Permic/Permian) are a proposed subdivision of the Uralic languages which comprises the Baltic-Finnic languages, Sami languages, Mordvinic languages, Mari language, Permic languages, and likely a number of extinct languages.

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Finno-Ugric languages

Finno-Ugric, Finno-Ugrian or Fenno-Ugric is a traditional grouping of all languages in the Uralic language family except the Samoyedic languages.

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Finno-Ugric peoples

The Finno-Ugric peoples are any of several peoples of North-West Eurasia who speak languages of the Finno-Ugric group of the Uralic language family, such as the Khanty, Mansi, Hungarians, Maris, Mordvins, Sámi, Estonians, Karelians, Finns, Udmurts and Komis.

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Firefox (novel)

Firefox is a thriller novel written by Craig Thomas and published in 1977.

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First Kamchatka expedition

The First Kamchatka expedition was commissioned in December 1724 by Peter I of Russia to explore the northern part of the Pacific Ocean and confirm the presence of the strait between Asia and America.

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Five-year plans for the national economy of the Soviet Union

The five-year plans for the development of the national economy of the Soviet Union (USSR) (Пятиле́тние пла́ны разви́тия наро́дного хозя́йства СССР, Pjatiletnije plany razvitiya narodnogo khozyaystva SSSR) consisted of a series of nationwide centralized economic plans in the Soviet Union, beginning in the late 1920s.

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Flag of Chelyabinsk Oblast

The flag of Chelyabinsk Oblast was adopted on 24 December 2007.

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Flags of Asia

This is a gallery of international and national flags used in Asia.

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Flags of Europe

This is a list of international, national and subnational flags used in Europe.

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Fluororichterite

Fluororichterite is a rare amphibole with formula Na(NaCa)Mg5Si8O22F2.

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Forced labor of Germans in the Soviet Union

Forced labor of Germans in the Soviet Union was considered by the Soviet Union to be part of German war reparations for the damage inflicted by Nazi Germany on the Soviet Union during World War II.

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Forced labor of Hungarians in the Soviet Union

The topic of forced labor of Hungarians in the Soviet Union in the aftermath of World War II was not researched until the fall of Communism and the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

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Foreland basin

A foreland basin is a structural basin that develops adjacent and parallel to a mountain belt.

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Forest dormouse

The forest dormouse (Dryomys nitedula) is a species of rodent in the family Gliridae found in eastern Europe, the Balkans and parts of western Central Asia.

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Forest steppe

A forest steppe is a temperate-climate ecotone and habitat type composed of grassland interspersed with areas of woodland or forest.

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Formica cunicularia

Formica cunicularia is a species of ant found all over Europe.

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Four continents

Europeans in the 16th century divided the world into four continents: Africa, America, Asia and Europe.

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Freyer's pug

Freyer’s pug (Eupithecia intricata) is a moth of the family Geometridae.

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Friedrich Gorenstein

Friedrich Naumovich Gorenstein, or Fridrikh Gorenshtein (1932–2002) was a Soviet/Russian author and screenwriter.

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Fur trade

The fur trade is a worldwide industry dealing in the acquisition and sale of animal fur.

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Fyodor Ivanovich Tolstoy

Count Fyodor Ivanovich Tolstoy (Фёдор Ива́нович Толсто́й), also known as the "American" (Американец) (17 February 1782 – 5 November 1846) was a Russian nobleman from the well-known Tolstoy family.

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Fyodor Mikhaylovich Reshetnikov

Fyodor Mikhaylovich Reshetnikov (Фёдор Михайлович Решетников) (&ndash) was a Russian author.

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Fyodor Sergeyev

Fyodor Andreyevich Sergeyev (March 19, 1883 – July 24, 1921), better known as Comrade Artyom, was a Russian revolutionary, Soviet politician, agitator, and journalist.

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Galina Starovoytova

Galina Vasilyevna Starovoitova (Гали́на Васи́льевна Старово́йтова; 17 May 1946, in Chelyabinsk – 20 November 1998, in St Petersburg) was a Soviet dissident, Russian politician and ethnographer known for her work to protect ethnic minorities and promote democratic reforms in Russia.

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Garnet

Garnets are a group of silicate minerals that have been used since the Bronze Age as gemstones and abrasives.

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Gavril Myasnikov

Gavril Ilyich Myasnikov (Гаврии́л Ильи́ч Мяснико́в; February 25, 1889, Chistopol, Kazan Governorate – November 16, 1945, Moscow), also transliterated as Gavriil Il'ich Miasnikov, was a Russian communist revolutionary, a metalworker from the Urals, who participated in the Revolution of 1905 and became a Bolshevik underground activist in 1906.

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Göring's Green Folder

In the Nuremberg Trials there was a document referred to as the "Green Folder" of Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring.

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Generalplan Ost

The Generalplan Ost (Master Plan for the East), abbreviated GPO, was the German government's plan for the genocide and ethnic cleansing on a vast scale, and colonization of Central and Eastern Europe by Germans.

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Genetic studies on Bulgarians

The Bulgarians are part of the Slavic ethnolinguistic group as a result of migrations of Slavic tribes to the region since the 6th century AD and the subsequent linguistic assimilation of other populations.

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Genetic studies on Serbs

Genetic studies on Serbs show close affinity to other neighboring South Slavs.

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Geography of Asia

Geography of Asia reviews geographical concepts of classifying Asia, the central and eastern part of Eurasia, comprising approximately fifty countries.

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Geography of Europe

Europe is traditionally defined as one of seven continents.

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Geography of Georgia (country)

The geography of Georgia describes the geographic features of Georgia, a country in the Caucasus region.

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Geography of Romania

With an area of 238,400 square kilometers, Romania is the twelfth-largest country in Europe.

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Geography of Russia

The geography of Russia describes the geographic features of Russia, a country extending over much of northern Eurasia.

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Geography of Switzerland

The geography of Switzerland encompasses the geographical features of Switzerland, a mountainous and landlocked country located in Western and Central Europe.

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Geography of the Soviet Union

The geography of the Soviet Union includes the geographic features of the countries of the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

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Geological history of Earth

The geological history of Earth follows the major events in Earth's past based on the geologic time scale, a system of chronological measurement based on the study of the planet's rock layers (stratigraphy).

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Geology of Europe

The geology of Europe is varied and complex, and gives rise to the wide variety of landscapes found across the continent, from the Scottish Highlands to the rolling plains of Hungary.

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Geology of Russia

The geology of Russia, the world's largest country, which extends over much of northern Eurasia, consists of several stable cratons and sedimentary platforms bounded by orogenic (mountain) belts.

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Geopolitik

Geopolitik is the branch of uniquely German geostrategy.

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Germain Henri Hess

Germain Henri Hess (Герман Иванович Гесс German Ivanovich Gess; 7 August 1802 – 30 November 1850) was a Swiss-Russian chemist and doctor who formulated Hess's law, an early principle of thermochemistry.

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German Radio Intelligence Operations during World War II

German Radio Intelligence Operation during World War II were signals intelligence operations that were undertaken by German Axis forces in Europe during World War II.

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Germany

Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Gleb Ilyin

Gleb Aleksander Ilyin (Глеб Алекса́ндрович Ильи́н; 1889—1968) was a Russian-American painter known for his portraiture and landscape paintings.

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Global Exchange of Military Information

Global Exchange of Military Information is an arms control annual exchange of information sponsored by the Organization for Security and Co-Operation in Europe.

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Gloydius

Gloydius is a genus of venomous pitvipers endemic to Asia, also known as Asian moccasins or Asian ground pit vipers.

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Gloydius halys

Gloydius halys is a venomous pitviper species found within a wide range that stretches across Asia, from Russia, east of the Urals, eastwards through China.

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Glukoza

Natalya Ilinichna Ionova (Наталья Ильинична Ионова; born June 7, 1986) better known by her stage name Glukoza (p, glucose), is a Russian singer.

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Gnorimoschema nupponeni

Gnorimoschema nupponeni is a moth in the Gelechiidae family.

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Gnorimoschema streliciella

Gnorimoschema streliciella is a moth of the Gelechiidae family.

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Godovikovite

Godovikovite is a rare sulfate mineral with the chemical formula: (NH4)Al(SO4)2.

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Golden Horde

The Golden Horde (Алтан Орд, Altan Ord; Золотая Орда, Zolotaya Orda; Алтын Урда, Altın Urda) was originally a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol Empire.

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Golden Pectoral from Tovsta Mohyla

The Golden Pectoral from Tovsta Mohyla is an ancient Scythian treasure discovered in a burial kurgan at a site called Tovsta Mohyla in 1971 by the Ukrainian archaeologist Boris Mozolevski.

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Gornozavodsky District

Gornozavodsky District (Горнозаво́дский райо́н) is an administrative district (raion) of Perm Krai, Russia; one of the thirty-three in the krai.

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Goths

The Goths (Gut-þiuda; Gothi) were an East Germanic people, two of whose branches, the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths, played an important role in the fall of the Western Roman Empire through the long series of Gothic Wars and in the emergence of Medieval Europe.

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Gottfried Osann

Gottfried Wilhelm Osann (26 October 1796, Weimar – 10 August 1866, Würzburg) was a German chemist and physicist.

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Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna of Russia

Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna of Russia (– 17 July 1918) was the youngest daughter of Tsar Nicholas II, the last sovereign of Imperial Russia, and his wife, Tsarina Alexandra Feodorovna.

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Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna of Russia (1899–1918)

Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna of Russia (Maria Nikolaevna Romanova); Russian: Великая Княжна Мария Николаевна, – 17 July 1918) was the third daughter of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia and Tsarina Alexandra Feodorovna. Her murder following the Russian Revolution of 1917 resulted in her canonization as a passion bearer by the Russian Orthodox Church. During her lifetime, Maria, too young to become a Red Cross nurse like her elder sisters during World War I, was patroness of a hospital and instead visited wounded soldiers. Throughout her lifetime she was noted for her interest in the lives of the soldiers. The flirtatious Maria had a number of innocent crushes on the young men she met, beginning in early childhood. She hoped to marry and have a large family. She was an elder sister of Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna of Russia, whose alleged escape from the assassination of the imperial family was rumored for nearly 90 years. However, it was later proven that Anastasia did not escape. In the 1990s, it was suggested that Maria might have been the grand duchess whose remains were missing from the Romanov grave that was discovered near Yekaterinburg, Russia and exhumed in 1991. However, further remains were discovered in 2007, and DNA analysis subsequently proved that the entire Imperial family had been murdered in 1918.

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Grand Duke Konstantin Konstantinovich of Russia

Grand Duke Konstantin Konstantinovich of Russia (a; 22 August 1858 in Strelna – 15 June 1915 in Pavlovsk) was a grandson of Emperor Nicholas I of Russia, and a poet and playwright of some renown.

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Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovich of Russia

Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovich of Russia (r; 13 June 1918) was the youngest son and fifth child of Emperor Alexander III of Russia and youngest brother of Nicholas II.

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Grand Duke Sergei Mikhailovich of Russia

Grand Duke Sergei Mikhailovich of Russia (Серге́й Миха́йлович; 7 October 1869 – 18 July 1918) was the fifth son and sixth child of Grand Duke Michael Nikolaievich of Russia and a first cousin of Alexander III of Russia.

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Grass emerald

The grass emerald (Pseudoterpna pruinata) is a moth species.

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Grayling (species)

The grayling (Thymallus thymallus) is a species of freshwater fish in the salmon family Salmonidae.

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Great Purge

The Great Purge or the Great Terror (Большо́й терро́р) was a campaign of political repression in the Soviet Union which occurred from 1936 to 1938.

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Great tit

The great tit (Parus major) is a passerine bird in the tit family Paridae.

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Great Zlatoust Church

The Bolshoi Zlatoust (Большой Златоуст) is a -high bell tower that formerly dominated the skyline of the city Yekaterinburg before the Russian Revolution.

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Greater Germanic Reich

The Greater Germanic Reich (Großgermanisches Reich), fully styled the Greater Germanic Reich of the German Nation (Großgermanisch Reich der Deutschen Nation) is the official state name of the political entity that Nazi Germany tried to establish in Europe during World War II.

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Green hairstreak

The green hairstreak (Callophrys rubi) is a small butterfly in the family Lycaenidae.

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Grey heron

The grey heron (Ardea cinerea) is a long-legged predatory wading bird of the heron family, Ardeidae, native throughout temperate Europe and Asia and also parts of Africa.

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Grey import vehicle

Grey import vehicles are new or used motor vehicles and motorcycles legally imported from another country through channels other than the maker's official distribution system.

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Grey partridge

The grey partridge (Perdix perdix), also known as the English partridge, Hungarian partridge, or hun, is a gamebird in the pheasant family Phasianidae of the order Galliformes, gallinaceous birds.

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Grey red-backed vole

The grey red-backed vole or the grey-sided vole (Myodes rufocanus) is a species of vole.

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Grey-headed woodpecker

The grey-headed woodpecker (Picus canus), also known as the grey-faced woodpecker, is a Eurasian member of the woodpecker family, Picidae.

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Group 6 element

Group 6, numbered by IUPAC style, is a group of elements in the periodic table.

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Gumyoshevsky mine

The Gumyoshevsky mine (Gumjoshevskij rudnik), also called Gumeshki, Gumeshevsky or Gumishevskoye mine is a copper mine located in the town of Polevskoy, in Sverdlovsk Oblast of Russia.

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Gun cultures

Gun cultures are found around the world, and evidence various attitudes towards guns in such places as the United States, Canada, Israel, United Kingdom, Switzerland, Yemen and Pakistan.

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Gustav Rose

Prof Gustavus ("Gustav") Rose FRSFor HFRSE (March 18, 1798 – July 15, 1873) was a German mineralogist who was a native of Berlin.

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Gustav Steinmann

Johann Heinrich Conrad Gottfried Gustav Steinmann (9 April 1856 – 7 October 1929) was a German geologist and paleontologist.

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Gynaephora selenitica

Gynaephora selenitica is a moth in the family Erebidae.

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Haplogroup F (mtDNA)

Haplogroup F is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.

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Haplogroup R1

Haplogroup R1, or R-M173, is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.

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Haplogroup R1a

Haplogroup R1a, or haplogroup R-M420, is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup which is distributed in a large region in Eurasia, extending from Scandinavia and Central Europe to southern Siberia and South Asia.

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Haplogroup R1b

Haplogroup R1b (R-M343), also known as Hg1 and Eu18, is a human Y-chromosome haplogroup.

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Harrimanella

Harrimanella is a genus of flowering plant in the heath family Ericaceae, with a single species, Harrimanella hypnoides, also known as moss bell heather.

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Haryzont Outdoors Club

The Haryzont Outdoors Club (Турыстычны клуб "Гарызонт" - literally horizon, skyline) is a student outdoors club based on the Maxim Tank Belarusian State Pedagogical University.

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Hausmannite

Hausmannite is a complex oxide of manganese containing both di- and tri-valent manganese.

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Heaviest trains

The heaviest trains in the world are freight trains hauling bulk commodities such as coal and iron ore.

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Heim ins Reich

The Heim ins Reich (meaning "back home to the Reich") was a foreign policy pursued by Adolf Hitler during World War II, beginning in 1938.

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Helicoprion

Helicoprion is a genus of extinct, shark-like eugeneodontid holocephalid fish.

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Hemaris tityus

Hemaris tityus, the narrow-bordered bee hawk-moth, is a moth of the family Sphingidae which is native to the Palearctic.

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Hemistola chrysoprasaria

Hemistola chrysoprasaria, the small emerald, is a moth of the family Geometridae.

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Henryk Weyssenhoff

Henryk Bonawentura Kazimierz Weyssenhoff (26 July 1859, near Kaunas - 23 July 1922, Warsaw) was a Polish-Belarusian landscape painter, illustrator and sculptor of Baltic-German ancestry.

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Hierochloe

Hierochloe is a genus of plants in the grass family known generally as sweetgrass.

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Hirnantian

The Hirnantian is the seventh and final internationally recognized stage of the Ordovician Period of the Paleozoic Era.

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History of Bashkortostan

The history of Bashkortostan or Bashkiria covers the region in and around the Southern Urals, historically inhabited by Bashkirs.

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History of Bălți

Bălţi is the second largest city in Moldova.

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History of human settlement in the Ural Mountains

The Ural Mountains extend from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Ural River and northwestern Kazakhstan in the south over a distance of, the boundary between Europe and Asia.

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History of Moldova

The history of Moldova can be traced to the 1350s, when the Principality of Moldavia, the medieval precursor of modern Moldova and Romania, was founded.

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History of Russia

The History of Russia begins with that of the East Slavs.

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History of Russia (1721–96)

Peter changed the rules of succession to the throne after the death of his son Aleksey, who had opposed his father's reforms and served as a rallying figure for anti-reform groups.

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History of Russia (1855–92)

In 1855 Alexander II began his reign as Tsar of Russia, and presided over a period of political and social reform, notably the emancipation of serfs in 1861 and the lifting of censorship.

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History of Siberia

The early history of Siberia is greatly influenced by the sophisticated nomadic civilizations of the Scythians (Pazyryk) on the west of the Ural Mountains and Xiongnu (Noin-Ula) on the east of the Urals, both flourishing before the Christian era.

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History of Tatarstan

The region of Tatarstan, now within the Russian Federation, was inhabited by different groups during prehistory.

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History of the Hungarian language

Hungarian is a Uralic language of the Ugric group.

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History of the Soviet Union (1927–1953)

The history of the Soviet Union between 1927 and 1953 covers the period in Soviet history from establishment of Stalinism through victory in the Second World War and down to the death of Joseph Stalin in 1953.

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History of the Soviet Union (1953–64)

In the USSR, the eleven-year period from the death of Joseph Stalin (1953) to the political ouster of Nikita Khrushchev (1964), the national politics were dominated by the Cold War; the ideological U.S.–USSR struggle for the planetary domination of their respective socio–economic systems, and the defense of hegemonic spheres of influence.

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History of the western steppe

History of the western steppe This article summarizes the history of the western third of the Eurasian steppe, that is, the grasslands of Ukraine and southern Russia.

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History of Turkmenistan

The history of Turkmenistan is largely shrouded in mystery, its past since the arrival of Indo-European Iranian tribes around 2000 BC is often the starting point of the area's discernible history.

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Holonematidae

Holonematidae is an extinct family of relatively large arthrodire placoderms from the Early to Late Devonian.

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Hoplodrina ambigua

Hoplodrina ambigua, the Vine’s rustic, is a moth of the family Noctuidae.

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Hoplodrina superstes

Hoplodrina superstes, the powdered rustic, is a moth of the family Noctuidae.

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Hornet

Hornets (insects in the genera Vespa and Provespa) are the largest of the eusocial wasps, and are similar in appearance to their close relatives yellowjackets.

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Hungarian language

Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.

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Hungarian prehistory

Hungarian prehistory (magyar őstörténet) spans the period of history of the Hungarian people, or Magyars, which started with the separation of the Hungarian language from other Finno-Ugric or Ugric languages around, and ended with the Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin around.

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Hungarians

Hungarians, also known as Magyars (magyarok), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary (Magyarország) and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture, history and speak the Hungarian language.

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Hungary

Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.

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Hydriomena furcata

Hydriomena furcata, the July highflyer, is a moth of the family Geometridae.

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Hydro-slotted perforation

Hydro-slotting perforation technology is the process of opening the productive formation through the casing and cement sheath to produce the oil or gas product flow (intensification, stimulation).

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Hylaea fasciaria

Hylaea fasciaria, the barred red, is a moth of the family Geometridae.

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Hyperborea

In Greek mythology the Hyperboreans (Ὑπερβόρε(ι)οι,; Hyperborei) were a mythical race of giants who lived "beyond the North Wind".

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Iberina montana

Iberina montana, the common combtailed spider, which was formerly better known as Hahnia montana, is a species of dwarf sheet spider, family Hahniidae, which is found mainly in Europe.

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Ice core

An ice core is a core sample that is typically removed from an ice sheet or a high mountain glacier.

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Idaea dimidiata

Idaea dimidiata, the single-dotted wave, is a moth of the family Geometridae.

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Idaea muricata

Idaea muricata, the purple-bordered gold, is a moth of the family Geometridae.

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Idel-Ural

Idel-Ural (Идел-Урал, Идель-Урал) literally Volga-Ural is a historical region in Eastern Europe, in what is today Russia.

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Idiognathoides

Idiognathoides is an extinct genus of conodonts.

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Ignatievka Cave

Ignatievka Cave (Ignateva cave, Ignatievskaya cave, Игнатьевская пещера, also known as Yamazy-Tash) is a large limestone cave on the banks of the Sim River, a tributary of the Belaya river in the southern Ural mountains of Russia.

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Igor Smirnov

Igor Nikolaevich Smirnov (И́горь Никола́евич Смирно́в, tr. Igorʹ Nikolayevich Smirnov; born October 23, 1941) is a Transnistrian politician, the first president (1991–2011) of the internationally unrecognized Eastern-European country Pridnestrovian Moldovan Republic.

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Ilek River

The Ilek River (Елек Elek, Илек) is a steppe river at the southern end of the Ural Mountains.

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Ilmen Nature Reserve

Ilmen Nature Reserve (Ильменский заповедник) (also Ilmensky) is a Russian 'zapovednik' (strict nature reserve) that was created by decree of Vladimir Lenin, in 1920 as a mineralogical nature reserve.

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Ilmensky Mountains

The Ilmensky Mountains (ru) are located in the Southern Urals in the Chelyabinsk Oblast on the administrative territory of Miass in Chebarkulsky and Argayashsky districts.

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Ilych River

Ilych River (Илыч) is a river in the Komi Republic in northwest Russia.

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Ilyushin Il-2

The Ilyushin Il-2 (Cyrillic: Илью́шин Ил-2) Shturmovik (Cyrillic: Штурмови́к, Shturmovík) was a ground-attack aircraft produced by the Soviet Union in large numbers during the Second World War.

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Immaculate Conception Church, Perm

The Immaculate Conception Church (Храм Непорочного Зачатия Пресвятой Девы Марии) It is a Catholic church in the city of Perm in the Russian Federation.

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IMZ-Ural

IMZ-Ural (Irbit Motorcycle Factory) is a Russian maker of heavy sidecar motorcycles.

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In the Presence of Mine Enemies

In the Presence of Mine Enemies (2003) is an alternate history novel by American author Harry Turtledove, expanded from the eponymous short story.

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Index of Kazakhstan-related articles

Below is the list of Kazakhstan related articles.

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Indigenous peoples of Siberia

Including the Russian Far East, the population of Siberia numbers just above 40 million people.

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Indo-Aryan migration

Indo-Aryan migration models discuss scenarios around the theory of an origin from outside South Asia of Indo-Aryan peoples, an ascribed ethnolinguistic group that spoke Indo-Aryan languages, the predominant languages of North India.

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Indo-European migrations

Indo-European migrations were the migrations of pastoral peoples speaking the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE), who departed from the Yamnaya and related cultures in the Pontic–Caspian steppe, starting at.

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Inonotus obliquus

Inonotus obliquus, commonly known as chaga mushroom (a Latinisation of the Russian word чага), is a fungus in the family Hymenochaetaceae.

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International Air Transport Association code

IATA codes are abbreviations that the International Air Transport Association (IATA) publishes to facilitate air travel.

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International Motor Insurance Card System

An International Motor Insurance Card System is an arrangement between authorities and insurance organizations of multiple states to ensure that victims of road traffic accidents do not suffer from the fact that injuries or damage sustained by them were caused by a visiting motorist rather than a motorist resident in the same country.

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Ipatiev House

Ipatiev House (Russian: Дом Ипатьева) was a merchant's house in Yekaterinburg where the former Emperor Nicholas II of Russia, his family, and members of his household were executed in 1918 following the Bolshevik Revolution.

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Iranian peoples

The Iranian peoples, or Iranic peoples, are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of the Iranian languages.

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Irbit Fair

The Irbit fair (Russian: Ирби́тская я́рмарка, irbitskaya yarmarka) was the second largest fair in Imperial Russia after the Makariev Fair.

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Iremel

Iremel (Ирәмәл, Иремель) is a compact mountain ridge in the Southern Ural Mountains in the republic of Bashkortostan, Russian Federation (bordering with Chelyabinsk Oblast to the north-west).

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Iridium

Iridium is a chemical element with symbol Ir and atomic number 77.

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Iris scariosa

Iris scariosa is a species in the genus Iris, it is also in the subgenus of Iris.

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Isaak Yaglom

Isaak Moiseevich Yaglom (Исаа́к Моисе́евич Ягло́м; 6 March 1921 – 17 April 1988) was a Soviet mathematician and author of popular mathematics books, some with his twin Akiva Yaglom.

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Iset River

The Iset River (Исеть) in Western Siberia (Russia) flows from the Urals through the Sverdlovsk, Kurgan and Tyumen Oblasts into the Tobol River.

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Italian exonyms

Below is list of Italian language exonyms for places in non-Italian-speaking areas of Europe: In recent years, the use of Italian exonyms for lesser known places has significantly decreased, in favour of the foreign toponym.

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Itera

ITERA International Group of Companies controlled by Russian businessman Igor Makarov headquartered in Moscow, Russia, with parent companies of the group registered in Cyprus (In 2015 ITERA International Group of Companies was transferred to ARETI International Group as a result of rebranding).

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Ivan Efimov

Ivan Efimov (Иван Семёнович Ефимов 11 February 1878 – 7 January 1959) was a Russian sculptor.

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Ivan Lepyokhin

Ivan Ivanovich Lepyokhin (Иван Иванович Лепёхин; 10 September 1740 in Saint-Petersburg – 1802 in Saint-Petersburg) was a Russian naturalist, zoologist, botanist and explorer.

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Ivan Panfilov

Ivan Vasilyevich Panfilov (Иван Васильевич Панфилов; – 18 November 1941) was a Soviet general and a posthumous Hero of the Soviet Union, known for his command of the 316th Rifle Division during the defense of Moscow at the Second World War.

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Ivan Sidorenko

Ivan Mikhaylovich Sidorenko (Ива́н Миха́йлович Сидоре́нко; September 12 1919 – February 19 1994) was a Red Army officer and a Hero of the Soviet Union, who served during World War II.

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Ivan the Terrible

Ivan IV Vasilyevich (pron; 25 August 1530 –), commonly known as Ivan the Terrible or Ivan the Fearsome (Ivan Grozny; a better translation into modern English would be Ivan the Formidable), was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1533 to 1547, then Tsar of All Rus' until his death in 1584.

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Ivan Yefremov

Ivan Antonovich (real patronymic Antipovich) Yefremov (Ива́н Анто́нович (Анти́пович) Ефре́мов; April 22, 1908 – October 5, 1972), last name sometimes spelled Efremov, was a Soviet paleontologist, science fiction author and social thinker.

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Ivdel

Ivdel (Ивдель) is a town in Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia, located on the Ivdel River (Ob's basin) near its confluence with the Lozva River, north of Yekaterinburg, the administrative center of the oblast.

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Izhevsk

Izhevsk (p; Иж, Iž, or Ижкар, Ižkar) is the capital city of the Udmurt Republic, Russia, located along the Izh River in the Western Ural Mountains.

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Izhma Komi

Izhma Komi (Russian: Коми-ижемцы (Komi-Izhemtsy), endonym: Изьватас (Iźvatas)) is an ethnic group of Komi people residing primarily in the north of the Komi Republic.

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James Hall (paleontologist)

James Hall (September 12, 1811 – August 7, 1898) was an American geologist and paleontologist.

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January Uprising

The January Uprising (Polish: powstanie styczniowe, Lithuanian: 1863 m. sukilimas, Belarusian: Паўстанне 1863-1864 гадоў, Польське повстання) was an insurrection instigated principally in the Russian Partition of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth against its occupation by the Russian Empire.

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Japanese grosbeak

The Japanese grosbeak (Eophona personata) or Ikaruga is a finch native to East Asia.

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Jeanne Guillemin

Jeanne Harley Guillemin (born 1943) is a medical anthropologist and author, who for 25 years was a Professor of Sociology at Boston College and for the last ten years, a senior fellow in the at Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

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Jessica Smith (editor)

Jessica Smith (November 29, 1895–October 17, 1983) was an American editor and activist and was the wife of Harold Ware and subsequently John Abt, both members of the Ware Group run by Whittaker Chambers and whose members also included Alger Hiss.

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Johan Bäckman

Erkki Johan Bäckman (born 18 May 1971) is a Finnish political activist, author and legal sociologist.

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Johann Andreas Schnabl

Johann Andreas Schnabl (1838 – 1912) was born a Pole of German descent, and an entomologist specializing in Diptera.

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Johann Georg Gmelin

Johann Georg Gmelin (8 August 1709 – 20 May 1755) was a German naturalist, botanist and geographer.

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Johann Gottlieb Georgi

Johann Gottlieb Georgi (31 December 1729 – 27 October 1802) was a German botanist, naturalist and geographer.

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Josip Broz Tito

Josip Broz (Cyrillic: Јосип Броз,; 7 May 1892 – 4 May 1980), commonly known as Tito (Cyrillic: Тито), was a Yugoslav communist revolutionary and political leader, serving in various roles from 1943 until his death in 1980.

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Juan Menéndez Granados

Juan Menéndez Granados (Pravia, Spain) is a Spanish cyclist known for solo bicycle expeditions in remote locations around the world.

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Jushatyria

Jushatyria is an extinct genus of archosaur.

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Kad River

Kad (Кадь) is a river in Perm Krai, Russia, a left tributary of the Yayva River.

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Kadir Timergazin

Kadir Rakhimovich Timergazin (Кадыр Рахимович Тимергазин; Ҡадыр Рәхим улы Тимерғазин; 4 April 1963) was a Soviet petroleum geologist and a professor of geological-mineralogical science.

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Kakva River

Kakva (Каква) is a river in Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia.

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Kakvinskie Pechi

Kakvinskie Pechi - is a village situated on the left bank of the Kakva river in the Russian Federation.

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Kalduny

Kalduny or kolduny (калдуны́, kołduny, koldūnai, used in plural only) are stuffed dumplings made of unleavened dough in Belarusian, Lithuanian, and Polish cuisines, akin to the Polish pierogi, Russian pelmeni and the Ukrainian vareniki.

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Kalmyks

The Kalmyks (Kalmyk: Хальмгуд, Xaľmgud, Mongolian: Халимаг, Halimag) are the Oirats in Russia, whose ancestors migrated from Dzungaria in 1607.

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Kama culture

The Kama culture (also known as Volga-Kama or Khutorskoye from finds near the Khutorskoye settlement) is an Eastern European Subneolithic archaeological culture from the 5th-3rd millennium BC.

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Kamassian language

Kamassian is an extinct Samoyedic language, included by convention in the Southern group together with Mator and Selkup (although this does not constitute an actual subfamily).

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Kampfgeschwader 1

Kampfgeschwader 1 (KG 1) (Battle Wing 1) was a German medium bomber wing that operated in the Luftwaffe during World War II.

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Kampfgeschwader 55

Kampfgeschwader 55 "Greif" (KG 55 or Battle Wing 55) was a ''Luftwaffe'' bomber unit during World War II.

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Kangju

Kangju was the Chinese name of an ancient kingdom in Central Asia which became for a couple of centuries the second greatest power in Transoxiana after the Yuezhi.

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Kapova Cave

Kapova cave (Капова пещера, also known as Shul'gan-Tash, Шүлгәнташ) is a limestone karst cave in the Burzyansky District of Bashkortostan, Russia, ca.

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Kara Depression

The Kara Depression is a depression in the Extreme North of European Russia, by the mouth of Kara River, north-east of the Pay-Khoy Ridge (a continuation of the northern Ural Mountains).

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Karasuk culture

The Karasuk culture describes a group of Bronze Age societies who ranged from the Aral Sea to the upper Yenisei in the east and south to the Altai Mountains and the Tian Shan in ca.

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Kargaly

Kargaly is a copper mining-metallurgical district in the southern Urals of Russia.

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Karl Ernst Claus

Karl Ernst Claus (also Karl Klaus or Carl Claus, Карл Ка́рлович Кла́ус, 23 January 1796 – 24 March 1864) was a Baltic German chemist and naturalist.

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Karoo Ice Age

The Karoo Ice Age from 360–260 million years ago (Mya) was the second major ice age of the Phanerozoic Eon.

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Karpinsk

Karpinsk (Карпи́нск) is a town in Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia, located on the Turya River (Ob's basin), north of Yekaterinburg, the administrative center of the oblast.

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Karpogory

Karpogory (Карпого́ры) is a rural locality (a selo) and the administrative center of Pinezhsky District, Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, located on the right bank of the Pinega River.

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Kazakh Steppe

The Kazakh Steppe (Qazaq dalasy, Қазақ даласы, also Uly dala, Ұлы дала "Great Steppe"), also called the Great Dala, ecoregion, of the Palearctic temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome, is a vast region of open grassland in northern Kazakhstan and adjacent portions of Russia, extending to the east of the Pontic steppe and to the west of the Emin Valley steppe, with which it forms part of the Eurasian steppe.

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Kazakhs

The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Қазақ, Qazaq, قازاق, Qazaqtar, Қазақтар, قازاقتار; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic people who mainly inhabit the southern part of Eastern Europe and the Ural mountains and northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also parts of Uzbekistan, China, Russia and Mongolia), the region also known as the Eurasian sub-continent.

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Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.

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Kārlis Balodis

Kārlis Balodis (June 20, 1864 – January 13, 1931) was a notable Latvian economist, financist, statistician and demographist.

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Keal Cotes

Keal Cotes, forming part of West Keal parish, is a small linear village in East Lindsey district of Lincolnshire, England.

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Kharkiv

Kharkiv (Ха́рків), also known as Kharkov (Ха́рьков) from Russian, is the second-largest city in Ukraine.

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Kharkiv Morozov Machine Building Design Bureau

Kharkiv Morozov Machine Building Design Bureau (Харківське Конструкторське Бюро з Машинобудування ім.), often simply called Morozov Design Bureau or abbreviated KMDB, is a state-owned company in Kharkiv, Ukraine, which designs armoured vehicles, including the T-80UD and T-84 main battle tanks, as well as military prime movers.

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Kholat Syakhl

Kholat Syakhl, a transliteration in Russian of Holatchahl, meaning "Dead Mountain" in Mansi (lit. Мёртвая гора Myortvaya gora in Russian) is a mountain in the northern Ural region of Russia.

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Kholmogorsky District

Kholmogorsky District (Холмого́рский райо́н) is an administrative district (raion), one of the twenty-one in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia.

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Khvalynsk culture

The Khvalynsk culture was a Middle Copper Age (for Eastern Europe named "Eneolithic") culture of the first half of the 5th millennium BC, discovered at Khvalynsk on the Volga in Saratov Oblast, Russia.

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Kiev Arsenal

State enterprise of a special instrumentation Arsenal (translit), also known as Arsenal Factory, is one of the oldest and most famous factories in Kiev.

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Kimek confederation

The Kimek confederation was a medieval Turkic state formed by the Kimek and Kipchak people in the area between the Ob and Irtysh rivers.

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Kirsha Danilov

Kirsha Danilov (Russian: Кирша Данилов) was the supposed compiler of a collection of Russian heroic, religious and humorous folksongs that made its first appearance in print in 1804.

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Kiyevskaya (Arbatsko–Pokrovskaya line)

Kiyevskaya (Киевская), named for the nearby Kiyevsky railway station, is a station on the Arbatsko–Pokrovskaya line of the Moscow Metro.

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Komi Republic

The Komi Republic (r; Komi Respublika) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic).

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Komi-Permyak Okrug

Komi-Permyak Okrug (Ко́ми-Пермя́цкий о́круг, Komi-Permyatsky okrug; Перым Коми кытш), or Permyakia is a territory with special status within Perm Krai, Russia.

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Konstantin Pankov

Konstantin Leonidovich Pankov (Константин Леонидович Панков, 1910–1942) was an ethnically Nenets/Mansi Soviet painter.

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Konstantin Rokossovsky

Konstantin Konstantinovich (Xaverevich) Rokossovsky (December 21, 1896 – August 3, 1968) was a Soviet officer of Polish origin who became Marshal of the Soviet Union, Marshal of Poland and served as Poland's Defence Minister from 1949 until his removal in 1956 during the Polish October.

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Konstantin Vaginov

Konstantin Konstantinovich Vaginov (Константи́н Константи́нович Ва́гинов, born Wagenheim, – April 26, 1934) was a Russian poet and novelist.

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Konstantinov

Konstantinov (Константинов, Константинов) and Konstantinova (feminine; Константинова) is a common Slavic surname that is derived from the baptismal name Konstantin and literally means Konstantin's.

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Konzhakovskiy Kamen

Mount Konzhakovskiy Kamen (Конжаковский Камень) is a mountain in the northern Urals, Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia.

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Korkino, Chelyabinsk Oblast

Korkino (Ко́ркино) is a town and the administrative center of Korkinsky District in Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia, located on the eastern slope of the Southern Ural Mountains, south of Chelyabinsk, the administrative center of the oblast.

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Kostanay Region

Kostanay Region (Қостанай облысы, Qostanaı oblysy, قوستاناي وبلىسى) (Кустанайская Область, Kustanayskaya Oblast) is a region of Kazakhstan.

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Kostya Tszyu

Konstantin Borisovich "Kostya" Tszyu (Константин Борисович "Костя" Цзю; born 19 September 1969) is a Soviet-born Australian former professional boxer who competed from 1992 to 2005.

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Kosvinsky Kamen

Mount Kosvinsky Kamen, Kosvinsky Mountain, Kosvinski Mountain, Kosvinsky Rock or Rostesnoy Rock (Косвинский камень, Косьвинский камень, Ростесной камень) is a mountain in the northern Urals, Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia.

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Koyandinsk Fair

The Koyandinsk Fair (also known as the Koyandy fair) was a large annual trade fair held every June from 1848 to 1930 in the Karkaraly region of Kazakhstan on the caravan route from Central Asia to Siberia, located near modern-day Egindybulak, near a large freshwater lake.

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Koyva River

Koyva River (Койва) is a river in Perm Krai in Russia, a right tributary of the Chusovaya River (Kama's basin).

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Kozhim River

The Kozhim River is a river in Komi Republic, Russia that runs through the subpolar Ural Mountains.

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Krasnovishersk

Krasnovishersk (Краснови́шерск) is a town and the administrative center of Krasnovishersky District in Perm Krai, Russia, located on the western slopes of the Northern Urals, north of Perm, the administrative center of the krai.

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Kremlin stars

The Kremlin stars (Kremlyovskiye zvyozdyy) are the pentagonal luminescent ruby stars, installed in the 1930s on five towers of the Moscow Kremlin, replacing gilded eagles that had symbolized Imperial Russia.

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Krez (instrument)

The krez (or krez', krezh) is a musical instrument of the Udmurt people of the Russian Urals.

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Kronstadt Naval Cathedral

The Naval cathedral of Saint Nicholas in Kronstadt (Морской Никольский собор, Morskoj Nikol'skij sobor) is a Russian Orthodox cathedral built in 1903–1913 as the main church of the Russian Navy and dedicated to all fallen seamen.

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Krutovite

Krutovite is a cubic nickel diarsenide with a chemical composition of NiAs2 and a sulfur content of 0.02-0.34 weight percent (Vinogradova, et al., 1977).

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Kulak

The kulaks (a, plural кулаки́, p, "fist", by extension "tight-fisted"; kurkuli in Ukraine, but also used in Russian texts in Ukrainian contexts) were a category of affluent peasants in the later Russian Empire, Soviet Russia and the early Soviet Union.

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Kunda culture

Kunda Culture, originating from the Swiderian culture, comprised mesolithic hunter-gatherer communities of the Baltic forest zone extending eastwards through Latvia into northern Russia, dating to the period 8500–5000 BC according to calibrated radiocarbon dating.

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Kungur

Kungur (Кунгу́р) is a town in the southeast of Perm Krai, Russia, located in the Ural Mountains at the confluence of the Iren and Shakhva Rivers into the Sylva River (Kama's basin).

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Kungur Ice Cave

Kungur Ice Cave is a karst cave located in the Urals, near the town Kungur in Perm Krai, Russia, on the right bank of the Sylva River.

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Kurgan

In English, the archaeological term kurgan is a loanword from East Slavic languages (and, indirectly, from Turkic languages), equivalent to the archaic English term barrow, also known by the Latin loanword tumulus and terms such as burial mound.

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Kurgazak cave

Kurgazak Cave (Russian: Кургазакская пещера) is a cave in the Ural Mountains, in the Ay River valley.

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Kushnarenkovo culture

The Kushnarenkovo culture - archaeological culture of the Iron Age in the Southern Ural.

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Kushva

Kushva (Кушва) is a town in Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia, located in the Ural Mountains near Yekaterinburg.

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Kuvandyk

Kuvandyk (Куванды́к) is a town in Orenburg Oblast, Russia, located on the Sakmara River at the southern end of the Ural Mountains, east of Orenburg, the administrative center of the oblast.

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Kyrgyz people

The Kyrgyz people (also spelled Kyrghyz and Kirghiz) are a Turkic ethnic group native to Central Asia, primarily Kyrgyzstan.

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Kyshtym

Kyshtym (Кышты́м) is a town in Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia, located on the eastern slopes of the Southern Ural Mountains northwest of Chelyabinsk, near the town of Ozyorsk.

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L. S. Stepanyan

Leo Surenovich Stepanyan (Лео Суренович Степанян) (19 March 1931 – 16 February 2002) was an Armenian ornithologist, best known as the author of the Conspectus of the ornithological fauna of the USSR, a taxonomic work in Russian on birds of the Soviet Union.

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Labor army

The notion of the Labor army (трудовая армия, трудармия) was introduced in Soviet Russia during the Russian Civil War in 1920.

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Lacanobia suasa

Lacanobia suasa, the dog’s tooth, is a moth of the family Noctuidae.

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Lada Niva

The Lada 4x4, formerly called the Lada Niva (Лада Нива; Niva (нива) is the Russian word for "field"), is an off-road vehicle designed and produced by the Russian (former Soviet) manufacturer AvtoVAZ specifically for the rural market.

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Lake Chebarkul

Lake Chebarkul is a lake in Chebarkulsky District, Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia, on the slopes of the southern Urals.

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Lake Itkul

Lake Itkul is situated in the north of the Chelyabinsk Oblast, 20 kilometers from the town of Verkhny Ufaley.

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Lake Karachay

Lake Karachay (Карача́й), sometimes spelled Karachai or Karachaj, was a small lake in the southern Ural mountains in central Russia.

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Lake Komi

Lake Komi was a prehistoric periglacial lake formed in the region of the present-day Russian Komi Republic when the Barents Sea outlet of the Pechora River was blocked by ice during the Weichselian Glaciation.

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Lake Maloye Miassovo

Lake Maloye Miassovo (Russian: Малое Миассово) is located in Chelyabinsk Oblast on the east side of the Ural Mountains, west of Chelyabinsk and east of Miass.

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Lake Talkas

Talkas (Russian: Талкас; Bashkir: Талҡаҫ) is a tectonic lake in Baymaksky District, Bashkortostan, Russia.

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Land and Liberty (Russia)

Land and Liberty was a Russian clandestine revolutionary organization of Narodniki (middle- or upper-class revolutionaries attempting to spread socialism in rural areas) in the 1870s.

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Land of Darkness

The Land of Darkness was a mythical land supposedly enshrouded in perpetual darkness.

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Languages of Europe

Most languages of Europe belong to the Indo-European language family.

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Larch pug

The larch pug (Eupithecia lariciata) is a moth of the family Geometridae.

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Larissa Reissner

Larissa Mikhailovna Reissner (Лариса Михайловна Рейснер; 1 (13) May 1895 – 9 February 1926) was a Russian writer.

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Lavvu

Lavvu (or lávvu, láávu, kååvas, koavas, kota or umpilaavu, lavvo or sametelt, and kåta) is a temporary dwelling used by the Sami people of northern Scandinavia.

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Least weasel

The least weasel (Mustela nivalis), or simply weasel in the UK and much of the world, is the smallest member of the genus Mustela, family Mustelidae and order Carnivora.

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Lebensraum

The German concept of Lebensraum ("living space") comprises policies and practices of settler colonialism which proliferated in Germany from the 1890s to the 1940s.

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Left-wing uprisings against the Bolsheviks

The left-wing uprisings against the Bolsheviks were a series of rebellions and uprisings against the Bolsheviks by rival left-wing parties that started soon after the October Revolution, continued through the Russian Civil War, and lasted into the first few years of Soviet rule.

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Leon Trotsky

Leon Trotsky (born Lev Davidovich Bronstein; – 21 August 1940) was a Russian revolutionary, theorist, and Soviet politician.

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Leonard Jaczewski

Leonard Jaczewski, Леонард Антонович Ячевский, Leonard Yachevsky (1858-1916) was a Polish geologist, geographer, engineer and explorer of Siberia.

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Leonard Turzhansky

Leonard Viktorovich Turzhansky (Леонард Викторович Туржанский; 1875 Yekaterinburg - 1945 Moscow) was a Russian impressionist painter.

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Leontii Voitovych

Leontii Voitovych (Войтович Леонтій Вікторович, May 16, 1951, Yemanzhelinsk, Chelyabinsk Oblast now Russian Federation) is a modern Ukrainian scientist-historian and holds a Doctor of Science (Ukrainian: До́ктор нау́к) degree.

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Lepidolite

Lepidolite is a lilac-gray or rose-colored member of the mica group of minerals with formula K(Li,Al,Rb)2(Al,Si)4O10(F,OH)2.

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Lera Auerbach

Lera Auerbach (Лера Авербах, born Valeria Lvovna Averbakh, Валерия Львовна Авербах; 21 October 1973, Chelyabinsk) is a Soviet-Russian-born American classical composer and pianist.

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Leslie Urquhart

John Leslie Urquhart (11 April 1874 – 13 March 1933) was a Scottish mining entrepreneur and millionaire.

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Lesser noctule

The lesser noctule or Leisler's bat (Nyctalus leisleri) is a species of bat belonging to the vesper bat family, Vespertilionidae.

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Lesser spotted woodpecker

The lesser spotted woodpecker (Dryobates minor) is a member of the woodpecker family Picidae.

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Lev Nussberg

Lev Valdemarovich Nussberg (Лев Вальдемарович Нуссберг; born 1937) (also known as Nusberg) is a Russian painter, and founder of Russian kinetic art.

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Lev Voronin

Lev Alekseyevich Voronin (Лев Алексеевич Воронин; 22 February 1928 – 24 June 2008) was a Soviet Russian official.

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Levedi

Levedi, or Levedias, Lebedias, and Lebedi was the first known voivode of the Hungarians.

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Liis Lass

Liis Lass (born 2 April 1989) is an Estonian stage, film, and television actress.

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Liliaspis

Liliaspis philippovae is an extinct cyathaspidiform heterostracan agnathan from early Devonian marine strata of the Ural Mountains.

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Limax cinereoniger

Limax cinereoniger is a large species of air-breathing land slug in the terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusk family Limacidae, the keelback slugs.

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Lipka Tatars

The Lipka Tatars (also known as Lithuanian Tatars, Polish Tatars, Lipkowie, Lipcani or Muślimi) are a group of Tatars who originally settled in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania at the beginning of the 14th century.

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List of ancient Iranian peoples

This list of ancient Iranian peoples or ancient Iranic peoples includes names of Indo-European peoples speaking Iranian languages or otherwise considered Iranian in sources from the late 1st millennium BC to the early 2nd millennium AD.

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List of birds of Asia

The birds of Asia are diverse.

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List of countries with Burger King franchises

This is a list of countries with Burger King franchises.

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List of cultural icons of Russia

This is a list of cultural icons of Russia.

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List of curling clubs in Russia

This is a list of Russian curling federations and clubs.

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List of fault zones

This list covers all faults and fault-systems that are either geologically important or connected to prominent seismic activity.

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List of fictional astronauts (Project Gemini era)

The following is a list of fictional astronauts from the era of Project Gemini and the Voskhod programme, during the early "Golden Age" of space travel.

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List of Finnish MPs imprisoned in Russia

This is a list of Finnish MPs who were imprisoned for political reasons in Russia.

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List of Forgotten Realms cities

This is a list of fictional cities, towns, and villages from the Forgotten Realms setting.

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List of Global Boundary Stratotype Sections and Points

This is a list of Global Boundary Stratotype Sections and Points.

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List of Gulag camps

The list below, enumerates the selected sites of the Soviet forced labor camps (known in Russian as the "corrective labor camps") of the Gulag.

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List of Horizon episodes

Horizon is a current and long-running BBC popular science and philosophy documentary programme.

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List of languages by time of extinction

This is a list of extinct languages sorted by their time of extinction.

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List of lunar features

Several features cover the surface of the Moon.

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List of mammals of Europe

This is a list of European mammals.

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List of megaprojects

This is a list of megaprojects.

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List of meteor air bursts

Many explosions have been recorded in Earth's atmosphere that are likely caused by the air burst that results from a meteor exploding as it hits the thicker part of the atmosphere.

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List of mountain ranges

This is a list of mountain ranges on Earth and a few other astronomical bodies.

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List of mountain ranges in Asia

This is a list of mountain ranges in Asia.

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List of mountains by elevation

This is an incomplete list of mountains on Earth, arranged by elevation in metres above sea level.

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List of mountains of Russia

This is a list of mountains of Russia.

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List of mountains on the Moon

This is a list of named mountains on the Moon.

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List of orogenies

The following is a list of known orogenies organised by continent, starting with the oldest at the top.

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List of predecessors of sovereign states in Asia

This is a list of all present sovereign states in Asia and their predecessors.

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List of predecessors of sovereign states in Europe

This is a list of all present sovereign states in Europe and their predecessors.

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List of Prehistoric Park episodes

The following is a list of episodes of Prehistoric Park.

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List of rampage killers (Europe)

This section of the list of rampage killers contains those cases that occurred in Europe.

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List of reported UFO sightings

This is a partial list of sightings of alleged unidentified flying objects (UFOs), including reports of close encounters and abductions.

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List of rivers of Europe

This page lists the principal rivers of Europe with their main attributes.

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List of rivers of Russia

Russia can be divided into a European and an Asian part.

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List of rural localities in Bashkortostan

This is a list of rural localities in Bashkortostan.

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List of Russian explorers

The history of exploration by citizens or subjects of the Russian Federation, the Soviet Union, the Russian Empire, the Tsardom of Russia and other Russian predecessor states forms a significant part of the history of Russia as well as the history of the world.

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List of Russian people

This is a list of people associated with the modern Russian Federation, the Soviet Union, Imperial Russia, Russian Tsardom, the Grand Duchy of Moscow, and other predecessor states of Russia.

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List of Russian scientists

Alona Soschen.

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List of selfie-related injuries and deaths

This is a list of serious injuries and deaths in which one or more subjects of a selfie were killed or injured, either before, during or after having taken a photo of themselves, with the accident at least in part attributed to the taking of the photo.

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List of shields and cratons

A craton is an ancient part of the Earth's continental crust which has been more or less stable since Precambrian times.

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List of ski areas and resorts in Europe

This is a list of ski areas and resorts in Europe and Eurasia.

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List of solar eclipses visible from Russia

This incomplete list of solar eclipses visible from Russia enumerates the solar eclipses that was saw and will be seen in Russia.

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List of solar eclipses visible from the United Kingdom

This is a list of solar eclipses visible from the United Kingdom (i.e. the islands of Great Britain and Ireland) between AD 1000AD 2091.

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List of sovereign states and dependent territories by continent

This is a list of sovereign states and dependent territories of the world by continent, displayed with their respective national flags and capitals, including the following entities.

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List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Asia

This is a list of sovereign states and dependent territories in Asia.

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List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Europe

The list below includes all entities falling even partially under any of the various common definitions of Europe, geographical or political.

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List of spaceflight-related accidents and incidents

This article lists verifiable spaceflight-related accidents and incidents resulting in fatality or near-fatality during flight or training for manned space missions, and testing, assembly, preparation or flight of manned and unmanned spacecraft.

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List of Spanish words of various origins

This is a list of Spanish words of various origins.

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List of Stone Age art

This is a descriptive list of art from the Stone Age, the period of prehistory characterised by the widespread use of stone tools.

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List of stories within The Malachite Box

This is a list of the stories in Pavel Bazhov's collection The Malachite Box.

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List of the physiographic regions of the world

The landforms of the Earth are generally divided into physiographic divisions, consisting of physiographic provinces, which in turn consist of physiographic sections, though some others use different terminology, such as realms, regions and sub-regions.

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List of transcontinental countries

This is a list of countries located on more than one continent, known as transcontinental states or intercontinental states.

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List of unconfirmed impact craters on Earth

This list of more than 130 possible impact craters on Earth includes theoretical impact sites that have appeared several times in the literature, or may have been endorsed by the Impact Field Studies Group (IFSG) or Expert Database on Earth Impact Structures (EDEIS), but not yet confirmed by the Earth Impact Database (EID).

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List of unsolved deaths

This list of unsolved deaths includes notable cases where victims have been murdered or have died under unsolved circumstances, including murders committed by unknown serial killers.

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List of World Heritage Sites in Russia

This a list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Russia.

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List of World War II evacuations

Several instances of evacuations (including both emergency evacuations and forced migrations) occurred during and after World War II.

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Lithostege griseata

The Grey Carpet (Lithostege griseata) is a moth of the Geometridae family.

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Little Sosva Nature Reserve

Little Sosva Nature Reserve (Малая Сосьва заповедник) (also Malaya Sosva) is a Russian 'zapovednik' (strict ecological reserve) covering the basin of the Malaya Sosva River, on the east side of the Northern Ural Mountains in the territory of the West Siberian Plain.

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Liz Sherman

Elizabeth Anne Sherman is a fictional character appearing in the Hellboy comic book series created by Mike Mignola.

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Lockheed U-2

The Lockheed U-2, nicknamed "Dragon Lady", is an American single-jet engine, ultra-high altitude reconnaissance aircraft operated by the United States Air Force (USAF) and previously flown by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).

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Long Range Aviation

Long Range Aviation (r, abbr. to AДД, or ADD) is the branch of the Soviet Air Forces and Russian Air Force tasked with long-range bombardment of strategic targets with nuclear weapons.

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Lopinga deidamia

Lopinga deidamia is a species of butterfly in the family Nymphalidae.

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Lord of the World

Lord of the World is a 1907 dystopian science fiction novel by Monsignor Robert Hugh Benson that centers upon the reign of the Anti-Christ and the End of the World.

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Lore (podcast)

Lore is an award-winning, critically acclaimed podcast about non-fiction scary stories.

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Lustre (mineralogy)

Lustre or luster is the way light interacts with the surface of a crystal, rock, or mineral.

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Lycaena phlaeas

Lycaena phlaeas, the small copper, American copper, or common copper, is a butterfly of the Lycaenids or gossamer-winged butterfly family.

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Lycia zonaria

Lycia zonaria, the belted beauty, is a moth of the family Geometridae.

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M5 highway (Russia)

The Russian route M5 (also known as the Ural Highway) is a major trunk road running across a distance of 1879 km from Moscow to the Ural Mountains.

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Magnitogorsk

Magnitogorsk (p, lit. city near the magnetic mountain) is an industrial city in Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia, located on the eastern side of the extreme southern extent of the Ural Mountains by the Ural River.

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Magyar tribes

The Magyar tribes or Hungarian clan (magyar törzsek) were the fundamental political units within whose framework the Hungarians (Magyars) lived, until these clans from the region of Ural MountainsAndrás Róna-Tas,, Central European University Press, 1999, p. 319 invaded the Carpathian Basin and established the Principality of Hungary.

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Mahadeva Subramania Mani

Mahadeva Subramania Mani (மகாதேவா சுப்ரமணிய கரங்கள்; March 2, 1908 in Tanjore, Tamil Nadu - January 8, 2003 in Bangalore) was an Indian entomologist especially famous for his studies on high altitude entomology.

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Main Uralian Fault

The Main Uralian Fault (MUF) runs north–south through the middle of the Ural Mountains for over 2,000 km.

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Malachite

Malachite is a copper carbonate hydroxide mineral, with the formula Cu2CO3(OH)2.

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Malik Gaisin

Malik Favzavievich Gaisin (Ма́лик Фавзавиевич Га́йсин; born 26 February 1959, in Sverdlovsk) is a Russian entrepreneur and politician from Urals.

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Malyshev Factory

The Malyshev Factory (Zavod imeni V.O. Malysheva, Завод імені В.О. Малишева), formerly the Kharkiv Locomotive Factory (KhPZ), is a state-owned manufacturer of heavy equipment in Kharkiv, Ukraine.

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Manaraga

Manaraga is a peak in the northern Ural Mountains, within the Komi Republic, in Russia.

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Mangazeya

Mangazeya (Мангазе́я) was a Northwest Siberian trans-Ural trade colony and later city in the 17th century.

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Manpupuner rock formations

The Manpupuner rock formations (Man-Pupu-Nyor; Мань-Пупу-нёр; Bolvano-Iz) are a set of 7 stone pillars located west of the Ural mountains in the Troitsko-Pechorsky District of the Komi Republic.

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Mansi people

The Mansi (Mansi: Мāньси / Мāньси мāхум, Māńsi / Māńsi māhum) are an indigenous people living in Khanty–Mansia, an autonomous okrug within Tyumen Oblast in Russia.

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Manulea cereola

Manulea (Setema) cereola is a moth of the family Erebidae.

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Marble Bridge

The Siberian Marble Gallery is a bridge near Saint Petersburg, Russia.

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Marble Palace

Marble Palace (Мраморный дворец) is one of the first Neoclassical palaces in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

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Marbled beauty

The marbled beauty (Cryphia domestica) is a moth of the family Noctuidae.

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Marching Through Georgia (novel)

Marching Through Georgia is the first of four books of S. M. Stirling's alternate history series, The Domination.

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Marcus Klingberg

Avraham Marek Klingberg (7 October 1918 – 30 November 2015), known as Marcus A. Klingberg, was an Israeli scientist and the highest ranking Soviet spy ever caught in Israel.

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Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky

Margarete "Grete" Schütte-Lihotzky (January 23, 1897, Margareten bei Wien, Austria-Hungary – January 18, 2000) was the first female Austrian architect and a communist activist in the German resistance to Nazism.

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Margarita Simonyan

Margarita Simonovna Simonyan (Маргари́та Симо́новна Симонья́н; born 6 April 1980) is the editor-in-chief of the English-language television news network RT (formerly Russia Today), NewsExchange.org, accessed September 20, 2012.

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Mari language

The Mari language (Mari: марий йылме, marii jõlme; марийский язык, marijskij jazyk), spoken by approximately 400,000 people, belongs to the Uralic language family.

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Mari mythology

Mari mythology is a collection of myths belonging to the Mari folk heritage.

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Maria Ivanovna Lagunova

Maria Ivanovna Lagunova (4 July 1921 – 26 December 1995) – was a Soviet tanker.

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Marianne Pistohlkors

Marianne Pistohlkors (born Marianna Erikovna von Pistohlkors; June 30, 1890 - May 14, 1976) was a Russian-born aristocrat and later an actress.

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Marsh tit

The marsh tit (Poecile palustris) is a passerine bird in the tit family Paridae and genus Poecile, closely related to the willow, Père David's and Songar tits.

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Matthias Castrén

Matthias Alexander Castrén (2 December 1813– 7 May 1852) was a Finnish ethnologist and philologist who was a pioneer in the study of the Finnic languages.

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Maurice Chaper

Maurice Armand Chaper (13 February 1834, Dijon – 5 July 1896, Vienna) was a French geologist and mining engineer.

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Meadow brown

The meadow brown (Maniola jurtina) is a butterfly found in the Palearctic realm.

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Meadow pipit

The meadow pipit (Anthus pratensis) is a small passerine bird which breeds in much of northwestern Eurasia, from southeastern Greenland and Iceland east to just east of the Ural Mountains in Russia, and south to central France and Romania; there is also an isolated population in the Caucasus Mountains.

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Meanings of minor planet names: 14001–15000

004 | 14004 Chikama || || Taketo Chikama (born 1961) is a founding member of the Fukuoka Astronomical Society.

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Meanings of minor planet names: 26001–27000

002 | 26002 Angelayeung || || Angela Yu-Yun Yeung (born 1992) is a finalist in the 2010 Intel Science Talent Search (STS), a science competition for high school seniors, for her materials and bioengineering project.

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Megacraspedus albovenata

Megacraspedus albovenata is a moth of the Gelechiidae family.

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Megacraspedus balneariellus

Megacraspedus balneariellus is a moth of the Gelechiidae family.

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Megacraspedus separatellus

Megacraspedus separatellus is a moth of the Gelechiidae family.

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Megaliths in the Urals

In recent years, many megaliths have been discovered in the Urals: dolmens, menhirs and a large megalithic cultic complex on Vera Island.

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Melampyrum arvense

Melampyrum arvense, commonly known as field cow-wheat, is an herbaceous flowering plant of the genus Melampyrum in the family Orobanchaceae.

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Mesolithic

In Old World archaeology, Mesolithic (Greek: μέσος, mesos "middle"; λίθος, lithos "stone") is the period between the Upper Paleolithic and the Neolithic.

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Mesotype didymata

The Twin-spot Carpet (Mesotype didymata) is a moth of the Geometridae family.

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Metro Exodus

Metro Exodus is an upcoming first-person shooter video game developed by a Ukrainian Malta-based studio 4A Games and published by Deep Silver.

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Metzneria ehikeella

Metzneria ehikeella is a moth of the Gelechiidae family.

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Metzneria neuropterella

Metzneria neuropterella, the brown-veined neb, is a moth of the Gelechiidae family.

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Mezen River

The Mezen (Мезень) is a river in Udorsky District of the Komi Republic and in Leshukonsky and Mezensky Districts of Arkhangelsk Oblast in Russia.

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Mezensky District

Mezensky District (Мезе́нский райо́н) is an administrative district (raion), one of the twenty-one in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia.

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Mezhgorye, Republic of Bashkortostan

Mezhgorye (Межго́рье; Межго́рье) is a closed town in the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia, located in the southern Ural Mountains near Mount Yamantau, about southeast of Ufa, the capital of the republic, on the banks of the Maly Inser River (a tributary of the Kama River).

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Miass

Miass (p) is a city in Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia, located west of Chelyabinsk, on the eastern slope of the Southern Ural Mountains, on the bank of the Miass River.

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Miass River

Miass River (p) is a river on the eastern side of the Ural Mountains.

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Mikhail Pavlovich Malakhov

Mikhail Pavlovich Malakhov (Михаил Павлович Малахов; 1781, Chernigov Governorate, Russian Empire, now Ukraine – 1842, Yekaterinburg, Russian Empire, now Russia) was a Russian architect who graduated from the Imperial Academy of Arts in 1802 and was active primarily in Yekaterinburg.

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Military history of the Russian Empire

The military history of the Russian Empire encompasses the history of armed conflict in which the Russian Empire participated.

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Mining industry of Russia

The mineral industry of Russia is one of the world's leading mineral industries and accounts for a large percentage of the Commonwealth of Independent States' production of a range of mineral products, including metals, industrial minerals, and mineral fuels.

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Mirificarma cytisella

Mirificarma cytisella is a moth of the Gelechiidae family.

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Mirificarma lentiginosella

Mirificarma lentiginosella is a moth of the Gelechiidae family.

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Mirninsky District

Mirninsky District (Ми́рнинский улу́с; Мирнэй улууһа, Mirney uluuha) is an administrativeConstitution of the Sakha Republic, Article 45 and municipalLaw #172-Z #351-III district (raion, or ulus), one of the thirty-four in the Sakha Republic, Russia.

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Miscegenation

Miscegenation (from the Latin miscere "to mix" + genus "kind") is the mixing of different racial groups through marriage, cohabitation, sexual relations, or procreation.

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Misha Brusilovsky

Misha Brusilovsky (born Mikhail Brussilovsky; 7 May 1931 – 3 November 2016) was a Russian artist, painter and graphic artist.

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Moiseikin Jewellery House

Moiseikin Jewellery House is a Russian jewellery production company based in Ekaterinburg.

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Moisis Michail Bourlas

Moisis Michail Bourlas (Μωυσής Μιχαήλ Μπουρλάς; May 9, 1918 – March 17, 2011) was a Greek Jewish member of the World War II resistance.

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Moldova

Moldova (or sometimes), officially the Republic of Moldova (Republica Moldova), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north, east, and south (by way of the disputed territory of Transnistria).

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Mongoloid

Mongoloid is a grouping of all or some peoples indigenous to East Asia, Central Asia, Southeast Asia, North Asia, South Asia, the Arctic, the Americas and the Pacific Islands.

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Monochamus impluviatus

Monochamus impluviatus (Siberian speckled sawyer) is a species of beetle in the family Cerambycidae.

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Monochroa lutulentella

Monochroa lutulentella, the black neb, is a moth of the Gelechiidae family.

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Monochroa palustrellus

Monochroa palustrellus, the wainscot neb, is a moth of the Gelechiidae family.

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Monochroa sepicolella

Monochroa sepicolella is a moth of the Gelechiidae family.

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Montagu's harrier

The Montagu's harrier (Circus pygargus) is a migratory bird of prey of the harrier family.

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Mordvins

The Mordvins, also Mordva, Mordvinians, Mordovians (эрзят/erzät, мокшет/mokšet, мордва/mordva), are the members of a people who speak a Mordvinic language of the Uralic language family and live mainly in the Republic of Mordovia and other parts of the middle Volga River region of Russia.

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Moscow Domodedovo Airport

Moscow Domodedovo Airport (p) is an international airport located on the territory of Domodedovo, Moscow Oblast, Russia, south-southeast from the centre of Moscow.

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Moscow Time

Moscow Time (Моско́вское вре́мя) is the time zone for the city of Moscow, Russia, and most of western Russia, including Saint Petersburg.

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Mottramite

Mottramite is an orthorhombic anhydrous vanadate hydroxide mineral, PbCu(VO4)(OH), at the copper end of the descloizite subgroup.

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Mount Azov

Azov (Азов) is a mountain in Central Ural, Russia.

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Mount Karpinsky (Urals)

Mount Karpinsky, or Karpinsky Mountain, is a peak in the circumpolar part of the Ural Mountains.

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Mount Narodnaya

Mount Narodnaya (also known as Naroda and Poenurr; Гора Народная, На'рода-Из; "People's Mountain") is the highest peak of the Urals in Russia.

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Mount Yamantau

Mount Yamantau (Ямантау, гора Ямантау) is a mountain in the Ural Mountains, located in Beloretsky District, Bashkortostan, Russia.

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Mountain range

A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground.

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Mstyslav (Skrypnyk)

Patriarch Mstyslav, secular name Stepan Ivanovych Skrypnyk (10 April 1898 – 11 June 1993), was a Ukrainian Orthodox Church hierarch.

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Mugodzhar Hills

Mugodzhar Hills (Mugojar, Russian: Мугоджары, Мугоджарский хребет (Mugodzhar Range), Kazakh: Mughalzhar, Mugalzhar) is a series of mountain ranges 275 miles (440 km) long in the Aktobe Region of northwestern Kazakhstan.

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Murat Kamaletdinov

Murat Abdulhakovich Kamaletdinov (18 July 1928 – 1 July 2013) was a Bashkir petroleum geologist.

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Muscovite manorialism

The development of feudal society in the region of Rus' took a different course to that in Western Europe.

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Music in Bashkortostan

The first major study of the music of Bashkortostan appeared in 1897, when ethnographer Rybakov S.G. wrote Music and Songs of the Ural's Muslims and Studies of Their Way of Life.

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Muskox

The muskox (Ovibos moschatus), also spelled musk ox and musk-ox (in ᐅᒥᖕᒪᒃ, umingmak), is an Arctic hoofed mammal of the family Bovidae, noted for its thick coat and for the strong odor emitted during the seasonal rut by males, from which its name derives.

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Mythimna l-album

Mythimna l-album, the L-album wainscot, is a moth of the family Noctuidae.

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Name of Hungary

Hungary, the name in English for the country of the same name, is an exonym derived from the Medieval Latin Hungaria.

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Naswar

Naswār (نسوار; Cyrillic script: насва́р), also called nās (ناس; на́с) or nasvay (نسوای; насвай), is a moist, powdered tobacco snuff consumed mostly in Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan.

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Natalia Dvoretskaya

Natalia Vladimirovna Dvoretskaya (Наталья Владимировна Дворецкая, born August 25, 1984) is a Russian theater, movie and television actress, as well as a well-known television presenter, the author of several television programs and has worked as a journalist.

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Natasha Stefanenko

Natalya Dmitrievna "Natasha" Stefanenko (Наталья Дмитриевна "Наташа" Стефаненко; born 18 April 1971) is a Russian-born actress, model, and television presenter who lives and works in both Italy and Russia.

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Nathusius's pipistrelle

Nathusius' pipistrelle (Pipistrellus nathusii (Keyserling and Blasius)) is a small bat in the pipistrelle genus.

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National parks of Russia

There are currently 48 national parks in Russia, a list of which is given below.

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Native metal

A native metal is any metal that is found in its metallic form, either pure in nature.

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Naukograd

Naukograd (p, also technopole), meaning "science city", is a formal term for towns with high concentrations of research and development facilities in Russia and the Soviet Union, some specifically built by the Soviet Union for these purposes.

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Nazi–Soviet economic relations (1934–41)

After the Nazis rose to power in Germany in 1933, relations between Germany and the Soviet Union began to deteriorate rapidly, and trade between the two countries decreased.

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Nazism

National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.

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Nebria frigida

Nebria frigida is a species of ground beetle in the Nebriinae subfamily that is native to Palearctic region and Russia.

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Nechkinsky National Park

Nechkinsky National Park (Национальный парк «Нечкинский») is an important biological and cultural reserve of Udmurtia (the Udmurt Republic), situated in the middle valley of the Kama River, its tributary the Siva River, and the coastal part of the Votkinsk reservoir.

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Neo-Byzantine architecture in the Russian Empire

Neo-Byzantine architecture in the Russian Empire emerged in the 1850s and became an officially endorsed preferred architectural style for church construction during the reign of Alexander II of Russia (1855–1881), replacing the Russo-Byzantine style of Konstantin Thon.

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Neofriseria peliella

Neofriseria peliella is a moth of the Gelechiidae family.

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Neolycaena rhymnus

Neolycaena rhymnus is a butterfly of the family Lycaenidae.

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Nepheline syenite

Nepheline syenite is a holocrystalline plutonic rock that consists largely of nepheline and alkali feldspar.

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Neva River

The Neva (Нева́) is a river in northwestern Russia flowing from Lake Ladoga through the western part of Leningrad Oblast (historical region of Ingria) to the Neva Bay of the Gulf of Finland.

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Nevyansk

Nevyansk (Невья́нск) is a town and the administrative center of Nevyansky District in Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia, located on the Neyva River (Ob's basin) on the eastern slope of the Middle Urals, north of Yekaterinburg.

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Neyva River

The Neiva or Nevya (Нейва) is a long river in the Sverdlovsk Oblast of Russia, which flows out of Lake Tavatui along the slopes of the Ural Mountains through the towns of Nevyansk, Alapaevsk, and Novouralsk.

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Nicholas J. Spykman

Nicholas John Spykman (pronounced "Speak-man", 13 October 1893 – 26 June 1943) was an American political scientist who was one of the founders of the classial realist school in American foreign policy, transmitting Eastern European political thought to the United States.

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Nikita Demidov

Nikita Demidov (full name Nikita Demidovich Antufiev; 5 April 1656 – 28 November 1725) was a Russian industrialist who founded the Demidov industrial dynasty.

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Nikolai Dzhumagaliev

Nikolai Espolovich Dzhumagaliev (Russian: Николай Есполович Джумагалиев, Kazakh: Николай Жұмағалиев, born 1952) is a Soviet serial killer, also known as Metal Fang, convicted for the killing of seven people in the Kazakh SSR (now Kazakhstan) between 1979 and 1980.

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Nikolai Glebov-Avilov

Nikolai Pavlovich Glebov-Avilov (Николай Павлович Глебов-Авилов; 11 October 1887 – 13 March 1937) was a prominent Bolshevik revolutionary and the first commissar of Posts and Telegraphs.

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Nikolai Ilyin

Nikolai Sazontovich Ilyin (also spelled Il'in) (1809–1890) – a Russian retired military officer, writer and religious thinker, in the 1840s founded and led an apocalyptic millenarian movement of Yehowists (Russian: Еговисты), or Yehowists-Ilyinites that has survived in parts of the former Soviet Union up to this day.

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Nikolai Wagner

Nikolai Petrovich Wagner (Николай Петрович Вагнер, 30 July 1829, – 3 April 1907) was a Russian zoologist, editor, essayist and writer.

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Nikolay Shvernik

Nikolay Mikhailovich Shvernik (Никола́й Миха́йлович Шве́рник, – 24 December 1970) was a Soviet politician and Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (or President of the USSR) from 19 March 1946 until 15 March 1953.

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Nina Averina

Nina Federova Averina (Russian: Нина Фёдоровна Аверина) is a Soviet, Russian people bibliolographer, journalist, local historian and poet.

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Niols River

Niols (Ниолс) is a river in Perm Krai, Russia, a left tributary of the Vishera River, which in turn is a tributary of the Kama River.

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Nizhniy Tagil Iron and Steel Works

OJSC Nizhniy Tagil Iron and Steel Works (ОАО «Нижнетагильский металлургический комбинат», Niznhetagilsky Metallurgichecky Kombinat) is a Russian steel manufacturer.

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Nizhniye Sergi

Nizhniye Sergi (Ни́жние Серги́) is a town and the administrative center of Nizhneserginsky District in Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia, located on a rolling plain surrounded by the Ural Mountains, on the Serga River from Yekaterinburg, the administrative center of the oblast.

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Nizhny Novgorod

Nizhny Novgorod (p), colloquially shortened to Nizhny, is a city in Russia and the administrative center (capital) of Volga Federal District and Nizhny Novgorod Oblast.

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Nizhny Tagil

Nizhny Tagil (p) is a city in Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia, located east of the virtual border between Europe and Asia.

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Nizhny Tagil mass murder (2002–07)

The Nizhny Tagil mass murder refers to a mass grave found in early 2007 near the city of Nizhny Tagil in Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia.

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No. 112 Signals Unit RAF

112 Signals Unit, RAF Stornoway (112 S.U.) was a classified Royal Air Force (RAF) Electronic countermeasures (ECM) measurement and evaluation unit based at Stornoway Airport on the Isle of Lewis in the Outer Hebrides.

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Noctua orbona

Noctua orbona, the lunar yellow underwing, is a moth of the family Noctuoidea.

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North Asia

North Asia or Northern Asia, sometimes known as Siberia, is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the Russian regions of Siberia, Ural and the Russian Far East – an area east of the Ural Mountains.

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Northern Dvina River

The Northern Dvina (Се́верная Двина́,; Вы́нва / Výnva) is a river in northern Russia flowing through the Vologda Oblast and Arkhangelsk Oblast into the Dvina Bay of the White Sea.

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Northern goshawk

The northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) is a medium-large raptor in the family Accipitridae, which also includes other extant diurnal raptors, such as eagles, buzzards and harriers.

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Northern lynx

The Northern lynx (Lynx lynx lynx) is a medium-sized subspecies of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx).

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Northern pika

The northern pika (Ochotona hyperborea) also known as the Japanese guinea pig is a species of pika found across mountainous regions of northern Asia, from the Ural Mountains to northern Japan and south through Mongolia, Manchuria and northern Korea.

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Northwest Russia

Northwest Russia or Northern European Russia can be roughly defined as that part of European Russia bounded by Finland, the Arctic Ocean, the Ural Mountains and the east-flowing part of the Volga River.

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Notes on Muscovite Affairs

Notes on Muscovite Affairs (Rerum Moscoviticarum Commentarii) (1549) was a Latin book by Baron Sigismund von Herberstein on the geography, history and customs of Muscovy (the 16th century Russian state).

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Novaya Zemlya

Novaya Zemlya (p, lit. the new land), also known as Nova Zembla (especially in Dutch), is an archipelago in the Arctic Ocean in northern Russia and the extreme northeast of Europe, the easternmost point of Europe lying at Cape Flissingsky on the Northern island.

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Novgorod Republic

The Novgorod Republic (p; Новгородскаѧ землѧ / Novgorodskaję zemlę) was a medieval East Slavic state from the 12th to 15th centuries, stretching from the Baltic Sea to the northern Ural Mountains, including the city of Novgorod and the Lake Ladoga regions of modern Russia.

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Novosibirsk

Novosibirsk (p) is the third-most populous city in Russia after Moscow and St. Petersburg.

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Novosibirsk Metro

Novosibirsk Metro is a rapid transit system that serves Novosibirsk, Russia.

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Novouralsk

Novouralsk (Новоура́льск, lit. new town in the Urals) is a closed town in Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia, located on the eastern side of the Ural Mountains, about north of Yekaterinburg, the administrative center of the oblast.

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Nunn–Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction

As the fall of the Soviet Union appeared imminent, the United States and their allies began to worry about the concept that the nuclear weapons held in smaller countries by the Soviet Union could fall or would fall into enemy hands.

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Ob-Ugric languages

The Ob-Ugric languages are a hypothetical branch of the Uralic languages, specifically referring to the Khanty (Ostyak) and Mansi (Vogul) languages.

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Obshchy Syrt

Obshchy Syrt (Общий Сырт) is a highland ridge, or plateau (syrt), in the European part of Russia.

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Occupation of Poland (1939–1945)

The occupation of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union during the Second World War (1939–1945) began with the German-Soviet invasion of Poland in September 1939, and it was formally concluded with the defeat of Germany by the Allies in May 1945.

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Oeneis jutta

No description.

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Oeneis norna

Oeneis norna, the Norse grayling, is a species of butterfly in subfamily Satyrinae, that occurs throughout Scandinavia and northern Asia.

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Ohthere of Hålogaland

Ohthere of Hålogaland (Ottar fra Hålogaland) was a Viking Age Norwegian seafarer known only from an account of his travels that he gave to King Alfred (r. 871–99) of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Wessex in about 890 AD.

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Old Believers

In Eastern Orthodox church history, the Old Believers, or Old Ritualists (старове́ры or старообря́дцы, starovéry or staroobryádtsy) are Eastern Orthodox Christians who maintain the liturgical and ritual practices of the Eastern Orthodox Church as they existed prior to the reforms of Patriarch Nikon of Moscow between 1652 and 1666.

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Oleg Andreyevich Gusev

Oleg Andreyevich Gusev is a Russian entrepreneur and politician from Urals.

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Oleg Fisunenko

Oleg Petrovych Fisunenko (14 November 1930 - 19 March 2003) was a Ukrainian geologist, a scientist in the field of theoretical stratigraphy and paleobotany, Doctor of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences (1973), Professor (1975), and an active member of the New York Academy of Sciences (1994).

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Oleksandr Muzychko

Oleksandr Ivanovych Muzychko (Ukrainian: Олександр Іванович Музичко, 19 September 1962 – 24 March 2014), nicknamed Sashko Bilyi (Сашко Білий), was a Ukrainian political activist, a member of UNA-UNSO and coordinator of Right Sector in Western Ukraine.

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Omsk

Omsk (p) is a city and the administrative center of Omsk Oblast, Russia, located in southwestern Siberia from Moscow.

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Operation Eisenhammer

Operation Eisenhammer (German; in English Operation Iron Hammer) was a planned strategic bombing operation against power generators near Moscow and Gorky in the Soviet Union which was planned by Nazi Germany during World War II but eventually abandoned.

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Operation Zeppelin (espionage plan)

Operation Zeppelin (Unternehmen Zeppelin) was a German plan to recruit Soviet prisoners of war for espionage and sabotage operations behind the Russian front line during World War II.

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Operational history of the Luftwaffe (1939–45)

During the Second World War the German Luftwaffe was the main support weapon of the German Army (Heer).

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Opinion polling for the Russian presidential election, 1996

This page lists public opinion polls in connection with the 1996 Russian presidential election.

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Oral, Kazakhstan

Oral (Орал), Ural'sk (Уральск) in Russian, formerly known as Yaitsk (Russian: Яицк, until 1775), is a city in northwestern Kazakhstan, at the confluence of the Ural and Chogan rivers close to the Russian border.

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Orda Cave

Orda Cave (Ординская, Ordinskaya) is a gypsum crystal cave found underneath the western Ural Mountains.

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Orders of magnitude (radiation)

Recognized effects of higher acute radiation doses are described in more detail in the article on radiation poisoning.

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Orenburg Cossacks

The Orenburg Cossack Host (Оренбургское казачье войско) was a part of the Cossack population in pre-revolutionary Russia, located in the Orenburg province (today's Orenburg Oblast, part of the Chelyabinsk Oblast and Bashkortostan).

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Orenburg Nature Reserve

Orenburg Nature Reserve (Оренбургский заповедник) (also Orenburgsky) is a Russian 'zapovednik' (strict nature reserve) dedicated to the preservation and restoration of four separate types of steppe landscape: Transvolga, Ural Mountains, Southern Urals and Trans-Urals.

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Orenburg shawl

The Orenburg Shawl is a Russian knitted lace textile using goat down and stands as one of the classic symbols of Russian handicraft, along with Tula Samovar, the Matrioshka doll, Khokhloma painting, Gzhel ceramics, the Palekh miniature, Vologda lace, Dymkovo toys, Rostov finift (enamel), and Ural malachite.

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Orsk

Orsk (Орск) is the second largest city in Orenburg Oblast, Russia, located on the steppe about southeast of the southern tip of the Ural Mountains.

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Orthoclase

Orthoclase, or orthoclase feldspar (endmember formula KAlSi3O8), is an important tectosilicate mineral which forms igneous rock.

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Osmium

Osmium (from Greek ὀσμή osme, "smell") is a chemical element with symbol Os and atomic number 76.

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Ostern

The Ostern (Eastern) or Red Western (also known as "Borscht Western") was a genre film created in the Soviet Union and Eastern Bloc as a version of the Western films that originated in the United States.

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Otto von Sadovszky

Otto J. von Sadovszky (July 3, 1925 – May 12, 2004) was a Hungarian American anthropologist who worked at California State University, Fullerton in southern California for most of his career until his retirement.

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Outline of Russia

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Russia.

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Outline of the Soviet Union

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the Soviet Union: Soviet Union – was a socialist state on the Eurasian continent that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Paleozoic

The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era (from the Greek palaios (παλαιός), "old" and zoe (ζωή), "life", meaning "ancient life") is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon.

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Palladium

Palladium is a chemical element with symbol Pd and atomic number 46.

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Palygorskite

Palygorskite or attapulgite is a magnesium aluminium phyllosilicate with formula (Mg,Al)2Si4O10(OH)·4(H2O) that occurs in a type of clay soil common to the Southeastern United States.

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Pan-Germanism

Pan-Germanism (Pangermanismus or Alldeutsche Bewegung), also occasionally known as Pan-Germanicism, is a pan-nationalist political idea.

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Panchrysia ornata

Panchrysia ornata is a species of moth of the family Noctuidae.

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Pandemis cerasana

Pandemis cerasana, the barred fruit-tree tortrix, is a moth of the family Tortricidae.

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Panemeria tenebrata

Panemeria tenebrata, the small yellow underwing, is a species of moth of the family Noctuidae.

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Pangaea

Pangaea or Pangea was a supercontinent that existed during the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic eras.

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Pannotia

Pannotia (from Greek: pan-, "all", -nótos, "south"; meaning "all southern land"), also known as Vendian supercontinent, Greater Gondwana, and the Pan-African supercontinent, was a relatively short-lived Neoproterozoic supercontinent that formed at the end of the Precambrian during the Pan-African orogeny (650–500 Ma) and broke apart 560 Ma with the opening of the Iapetus Ocean.

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Paraliliaspis

Paraliliaspis egregia is an extinct cyathaspidiform heterostracan agnathan from early Devonian marine strata of the Ural Mountains.

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Parnassius nomion

Parnassius nomion, the Nomion Apollo, is a forest steppe butterfly which is found in the Urals, Altai, south Siberia, Amur and the Ussuri region, Mongolia, China and Korea.

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Parnassius phoebus

Parnassius phoebus, known as the Phoebus Apollo or small Apollo, is a butterfly species of the swallowtail butterfly family, Papilionidae, found in Eurasia and North America.

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Parthéite

Partheite or parthéite is a calcium aluminium silicate and a member of the zeolite group of minerals, a group of silicates with large open channels throughout the crystal structure, which allow passage of liquids and gasses through the mineral.

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Patrónite

Patronite is the vanadium sulfide mineral with formula VS4.

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Paul Dukes (historian)

Paul Dukes (born 1934) is a retired historian at the University of Aberdeen who is known for his work relating to Russia and Europe.

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Pavel Bazhov

Pavel Petrovich Bazhov (Па́вел Петро́вич Бажо́в; 27 January 1879 – 3 December 1950) was a Russian writer.

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Pavlovia

Pavlovia is an extinct genus of ammonite of the Late Jurassic to Late Cretaceous (age range: 150.8 to 99.7 Ma).

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Pay-Khoy Ridge

The Pay-Khoy ridge (хребет Пай-Хой) is a mountain range at the northern end of the Ural Mountains.

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Pechipogo strigilata

Pechipogo strigilata, the common fan-foot, is a moth of the family Noctuidae.

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Pechora

Pechora (Печо́ра; Печӧра, Pečöra) is a town in the Komi Republic, Russia, located on the Pechora River, west of and near the northern Ural Mountains.

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Pechora coal basin

The Pechora coal basin (Печорский угольный бассейн) is located in the Extreme North of European Russia.

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Pechora Plain

Pechora Plain (Печорская низменность) is a plain in the North Russian Plain which is located in the north-east of the European part of Russia, located in the basin of the Pechora River, between the Urals and Timan Ridge (the Komi Republic and Nenets Autonomous Okrug).

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Pechora River

The Pechora River (Печо́ра; Komi: Печӧра; Nenets: Санэроˮ яха) is a river in northwest Russia which flows north into the Arctic Ocean on the west side of the Ural Mountains.

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Pechora-Ilych Nature Reserve

Pechora-Ilych Nature Reserve (Печоро-Илычский заповедник, Pechoro-Ilychsky zapovednik) is a nature reserve in the Komi Republic, Russia.

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Pelym River

Pelym (Пелым) or Bolshoy Pelym (Большой Пелым) is a river in the far north of Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia.

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Pelym, Garinsky District, Sverdlovsk Oblast

Pelym (Пелым) is a former town (now a village) on the bank of the Tavda River near its confluence with the Pelym River.

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Perconia strigillaria

Perconia strigillaria, the grass wave, is a moth of the Geometridae family.

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Periclase

Periclase is a magnesium mineral that occurs naturally in contact metamorphic rocks and is a major component of most basic refractory bricks.

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Perizoma albulata

Perizoma albulata, the grass rivulet, is a moth of the genus Perizoma in the family Geometridae.

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Perm

Perm (p;Gramota.ru.) is a city and the administrative center of Perm Krai, Russia, located on the banks of the Kama River in the European part of Russia near the Ural Mountains.

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Perm Governorate

Perm Governorate (Пермская губерния) was an administrative unit of the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union from 1781 to 1923.

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Perm International Airport

Perm International Airport (Международный аэропорт Пермь) is an international airport located at Bolshoye Savino, southwest of the city of Perm, Russia.

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Perm Krai

Perm Krai (p) is a federal subject of Russia (a krai) that came into existence on December 1, 2005 as a result of the 2004 referendum on the merger of Perm Oblast and Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug.

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Permafrost

In geology, permafrost is ground, including rock or (cryotic) soil, at or below the freezing point of water for two or more years.

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Permian

The Permian is a geologic period and system which spans 47 million years from the end of the Carboniferous Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Triassic period 251.902 Mya.

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Permic languages

The Permic languages are a branch of the Uralic language family.

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Perovskite

Perovskite (pronunciation) is a calcium titanium oxide mineral composed of calcium titanate (Ca Ti O3).

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Perovskite (structure)

A perovskite is any material with the same type of crystal structure as calcium titanium oxide (CaTiO3), known as the perovskite structure, or XIIA2+VIB4+X2−3 with the oxygen in the edge centers.

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Pervouralsk

Pervouralsk (Первоура́льск, lit. the first in the Urals) is a city in Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia, located on the Chusovaya River (Kama's tributary) west of Yekaterinburg, the administrative center of the oblast.

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Peter Simon Pallas

Peter Simon Pallas FRS FRSE (22 September 1741 – 8 September 1811) was a Prussian zoologist and botanist who worked in Russia (1767–1810).

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Phenakite

Phenakite or phenacite is a fairly rare nesosilicate mineral consisting of beryllium orthosilicate, Be2SiO4.

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Philip Johan von Strahlenberg

Philip Johan von Strahlenberg (1676–1747) was a Swedish officer and geographer of German origin who made important contributions to the cartography of Russia.

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Phoenicochroite

Phoenicochroite, also known as melanochroite, is a lead chromate mineral with formula Pb2OCrO4.

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Phonolite

Phonolite is an uncommon volcanic rock, of intermediate chemical composition between felsic and mafic, with texture ranging from aphanitic (fine-grain) to porphyritic (mixed fine- and coarse-grain).

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Phtheochroa decipiens

Phtheochroa decipiens is a species of moth of the Tortricidae family.

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Phtheochroa kenneli

Phtheochroa kenneli is a species of moth of the Tortricidae family.

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Phyllodoce caerulea

Phyllodoce caerulea, known as blue heath in British English and purple mountain heather or blue mountainheath in American English, is an evergreen species of dwarf shrub that grows up to around tall, and bears clusters of 2–6 purple flowers.

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Phymatopus

Phymatopus (Originally: Noctua Linnaeus, 1758) is a genus of moths belonging to the family Hepialidae (commonly referred to as swift moths or ghost moths), which consists of around 500 species and 30 genera.

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Picea abies

Picea abies, the Norway spruce, is a species of spruce native to Northern, Central and Eastern Europe.

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Picea obovata

Picea obovata, the Siberian spruce, is a spruce native to Siberia, from the Ural Mountains east to Magadan Oblast, and from the Arctic tree line south to the Altay Mountains in northwestern Mongolia.

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Pim Fortuyn List

The Pim Fortuyn List (Lijst Pim Fortuyn, LPF) was a right-wing populist political party in the Netherlands.

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Pinezhsky District

Pinezhsky District (Пи́нежский райо́н) is an administrative district (raion), one of the twenty-one in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia.

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Pinus sibirica

Pinus sibirica, or Siberian pine, in the family Pinaceae is a species of pine tree that occurs in Siberia from 58°E in the Ural Mountains east to 126°E in the Stanovoy Range in southern Sakha Republic, and from Igarka at 68°N in the lower Yenisei valley, south to 45°N in central Mongolia.

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Pit–Comb Ware culture

The Pit–Comb Ware culture or Comb Ceramic culture was a northeast European characterised by its Pit–Comb Ware.

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Plast (town)

Plast (Пласт) is a town and the administrative center of Plastovsky District in Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia, located on the eastern slopes of the Ural Mountains in the upper basin of the Uy River, southwest of Chelyabinsk, the administrative center of the oblast.

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Plastovsky District

Plastovsky District (Пластовский райо́н) is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the twenty-seven in Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia.

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Platinum

Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.

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Platinum group

The platinum-group metals (abbreviated as the PGMs; alternatively, the platinoids, platinides, platidises, platinum group, platinum metals, platinum family or platinum-group elements (PGEs)) are six noble, precious metallic elements clustered together in the periodic table.

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Platycerus caprea

Platycerus caprea is a species of beetle, from the Lucanidae family and Lucaninae subfamily.

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Plebejus argyrognomon

Plebejus argyrognomon, common name Reverdin's blue is a butterfly of the family Lycaenidae.

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Polarite

Polarite (Pd,(Bi,Pb)), is an opaque, yellow-white mineral.

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Political positions of David Cameron

This article concerns the policies, views and voting record of David Cameron, the previous Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from May 2010 to July 2016.

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Polyommatus daphnis

Polyommatus daphnis, the Meleager's blue, is a butterfly of the family Lycaenidae.

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Polyommatus dorylas

Polyommatus (Plebicula) dorylas, the turquoise blue, is a butterfly of the family Lycaenidae.

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Polyommatus semiargus

Polyommatus semiargus, the Mazarine blue, is a butterfly in the family Lycaenidae.

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Pomor trade

Pomor trade (from p; po «by» and more «ocean»; «area by the ocean», the same word is the basis for Pomerania), is the trade carried out between the Pomors of Northwest Russia and the people along the coast of Northern Norway, as far south as Bodø.

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Pomors

Pomors or Pomory (p, Seasiders) are Russian settlers, primarily from Novgorod, and their descendants living on the White Sea coasts and the territory whose southern border lies on a watershed which separates the White Sea river basin from the basins of rivers that flow south.

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Pontic–Caspian steppe

The Pontic–Caspian steppe, Pontic steppe or Ukrainian steppe is the vast steppeland stretching from the northern shores of the Black Sea (called Euxeinos Pontos in antiquity) as far east as the Caspian Sea, from Moldova and eastern Ukraine across the Southern Federal District and the Volga Federal District of Russia to western Kazakhstan, forming part of the larger Eurasian steppe, adjacent to the Kazakh steppe to the east.

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Pre-emptive nuclear strike

In nuclear strategy, a first strike is a preemptive surprise attack employing overwhelming force.

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Predictions of the dissolution of the Soviet Union

There were people and organizations who predicted that the USSR would fall before the eventual dissolution of the USSR in 1991.

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Prehistoric art

In the history of art, prehistoric art is all art produced in preliterate, prehistorical cultures beginning somewhere in very late geological history, and generally continuing until that culture either develops writing or other methods of record-keeping, or makes significant contact with another culture that has, and that makes some record of major historical events.

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Prehistoric Asia

Prehistoric Asia refers to events in Asia during the period of human existence prior to the invention of writing systems or the documentation of recorded history.

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Prehistoric Europe

Prehistoric Europe is the designation for the period of human presence in Europe before the start of recorded history, beginning in the Lower Paleolithic.

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Prehistory of Siberia

The Prehistory of Siberia is marked by several archaeologically distinct cultures.

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Preview of the War We Do Not Want

Collier's Magazine devoted its entire 130-page October 27, 1951 issue to narrate the events in a hypothetical Third World War, in a feature article entitled Preview of the War We Do Not Want - an Imaginary Account of Russia's defeat and Occupation, 1952-60.

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Prikamye

Prikamye (Russian: Прикамье) is a region near the Kama River in the west of the Ural Mountains.

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Primorsky District, Arkhangelsk Oblast

Primorsky District (Примо́рский райо́н) is an administrative district (raion), one of the twenty-one in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia.

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Prince Constantine Constantinovich of Russia

Prince Constantine Constantinovich of Russia (Константин Константинович; 1 January 1891 – 18 July 1918), nicknamed Kostya by the family, was the fourth child of Grand Duke Constantine Constantinovich of Russia by his wife Grand Duchess Elizabeth Mavrikievna of Russia.

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Prince John Konstantinovich of Russia

Prince Ioann Konstantinovich of Russia (Иоанн Константинович) (5 July 1886 – 18 July 1918), sometimes also known as Prince John, Prince Ivan or Prince Johan, was the eldest son of Grand Duke Konstantin Konstantinovich of Russia by his wife Yelizaveta Mavrikievna, née Princess Elisabeth of Saxe-Altenburg.

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Prince Vsevolod Ivanovich of Russia

Prince Vsevolod Ivanovich of Russia (20 January 1914 (N.S.).

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Prolita solutella

Prolita solutella is a moth of the family Gelechiidae.

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Proto-Uralic homeland hypotheses

Various Proto-Uralic homeland hypotheses on the origin of the Uralic languages and the location (Urheimat or homeland) and the period in which the Proto-Uralic language was spoken have been advocated over the years.

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Proto-Uralic language

Proto-Uralic is the reconstructed language ancestral to the Uralic language family.

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Pryg-skok

Pryg-skok: detskie pesenki (Прыг-скок: детские песенки, Hop-Frog: Children's Songs) is the first studio album by the Soviet psychedelic rock band Egor i Opizdenevshie, released in 1992 on Zolotaja Dolina.

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Pseudochazara hippolyte

Pseudochazara hippolyte is a species of butterfly in the family Nymphalidae.

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Pseudopanthera macularia

Pseudopanthera macularia, the speckled yellow, is a moth of the family Geometridae.

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Pterophorus volgensis

Pterophorus volgensis is a moth of the family Pterophoridae.

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Ptocheuusa abnormella

Ptocheuusa abnormella is a moth of the family Gelechiidae.

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Ptocheuusa paupella

Ptocheuusa paupella, the light fleabane neb, is a moth of the family Gelechiidae.

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Pugachev's Rebellion

Pugachev's Rebellion (Peasants' War 1773-75, Cossack Rebellion) of 1773-75 was the principal revolt in a series of popular rebellions that took place in the Russian Empire after Catherine II seized power in 1762.

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Pumi dog

The Pumi (in Hungarian, the plural form is pumik) is a medium-small breed of sheep dog from Hungary.

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Purple-edged copper

The purple-edged copper (Lycaena hippothoe) is a butterfly of the family Lycaenidae.

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Pustozersk

Pustozersk (Пустозерск.) or Pustozyorsk (Пустозёрск) was the administrative center of Yugra and Pechora krais of Muscovy and Imperial Russia.

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Pyncostola bohemiella

Pyncostola bohemiella is a moth of the family Gelechiidae.

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Pyotr Lavrov

Pyotr Lavrovich Lavrov (Пётр Ла́врович Лавро́в; alias Mirtov (Миртов); (June 2 (June 14 N.S.), 1823 – January 25 (February 6 N.S.), 1900) was a prominent Russian theorist of narodism, philosopher, publicist, revolutionary and sociologist. He entered a military academy and graduated in 1842 as an army officer. He became well-versed in natural science, history, logic, philosophy, and psychology. He also became an instructor in mathematics for two decades. Lavrov joined the revolutionary movement as a radical in 1862. His actions led to his being exiled to the Ural Mountains in 1868 from which he soon escaped and fled abroad. In France, he lived mostly in Paris, where he became a member of the Anthropological Society. Lavrov had been attracted to European socialist ideas early on, though at first he did not know how they applied to Russia. While he was in Paris, Lavrov fully committed himself to the revolutionary socialist movement. He became a member of the Ternes section of the International Workingmen's Association in 1870. He was also present at the start of the Paris Commune, and soon went abroad to generate international support. Lavrov arrived in Zürich in November 1872, and became a rival of Mikhail Bakunin's in the "Russian Colony". In Zürich he lived in the Frauenfeld house near the university. Lavrov tended more toward reform than revolution, or at least saw reform as salutary. He preached against the conspiratorial ideology of Peter Tkachev and others like him. Lavrov believed that while a coup d'état would be easy in Russia, the creation of a socialist society needed to involve the Russian masses. He founded the journal Forward! in 1872, its first issue appearing in August 1873. Lavrov used this journal to publicize his analysis of Russia's peculiar historical development. Lavrov was a prolific writer for more than 40 years. His works include The Hegelian Philosophy (1858–59) and Studies in the Problems of Practical Philosophy (1860). While living in exile, he edited his Socialist review, Forward!. A contribution to the revolutionary cause, Historical Letters (1870) was written under the pseudonym Mirtov. The letters greatly influenced the revolutionary activity in Russia. He was called "Peter Lawroff" in Die Neue Zeit (1899–1900) by K. Tarassoff.

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Pyotr Lomako

Pyotr Fadeyevich Lomako (12 July 1904 – 27 May 1990) was a Soviet politician and economist, head of Gosplan between 1962 and 1965.

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Pyotr Nikolayevich Kropotkin

Pyotr Nikolayevich Kropotkin (Пётр Никола́евич Кропо́ткин; November 24, 1910, Moscow – 17 January 1996, Moscow) was a Soviet Russian geologist, tectonician, and geophysicist.

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Pyotr Vereshchagin

Pyotr Petrovich Vereshchagin (Russian: Пётр Петрович Верещагин; 14 January 1834/36 in Perm – 16 January 1886 in Perm) was a Russian landscape and cityscape painter in the Academic style.

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Pyotr Voykov

Pyotr Lazarevich Voykov (Пётр Ла́заревич Во́йков; party aliases: Пётрусь and Интеллигент, or Piotrus and Intelligent) (– June 7, 1927) was a Soviet revolutionary and diplomat known for his role in the Shooting of the Romanov Family.

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Pyrgus sidae

Pyrgus sidae, the yellow-banded skipper, is a species of skipper (family Hesperiidae).

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Pyrophyllite

Pyrophyllite is a phyllosilicate mineral composed of aluminium silicate hydroxide: Al2Si4O10(OH)2.

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Pyshma River

The Pyshma (Пышма) is a river in Sverdlovsk and Tyumen Oblasts of Russia.

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Raffaello Romanelli

Raffaello Romanelli (13 May 1856 – 3 April 1928) was an Italian sculptor, born in Florence, Italy.

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Ragozinka crater

Ragozinka is a meteorite crater in the Urals in Russia.

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Raion

A raion (also rayon) is a type of administrative unit of several post-Soviet states (such as part of an oblast).

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Raisa Atambayeva

Raisa Minakhmedovna Atambayeva (Russian: Раиса Минахмедовна Атамбаева) is the wife of the former President of Kyrgyzstan Almazbek Atambayev and First Lady of Kyrgyzstan from 2011 to 2017.

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Raisa Gorbacheva

Raisa Maximovna Gorbacheva (Раи́са Макси́мовна Горбачёва tr. Raisa Maksimovna Gorbachyova,, Титаре́нко; 5 January 1932 – 20 September 1999) was a Russian activist who was the wife of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev.

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Rare-earth element

A rare-earth element (REE) or rare-earth metal (REM), as defined by IUPAC, is one of a set of seventeen chemical elements in the periodic table, specifically the fifteen lanthanides, as well as scandium and yttrium.

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Rastorguyev-Kharitonov Palace

The Kharitonov Palace is arguably the grandest palatial residence in the Urals.

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Rautaruukki

Rautaruukki Corporation (Rautaruukki Oyj, using the marketing name Ruukki) is a Finnish company, headquartered in Helsinki, which manufactures and supplies metal-based components and systems to the construction and engineering industries.

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Red Belt (Russia)

The Red Belt or Red Zone (Красный пояс) was a group of Russian regions with a stable support for the Communist Party of the Russian Federation and other left parties in local and federal elections.

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Red fox

The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is the largest of the true foxes and one of the most widely distributed members of the order Carnivora, being present across the entire Northern Hemisphere from the Arctic Circle to North Africa, North America and Eurasia.

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Reguly

Reguly may refer to;.

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Reichskommissariat

Reichskommissariat (Reich Commissariat) is the German designation for a type of administrative entity headed by a government official known as a Reichskommissar (Reich Commissioner).

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Reichskommissariat Moskowien

Reichskommissariat Moskowien (also rendered as Moskau, abbreviated as RKM; Рейхскомиссариат Московия), literally "Reich Commissariat of Muscovy (or Moscow)", was the civilian occupation regime that Nazi Germany intended to create in central and northern European Russia during World War II, one of several similar Reichskommissariat.

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Reindeer

The reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), also known as the caribou in North America, is a species of deer with circumpolar distribution, native to Arctic, sub-Arctic, tundra, boreal and mountainous regions of northern Europe, Siberia and North America.

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Renny Harlin

Renny Harlin (born Lauri Mauritz Harjola; 15 March 1959) is a Finnish film director, producer and screenwriter.

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Research Range

The Research Range (Исследовательский хребет) is a mountain range at the northern end of the Ural Mountains.

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Reuven Arazi

Reuven Arazi (ראובן ארזי, 11 May 1907 – 19 May 1983) was an Israeli politician who served as a member of the Knesset for Mapam and the Alignment between 1965 and 1974.

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Revolt of the Czechoslovak Legion

The Revolt of the Czechoslovak Legion was the armed actions of the Czechoslovak Legions in the Russian Civil War against Bolshevik authorities during May - August, 1918, in Volga, Siberia and Ural regions.

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Rezh River

Rezh (Реж) is a river in Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia.

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Rhipaeosaurus

Rhipaeosaurus is an extinct genus of nycteroleterid parareptile known from the mid Middle Permian of European Russia from an articulated skeleton.

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Rhiphaeoceratidae

The Rhiphaeoceratidae are a small family of nautilids included in the superfamily Tainocerataceae that comprises four very similar genera.

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Rhodium

Rhodium is a chemical element with symbol Rh and atomic number 45.

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Rhyacia ledereri

Rhyacia ledereri is a moth of the Noctuidae family.

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Richard Lugar

Richard Green Lugar (born April 4, 1932) is an American politician who served as a United States Senator from Indiana from 1977 to 2013 as a member of the Republican Party.

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Ring of Pietroassa

The Ring of Pietroassa (or Buzău torc) is a gold torc-like necklace found in a ring barrow in Pietroassa (now Pietroasele), Buzău County, southern Romania (formerly Wallachia), in 1837.

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Riphath

Riphath (Hebrew: ריפת) was great-grandson of Noah, grandson of Japeth, son of Gomer (Japeth's eldest), younger brother of Ashkenaz, and older brother of Togarmah according to the Table of Nations in the Hebrew Bible (Gen. 10:3, 1 Chronicles 1:6).

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Riphean

Riphean may refer to.

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Riphean (stage)

The Riphean is a stage or age of the geologic timescale from.

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Riphean Mountains

The Riphean Mountains are mountains mentioned by authors of classical antiquity (Apollonius of Rhodes, Aristotle, Hecataeus of Miletus, Hippocrates, Ptolemy, Plutarch, and others), but whose location is uncertain.

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Risk 2210 A.D.

Risk 2210 A.D. is a 2–5 player board game by Avalon Hill that is a futuristic variant of the classic board game Risk.

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Robert Tavernor

Robert Tavernor (born 1954) is an English Emeritus Professor of Architecture and Urban Design at the London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE), and founding director of the Tavernor Consultancy in London.

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Rock ptarmigan

The rock ptarmigan (Lagopus muta) is a medium-sized gamebird in the grouse family.

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Roderick Murchison

Roderick Impey Murchison, 1st Baronet KCB DCL FRS FRSE FLS PRGS PBA MRIA (22 February 1792 – 22 October 1871) was a Scottish geologist who first described and investigated the Silurian system.

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Roe deer

The European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), also known as the western roe deer, chevreuil, or simply roe deer or roe, is a Eurasian species of deer.

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Root race

Root races are stages in human evolution in the esoteric cosmology of theosophist Helena Petrovna Blavatsky, as described in her book The Secret Doctrine (1888).

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Rostov Nature Reserve

Rostov Nature Reserve (Ростовский заповедник) (also Rostovsky) is a Russian 'zapovednik' (strict nature reserve) that protects a variety of sensitive southern European steppe wetlands, the largest herd of wild horses in Europe (the Don Mustangs), and also wetland habitat for birds.

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Routhierite

Routhierite is a rare thallium sulfosalt mineral with formula Tl(Cu,Ag)(Hg,Zn)2(As,Sb)2S6.

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Russia

Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Russian Armed Forces

The Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (r) are the military service of the Russian Federation, established after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

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Russian Civil War

The Russian Civil War (Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossiyi; November 1917 – October 1922) was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future.

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Russian Constituent Assembly

The All Russian Constituent Assembly (Всероссийское Учредительное собрание, Vserossiyskoye Uchreditelnoye sobraniye) was a constitutional body convened in Russia after the October Revolution of 1917.

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Russian cuisine

Russian cuisine is a collection of the different cooking traditions of the Russian people.

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Russian Empire

The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.

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Russian famine of 1891–92

The Russian famine of 1891–92 began along the Volga River, then spread as far as the Urals and Black Sea.

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Russian Far East

The Russian Far East (p) comprises the Russian part of the Far East - the extreme eastern territory of Russia, between Lake Baikal in Eastern Siberia and the Pacific Ocean.

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Russian Geographical Society

The Russian Geographical Society (Russian: Ру́сское географи́ческое о́бщество «РГО») (RGO) is a learned society based in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

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Russian Mennonite

The Russian Mennonites (German: "Russlandmennoniten" occasionally Ukrainian Mennonites) are a group of Mennonites of German language, tradition and ethnicity, who are descendants of German-Dutch Anabaptists who settled for about 250 years in West Prussia and established colonies in the south west of the Russian Empire (present-day Ukraine) beginning in 1789.

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Russian Professional Football League

The Professional Football League (Первенство Профессиональной футбольной лиги), formerly the Russian Second Division is the third level of Russian professional football.

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Russian Revolution

The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.

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Russian Standard (vodka)

Russian Standard (Russkij Standart) Vodka is a major Russian company producer of the premium vodka brand with the same name.

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Ruthenia

Ruthenia (Рѹ́сь (Rus) and Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ (Rus'kaya zemlya), Ῥωσία, Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia, Roxolania, Garðaríki) is a proper geographical exonym for Kievan Rus' and other, more local, historical states.

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Ruthenium

Ruthenium is a chemical element with symbol Ru and atomic number 44.

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Rytovo

Rytovo (Ры́тово) is a village in Vyaznikovsky District of Vladimir Oblast, Russia, Population: 41 (2008).

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Ryutin affair

The Ryutin affair (1932) was one of the last attempts to oppose the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin within the All-Union Communist Party.

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Sable

The sable (Martes zibellina) is a marten species, a small carnivorous mammal inhabiting forest environments, primarily in Russia from the Ural Mountains throughout Siberia, northern Mongolia.

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Sainkho Namtchylak

Sainkho Namtchylak (born 1957) is a singer originally from Tuva, an autonomous republic in the Russian Federation just north of Mongolia.

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Sakmara River

Sakmara River (Сакмара; Һаҡмар, Haqmar) is a river in Russia that drains the southern tip of the Ural Mountains south into the Ural River.

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Sakmarian

In the geologic timescale, the Sakmarian is an age or stage of the Permian.

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Salavat Yulayev (film)

Salavat Yulayev (Салават Юлаев) is a 1940 Soviet film directed by Yakov Protazanov, about Bashkir national hero, poet Salawat Yulayev (1754-1800) and Pugachev's Rebellion.

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Salda River

Salda (Салда) is a river in Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia.

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Salix polaris

Salix polaris, the polar willow, is a species of willow with a circumpolar distribution in the high arctic tundra, extending north to the limits of land, and south of the Arctic in the mountains of Norway, the northern Ural Mountains, the northern Altay Mountains, Kamchatka, and British Columbia, Canada.

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Samarium

Samarium is a chemical element with symbol Sm and atomic number 62.

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Samarskite-(Y)

Samarskite is a radioactive rare earth mineral series which includes samarskite-(Y) with formula: (YFe3+Fe2+U,Th,Ca)2(Nb,Ta)2O8 and samarskite-(Yb) with formula (YbFe3+)2(Nb,Ta)2O8.

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Samoyedic languages

The Samoyedic or Samoyed languages are spoken on both sides of the Ural mountains, in northernmost Eurasia, by approximately 25,000 people altogether.

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Sandor Zicherman

Sandor Zicherman (Шандор Зихерман) (born 1935, Užhorod, Czechoslovakia, (now Uzhhorod, Ukraine)) is a Soviet and Hungarian artist.

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Sarmatia Asiatica and Sarmatia Europea

Sarmatia Asiatica ("Asian Sarmatia") was the name used in Ptolemy's Geography (ca. 150) for a part of "Sarmatia", a large region which included parts of Europe and Asia.

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Sarmatians

The Sarmatians (Sarmatae, Sauromatae; Greek: Σαρμάται, Σαυρομάται) were a large Iranian confederation that existed in classical antiquity, flourishing from about the 5th century BC to the 4th century AD.

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Sasanian art

Sasanian art, or Sassanid art, was produced under the Sasanian Empire which ruled from the 3rd to 7th centuries AD, before the Muslim conquest of Persia was completed around 651.

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Satka

Satka (Са́тка) is a town and the administrative center of Satkinsky District in Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia, located on the western slope of the Southern Ural Mountains on the bank of the Satka River, from Chelyabinsk, the administrative center of the oblast.

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Satyrium ilicis

Satyrium ilicis, the ilex hairstreak, is a butterfly of the family Lycaenidae.

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Satyrium spini

Satyrium spini, the blue spot hairstreak, is a butterfly in the family Lycaenidae.

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Scalenodon

Scalenodon is an extinct genus of traversodontid cynodonts from the Middle Triassic of Africa and possibly Russia.

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Scalloped hazel

The scalloped hazel (Odontopera bidentata) is a moth of the family Geometridae.

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Schrankia balneorum

Schrankia balneorum is a species of moth of the Erebidae family.

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Scopula immutata

Scopula immutata, the lesser cream wave, is a moth of the family Geometridae.

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Scopula marginepunctata

Scopula marginepunctata, the mullein wave, is a moth of the family Geometridae.

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Scotch argus

The Scotch argus (Erebia aethiops) is a butterfly of the family Nymphalidae.

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Scrobipalpa abstrusa

Scrobipalpa abstrusa is a moth in the Gelechiidae family.

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Scrobipalpa acuta

Scrobipalpa acuta is a moth in the Gelechiidae family.

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Scrobipalpa alterna

Scrobipalpa alterna is a moth in the family Gelechiidae.

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Scrobipalpa arenbergeri

Scrobipalpa arenbergeri is a moth in the Gelechiidae family.

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Scrobipalpa deutschi

Scrobipalpa deutschi is a moth in the Gelechiidae family.

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Scrobipalpa dorsolutea

Scrobipalpa dorsolutea is a moth in the Gelechiidae family.

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Scrobipalpa heimi

Scrobipalpa heimi is a moth in the Gelechiidae family.

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Scrobipalpa karadaghi

Scrobipalpa karadaghi is a moth in the Gelechiidae family.

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Scrobipalpa nana

Scrobipalpa nana is a moth in the Gelechiidae family.

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Scrobipalpa occulta

Scrobipalpa occulta is a moth in the Gelechiidae family.

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Scrobipalpa oleksiyella

Scrobipalpa oleksiyella is a moth in the Gelechiidae family.

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Scrobipalpa soffneri

Scrobipalpa soffneri is a moth in the Gelechiidae family.

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Scrobipalpa solitaria

Scrobipalpa solitaria is a moth in the Gelechiidae family.

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Scrobipalpa spumata

Scrobipalpa spumata is a moth in the Gelechiidae family.

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Scutistriga

Scutistriga is an extinct genus of insects in the family Idelinellidae.

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Scythians

or Scyths (from Greek Σκύθαι, in Indo-Persian context also Saka), were a group of Iranian people, known as the Eurasian nomads, who inhabited the western and central Eurasian steppes from about the 9th century BC until about the 1st century BC.

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Semyonov, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast

Semyonov (Семёнов) is a town in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia, notable for being a major center for traditional handcrafts such as Khokhloma wood painting and matryoshka dolls.

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Serfdom in Russia

The term serf, in the sense of an unfree peasant of the Russian Empire, is the usual translation of krepostnoi krestyanin (крепостной крестьянин).

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Sergei Shemetov

Sergei Ilyich Shemetov (Сергей Ильич Шеметов; 18 September 1872, Orenburg Governorate — after 1930, Kurgan Oblast) was a scribe, a teacher, a head of a village (stanytsia otaman), a deputy of the Third Imperial Duma from Orenburg Governorate between 1907 and 1912.

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Serov (town)

Serov (Серо́в) is a mining and commercial town in Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia, located on the eastern foothills of the Ural Mountains, on the left bank of the Kakva River (a tributary of the Sosva), about north of Yekaterinburg.

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Serpentine subgroup

The serpentine subgroup (part of the kaolinite-serpentine group) are greenish, brownish, or spotted minerals commonly found in serpentinite rocks.

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Severnaya Sosva River

The Severnaya Sosva (Северная Сосьва) is a river in Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug, Russia, which drains the northern Ural Mountains into the lower Ob River.

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Severouralsk

Severouralsk (Североура́льск, lit. (a town) in the Northern Urals) is a town in Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia, located on the Vagran River (Ob's basin) at its confluence with the Kolonga River, north of Yekaterinburg, the administrative center of the oblast.

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Shakir Selim

Shakir Selim (1942-2008) was a Crimean Tatar poet, publicist, translator.

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Shamanism

Shamanism is a practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with what they believe to be a spirit world and channel these transcendental energies into this world.

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Shamanistic remnants in Hungarian folklore

Hungarian shamanism is discovered through comparative methods in ethnology, designed to analyse and search ethnographic data of Hungarian folktales, songs, language, comparative cultures and historical sources.

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Shaytan-Tau Nature Reserve

Shaytan-Tau Nature Reserve (Шайтан-Тау заповедник) (from the Turkic "Devils Mountain") is a Russian 'zapovednik' (strict nature reserve) located along the Shaytantau ridge of the Southern Urals.

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Shiban

Shiban (Sheiban) or Shayban (Шибан, Shiban; Shaybon / Шайбон) was a prince of the early Golden Horde.

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Shigir Idol

The Shigir Sculpture, or Shigir Idol (Шигирский идол), is the oldest known wooden sculpture in the world, made during the Mesolithic period, shortly after the end of the last Ice Age.

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Shimun Vrochek

Shimun Vrochek (Шимун Врочек), real name Dmitry S. Ovchinnikov (Дмитрий Овчинников) (born 1 November 1976) is a Russian science fiction author.

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Shlomo Dykman

Shlomo Dykman (שלמה דיקמן; born 10 February 1917, died 1965) was a Polish-Israeli translator and classical scholar.

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Shoulder-striped wainscot

The shoulder-striped wainscot (Leucania comma) is a moth of the family Noctuidae.

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Shubin (ghost)

Shubin is the mythological spirit of the mines.

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Shulgan-Tash Nature Reserve

Shulgan-Tash Nature Reserve (Шүлгәнташ, Шульган-Таш заповедник) (also Shulgan-Tash) is a Russian 'zapovednik' (strict nature reserve) in the western foothills of the Southern Ural Mountains.

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Sibay

Sibay (Сиба́й; Сибай) is a town in the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia, located on the border between Europe and Asia, on the east slope of the Southern Urals, in the spurs of Irendyk, from Ufa, the capital of the republic.

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Siberia

Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.

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Siberia Governorate

Siberia Governorate (Сибирская губерния) was an administrative division (a guberniya) of the Tsardom of Russia and then the Russian Empire, which existed from 1708 until 1782.

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Siberian accentor

The Siberian accentor (Prunella montanella) is a small passerine bird that breeds in northern Russia from the Ural Mountains eastwards across Siberia.

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Siberian agriculture

Agriculture in Siberia started many millennia ago by peoples indigenous to the region.

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Siberian crane

The Siberian crane (Leucogeranus leucogeranus), also known as the Siberian white crane or the snow crane, is a bird of the family Gruidae, the cranes.

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Siberian natural resources

Siberian natural resources refers to resources found in Russian Siberia, in the North Asian Mainland.

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Siberian State Medical University

The Siberian State Medical University is a medical school in Tomsk, Russia.

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Siberian Tatars

Siberian Tatars refers to the indigenous population of Tatars of the forests and steppes of South Siberia stretching from somewhat east of the Ural Mountains to the Yenisei River in Russia.

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Siberian weasel

The Siberian weasel (Mustela sibirica) is a medium-sized weasel native to Asia, where it is widely distributed and inhabits various forest habitats and open areas.

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Siege of Shahrukhiya

Abu Sa'id Mirza occupied Herat on July 19, 1457.

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Siegfried Kasche

Siegfried Kasche (18 June 1903 – 7 June 1947) was an ambassador of the German Reich to the Independent State of Croatia and Obergruppenführer of the Sturmabteilung (SA), a paramilitary wing of the Nazi Party.

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Sim River

Sim River (Эҫем, Сим) is a river in Chelyabinsk Oblast and the Republic of Bashkortostan in Russia.

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Simeon of Verkhoturye

St.

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Sintashta

Sintashta (Синташта) is an archaeological site in Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia.

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Sister Pelagia

Sister Pelagia is the heroine of a trilogy of mystery novels by Boris Akunin.

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Small fan-footed wave

The small fan-footed wave (Idaea biselata) is a moth of the family Geometridae.

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Small skipper

The small skipper (Thymelicus sylvestris) is a butterfly of the Hesperiidae family.

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Smerinthus caecus

Smerinthus caecus (northern eyed hawkmoth) is a species of moth of the family Sphingidae.

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Social history of viruses

The social history of viruses describes the influence of viruses and viral infections on human history.

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Sogdia

Sogdia or Sogdiana was an ancient Iranian civilization that at different times included territory located in present-day Tajikistan and Uzbekistan such as: Samarkand, Bukhara, Khujand, Panjikent and Shahrisabz.

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Southern hawker

The southern hawker or blue hawker (Aeshna cyanea) is a species of hawker dragonfly.

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Southern Ural

Southern Ural - the south, the widest part of the Ural Mountains, stretches from the river Ufa (near the village of Lower Ufaley) to the Ural River.

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Soviet combat vehicle production during World War II

Soviet combat vehicle production during World War II from the start of the German invasion of the Soviet Union on 22 June 1941 was large.

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Soviet famine of 1932–33

The Soviet famine of 1932–33 was a major famine that killed millions of people in the major grain-producing areas of the Soviet Union, including Ukraine, Northern Caucasus, Volga Region and Kazakhstan, the South Urals, and West Siberia.

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Soviet Philatelist

Soviet Philatelist or Sovetskii Filatelist was a Soviet central philatelic magazine published in 1922–1932 by the All-Russian Society of Philatelists.

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Soviet Russia (exhibition, 1960)

First National Art Exhibition "Soviet Russia" (Moscow, 1960) (Первая Республиканская художественная выставка "Советская Россия" 1960 года) was one of the largest Soviet art exhibitions of the 1960s.

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Soyuz 22

Soyuz 22 (Союз 22, Union 22) was a 1976 Soviet manned spaceflight.

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Soyuz 5

Soyuz 5 (Союз 5, Union 5) was a Soyuz mission using the Soyuz 7K-OK spacecraft launched by the Soviet Union on 15 January 1969, which docked with Soyuz 4 in orbit.

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Soyuz 7K-L1

The Soyuz 7K-L1 "Zond" spacecraft was designed to launch men from the Earth to circle the Moon without going into lunar orbit in the context of the Soviet manned moon-flyby program in the Moon race.

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Spooks (series 7)

The seventh series of the BBC espionage television series Spooks (known as MI-5 in the United States) began broadcasting on 27 October 2008 on BBC One before ending on 8 December 2008 on the same channel, and consists of eight episodes, two fewer than previous series.

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Spotted hyena

The spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta), also known as the laughing hyena, is a species of hyena, currently classed as the sole member of the genus Crocuta, native to Sub-Saharan Africa.

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Srubna culture

The Srubna culture (Сру́бная культу́ра, Зрубна́ культу́ра), Timber-grave culture, was a Late Bronze Age (18th–12th centuries BC) cultureJ. P. Mallory, "Srubna Culture", Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture, Fitzroy Dearborn, 1997.

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Stanislav Kalesnik

Stanislav Vikentyevich Kalesnik (Калесник, Станислав Викентьевич) (January 10 (N.S. January 23), 1901, Saint Petersburg - 13 September 1977, Leningrad) was a Soviet glaciologist, physical geographer, and academician (1968).

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State Public Scientific & Technological Library

State Public Scientific and Technological Library of the Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (SPSTL SD RAS) is the largest library in Russia east of the Urals, the State Universal Book repository of Siberia, an Informational Center of the federal level, head library of the centralized system.

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Staverton, Northamptonshire

Staverton is a village and civil parish in the south-west of Northamptonshire, England.

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Stepan Krasheninnikov

Stepan Petrovich Krasheninnikov (Степа́н Петро́вич Крашени́нников) (–) was a Russian explorer of Siberia, naturalist and geographer who gave the first full description of Kamchatka in the early 18th century.

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Steppe Route

The Steppe Route was an ancient overland route through the Eurasian Steppe that was an active precursor of the Silk Road.

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Steppe wolf

The steppe wolf (Canis lupus campestris), also known as Caspian Sea wolf, is a subspecies of grey wolf native to the Caspian steppes, the steppe regions of the Caucasus, the lower Volga region, southern Kazakhstan north to the middle of the Emba, the northern Urals, and the steppe regions of the lower European part of the former Soviet Union.

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Sterlitamak

Sterlitamak (p; Стәрлетамаҡ, Stärletamaq) is the second largest city in the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia, located on the left bank of the Belaya River (Kama's tributary), from Ufa.

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Stoat

The stoat (Mustela erminea), also known as the short-tailed weasel or simply the weasel in Ireland where the least weasel does not occur, is a mammal of the genus Mustela of the family Mustelidae native to Eurasia and North America, distinguished from the least weasel by its larger size and longer tail with a prominent black tip.

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Stolypin reform

The Stolypin agrarian reforms were a series of changes to Imperial Russia's agricultural sector instituted during the tenure of Pyotr Stolypin, Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Prime Minister).

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Strategic depth

Strategic depth is a term in military literature that broadly refers to the distances between the front lines or battle sectors and the combatants' industrial core areas, capital cities, heartlands, and other key centers of population or military production.

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Strategic Missile Troops

The Strategic Missile Troops or Strategic Rocket Forces of the Russian Federation or RVSN RF are a military branch of the Russian Armed Forces that controls Russia's land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs).

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Streyella anguinella

Streyella anguinella is a moth of the Gelechiidae family.

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Stroganov family

The Stroganovs or Strogonovs (Стро́гановы, Стро́гоновы), referred to in French as Stroganoffs, were a family of highly successful Russian merchants, industrialists, landowners, and statesmen.

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Sugomak

Sugomak may refer to one of the following in the Ural Mountains.

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Sukhoy Log, Sverdlovsk Oblast

Sukhoy Log (Сухо́й Лог, lit. dry gully) is a town and the administrative center of Sukholozhsky District in Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia, located on the eastern slopes of the Ural Mountains on the Pyshma River (Ob's basin), east of Yekaterinburg, the administrative center of the oblast.

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Sunndal

is a municipality in the Nordmøre region located in the northeast part of Møre og Romsdal county, Norway.

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Svensson's copper underwing

Svensson's copper underwing (Amphipyra berbera) is a moth of the family Noctuidae.

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Sverdlovsk Oblast

Sverdlovsk Oblast (Свердло́вская о́бласть, Sverdlovskaya oblast) is a federal subject (an oblast) of Russia located in the Ural Federal District.

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Sweetognathus

Sweetognathus is an extinct genus of conodonts in the family Sweetognathidae.

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Sylva River

The Sylva River is a river in Sverdlovsk Oblast and Perm Krai in Russia.

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Symmoca minimella

Symmoca minimella is a moth in the family Autostichidae.

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Syngrapha ain

Syngrapha ain is a moth of the Noctuidae family.

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Syngrapha hochenwarthi

Syngrapha hochenwarthi is a moth of the Noctuidae family.

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Syrt

A syrt is a kind of an elevated landform in Russia and Central Asia.

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Syrym Datuly

Syrym Datuly Batyr (Kazakh. Сырым Датұлы) (1712—1802) was the Sergeant Major of the Kazakh clan Bayuly, the leader of the national anti-feudal and anti-colonial movements of the Kazakhs of the Little Horde in the years 1783-1797.

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Sztafeta

Sztafeta (English: Relay Race) is a 1939 compendium of literary reportage written by Melchior Wańkowicz.

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T-34

The T-34 is a Soviet medium tank that had a profound and lasting effect on the field of tank design.

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Taganay

Taganay (Таганай) is a group of mountain ridges in the Southern Urals, on the territory of Chelyabinsk Oblast, with the highest point rising 1178 m. above sea level.

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Tagil River

Tagil (Тагил) is a river in Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia.

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Tamara Moskvina

Tamara Nikolayevna Moskvina, née Bratus (born 26 June 1941;; earlier Братусь) is a Russian pair skating coach and former competitive skater.

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Tanks in the Soviet Union

This article deals with the history and development of tanks of the Soviet Union from their first use after World War I, into the interwar period, during World War II, the Cold War and modern era.

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Tansy beetle

The tansy beetle (Chrysolina graminis) is a species of leaf beetle.

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Taras Shevchenko

Taras Hryhorovych Shevchenko (–) was a Ukrainian poet, writer, artist, public and political figure, as well as folklorist and ethnographer.

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Tartary

Tartary (Latin: Tartaria) or Great Tartary (Latin: Tartaria Magna) was a name used from the Middle Ages until the twentieth century to designate the great tract of northern and central Asia stretching from the Caspian Sea and the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean, settled mostly by Turko-Mongol peoples after the Mongol invasion and the subsequent Turkic migrations.

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Tatarstan

The Republic of Tatarstan (p; Татарстан Республикасы), or simply Tatarstan, is a federal subject (a republic) of the Russian Federation, located in the Volga Federal District.

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Tatiana Dobrolubova

Tatiana Dobrolubova (1891 – 1972) was a Russian geologist and paleontologist.

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Tatyana Sapunova

Tatyana Sapunova (b. ~1974) is a Russian biophysicist who was seriously injured by an act of anti-Semitic terrorism on 27 May 2002.

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Tatyana Ustinova

Tatyana Ustinova (November 14, 1913, Alushta — September 4, 2009, Vancouver) was a Soviet geologist, who discovered Valley of Geysers in Kamchatka.

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Tawny owl

The tawny owl or brown owl (Strix aluco) is a stocky, medium-sized owl commonly found in woodlands across much of Eurasia.

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Techa River

The Techa River is a river on the eastern flank of the southern Ural Mountains noted for its nuclear contamination.

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Telekan

Telekan (ООО Телека́н; LLC Telekan) is a Russian company in telecommunications industry.

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Television in Russia

Television is the most popular medium in Russia, with 74% of the population watching national television channels routinely and 59% routinely watching regional channels.

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Television in the Soviet Union

Television in the Soviet Union was owned, controlled and censored by the state.

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Telluric iron

Telluric iron, also called native iron, is iron that originated on Earth, and is found in a metallic form rather than as an ore.

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Tetrapleuroceras

Tetrapleuroceras is an extinct prehistoric nautiloid from the Lower Permian of the Urals in Russia.

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The Birds of the Western Palearctic

The Birds of the Western Palearctic (full title Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palearctic; often referred to by the initials BWP) is a nine-volume ornithological handbook covering the birds of the western portion of the Palearctic zoogeographical region.

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The EBCC Atlas of European Breeding Birds

The EBCC Atlas of European Breeding Birds - their distribution and abundance is an ornithological atlas published for the European Bird Census Council by T & A D Poyser in 1997.

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The Ezekiel Option

The Ezekiel Option is a Christian apocalyptic novel by Joel C. Rosenberg, involving the War of Ezekiel 38-39.

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The Firm of Girdlestone

The Firm of Girdlestone is a novel by British author Sir Arthur Conan Doyle.

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The French Angel

Maurice Tillet (October 23, 1903 – September 4, 1954) was a French professional wrestler, better known by his ring name, The French Angel.

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The Hunter (comics)

The Hunter is a British comic book limited series created by Adam Hamdy, with art by David Golding.

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The Journalist

The Journalist (Zhurnalist) is a 1967 Soviet romantic drama.

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The Last Summer (novella)

The Last Summer is a novella by the Russian writer Boris Pasternak.

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The Malachite Box

The Malachite Box or The Malachite Casket (p) is a book of fairy tales and folk tales (also known as skaz) of the Ural region of Russia compiled by Pavel Bazhov and published from 1936 to 1945.

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The Mistress of the Copper Mountain

The Mistress of the Copper Mountain (Hozjajka mednoj gory), also known as The Malachite Maid, is a legendary creature from Slavic mythology and a Russian fairy tale character, the mountain spirit from the legends of the Ural miners and the Mistress of the Ural Mountains of Russia.

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The Mistress of the Copper Mountain (fairy tale)

"The Mistress of the Copper Mountain" (Mednoj gory hozjajka),Bazhov 1950s, p. 9.

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The Wrekin

The Wrekin is a hill in east Shropshire, England.

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The Years of Rice and Salt

The Years of Rice and Salt is an alternate history novel written by science fiction author Kim Stanley Robinson and published in 2002.

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Theotokos Uralskaya

Theotokos Uralskaya (Our Lady of Urals) is the Russian Orthodox Marian icon locally venerated in Ekaterinburg and Urals.

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Thiotimoline

Thiotimoline is a fictitious chemical compound conceived by American biochemist and science fiction author Isaac Asimov.

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Thymallus

Thymallus is a genus of freshwater fish in the salmon family Salmonidae; it is the only genus of subfamily Thymallinae.

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Thyssagetae

The Thyssagetae (Θυσσαγέται) were an ancient tribe described by Herodotus as occupying a district to the north-east of Scythia, separated from the Budini by a "desert" that took seven days to cross.

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Tiliacea citrago

Tiliacea citrago, the orange sallow, is a species of moth of the family Noctuidae.

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Timan Ridge

The Timan Ridge (Тиманский кряж – Timansky Kryazh) is a highland in the far north of European Russia.

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Timan-Pechora Basin

The Timan-Pechora Basin is a sedimentary basin located between Timan Ridge and the Ural Mountains in northern Russia.

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Timanide Orogen

The Timanide Orogen (Ороген Протоуралид-Тиманид, literally: "Protouralian–Timanide Orogen") is a pre-Uralian orogen that formed in northeastern Baltica during the Neoproterozoic in the Timanide orogeny.

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Timeline of European exploration

The following timeline covers European exploration from 1418 to 1957.

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Timeline of extinctions in the Holocene

This timeline of extinctions is an historical account of species that have become extinct during the time that modern humans have occupied the earth.

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Timeline of healthcare in Russia

This is a timeline of healthcare in Russia.

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Timurid dynasty

The Timurid dynasty (تیموریان), self-designated as Gurkani (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān), was a Sunni Muslim dynasty or clan of Turco-Mongol lineageB.F. Manz, "Tīmūr Lang", in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Online Edition, 2006Encyclopædia Britannica, "", Online Academic Edition, 2007.

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Tobolsk

Tobolsk (Тобо́льск) is a town in Tyumen Oblast, Russia, located at the confluence of the Tobol and Irtysh Rivers.

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Tobolsk Governorate

Tobolsk Governorate (Тобольская губерния) was an administrative division (a guberniya) of the Russian Empire, located in the Ural Mountains and Siberia.

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Tomsk Polytechnic University

Tomsk Polytechnic University (TPU) in Tomsk, Russia, is the oldest technical university in Russia east of the Urals.

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Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radio-electronics

Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics (Томский государственный университет систем управления и радиоэлектроники, abbreviated as TUSUR) is a public university in Tomsk, Russia.

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Tongbaite

Tongbaite is a rare mineral that has the chemical formula Cr3C2, or chromium carbide.

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Topaz

Topaz is a silicate mineral of aluminium and fluorine with the chemical formula Al2SiO4(F, OH)2.

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Torgay River

The Turgai River (also Torgai or Turgay; Торғай Torğay; Тургай) is a river that flows in the Turgai Valley in Kazakhstan.

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Total war

Total war is warfare that includes any and all civilian-associated resources and infrastructure as legitimate military targets, mobilizes all of the resources of society to fight the war, and gives priority to warfare over non-combatant needs.

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Trans-Siberian Railway

The Trans-Siberian Railway (TSR, p) is a network of railways connecting Moscow with the Russian Far East.

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Transnistria Governorate

The Transnistria Governorate (Guvernământul Transnistriei) was a Romanian-administered territory between Dniester and Southern Bug (Buh), conquered by the Axis Powers from the Soviet Union during Operation Barbarossa and occupied from 19 August 1941 to 29 January 1944.

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Transport in the Soviet Union

Transport in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was an important part of the nation's economy.

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Transsyberia rally

The TransSyberia Rally is a rally raid race held in Siberia.

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Transvolga

Transvolga Region or Transvolga (Заволжье, Zavolzhye) is a territory to the East of Volga River bounded by Volga, Ural Mountains, Northern Ridge, and Caspian Depression.

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Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe

The original Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE) was negotiated and concluded during the last years of the Cold War and established comprehensive limits on key categories of conventional military equipment in Europe (from the Atlantic to the Urals) and mandated the destruction of excess weaponry.

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Tree line

The tree line is the edge of the habitat at which trees are capable of growing.

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Troitsk, Chelyabinsk Oblast

Troitsk (Тро́ицк) is a town in Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia, located east of the southern Ural Mountains and approximately south of Chelyabinsk on the border with Kazakhstan.

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Truncated upland

A truncated upland, truncated highland or bevelled upland (Rumpfgebirge) is the heavily eroded remains of a fold mountain range, often from an early period in earth history.

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Tsarskoye Selo Railway

The Tsarskoye Selo Railway was the first public railway line in the Russian Empire.

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Tsylmosuchus

Tsylmosuchus is an extinct genus of archosauriform reptile.

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Tula, Russia

Tula (p) is an industrial city and the administrative center of Tula Oblast, Russia, located south of Moscow, on the Upa River.

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Tura River

The Tura River, also known as Dolgaya River (Long River) is a historically important Siberian river which flows eastward from the central Ural Mountains into the Tobol River, a part of the Ob River basin.

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Turkestan–Siberia Railway

The Turkestan–Siberian Railway (commonly abbreviated as the Turk–Sib, Түрксіб, Tu’rksib, تٷركسٸب, tʰʉɾkˈsɘb; Турксиб, Turksib) is a broad gauge railway that connects Central Asia with Siberia.

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Turki

The Turki language is a Turkic literary language active from the 13th to the 19th centuries, used by different (predominantly but not exclusively) Turkic peoples.

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Turya River

Turya (Турья́) is a river in Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia.

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Tyoplaya Gora

Tyoplaya Gora (Тёплая Гора́) is an urban locality (an urban-type settlement) in Gornozavodsky District of Perm Krai, Russia, located on the western slopes of the Ural Mountains, on the Koyva River, from the border with Sverdlovsk Oblast.

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Tyumen

Tyumen (a) is the largest city and the administrative center of Tyumen Oblast, Russia, located on the Tura River east of Moscow.

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Tyumen Oblast

Tyumen Oblast (Тюме́нская о́бласть, Tyumenskaya oblast) is a federal subject (an oblast) of Russia.

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Tyuratam

Tyuratam (Төретам, (Töretam); Тюратам, (Tyuratam)) is a station on the main Moscow to Tashkent railway, located in Kazakhstan.

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U. Alexis Johnson

Ural Alexis Johnson (October 17, 1908 – March 24, 1997) was a United States diplomat.

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Uchaly (town)

Uchaly (Учалы; Учалы) is a town in the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia, in the east of the republic, in the southern Urals, among the lakes of the Uraltau Range.

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Udea uralica

Udea uralica is a moth in the Crambidae family.

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Udmurtia

Udmurtia (p; Удмуртия), or the Udmurt Republic, is a federal subject of Russia (a republic) within the Volga Federal District.

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Ufa

Ufa (p; Өфө) is the capital city of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia, and the industrial, economic, scientific and cultural center of the republic.

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Ufa River

Ufa River (Qaridhel, Qaraidel, literally The Black Idel) is a river in the Urals, Chelyabinsk Oblast, Sverdlovsk Oblast, and the Republic of Bashkortostan; a tributary of the Belaya River.

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Ugric languages

The Ugric or Ugrian languages are a branch of the Uralic language family.

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Ukrainian War of Independence

The Ukrainian War of Independence was a period of sustained warlike conflict lasting from 1917 to 1921, which resulted in the establishment and development of a Ukrainian republic, later a part of the Soviet Union as the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic.

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Ukrainians in Russia

Ukrainians in Russia make up the largest single diaspora group of the Ukrainian people.

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Ukrainians in Siberia

Siberian Ukrainians (Сибирские Украинцы, "Sibirskye Ukraintsy"), (Сибірські Українці,"Sybirsʹki Ukrayintsy") form a national minority in Siberia and the Russian Far East, but make up the majority in some cities there.

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Ulmus glabra

Ulmus glabra, the wych elm, Scotch elm or Scots elm, has the widest range of the European elm species, from Ireland eastwards to the Urals, and from the Arctic Circle south to the mountains of the Peloponnese in Greece; it is also found in Iran.

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Ulmus laciniata

Ulmus laciniata (Trautv.) Mayr, known variously as the Manchurian, cut-leaf, or lobed elm, is a deciduous tree native to the humid ravine forests of Japan, Korea, northern China, eastern Siberia and Sakhalin, growing alongside Cerciphyllum japonicum, Aesculus turbinata, and Pterocarya rhoifolia,Sasaki, Y. (1979) Der Verband Pterocaryon rhoifoliae in Japan.

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Ulmus laevis

Ulmus laevis Pall.

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Ural

Ural may refer to.

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Ural (region)

The Urals (Ура́л) are a geographical region located around the Ural Mountains, between the East European and West Siberian plains.

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Ural Automotive Plant

For the defunct "Ural Automobiles and Motors" see Amur (company) The Urals Automotive Plant,.

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Ural Mountains in Nazi planning

The Ural Mountains played a prominent role in Nazi planning.

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Ural Ocean

The Ural Ocean (also called the Uralic Ocean) was a small, ancient ocean that was situated between Siberia and Baltica.

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Ural River

The Ural (Урал) or Jayıq/Zhayyq (Яйыҡ, Yayıq,; Jai'yq, Жайық, جايىق), known as Yaik (Яик) before 1775, is a river flowing through Russia and Kazakhstan in Eurasia.

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Ural State Mining University

Ural State Mining University (Уральский государственный горный университет) is situated in Yekaterinburg, Russian Federation.

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Ural State Technical University

Ural State Technical University (USTU) is a higher education institute in Yekaterinburg, Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russian Federation.

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Ural-batyr

Ural-batyr or Ural-batır (Урал батыр, pronounced, from Ural + Turkic ''batır'' - "hero, brave man") is the most famous kubair (epic poem) of the Bashkirs.

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Ural-Siberian method

The Ural-Siberian method was an extraordinary approach launched in the Soviet Union for the collection of grain from the countryside.

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Uralian orogeny

The Uralian orogeny refers to the long series of linear deformation and mountain building events that raised the Ural Mountains, starting in the Late Carboniferous and Permian periods of the Palaeozoic Era, c. 323–299 and 299–251 Mya respectively, and ending with the last series of continental collisions in Triassic to early Jurassic times.

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Uralic languages

The Uralic languages (sometimes called Uralian languages) form a language family of 38 languages spoken by approximately 25million people, predominantly in Northern Eurasia.

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Uralmash

Uralmash is a heavy machine production facility of the Russian engineering corporation OMZ.

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Urals montane tundra and taiga

The Urals montane tundra and taiga ecoregion (WWF ID:PA0610) covers the main ridge of the Ural Mountains (both sides) - a 2,000 km (north-south) by 300 km (west-east) region.

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Urals oil

Urals oil is a reference oil brand used as a basis for pricing of the Russian export oil mixture.

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Uralsky Sledopyt

Uralsky Sledopyt (Уральский Следопыт, Urals Pathfinder) is a Soviet and Russian magazine dedicated to tourism and local history.

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Ursus ingressus

Ursus ingressus, the Gamssulzen Cave bear is an extinct species of the family Ursidae that lived in Central Europe during the Late Pleistocene.

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Usa River (Komi Republic)

Usa (Уса́; Усва, Usva) is a river in the northeast corner of European Russia that drains the Polar Urals southwest into the Pechora River.

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Ust-Shchuger

Ust-Shchuger (Усть-Щугер), formerly known as Ust-Shchugor (Усть-Щугор),"Коми АССР.

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Uy River (Tobol basin)

The Uy River (Уй, Уй) is a river in Chelyabinsk Oblast in Russia with its upper reaches in Bashkiria.

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Uzbek Khanate

The Uzbek Khanate of the Abulkhairids was the Shaybanid state preceding the Shaybanid Empire of Muhammad Shaybani and the Khanate of Bukhara.

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Vanadinite

Vanadinite is a mineral belonging to the apatite group of phosphates, with the chemical formula Pb5(VO4)3Cl.

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Variscan orogeny

The Variscan or Hercynian orogeny is a geologic mountain-building event caused by Late Paleozoic continental collision between Euramerica (Laurussia) and Gondwana to form the supercontinent of Pangaea.

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Vasily Zaytsev

Vasily Grigoryevich Zaytsev (p; 23 March 1915 – 15 December 1991) was a Soviet sniper and a Hero of the Soviet Union during World War II.

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Vassili Samarsky-Bykhovets

Vasili Evgrafovich Samarsky–Bykhovets (Васи́лий Евгра́фович Сама́рский-Быховец; November 7, 1803 – May 31, 1870) was a Russian mining engineer and the chief of Russian Mining Engineering Corps between 1845 and 1861.

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Vasyl Stus

Vasyl Semenovych Stus (Васи́ль Семе́нович Стус; 6 January 1938, Rakhnivka, Ukrainian SSR – 4 September 1985, Perm-36, Kuchino, Russian SFSR) was a Ukrainian poet, translator, literary critic, journalist, and an active member of the Ukrainian dissident movement.

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Vasyl Sukhomlynsky

Vasyl Olexandrovych Sukhomlynsky (In transliteration from Russian: Vasily Aleksandrovich Sukhomlinsky or Vasilii Aleksandrovich Sukhomlinskii, Василь Олександрович Сухомлинський; Васи́лий Алекса́ндрович Сухомли́нский) (September 28, 1918 – September 2, 1970) was a Ukrainian humanistic educator in the Soviet Union who saw the aim of education in producing a truly humane being.

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Vauquelinite

Vauquelinite is a complex mineral with the formula CuPb2(CrO4)(PO4)(OH) making it a combined chromate and phosphate of copper and lead.

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Vazif Meylanov

Vazif Sirazhutdinovich Meylanov (Вази́ф Сиражутди́нович Мейла́нов, 15 May 1940, Makhachkala, Dagestan ASSR, RSFSR, USSR – 11 January 2015, Makhachkala) was a Soviet mathematician, social philosopher, writer, Soviet dissident and political prisoner (1980–1989).

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Veliky Novgorod

Veliky Novgorod (p), also known as Novgorod the Great, or Novgorod Veliky, or just Novgorod, is one of the most important historic cities in Russia, which serves as the administrative center of Novgorod Oblast.

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Verblyuzhka

Verblyuzhka is a mountain in the Belyaesky District of Orenburg region in Russia.

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Verkhniye Sergi

Verkhniye Sergi (Ве́рхние Се́рги) is an urban locality (a work settlement) in Nizhneserginsky District of Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia, located in the Ural Mountains on the Serga River west-southwest of Yekaterinburg and east of Nizhniye Sergi.

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Verkhoturye

Verkhoturye (Верхоту́рье) is a historical town and the administrative center of Verkhotursky District of Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia, located in the middle Ural Mountains on the left bank of the Tura River north of Yekaterinburg.

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Victor Starffin

Victor Starffin (Viktor Konstantinovich Starukhin, May 1, 1916 – January 12, 1957), nicknamed, was an ethnic Russian baseball player in Japan and the first professional pitcher in Japan to win three hundred games.

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Victoria Foust

Victoria Foust (Russian, Виктория Фауст; born May 25, 1975 in Ural Mountains, Soviet Union), Is a classical pianist and Russian composer noted for her performance of various musical styles, acclaimed for her "passionate and refined" way of playing beyond the limits of traditional concerts creating new styles of music shows where the piano interacts with poetry and visual art through a captivating scenic setting.

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Vienna Document

The Vienna Document is an agreement between the participating states of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe which was intended to implement confidence and security building measures.

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Viktorin Molchanov

Viktorin Mikhailovich Molchanov (Викторин Михайлович Молчанов) (January 11, 1886 in Chistopol, Governorate of Kazan – January 10, 1975 in San Francisco) was a Russian Major-General and a participant in the White movement.

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Vilva River

Vilva River (Вильва) is a river in Perm Krai, Russia, a left tributary of the Usva River.

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Violin Sonata No. 2 (Prokofiev)

Sergei Prokofiev's Violin Sonata No.

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Virgin Komi Forests

The Virgin Komi Forests is a natural UNESCO World Heritage site in the Northern Ural Mountains of the Komi Republic, Russia.

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Visim Nature Reserve

Visim Nature Reserve (Висимский заповедник) (also Visimskiy) is a Russian 'zapovednik' (strict nature reserve) protecting an area of southern taiga in the low Middle Ural Mountains.

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Vitaly Bianki

Vitaly Valentinovich Bianki (Вита́лий Валенти́нович Биа́нки) (11 February 1894, St. Petersburg — 10 June 1959, Leningrad) — was a popular Russian children’s writer and a prolific author of books on nature.

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Vitaly Naumkin

Vitaliy Vyacheslavovich Naumkin (Виталий Вячеславович Наумкин, فيتالي فياتشيسلافوفيتش ناؤمكين); is a Russian scholar of Central Asia and Middle East.

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Vitus Bering

Vitus Jonassen Bering (baptised 5 August 1681, died 19 December 1741),All dates are here given in the Julian calendar, which was in use throughout Russia at the time.

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Vladilen Mashkovtsev

Vladilen Ivanovich Mashkovtsev (Владилен Иванович Машковцев) (1929–1997) was a Russian poet, writer and journalist.

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Vladimir Kovalevsky

Vladimir Ivanovich Kovalevsky (Владимир Иванович Ковалевский) (10 November 1848, Novo-Serpukhov, Russian Empire – 2 November 1935, Leningrad, USSR) was a Russian statesman, scientist and entrepreneur.

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Vladimir Littauer

Vladimir Stanislavovitch Littauer (January 10, 1892 – August 31, 1989) was an influential horseback riding master and the author of books and films on educated riding and the training of horses.

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Vladimir Motyl

Vladimir Yakovlevich Motyl (Влади́мир Я́ковлевич Моты́ль) (26 June 1927 – 21 February 2010) was a Soviet and Russian film director and screenwriter.

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Volborthite

Volborthite is a mineral containing copper and vanadium, with the formula Cu3V2O7(OH)2·2H2O.

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Volcanic Seven Summits

The Volcanic Seven Summits are the highest volcanoes on each of the seven continents, just as the Seven Summits are the highest peaks on each of the seven continents.

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Volga Germans

The Volga Germans (Wolgadeutsche or Russlanddeutsche, Povolzhskiye nemtsy) are ethnic Germans who colonized and historically lived along the Volga River in the region of southeastern European Russia around Saratov and to the south.

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Volga region

The Volga Region (Поволжье, Povolzhye, literally: "along the Volga") is an historical region in Russia that encompasses the drainage basin of the Volga River, the longest river in Europe, in central and southern European Russia.

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Votkinsk Machine Building Plant

Votkinsk Machine Building Plant (Воткинский завод) is a machine and ballistic missile production enterprise based in Votkinsk, Russia.

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Vritramimosaurus

Vritramimosaurus is an extinct genus of giant prolacertid prolacertiform.

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Vyatka horse

The Vyatka or Viatka (Вятская лошадь, vyatskaya loshad) is an endangered breed of horse native to the former Vyatka region, now the Kirov Oblast of the Russian Federation.

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Vychegda River

Vychegda is a river in the European part of Russia, tributary to the Northern Dvina.

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Vysokaya Mount

Vysokaya is a mountain in the eastern part of the Middle Urals in Sverdlovsk Oblast in Russia.

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Walsall

Walsall is an industrial town in the West Midlands of England.

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Walter Ciszek

Walter Joseph Ciszek, S.J. (November 4, 1904–December 8, 1984) was a Polish-American Jesuit priest who conducted clandestine missionary work in the Soviet Union between 1939 and 1963.

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West Kazakhstan Region

West Kazakhstan Region (Батыс Қазақстан облысы, Batys Qazaqstan oblysy) (tr. Zapadno-Kazakhstanskaya oblast; West Kazakhstan Region) is a region of Kazakhstan.

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West Siberian petroleum basin

The West Siberian petroleum basin (variously known as the West Siberian hydrocarbon province, Western Siberian oil basin, etc.) is the largest hydrocarbon (petroleum and natural gas) basin in the world covering an area of about 2.2 million km2.

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West Siberian Plain

The West Siberian Plain, also known as Zapadno-sibirskaya Ravnina, (За́падно-Сиби́рская равни́на) is a large plain that occupies the western portion of Siberia, between the Ural Mountains in the west and the Yenisei River in the east, and by the Altay Mountains on the southeast.

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West Siberian taiga

The West Siberian taiga ecoregion (WWF ID:PA0611) covers the West Siberian Plain in Russia, from the Ural mountains in the west to the Yenisei River in the east, and roughly from 56° N to 66° N latitude.

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Western capercaillie

The western capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus), also known as the wood grouse, heather cock, or just capercaillie, is the largest member of the grouse family.

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Western Palaearctic

The Western Palaearctic or Western Palearctic is part of the Palaearctic ecozone, one of the eight ecozones dividing the Earth's surface.

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White wagtail

The white wagtail (Motacilla alba) is a small passerine bird in the family Motacillidae, which also includes pipits and longclaws.

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White-letter hairstreak

The white-letter hairstreak (Satyrium w-album) is a butterfly in the family Lycaenidae.

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White-tailed eagle

The white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) is a very large eagle widely distributed across Eurasia.

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Wiehen Hills

The Wiehen Hills (Wiehengebirge, also locally, just Wiehen) are a hill range in North Rhine-Westphalia and Lower Saxony in Germany.

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Wild horse

The wild horse (Equus ferus) is a species of the genus ''Equus'', which includes as subspecies the modern domesticated horse (Equus ferus caballus) as well as the undomesticated tarpan (Equus ferus ferus, now extinct), and the endangered Przewalski's horse (Equus ferus przewalskii).

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Wild Russia

Wild Russia is a six-episode series of documentaries about the wilderness in Russia (original title in German: Wildes Russland) made by the German NDR Naturfilm/Studio Hamburg Doclights (executive producer: Jörn Röver) for NDR/WDR/S4C/Animal Planet and National Geographic in 2009.

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Wildlife of Russia

The wildlife of Russia inhabits terrain that extends across 12 time zones and from the tundra region in the far north to the Caucasus Mountains and prairies in the south, including temperate forests which cover 70% of the country's territory.

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With God in Russia

With God in Russia is a memoir by Walter Ciszek (1904–1984), a Polish-American Jesuit priest known for his clandestine missionary work in the Soviet Union between 1941 and 1963.

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Wood warbler

The wood warbler (Phylloscopus sibilatrix) is a common and widespread leaf warbler which breeds throughout northern and temperate Europe, and just into the extreme west of Asia in the southern Ural Mountains.

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Woodsia alpina

Woodsia alpina, commonly known as alpine woodsia, is a fern found in northern latitudes in North America and Eurasia.

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Woodsia ilvensis

Woodsia ilvensis, commonly known as oblong woodsia, is a fern found in North America and northern Eurasia.

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Xavras Wyżryn

Xavras Wyżryn is an alternate history novel by Polish science fiction writer Jacek Dukaj, published in 1997.

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Xestia collina

Xestia collina is a moth of the Noctuidae family.

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Xestia kollari

Xestia kollari is a moth of the Noctuidae family.

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Xestia tecta

Xestia tecta is a moth of the Noctuidae family.

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Xystophora carchariella

Xystophora carchariella is a moth of the family Gelechiidae.

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Xystophora pulveratella

Xystophora pulveratella is a moth of the Gelechiidae family.

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Yakov Sverdlov

Yakov Mikhailovich Sverdlov (Яков Михайлович Свердлов; 3 June 1885 – 16 March 1919) known by pseudonyms "Andrei", "Mikhalych", "Max", "Smirnov", "Permyakov"; was a Bolshevik party administrator and chairman of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee.

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Yakov Yurovsky

Yakov Mikhailovich Yurovsky (Я́ков Миха́йлович Юро́вский; – 2 August 1938) was a Russian Old Bolshevik and a Soviet Revolutionary.

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Yamal Railway

Yamal Railway is a railway operator in Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug in Russia.

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Yarensk

Yarensk (Я́ренск) is a rural locality (a selo) and the administrative center of Lensky District of Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, located on the bank of the Vychegda River near its confluence with the Yarenga.

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Yaroslavl

Yaroslavl (p) is a city and the administrative center of Yaroslavl Oblast, Russia, located northeast of Moscow.

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Yekaterina Larionova

Yekaterina Larionova is a freestyle wrestler from Kazakhstan of Russian origin.

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Yekaterina Mikhailova-Demina

Ekaterina Illarionovna Mikhailova-Demina (Екатерина Илларионовна Михайлова-Дёмина; born 22 December 1925) is the only woman who served in front-line reconnaissance in the Soviet marines during World War II.

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Yekaterinburg

Yekaterinburg (p), alternatively romanized Ekaterinburg, is the fourth-largest city in Russia and the administrative centre of Sverdlovsk Oblast, located on the Iset River east of the Ural Mountains, in the middle of the Eurasian continent, at the boundary between Asia and Europe.

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Yekaterinburg Metro

The Yekaterinburg Metro (Екатеринбу́ргский Метрополите́н) is a rapid transit system that serves the city of Yekaterinburg, Russia.

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Yellow-browed warbler

The yellow-browed warbler (Phylloscopus inornatus) is a leaf warbler (family Phylloscopidae) which breeds in temperate Asia.

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Yellow-necked mouse

The yellow-necked mouse (Apodemus flavicollis), also called yellow-necked field mouse, yellow-necked wood mouse, and South China field mouse, is closely related to the wood mouse, with which it was long confused.

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Yellow-tail

The yellow-tail, goldtail moth or swan moth (Euproctis similis) is a moth of the family Erebidae.

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Yemanzhelinsk

Yemanzhelinsk (Еманжели́нск) is a town and the administrative center of Yemanzhelinsky District in Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia, located near the border with Kazakhstan on the eastern slopes of the Southern Ural Mountains, south of Chelyabinsk, the administrative center of the oblast.

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Yermak Timofeyevich

Yermak Timofeyevich (p; born between 1532 and 1542 – August 5 or 6, 1585) was a Cossack ataman who started the Russian conquest of Siberia, in the reign of Tsar Ivan the Terrible.

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Yevgeni Panfilov (choreographer)

Eugene (Yevgeni) Panfilov (1955 in Pyatkovo, Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia – 2002 in Perm, Urals) was a Russian choreographer.

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Yevgeni Preobrazhensky

Yevgeni Alekseyevich Preobrazhensky (p; 1886–1937) was a Russian revolutionary and economist.

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YIVO

YIVO (Yiddish: ייִוואָ), established in 1925 in Wilno in the Second Polish Republic (now Vilnius, Lithuania) as the Yidisher Visnshaftlekher Institut (Yiddish: ייִדישער װיסנשאַפֿטלעכער אינסטיטוט,, Yiddish Scientific Institute), is an organization that preserves, studies, and teaches the cultural history of Jewish life throughout Eastern Europe, Germany and Russia, as well as orthography, lexicography, and other studies related to Yiddish.

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Ynglinga saga

Ynglinga saga is a legendary saga, originally written in Old Norse by the Icelandic poet and historian Snorri Sturluson about 1225.

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Yorgia

Yorgia waggoneri is a discoid Ediacaran, and possibly represents a transition organism between Dickinsonia and Spriggina.

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Yugra

Yugra or Iuhra (Old Russian Югра Jugra; Byzantine Greek Οὔγγροι Oὔggroi) was a collective name for lands and peoples between the Pechora River and Urals (modern north-west Russia), in the Russian annals of the 12th–17th Centuries.

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Yulia Chicherina

Chicherina, officially Yulia Dmitrievna Chicherina (Юлия Дмитриевна Чичерина), is a Russian pop-rock artist.

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Yulia Savicheva

Yulia Stanislavovna Savicheva (Ю́лия Станисла́вовна Са́вичева; born 14 February 1987) is a Russian singer who represented Russia in the 2004 Eurovision Song Contest, which was held in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Yuryuzan River

Yuryuzan River (Yuryuzán;, Yürüðän) is a river in the Republic of Bashkortostan and Chelyabinsk Oblast in Russia, a left tributary of the Ufa River (Kama basin).

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Zakamensk

Zakamensk (Зака́менск; Захаамин, Zakhaamin) is a town and the administrative center of Zakamensky District of the Republic of Buryatia, Russia, located on the Dzhida River southwest of Ulan-Ude and from the border with Mongolia.

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Zapovednik

Zapovednik (заповедник, plural заповедники, from the Russian заповедный, "sacred, prohibited from disturbance, committed, committed ") is an established term on the territory of the former Soviet Union for a protected area which is kept "forever wild".

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Zashiversk

Zashiversk (Зашиверск; Зашиверскай) was a town north of the arctic circle in what is now the Sakha Republic (formerly Yakutia), Russia.

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Zaynulla Rasulev

Zaynulla Rasulev (Zaynulla bin Khabibulla bin Rasūl; Зәйнулла Рәсүлев, Зайнулла́ Расу́лев, 25 March 1833 – 2 February 1917) was a Bashkir religious leader in the 19th and early 20th century.

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Zbigniew Brzezinski

Zbigniew Kazimierz "Zbig" Brzezinski (March 28, 1928 – May 26, 2017) was a Polish-American diplomat and political scientist.

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Zemarchus

Zemarchus (Ζήμαρχος, fl. c. 569) was a Byzantine official, diplomat and traveller in the reign of Justin II.

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Zerynthia polyxena

Zerynthia polyxena, the southern festoon, is a striking butterfly belonging to the butterfly family Papilionidae.

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Zhiguli Hydroelectric Station

The Zhiguli Hydroelectric Station or Zhigulyovskaya Hydroelectric Station (Жигулёвская ГЭС, Zhigulyovskaya GES), formerly known as Kuybyshev Hydroelectric Station (Kuybyshev GES) is a large dam and hydroelectric station on the Volga River, located near Zhigulyovsk and Tolyatti in Samara Oblast of Russia.

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Zhuz

A zhuz (ju’z, ٴجۇز, also translated as "horde" or "hundred") is one of the three main territorial and tribal divisions in the Kypchak Plain area that covers much of the contemporary Kazakhstan, and represents the main tribal division within the ethnic group of the Kazakhs.

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ZIL-E-167

ZIL-E-167 is an off-road truck designed in the beginning of the 1960s to withstand difficult conditions in Siberia, Urals and far east and northern territories of the Soviet Union.

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Zinaida Krutikhovskaia

Zinaida Krutikhovskaia (16 October 1916 – 28 December 1986) was a Russian-born Ukrainian geophysicist who specialized in geomagnetism.

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ZIS-5 (truck)

The ZIS-5 (ЗиС-5) was a 4x2 Soviet truck produced by Moscow ZIS factory from 1932 to 1958 (first one made at the end of 1930).

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Zygmunt Szczotkowski

Zygmunt Franciszek Szczotkowski (b. September 17, 1877All dates in this article, unless specified otherwise, are written according to the New Style in Warsaw, died February 9, 1943 in Bieżanów) was a Polish mining engineer and the first Polish manager of the Janina Coal Mine in Libiąż.

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1639

No description.

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1829–51 cholera pandemic

The second cholera pandemic (1829–1851), also known as the Asiatic Cholera Pandemic, was a cholera pandemic that reached from India across western Asia to Europe, Great Britain and the Americas, as well as east to China and Japan.

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1905 Russian Revolution

The Russian Revolution of 1905 was a wave of mass political and social unrest that spread through vast areas of the Russian Empire, some of which was directed at the government.

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1959

No description.

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1959 in the Soviet Union

The following lists events that happened during 1959 in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

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1960s in France

France emerged from World War II in the 1960s, rebuilding the country physically and the nation's national identity through the French Fifth Republic.

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1st Czechoslovak Army Corps in the USSR

The 1st Czechoslovak Army Corps (Prvý československý armádny zbor, První československý armádní sbor) was a military formation of the Czechoslovak Army in exile fighting on the Eastern Front alongside the Soviet Red Army in World War II.

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2010 Russian wildfires

The 2010 Russian wildfires were several hundred wildfires that broke out across Russia, primarily in the west in summer 2010.

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2011 in Russia

Events in the year 2011 in Russia.

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2014 Winter Olympics

The 2014 Winter Olympics, officially called the XXII Olympic Winter Games (Les XXIIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver) (r) and commonly known as Sochi 2014, was an international winter multi-sport event that was held from 7 to 23 February 2014 in Sochi, Krasnodar Krai, Russia, with opening rounds in certain events held on the eve of the opening ceremony, 6 February 2014.

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2094 Magnitka

2094 Magnitka, provisional designation, is a Florian asteroid from the inner regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 12 kilometers in diameter.

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20th-century events

The 20th-century events include many notable events which occurred throughout the 20th century, which began on January 1, 1901, and ended on December 31, 2000, according to the Gregorian calendar.

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2120 Tyumenia

2120 Tyumenia, provisional designation, is a dark background asteroid from the outer regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 45 kilometers in diameter.

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2ES10

The 2ES10 is a twin section (Bo'Bo)(Bo'Bo') freight locomotive manufactured from 2010 by Ural Locomotives.

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2nd millennium BC

The 2nd millennium BC spanned the years 2000 through 1001 BC.

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57th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

The 57th Rifle Division was an infantry division of the Red Army and the Soviet Army.

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7th Congress of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks)

The 7th (extraordinary) Congress of the RSDLP(b) (Russian Social Democratic Labor Party), also known as the Extraordinary 7th Congress of the RCP(b) (Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks)), was held between 6–8 March 1918.

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Redirects here:

Middle Urals, The Ural Mountains, The Urals, Trans-Urals, Ural Mountain, Ural Mountain Range, Ural Mountains (Russia), Ural Mountains Region, Ural Mountains Region (Russia), Ural Mountains Region, Russia, Ural Mountains Region, Russia (Federation), Ural Soviet, Ural mountain, Ural mountain range, Ural mountains, Ural'skiy Khrebet, Uralian, Urals, Uralskiy Khrebet, Uralskiye, Uralskiye gory, Uralsky Khrebet.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ural_Mountains

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