1194 relations: Aase syndrome, AB5 toxin, ABCA7, Abelson murine leukemia virus, Abscess, Absolute neutrophil count, ABVD, Acanthocheilonemiasis, Acemetacin, ACTH receptor, Activated PI3K delta syndrome, Activation, Acute bronchitis, Acute eosinophilic pneumonia, Acute flaccid myelitis, Acute infectious thyroiditis, Acute intermittent porphyria, Acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Acute myeloblastic leukemia without maturation, Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, Acute promyelocytic leukemia, Acute prostatitis, Acute radiation syndrome, Adaptive immune system, Addison's disease, Addressin, Adeno-associated virus, Adolfo Ferrata, Afucosylated monoclonal antibodies, Agglutination (biology), Agranulocyte, Agranulocytosis, Air embolism, Akiba caulleryi, Alcoholic liver disease, Aldolase A deficiency, Alfred Gilman Sr., Alicaforsen, Alkaline phosphatase, Allergic inflammation, Allergy, ALOX12, Alvarado score, Amebocyte, American flamingo, American Red Cross, American Society of Hematology, 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Aase syndrome or Aase–Smith syndrome is a rare inherited disorder characterized by anemia with some joint and skeletal deformities.
The AB5 toxins are six-component protein complexes secreted by certain pathogenic bacteria known to cause human diseases such as cholera, dysentery, and hemolytic-uremic syndrome.
ATP-binding cassette sub-family A member 7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ABCA7 gene.
The Abelson murine leukemia virus (Ab-MLV or A-MuLV) is a retrovirus (Class VI) used to induce transformation of murine lymphoid cells.
An abscess is a collection of pus that has built up within the tissue of the body.
Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) is a measure of the number of neutrophil granulocytes (also known as polymorphonuclear cells, PMN's, polys, granulocytes, segmented neutrophils or segs) present in the blood.
ABVD is a chemotherapy regimen used in the first-line treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma, supplanting the older MOPP protocol.
Acanthocheilonemiasis is a rare tropical infectious disease caused by a parasite known as Acanthocheilonema perstans.
Acemetacin is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used for the treatment of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, lower back pain, and relieving post-operative pain.
The adrenocorticotropic hormone receptor or ACTH receptor also known as the melanocortin receptor 2 or MC2 receptor is a type of melanocortin receptor (type 2) which is specific for ACTH.
Activated PI3K delta syndrome is a primary immunodeficiency disease caused by activating gain of function mutations in the PIK3CD gene.
Activation in (bio-)chemical sciences generally refers to the process whereby something is prepared or excited for a subsequent reaction.
Acute bronchitis, also known as a chest cold, is short-term inflammation of the bronchi (large and medium-sized airways) of the lungs.
Acute eosinophilic pneumonia is the acute-onset form of eosinophilic pneumonia, a lung disease caused by the buildup of eosinophils, a type of white blood cell, in the lungs.
Acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) is a neurologic illness of sudden onset in children.
Acute infectious thyroiditis (AIT) also known as suppurative thyroiditis, microbial inflammatory thyroiditis, pyrogenic thyroiditis and bacterial thyroiditis.
Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is a genetic metabolic disorder affecting the production of heme, the oxygen-binding prosthetic group of hemoglobin.
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a cancer of the lymphoid line of blood cells characterized by the development of large numbers of immature lymphocytes.
Acute myeloblastic leukemia without maturation is a quickly progressing disease in which too many immature white blood cells (not lymphocytes) are found in the blood and bone marrow.
Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG; colloquially known as trench mouth) is a common, non-contagious infection of the gums with sudden onset.
Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APML, APL) is a subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a cancer of the white blood cells.
Acute prostatitis is a serious bacterial infection of the prostate gland.
Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) is a collection of health effects that are present within 24 hours of exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation.
The adaptive immune system, also known as the acquired immune system or, more rarely, as the specific immune system, is a subsystem of the overall immune system that is composed of highly specialized, systemic cells and processes that eliminate pathogens or prevent their growth.
Addison's disease, also known as primary adrenal insufficiency and hypocortisolism, is a long-term endocrine disorder in which the adrenal glands do not produce enough steroid hormones.
Addressin also known as mucosal vascular addressin cell adhesion molecule 1 (MAdCAM-1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MADCAM1 gene.
Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a small virus which infects humans and some other primate species.
Adolfo Ferrata (26 April 1880 in Brescia – 9 March 1946) was an Italian pathologist and hematologist.
Afucosylated monoclonal antibodies are monoclonal antibodies engineered so that the oligosaccharides in the Fc region of the antibody do not have any fucose sugar units.
Agglutination is the clumping of particles.
Agranulocytes, also known as mononuclear leukocytes, are white blood cells with a one-lobed nucleus.
Agranulocytosis, also known as agranulosis or granulopenia, is an acute condition involving a severe and dangerous leukopenia (lowered white blood cell count), most commonly of neutrophils causing a neutropenia in the circulating blood.
An air embolism, also known as a gas embolism, is a blood vessel blockage caused by one or more bubbles of air or other gas in the circulatory system.
Leucocytozoon caulleryi is a species of the genus Leucocytozoon, a genus of parasitic alveolates.
Alcoholic liver disease is a term that encompasses the liver manifestations of alcohol overconsumption, including fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, and chronic hepatitis with liver fibrosis or cirrhosis.
Aldolase A deficiency, also called ALDOA deficiency, red cell aldolase deficiency or glycogen storage disease type 12 (GSD XII) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder resulting in a deficiency of the enzyme aldolase A; the enzyme is found predominantly in red blood cells and muscle tissue.
Alfred Zack Gilman (February 5, 1908 – January 13, 1984) was an American pharmacologist best known for pioneering early chemotherapy techniques using nitrogen mustard with his colleague, Louis S. Goodman.
Alicaforsen is an antisense oligonucleotide therapeutic that targets the messenger RNA for the production of human ICAM-1 protein.
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP, ALKP, ALPase, Alk Phos) or basic phosphatase is a homodimeric protein enzyme of 86 kilodaltons.
Allergic inflammation is an important pathophysiological feature of several disabilities or medical conditions including allergic asthma, atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis and several ocular allergic diseases.
Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to typically harmless substances in the environment.
ALOX12, also known as arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase, 12-lipoxygenase, 12S-Lipoxygenase, 12-LOX, and 12S-LOX is a lipoxygenase-type enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ALOX12 gene which is located along with other lipoyxgenases on chromosome 17p13.3.
The Alvarado score is a clinical scoring system used in the diagnosis of appendicitis.
An amebocyte or amoebocyte is a mobile cell (moving like an amoeba) in the body of invertebrates including echinoderms, molluscs, tunicates, sponges and some chelicerates.
The American flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber) is a large species of flamingo closely related to the greater flamingo and Chilean flamingo.
The American Red Cross (ARC), also known as the American National Red Cross, is a humanitarian organization that provides emergency assistance, disaster relief, and disaster preparedness education in the United States.
The American Society of Hematology (ASH) is a professional organization representing hematologists.
Amikacin is an antibiotic used for a number of bacterial infections.
An amoeba (rarely spelled amœba, US English spelled ameba; plural am(o)ebas or am(o)ebae), often called amoeboid, is a type of cell or organism which has the ability to alter its shape, primarily by extending and retracting pseudopods.
Amoeboid movement is the most common mode of locomotion in eukaryotic cells.
Ampicillin is an antibiotic used to prevent and treat a number of bacterial infections, such as respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, meningitis, salmonellosis, and endocarditis.
Anal sex or anal intercourse is generally the insertion and thrusting of the erect penis into a person's anus, or anus and rectum, for sexual pleasure.
Anaphylatoxins, or complement peptides, are fragments (C3a, C4a and C5a) that are produced as part of the activation of the complement system.
Anaphylaxis is a serious allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and may cause death.
Ancylostoma ceylanicum is a parasitic roundworm belonging to the genus Ancylostoma.
Androstenediol, or 5-androstenediol (abbreviated as A5 or Δ5-diol), also known as androst-5-ene-3β,17β-diol, is an endogenous weak androgen and estrogen steroid hormone and intermediate in the biosynthesis of testosterone from dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).
Anemia is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.
Anemia of chronic disease, or anemia of chronic inflammation, is a form of anemia seen in chronic infection, chronic immune activation, and malignancy.
Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a parasitic nematode (roundworm) that causes angiostrongyliasis, the most common cause of eosinophilic meningitis in Southeast Asia and the Pacific Basin.
The anion gap (AG or AGAP) is a value calculated from the results of multiple individual medical lab tests.
Anisocytosis is a medical term meaning that a patient's red blood cells are of unequal size.
Annexin is a common name for a group of cellular proteins.
Annexin A1, also known as lipocortin I, is a protein that is encoded by the ANXA1 gene in humans.
Anorexia nervosa, often referred to simply as anorexia, is an eating disorder characterized by low weight, fear of gaining weight, and a strong desire to be thin, resulting in food restriction.
Anthrax is an infection caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis.
Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) are a group of autoantibodies, mainly of the IgG type, against antigens in the cytoplasm of neutrophil granulocytes (the most common type of white blood cell) and monocytes.
Antigen-antibody interaction, or antigen-antibody reaction, is a specific chemical interaction between antibodies produced by B cells of the white blood cells and antigens during immune reaction.
Antigenic escape occurs when the immune system is unable to respond to an infectious agent.
Antioxidative stress is an overabundance of bioavailable antioxidant compounds that interfere with the immune system's ability to neutralize pathogenic threats.
Antipsychotics, also known as neuroleptics or major tranquilizers, are a class of medication primarily used to manage psychosis (including delusions, hallucinations, paranoia or disordered thought), principally in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections rather than bacterial ones.
Apheresis (ἀφαίρεσις (aphairesis, "a taking away")) is a medical technology in which the blood of a person is passed through an apparatus that separates out one particular constituent and returns the remainder to the circulation.The blood is filtered to remove the stem cells.
Aplastic anaemia is a rare disease in which the bone marrow and the hematopoietic stem cells that reside there are damaged.
Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase, also known as ALOX5, 5-lipoxygenase, 5-LOX, or 5-LO, is a non-heme iron-containing enzyme (EC 18.104.22.168) that in humans is encoded by the ALOX5 gene.
Arbovirus is an informal name used to refer to any viruses that are transmitted by arthropod vectors.
Aristolochia is a large plant genus with over 500 species that is the type genus of the family Aristolochiaceae.
Aristolochia macrophylla, Dutchman's pipe or pipevine, is a vine native to the eastern United States.
The Arneth count or Arneth index describes the nucleus of a type of white blood cell called a neutrophil in an attempt to detect disease.
Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.
An artificial cell or minimal cell is an engineered particle that mimics one or many functions of a biological cell.
Artificial gravity (sometimes referred to as pseudogravity) is the creation of an inertial force that mimics the effects of a gravitational force, usually by rotation.
Ascending cholangitis, also known as acute cholangitis or simply cholangitis, is an infection of the bile duct (cholangitis), usually caused by bacteria ascending from its junction with the duodenum (first part of the small intestine).
Ascites is the abnormal buildup of fluid in the abdomen.
Asfarviridae is a family of double stranded viruses.
Aspiration pneumonia is a type of lung infection that is due to a relatively large amount of material from the stomach or mouth entering the lungs.
An assay is an investigative (analytic) procedure in laboratory medicine, pharmacology, environmental biology and molecular biology for qualitatively assessing or quantitatively measuring the presence, amount, or functional activity of a target entity (the analyte).
Astrogliosis (also known as astrocytosis or referred to as reactive astrocytosis) is an abnormal increase in the number of astrocytes due to the destruction of nearby neurons from CNS trauma, infection, ischemia, stroke, autoimmune responses, and neurodegenerative disease.
Athanasius Kircher, S.J. (sometimes erroneously spelled Kirchner; Athanasius Kircherus, 2 May 1602 – 28 November 1680) was a German Jesuit scholar and polymath who published around 40 major works, most notably in the fields of comparative religion, geology, and medicine.
An atheroma is a reversible accumulation of degenerative material in the inner layer of an artery wall.
Atherosclerosis is a disease in which the inside of an artery narrows due to the build up of plaque.
Aubrey Adam Barr is a marathon runner and a childhood cancer survivor.
Augustus Volney Waller FRS (21 December 1816 – 18 September 1870) was a British neurophysiologist.
Autistic enterocolitis is the name of a nonexistent medical condition proposed by discredited British gastroenterologist Andrew Wakefield when he suggested a link between a number of common clinical symptoms and signs which he contended were distinctive to autism.
An autoimmune disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part.
Autologous conditioned plasma (ACP) is a platelet-rich plasma that is extracted from autologous blood using centrifugation.
In transplantation, autologous lymphocytes refers to a person's white blood cells.
An automated analyser is a medical laboratory instrument designed to measure different chemicals and other characteristics in a number of biological samples quickly, with minimal human assistance.
Automatic milking is the milking of dairy animals, especially of dairy cattle, without human labour.
Autosomal Dominant Retinal Vasculopathy with Cerebral Leukodystrophy (AD-RVCL) (previously known also as Cerebroretinal Vasculopathy, CRV, or Hereditary Vascular Retinopathy, HVR or Hereditary Endotheliopathy, Retinopathy, Nephropathy, and Stroke, HERNS) is an inherited condition resulting from a frameshift mutation to the TREX1 gene.
Azathioprine (AZA), sold under the brand name Imuran among others, is an immunosuppressive medication.
Azoospermia is the medical condition of a man whose semen contains no sperm.
An azurophilic granule is a cellular object readily stainable with a Romanowsky stain.
Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov (Илья́ Ильи́ч Ме́чников, also written as Élie Metchnikoff; 15 July 1916) was a Russian zoologist best known for his pioneering research in immunology.
B cells, also known as B lymphocytes, are a type of white blood cell of the lymphocyte subtype.
B-cell prolymphocytic leukemia, referred to as B-PLL, is a rare blood cancer.
Bacillus subtilis, known also as the hay bacillus or grass bacillus, is a Gram-positive, catalase-positive bacterium, found in soil and the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants and humans.
Bacteriuria is the presence of bacteria in urine.
Baleen whales (systematic name Mysticeti), known earlier as whalebone whales, form a parvorder of the infraorder Cetacea (whales, dolphins and porpoises).
A band cell (also called band neutrophil, band form or stab cell) is a cell undergoing granulopoiesis, derived from a metamyelocyte, and leading to a mature granulocyte.
Bandemia refers to an excess of band cells (immature white blood cells) released by the bone marrow into the blood.
William Barry Wood, Jr. (May 4, 1910 – March 9, 1971) was an American football player and medical educator.
In biochemistry and genetics, base excision repair (BER) is a cellular mechanism that repairs damaged DNA throughout the cell cycle.
Basigin (BSG) also known as extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) or cluster of differentiation 147 (CD147) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BSG gene.
Basophils are a type of white blood cells.
Allergic symptoms are caused by an initial systemic histamine release by activated basophiles and mast cells, that may lead to shock with laryngeal edema, lower-airway obstruction and hypotension.
Basophilia is a condition derived from Basophils.
Benoxaprofen, also known as Benoxaphen, is a chemical compound with the formula C16H12ClNO3.
Bernard Macy Babior (November 10, 1935 – June 29, 2004) was an American physician and research biochemist.
Beta defensins are a family of mammalian defensins.
Betaherpesvirinae is a subfamily of viruses in the order Herpesvirales, in the family Herpesviridae.
Beth Stevens (b.) is an associate professor in the Department of Neurology at Harvard Medical School and the F. M. Kirby Neurobiology Center at Boston Children’s Hospital.
BI 811283 is a small molecule inhibitor of the Aurora B kinase protein being developed by Boehringer Ingelheim for use as an anti-cancer agent.
Binge drinking, or heavy episodic drinking, is a modern epithet for drinking alcoholic beverages with an intention of becoming intoxicated by heavy consumption of alcohol over a short period of time.
Bio-MEMS is an abbreviation for biomedical (or biological) microelectromechanical systems.
A biochemical cascade, also known as a signaling cascade or signaling pathway, is a series of chemical reactions which are initiated by a stimulus (first messenger) acting on a receptor that is transduced to the cell interior through second messengers (which amplify the initial signal) and ultimately to effector molecules, resulting in a cell response to the initial stimulus.
Bioremediation of radioactive waste or bioremediation of radionuclides is an application of bioremediation based on the use of biological agents bacteria, plants and fungi (natural or genetically modified) to catalyze chemical reactions that allow the decontamination of sites affected by radionuclides.
Biotie Therapies was a Finnish biotechnology and pharmaceutics company that was acquired by Acorda Therapeutics in January 2016.
Natalia Alianovna Romanova, (Russian: Наталья Альяновна "Наташа" Романова; alias: Natasha Romanoff; Russian: Наташа Романофф), colloquial: Black Widow (Чёрная Вдова; transliterated Chyornaya Vdova) is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics.
The black wildebeest or white-tailed gnu (Connochaetes gnou) is one of the two closely related wildebeest species.
Bladder stones or uroliths are a common occurrence in animals, especially in domestic animals such as dogs and cats.
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
Blood is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by the American Society of Hematology.
A blood cell, also called a haematopoietic cell, hemocyte, or hematocyte, is a cell produced through hematopoiesis and found mainly in the blood.
A blood film—or peripheral blood smear—is a thin layer of blood smeared on a glass microscope slide and then stained in such a way as to allow the various blood cells to be examined microscopically.
Blood fractionation is the process of fractionating whole blood, or separating it into its component parts.
Blood plasma fractionation refers to the general processes of separating the various components of blood plasma, which in turn is a component of blood obtained through blood fractionation.
The color blood red is a dark shade of the color red meant to resemble the color of human blood (which is composed of oxygenated red erythrocytes, white leukocytes, and yellow blood plasma).
The blood sugar level, blood sugar concentration, or blood glucose level is the amount of glucose present in the blood of humans and other animals.
A blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a hypodermic needle, or via fingerprick.
Blood transfusion is generally the process of receiving blood or blood products into one's circulation intravenously.
A blood type (also called a blood group) is a classification of blood based on the presence and absence of antibodies and also based on the presence or absence of inherited antigenic substances on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs).
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).
The blue field entoptic phenomenon or Scheerer's phenomenon (after the German ophthalmologist Richard Scheerer, who first drew clinical attention to it in 1924) is the appearance of tiny bright dots (nicknamed blue-sky sprites) moving quickly along squiggly lines in the visual field, especially when looking into bright blue light such as the sky.
Robert Takeo Matsui (September 17, 1941 – January 1, 2005) was an American politician from the state of California.
Body Troopers (Jakten på nyresteinen), also known as Chasing the Kidneystone, is a 1996 Norwegian Children's film directed by Vibeke Idsøe, starring Torbjörn T. Jensen and Kjersti Holmen.
A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton.
A bone fracture (sometimes abbreviated FRX or Fx, Fx, or #) is a medical condition in which there is a partial or complete break in the continuity of the bone.
Bone marrow is a semi-solid tissue which may be found within the spongy or cancellous portions of bones.
Bone marrow examination refers to the pathologic analysis of samples of bone marrow obtained by bone marrow biopsy (often called a trephine biopsy) and bone marrow aspiration.
Bone marrow failure occurs in individuals who produce an insufficient amount of red blood cells, white blood cells or platelets.
Bone marrow suppression also known as myelotoxicity or myelosuppression, is the decrease in production of cells responsible for providing immunity (leukocytes), carrying oxygen (erythrocytes), and/or those responsible for normal blood clotting (thrombocytes).
Boston Children's Hospital (called Children's Hospital Boston until 2012) is a 395-licensed-bed children's hospital in the Longwood Medical and Academic Area of Boston, Massachusetts.
Bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) is a retrovirus belonging to the genus Lentivirus.
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a retrovirus which causes enzootic bovine leukosis in cattle.
Breast milk is the milk produced by the breasts (or mammary glands) of a human female to feed a child.
A broad-spectrum chemokine inhibitor or BSCI (also termed chemotide or somatotaxin) is a type of experimental anti-inflammatory drug that inhibits the action of the pro-inflammatory proteins chemokines.
The buffy coat is the fraction of an anticoagulated blood sample that contains most of the white blood cells and platelets following density gradient centrifugation of the blood.
Butyrate Esterase is a stain which is specific for white blood cells of the Monocytic proliferation line.
c-Met, also called tyrosine-protein kinase Met or hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MET gene.
Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystal deposition disease, also known as pseudogout and pyrophosphate arthropathy is a rheumatologic disorder with varied symptoms and signs arising from the resultant accumulation of crystals of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate in the connective tissues.
Calprotectin is a complex of the mammalian proteins S100A8 and S100A9.
Campylobacteriosis is an infection by the Campylobacter bacterium, most commonly C. jejuni.
A cancer biomarker refers to a substance or process that is indicative of the presence of cancer in the body.
Cancer immunoprevention is the prevention of cancer onset with immunological means such as vaccines, immunostimulators or antibodies.
Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV2, colloquially parvo) is a contagious virus mainly affecting dogs, and thought to originate in cats.
The cannabinoid receptor type 2, abbreviated as CB2, is a G protein-coupled receptor from the cannabinoid receptor family that in humans is encoded by the CNR2 gene.
A capillary is a small blood vessel from 5 to 10 micrometres (µm) in diameter, and having a wall one endothelial cell thick.
Carbamazepine (CBZ), sold under the tradename Tegretol, among others, is a medication used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy and neuropathic pain.
Carbohydrate sulfotransferases are sulfotransferase enzymes that transfer sulfate to carbohydrate groups in glycoproteins and glycolipids.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
Carbon monoxide poisoning typically occurs from breathing in too much carbon monoxide (CO).
Carboplatin, sold under the trade name Paraplatin among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of forms of cancer.
Carcinogenesis, also called oncogenesis or tumorigenesis, is the formation of a cancer, whereby normal cells are transformed into cancer cells.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
Carl Barks (March 27, 1901 – August 25, 2000) was an American cartoonist, author, and painter.
Caspases (cysteine-aspartic proteases, cysteine aspartases or cysteine-dependent aspartate-directed proteases) are a family of protease enzymes playing essential roles in programmed cell death (including apoptosis, pyroptosis and necroptosis) and inflammation.
A catch bond is a type of noncovalent bond whose dissociation lifetime increases with tensile force applied to the bond.
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 15 (CCL15) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family that is also known as leukotactin-1, MIP5 and HCC-2.
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (also CCL5) is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CCL5 gene.
Cyclin-D1-binding protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCNDBP1 gene.
C-C chemokine receptor type 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCR1 gene.
C-C chemokine receptor type 10 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCR10 gene.
C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2 or CD192 (cluster of differentiation 192) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCR2 gene. CCR2 is a chemokine receptor.
C-C chemokine receptor type 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCR4 gene.
C-C chemokine receptor type 5, also known as CCR5 or CD195, is a protein on the surface of white blood cells that is involved in the immune system as it acts as a receptor for chemokines.
CD154, also called CD40 ligand or CD40L, is a protein that is primarily expressed on activated T cells and is a member of the TNF superfamily of molecules.
CD28 family receptors are a group of regulatory cell surface receptors expressed on immune cells.
Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1) also known as cluster of differentiation 31 (CD31) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PECAM1 gene found on chromosome 17.
CD38 (cluster of differentiation 38), also known as cyclic ADP ribose hydrolase is a glycoprotein found on the surface of many immune cells (white blood cells), including CD4+, CD8+, B lymphocytes and natural killer cells.
In molecular biology, CD4 (cluster of differentiation 4) is a glycoprotein found on the surface of immune cells such as T helper cells, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells.
CD99 antigen (Cluster of differentiation 99), also known as MIC2 or single-chain type-1 glycoprotein, is a heavily O-glycosylated transmembrane protein that is encoded by the CD99 gene in humans.
CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CEBPB gene.
Cell adhesion is the process by which cells interact and attach to neighbouring cells through specialised molecules of the cell surface.
Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are proteins located on the cell surface involved in binding with other cells or with the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the process called cell adhesion.
Cell counting is any of various methods for the counting or similar quantification of cells in the life sciences, including medical diagnosis and treatment.
Cell culture is the process by which cells are grown under controlled conditions, generally outside their natural environment.
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
Cell polarity refers to spatial differences in shape, structure, and function within a cell.
Leukocytes are one type of Blood cells, the other two being Red blood cells and Platelets.
Cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions.
Cell–cell interaction refers to the direct interactions between cell surfaces that play a crucial role in the development and function of multicellular organisms.
Cellular communication is an umbrella term used in biology and more in depth in biophysics, biochemistry and biosemiotics to identify different types of communication methods between living cells.
In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process where a cell changes from one cell type to another.
Centromere protein M also known as proliferation associated nuclear element 1 (PANE1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CENPM gene.
A centenarian is a person who lives to or beyond the age of 100 years.
The Centre for Applied Genomics is a genome centre in the Research Institute of The Hospital for Sick Children, and is affiliated with the University of Toronto.
In enzymology, a ceramide kinase, also abbreviated as CERK, is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction: Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are ATP and ceramide, whereas its two products are ADP and ceramide-1-phosphate.
Ceramide synthase 4 (CerS4) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CERS4 gene and is one of the least studied of the ceramide synthases.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, colorless body fluid found in the brain and spinal cord.
Cervices is inflammation of the uterine cervix.
cGMP-dependent protein kinase or Protein Kinase G (PKG) is a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase that is activated by cGMP.
The chalcogens are the chemical elements in group 16 of the periodic table.
Chédiak–Higashi syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that arises from a mutation of a lysosomal trafficking regulator protein, which leads to a decrease in phagocytosis.
Two chemically linked fragments antigen-binding form an artificial antibody that binds to two different antigens, making it a type of bispecific antibody.
Chemokines (Greek -kinos, movement) are a family of small cytokines, or signaling proteins secreted by cells.
Chemokine receptors are cytokine receptors found on the surface of certain cells that interact with a type of cytokine called a chemokine.
Chemorepulsion is the directional movement of a cell away from a substance.
Chemotaxis (from chemo- + taxis) is the movement of an organism in response to a chemical stimulus.
Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.
Chicago Pile-1 (CP-1) was the world's first nuclear reactor.
Chicken anaemia virus, or CAV, is a member of the circoviridae family which is found worldwide.
The chimpanzee Lymphocryptovirus (LCV) is a herpesvirus which infects chimpanzee leukocytes.
Chloroplasts are organelles, specialized compartments, in plant and algal cells.
Chlorovirus, also known as Chlorella virus, is a genus of giant double-stranded DNA viruses, in the family ''Phycodnaviridae''.
Cholesterol embolism (often cholesterol crystal embolism or atheroembolism, sometimes blue toe or purple toe syndrome or trash foot or warfarin blue toe syndrome) occurs when cholesterol is released, usually from an atherosclerotic plaque, and travels as an embolus in the bloodstream to lodge (as an embolism) causing an obstruction in blood vessels further away.
Choroideremia (CHM) is a rare, X-linked recessive form of hereditary retinal degeneration that affects roughly 1 in 50,000 males.
Chromatographic techniques have been used in blood processing and purification since the 1980s.
The chronic endothelial injury hypothesis is one of two major mechanisms postulated to explain the underlying cause of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD), the other being the lipid hypothesis.
Chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL) is a disease in which too many eosinophils (a type of white blood cell) are found in the bone marrow, blood, and other tissues.
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a type of cancer in which the bone marrow makes too many lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell).
Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis is an immune disorder of T cells, it is characterized by chronic infections with Candida that are limited to mucosal surfaces, skin, and nails.
Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), also known as chronic myeloid leukemia, is a cancer of the white blood cells.
Chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL) is a rare myeloproliferative neoplasm that features a persistent neutrophilia in peripheral blood, myeloid hyperplasia in bone marrow, hepatosplenomegaly, and the absence of the Philadelphia chromosome or a BCR/ABL fusion gene.
Chronic superficial keratitis (CSK), also known as pannus or Uberreiter’s disease, is an inflammatory condition of the cornea in dogs, particularly seen in the German Shepherd.
Circular RNA (or circRNA) is a type of RNA which, unlike the better known linear RNA, forms a covalently closed continuous loop, i.e., in circular RNA the 3' and 5' ends normally present in an RNA molecule have been joined together.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
The circulatory system of the horse consists of the heart, the blood vessels, and the blood.
Cladosporium cladosporioides is a darkly pigmented mold that occurs world-wide on a wide range of materials both outdoors and indoors.
Classical compounds and neoclassical compounds are compound words composed from combining forms (which act as affixes or stems) derived from classical Latin or ancient Greek roots.
Pneumonia can be classified in several ways, most commonly by where it was acquired (hospital versus community), but may also by the area of lung affected or by the causative organism.
Clavaria zollingeri, commonly known as the violet coral or the magenta coral, is a widely distributed species of fungus.
Clinical urine tests are various tests of urine for diagnostic purposes.
Clofarabine is a purine nucleoside antimetabolite marketed in the US and Canada as Clolar.
Clomipramine, sold under the brand name Anafranil among others, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA).
Anergy is a term in immunobiology that describes a lack of reaction by the body's defense mechanisms to foreign substances, and consists of a direct induction of peripheral lymphocyte tolerance.
Clonal hypereosinophilia, also termed primary hypereosinophilia or clonal eosinophilia, is a grouping of hematological disorders all of which are characterized by the development and growth of a pre-malignant or malignant population of eosinophils, a type of white blood cell that occupies the bone marrow, blood, and other tissues.
Clostridial necrotizing enteritis (CNE), also called enteritis necroticans and pigbel, is an often fatal type of food poisoning caused by a β-toxin of Clostridium perfringens, Type C. It occurs in some developing countries, but was also documented in Germany following World War II, where it was called "Darmbrand" (meaning bowel necrosis).
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI or C-dif) is a symptomatic infection due to the spore-forming bacterium, Clostridium difficile.
Clostridium septicum is a gram positive, spore forming, obligate anaerobic bacterium.
The cluster of differentiation (also known as cluster of designation or classification determinant and often abbreviated as CD) is a protocol used for the identification and investigation of cell surface molecules providing targets for immunophenotyping of cells.
Coeliac disease, also spelled celiac disease, is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the small intestine.
A coelomocyte (pronounced), from the Ancient Greek koílōma, "cavity" or "hollow", and kýtos, "receptacle" or "container", is a phagocytic leukocyte that appears in the bodies of animals that have a coelom.
Cogan syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by recurrent inflammation of the front of the eye (the cornea) and often fever, fatigue, and weight loss, episodes of vertigo (dizziness), tinnitus (ringing in the ears) and hearing loss.
Colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) are secreted glycoproteins that bind to receptor proteins on the surfaces of hemopoietic stem cells, thereby activating intracellular signaling pathways that can cause the cells to proliferate and differentiate into a specific kind of blood cell (usually white blood cells. For red blood cell formation, see erythropoietin).
Coltivirus is a genus of viruses (belonging to the Reoviridae family) that infects vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants.
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) refers to pneumonia (any of several lung diseases) contracted by a person with little contact with the healthcare system.
A complement receptor is a receptor of the complement system, part of the innate immune system.
Complement receptor type 1 (CR1) also known as C3b/C4b receptor or CD35 (cluster of differentiation 35) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CR1 gene.
A complete blood count (CBC), also known as a complete blood cell count, full blood count (FBC), or full blood exam (FBE), is a blood panel requested by a doctor or other medical professional that gives information about the cells in a patient's blood, such as the cell count for each cell type and the concentrations of various proteins and minerals.
A congenital disorder of glycosylation (previously called carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome) is one of several rare inborn errors of metabolism in which glycosylation of a variety of tissue proteins and/or lipids is deficient or defective.
Congruence bias is a type of cognitive bias similar to confirmation bias.
A conjugated protein is a protein that functions in interaction with other (non-polypeptide) chemical groups attached by covalent bonding or weak interactions.
Conjunctivitis, also known as pink eye, is inflammation of the outermost layer of the white part of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelid.
Connective tissue (CT) is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue.
Conrad D. James (born 1974) is a politician and scientist from Albuquerque, New Mexico, and a member of the Republican Party.
Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is the application of ultrasound contrast medium to traditional medical sonography.
Intrauterine device (IUD) with copper also known as intrauterine coil, is a type of intrauterine device which contains copper.
Copper peptide GHK-Cu is a naturally occurring copper complex of a glycyl-L-histidyl-L-lysine peptide.
Corneal keratocytes (corneal fibroblasts) are specialized fibroblasts residing in the stroma.
Corneal ulcer, or ulcerative keratitis, is an inflammatory or more seriously, infective condition of the cornea involving disruption of its epithelial layer with involvement of the corneal stroma.
A corneal ulcer, or ulcerative keratitis, is an inflammatory condition of the cornea involving loss of its outer layer.
Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones.
Corynebacterium is a genus of bacteria that are Gram-positive and aerobic.
COX-inhibiting nitric oxide donators (CINODs), also known as NO-NSAIDs, are a new class of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) developed with the intention of providing greater safety than existing NSAIDs.
Critical velocity is the speed that a falling object reaches when gravity and air resistance equalize on the object.
Croup, also known as laryngotracheobronchitis, is a type of respiratory infection that is usually caused by a virus.
Cryptosporidiosis, also known as crypto, is a parasitic disease caused by Cryptosporidium, a genus of protozoan parasites in the phylum Apicomplexa.
CUBIC (abbreviation for “clear, unobstructed brain imaging cocktails and computational analysis) is a histology method that allows tissues to be transparent (process called “tissue clearing”).
CX3C chemokine receptor 1 (CX3CR1) also known as the fractalkine receptor or G-protein coupled receptor 13 (GPR13) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CX3CR1 gene.
C-X-C motif chemokine 11 (CXCL11) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CXCL11 gene.
Cyclobuxine is an alkaloid, which can be found in Buxus sempervirens (family Buxaceae) better known as common boxwood, and is derived from the cholesterol skeleton.
Cytochrome P450 2S1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CYP2S1 gene.
Leukotriene-B(4) omega-hydroxylase 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP4F3 gene.
Cysticercosis is a tissue infection caused by the young form of the pork tapeworm.
Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.
Cytokine release syndrome is a form of systemic inflammatory response syndrome that arises as a complication of some diseases or infections, and is also an adverse effect of some monoclonal antibody drugs, as well as adoptive T-cell therapies.
Cytolysin refers to the substance secreted by microorganisms, plants or animals that is specifically toxic to individual cells, in many cases causing their dissolution through lysis.
Cytopenia is a reduction in the number of mature blood cells.
A cytotoxic T cell (also known as TC, cytotoxic T lymphocyte, CTL, T-killer cell, cytolytic T cell, CD8+ T-cell or killer T cell) is a T lymphocyte (a type of white blood cell) that kills cancer cells, cells that are infected (particularly with viruses), or cells that are damaged in other ways.
Cytotoxicity is the quality of being toxic to cells.
Dachshund homolog 1, also known as DACH1, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the DACH1 gene.
"Daddy's Boy" is the fifth episode of the second season of House, which premiered on Fox on November 8, 2005.
Danielle Pafunda is an American writer and poet.
Dapsone, also known as diaminodiphenyl sulfone (DDS), is an antibiotic commonly used in combination with rifampicin and clofazimine for the treatment of leprosy.
David Boris Pall (2 April 1914 – 21 September 2004), founder of Pall Corporation, was the chemist who invented the Pall filter used in blood transfusions.
Döhle bodies are light blue-gray, oval, basophilic, leukocyte inclusions located in the peripheral cytoplasm of neutrophils.
Death receptor 6 (DR6), also known as tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 21 (TNFRSF21), is a cell surface receptor of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily which activates the JNK and NF-κB pathways.
Deborah Susan Asnis, M.D., (July 17, 1956 – September 12, 2015) was an American infectious disease specialist and H.I.V. clinical researcher, who is credited with reporting the first human cases of West Nile virus in the United States.
The decidua is the uterine lining (endometrium) during a pregnancy, which forms the maternal part of the placenta.
Decidualization is a process that results in significant changes to cells of the endometrium in preparation for, and during, pregnancy.
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT), is the formation of a blood clot in a deep vein, most commonly the legs.
Defensins are small cysteine-rich cationic proteins found in both vertebrates and invertebrates.
Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne tropical disease caused by the dengue virus.
Dental plaque is a biofilm or mass of bacteria that grows on surfaces within the mouth.
The Department of Defense Serum Repository (also referred to as the DoD Serum Repository or simply DoDSR) is a biological repository operated by the United States Department of Defense containing over 50,000,000 human serum specimens, collected primarily from applicants to and members of the United States Uniformed Services.
In medicine, desmoplasia is the growth of fibrous or connective tissue.
The haemostatic (blood clotting) system involves the interaction of proteins in the blood, the blood vessel wall and the flow of blood to control bleeding and blood clotting.
Dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR family) member 7B is an enzyme encoded by the DHRS7B gene in humans, found on chromosome 17p11.2.
Diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) or diagnostic peritoneal aspiration (DPA) is a surgical diagnostic procedure to determine if there is free floating fluid (most often blood) in the abdominal cavity.
Diamond–Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a congenital erythroid aplasia that usually presents in infancy.
Dietary fiber or roughage is the indigestible portion of food derived from plants.
Difelikefalin (INN) (developmental code names CR845, FE-202845), also known as D-Phe-D-Phe-D-Leu-D-Lys- (as the acetate salt), is an analgesic opioid peptide acting as a peripherally specific, highly selective agonist of the κ-opioid receptor (KOR).
Differential Staining is a staining process which uses more than one chemical stain.
Diffuse lamellar keratitis (DLK) is a sterile inflammation of the cornea which may occur after refractive surgery, such as LASIK.
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL or DLBL) is a cancer of B cells, a type of white blood cell responsible for producing antibodies.
Diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB) is an inflammatory lung disease of unknown cause.
Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) are compounds that are highly toxic environmental persistent organic pollutants (POPs).
(+)-Discodermolide is a polyketide natural product found to stabilize microtubule.
DNA methylation is a process by which methyl groups are added to the DNA molecule.
DNA oxidation is the process of oxidative damage of deoxyribonucleic acid.
DNA repair protein XRCC4 also known as X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 4 or XRCC4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the XRCC4 gene.
Deoxyribonuclease-1-like 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the DNASE1L2 gene.
Dock10 (Dedicator of cytokinesis), also known as Zizimin3, is a large (~240 kDa) protein involved in intracellular signalling networks.
Dock2 (Dedicator of cytokinesis 2), also known as DOCK2, is a large (~180 kDa) protein involved in intracellular signalling networks.
Dock9 (Dedicator of cytokinesis 9), also known as Zizimin1, is a large (~230 kDa) protein involved in intracellular signalling networks.
Donald Metcalf AC FRS FAA (26 February 1929 – 15 December 2014) was an Australian medical researcher who spent most of his career at the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research in Melbourne.
Research of Down syndrome-related genes is based on studying the genes located on chromosome 21.
Drotrecogin alfa (activated) (Xigris, marketed by Eli Lilly and Company) is a recombinant form of human activated protein C that has anti-thrombotic, anti-inflammatory, and profibrinolytic properties.
Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS syndrome), also termed drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS), is a rare reaction to certain medications.
Drug-induced lupus erythematosus (DIL or DILE) is an autoimmune disorder (similar to systemic lupus erythematosus) caused by chronic use of certain drugs.
Duffy antigen/chemokine receptor (DARC), also known as Fy glycoprotein (FY) or CD234 (Cluster of Differentiation 234), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DARC gene.
Dynabeads are superparamagnetic spherical polymer particles with a uniform size and a consistent, defined surface for the adsorption or coupling of various bioreactive molecules or cells.
E-selectin, also known as CD62 antigen-like family member E (CD62E), endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule 1 (ELAM-1), or leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 2 (LECAM2), is a cell adhesion molecule expressed only on endothelial cells activated by cytokines.
In December 2014, Ebola virus cases in the United States occurred due to four laboratory-confirmed cases of Ebola virus disease (commonly known as "Ebola") in the United States.
Ebola virus disease (EVD), also known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) or simply Ebola, is a viral hemorrhagic fever of humans and other primates caused by ebolaviruses.
Edith Jane Claypole (January 1, 1870 – March 27, 1915) was an English American physiologist and pathologist.
Edmund Klein (22 October 1922 – 23 July 1999) was an American dermatologist.
Edmund von Neusser (1 December 1852 Swoszowice – 30 July 1912, Bad Fischau) was an Austrian internist of Polish origin.
Georg Eduard von Rindfleisch (15 December 1836 – 6 December 1908) was a German pathologist and histologist.
Edward A. Boyse (August 11, 1923 – July 14, 2007) was a British-born, American physician and biologist best known for his research on the immune system and pheromones.
The medical effects of the atomic bomb on Hiroshima upon humans can be put into the four categories below, with the effects of larger thermonuclear weapons producing blast and thermal effects so large that there would be a negligible number of survivors close enough to the center of the blast who would experience prompt/acute radiation effects, which were observed after the 16 kiloton yield Hiroshima bomb, due to its relatively low yield:http://www.remm.nlm.gov/RemmMockup_files/radiationlethality.jpg.
The EGF-like domain is an evolutionary conserved protein domain, which derives its name from the epidermal growth factor where it was first described.
Egg allergy is an immune hypersensitivity to proteins found in chicken eggs, and possibly goose, duck, or turkey eggs.
Ehrlichiosis is a tickborne bacterial infection, caused by bacteria of the family Anaplasmataceae, genera Ehrlichia and Anaplasma.
Ehrlichiosis (also known as canine rickettsiosis, canine hemorrhagic fever, canine typhus, tracker dog disease, and tropical canine pancytopenia is a tick-borne disease of dogs usually caused by the organism Ehrlichia canis. Ehrlichia canis is the pathogen of animals. Humans can become infected by E. canis and other species after tick exposure. German Shepherd Dogs are thought to be susceptible to a particularly severe form of the disease, other breeds generally have milder clinical signs. Cats can also be infected.
Elvin Abraham Kabat (September 1, 1914 – June 16, 2000) was an American biomedical scientist and one of the founding fathers of modern quantitative immunochemistry.
Emaciation is defined as extreme weight loss and unnatural thinness due to a loss of subcutaneous fat (the fatty, or adipose tissue beneath the skin) and muscle throughout the body.
Emerin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EMD gene, also known as the STA gene.
In medicine, emperipolesis is the presence of an intact cell within the cytoplasm of another cell.
Endothelial activation is a proinflammatory and procoagulant state of the endothelial cells lining the lumen of blood vessels.
Endothelial NOS (eNOS), also known as nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3) or constitutive NOS (cNOS), is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the NOS3 gene located in the 7q35-7q36 region of chromosome 7.
Endothelium refers to cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall.
Enteropathy refers to any pathology of the intestine.
Entoptic phenomena (from Greek ἐντός "within" and ὀπτικός "visual") are visual effects whose source is within the eye itself.
Petroleum is one of the main sources of energy in the World.
Environmental toxicants and fetal development is the impact of different toxic substances from the environment on the development of the fetus.
Eosinophils sometimes called eosinophiles or, less commonly, acidophils, are a variety of white blood cells and one of the immune system components responsible for combating multicellular parasites and certain infections in vertebrates. Along with mast cells and basophils, they also control mechanisms associated with allergy and asthma. They are granulocytes that develop during hematopoiesis in the bone marrow before migrating into blood, after which they are terminally differentiated and do not multiply. These cells are eosinophilic or "acid-loving" due to their large acidophilic cytoplasmic granules, which show their affinity for acids by their affinity to coal tar dyes: Normally transparent, it is this affinity that causes them to appear brick-red after staining with eosin, a red dye, using the Romanowsky method. The staining is concentrated in small granules within the cellular cytoplasm, which contain many chemical mediators, such as eosinophil peroxidase, ribonuclease (RNase), deoxyribonucleases (DNase), lipase, plasminogen, and major basic protein. These mediators are released by a process called degranulation following activation of the eosinophil, and are toxic to both parasite and host tissues. In normal individuals, eosinophils make up about 1–3% of white blood cells, and are about 12–17 micrometres in size with bilobed nuclei. While they are released into the bloodstream as neutrophils are, eosinophils reside in tissue They are found in the medulla and the junction between the cortex and medulla of the thymus, and, in the lower gastrointestinal tract, ovary, uterus, spleen, and lymph nodes, but not in the lung, skin, esophagus, or some other internal organs under normal conditions. The presence of eosinophils in these latter organs is associated with disease. For instance, patients with eosinophilic asthma have high levels of eosinophils that lead to inflammation and tissue damage, making it more difficult for patients to breathe. Eosinophils persist in the circulation for 8–12 hours, and can survive in tissue for an additional 8–12 days in the absence of stimulation. Pioneering work in the 1980s elucidated that eosinophils were unique granulocytes, having the capacity to survive for extended periods of time after their maturation as demonstrated by ex-vivo culture experiments.
Eosinophilic (Greek suffix -phil-, meaning loves eosin) refers to the staining of certain tissues, cells, or organelles after they have been washed with eosin, a dye.
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE, also spelled eosinophilic oesophagitis), also known as allergic oesophagitis, is an allergic inflammatory condition of the esophagus that involves eosinophils, a type of white blood cell.
Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EG) is a rare and heterogeneous condition characterized by patchy or diffuse eosinophilic infiltration of gastrointestinal (GI) tissue, first described by Kaijser in 1937.
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), also known as Churg–Strauss syndrome (CSS) or allergic granulomatosis, is an extremely rare autoimmune condition that causes inflammation of small and medium-sized blood vessels (vasculitis) in persons with a history of airway allergic hypersensitivity (atopy).
Eosinophilic myocarditis is inflammation in the heart muscle that is caused by the infiltration and destructive activity of a type of white blood cell, the eosinophil.
Eosinophilic pneumonia (EP) is a disease in which an eosinophil, a type of white blood cell, accumulates in the lung.
Eoxins are proposed to be a family of proinflammatory eicosanoids (signaling compounds that regulate inflammatory and immune responses).
In recent years it has become apparent that the environment and underlying mechanisms affect gene expression and the genome outside of the central dogma of biology.
Epiretinal membrane is a disease of the eye in response to changes in the vitreous humor or more rarely, diabetes.
Epoxide hydrolases (EH's), also known as epoxide hydratases, are enzymes that metabolize compounds that contain an epoxide residue; they convert this residue to two hydroxyl residues through a dihydroxylation reaction to form diol products.
The epoxyeicosatrienoic acids or EETs are signaling molecules formed within various types of cells by the metabolism of arachidonic acid by a specific subset of Cytochrome P450 enzymes termed cytochrome P450 epoxygenases.
There are several forms of Epstein–Barr virus infection.
Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM), is a disease caused by the apicomplexan parasite Sarcocystis neurona that affects the central nervous system of horses.
Proximal enteritis, also known as anterior enteritis or duodenitis-proximal jejunitis (DPJ), is inflammation of the duodenum and upper jejunum.
The seventh season of the American fictional drama television series ER first aired on October 12, 2000 and concluded on May 17, 2001.
Erdheim–Chester disease (also known as Erdheim–Chester syndrome or polyostotic sclerosing histiocytosis) is a rare disease characterized by the abnormal multiplication of a specific type of white blood cells called histiocytes, or tissue macrophages (technically, this disease is termed a non-Langerhans-cell histiocytosis).
ERG (ETS-related gene) is an oncogene.
Essential thrombocythemia (ET) is a rare chronic blood condition characterised by the overproduction of platelets (thrombocytes) by megakaryocytes in the bone marrow.
Etanercept (trade name Enbrel) is a biopharmaceutical that treats autoimmune diseases by interfering with tumor necrosis factor (TNF, a soluble inflammatory cytokine) by acting as a TNF inhibitor.
In an organic chemistry general sense, an ether lipid implies an ether bridge between an alkyl group (a lipid) and an unspecified alkyl or aryl group, not necessarily glycerol.
Ethion (C9H22O4P2S4) is an organophosphate insecticide.
Etoposide, sold under the brand name Etopophos among others, is a chemotherapy medication used for the treatments of a number of types of cancer.
Eugene Lindsay Opie (5 July 1873 – 12 March 1971) was an American physician and pathologist who conducted research on the causes, transmission, and diagnosis of tuberculosis and on immunization against the disease.
The European Journal of Immunology is an academic journal of the European Federation of Immunological Societies covering basic immunology research, with a primary focus on antigen processing, cellular immune response, immunity to infection, immunomodulation, leukocyte signalling, clinical immunology, innate immunity, molecular immunology, and related new technology.
The Eutherian Fetoembryonic Defense System (eu-FEDS) is a hypothetical model describing a method by which immune systems are capable of recognizing additional states of relatedness like "own species" such as is observed in maternal immune tolerance in pregnancy.
Evans syndrome is an autoimmune disease in which an individual's immune system attacks their own red blood cells, white blood cells, and/or platelets.
Excision endonuclease, also known as excinuclease or UV-specific endonuclease, is a nuclease (enzyme) which excises a fragment of nucleotides during DNA repair.
Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Hemorrhage (EIPH), also known as "bleeding" or a "bleeding attack", refers to the presence of blood in the airways of the lung in association with exercise.
An experiment in immunology is a method of investigating immunological responses to antigens, or detecting and characterizing antibodies and lymphocytes.
Extracellular fluid (ECF) denotes all body fluid outside the cells.
Extravasation is the leakage of a fluid out of its container.
Fabry disease is a rare genetic disease.
Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD), also called MORT1, is encoded by the FADD gene on the 11q13.3 region of chromosome 11 in humans.
Faecal calprotectin is a biochemical measurement of the protein calprotectin in the stool.
Fallisia is a genus of the family Plasmodiidae The genus was created by Lainson, Landau and Shaw in 1974.
FAM76A is a protein that in Homo sapiens is encoded by the FAM76A gene.
Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a hereditary inflammatory disorder.
Fanconi anaemia (FA) is a rare genetic disease resulting in impaired response to DNA damage.
Fantastic Voyage is a 1966 American science fiction film directed by Richard Fleischer and written by Harry Kleiner, based on a story by Otto Klement and Jerome Bixby.
An Fc receptor is a protein found on the surface of certain cells – including, among others, B lymphocytes, follicular dendritic cells, natural killer cells, macrophages, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, human platelets, and mast cells – that contribute to the protective functions of the immune system.
Ficolin-1, and also commonly termed M-ficolin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FCN1 gene.
Febrile neutropenia is the development of fever, often with other signs of infection, in a patient with neutropenia, an abnormally low number of neutrophil granulocytes (a type of white blood cell) in the blood.
Fecal occult blood (FOB) refers to blood in the feces that is not visibly apparent (unlike other types of blood in stool such as melena or hematochezia).
Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is a positive-stranded RNA virus that is infectious to cats worldwide.
Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), also known as feline infectious enteritis, feline parvoviral enteritis, feline distemper, feline ataxia, or cat plague, is a viral infection affecting cats, both domesticated and wild feline species.
Programs supporting regular feline vaccination have contributed both to the health of cats and to public health.
Felty's syndrome, also called Felty syndrome, (FS) is rare autoimmune disease characterized by the triad of rheumatoid arthritis, splenomegaly and neutropenia.
Ferdinand Adolph Gumprecht (March 18, 1864 – 1947) was a German internist born in Berlin.
Fermitin family homolog 3) (FERMT3), also known as kindlin-3 (KIND3), MIG2-like protein (MIG2B), or unc-112-related protein 2 (URP2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FERMT3 gene. The kindlin family of proteins, member of the B4.1 superfamily, comprises three conserved protein homologues, kindlin 1, 2, and 3. They each contain a bipartite FERM domain comprising four subdomains F0, F1, F2, and F3 that show homology with the FERM head (H) domain of the cytoskeletal Talin protein. Kindlins have been linked to Kindler syndrome, leukocyte adhesion deficiency, cancer and other acquired human diseases. They are essential in the organisation of focal adhesions that mediate cell-extracellular matrix junctions and are involved in other cellular compartments that control cell-cell contacts and nucleus functioning. Therefore, they are responsible for cell to cell crosstalk via cell-cell contacts and integrin mediated cell adhesion through focal adhesion proteins and as specialised adhesion structures of hematopoietic cells they are also present in podosome's F actin surrounding ring structure. Isoform 2 may act as a repressor of NF-kappa-B and apoptosis.
Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.
Four and a half LIM domains protein 2 also known as FHL-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FHL2 gene.
Ficoll is a neutral, highly branched, high-mass, hydrophilic polysaccharide which dissolves readily in aqueous solutions.
Fimbrin also known as is plastin 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PLS1 gene.
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
Fish anatomy is the study of the form or morphology of fishes.
Like humans and other animals, fish suffer from diseases and parasites.
Flavonoids (or bioflavonoids) (from the Latin word flavus meaning yellow, their color in nature) are a class of plant and fungus secondary metabolites.
Floaters are deposits of various size, shape, consistency, refractive index, and motility within the eye's vitreous humour, which is normally transparent.
Flow-FISH (fluorescent in-situ hybridization) is a cytogenetic technique to quantify the copy number of specific repetitive elements in genomic DNA of whole cell populations via the combination of flow cytometry with cytogenetic fluorescent in situ hybridization staining protocols.
Floxuridine (also 5-fluorodeoxyuridine) is an oncology drug that belongs to the class known as antimetabolites.
FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (FLT3L) is an endogenous small molecule that functions as a cytokine and growth factor that increases the number of immune cells (lymphocytes (B cells and T cells)) by activating the hematopoietic progenitors.
In cell biology, focal adhesions (also cell–matrix adhesions or FAs) are large macromolecular assemblies through which mechanical force and regulatory signals are transmitted between the extracellular matrix (ECM) and an interacting cell.
Focal infection theory is the historical concept that many chronic diseases, including systemic and common ones, are caused by focal infections.
Folate, distinct forms of which are known as folic acid, folacin, and vitamin B9, is one of the B vitamins.
A food allergy is an abnormal immune response to food.
Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome (FPIES) is a severe systemic response to food protein that typically occurs 1 to 4 hours after the ingestion of the causative food and frequently develops in the first few years of life.
Forced molting, sometimes known as induced molting, is the practice by some poultry industries of artificially provoking a flock to molt simultaneously, typically by withdrawing food for 7–14 days and sometimes also withdrawing water for an extended period.
Formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1, FPR1 receptor, fMet-Leu-Phe receptor 1, FMLP receptor 1, or N-formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine receptor 1) is a cell surface receptor protein that in humans is encoded by the formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) gene.
Franca Ronchese is an Italian-New Zealand immunologist.
Friedrich Albin Hoffmann (13 November 1843, Ruhrort – 13 November 1924, Leipzig) was a German internist.
Friedrich Daniel von Recklinghausen (2 December 1833 – 26 August 1910) was a German pathologist born in Gütersloh, Westphalia.
Johannes Friedrich Miescher (13 August 1844 – 26 August 1895) was a Swiss physician and biologist.
The frontal sinuses are situated behind the brow ridges.
The fusion mechanism is the mechanism by which cell fusion takes place.
The GABAA receptor (GABAAR) is an ionotropic receptor and ligand-gated ion channel.
A gallium scan (also called "gallium imaging") is a type of nuclear medicine test that uses either a gallium-67 (67Ga) or gallium-68 (68Ga) radiopharmaceutical to obtain images of a specific type of tissue, or disease state of tissue.
A Germanium-68/Gallium-68 Generator is a device used to extract the positron-emitting isotope 68Ga of gallium from a source of decaying germanium-68.
Gamma delta T cells (γδ T cells) are T cells that have a distinctive T-cell receptor (TCR) on their surface.
Gaseous signaling molecules are gaseous molecules that are either synthesised internally (endogenously) in the organism, tissue or cell or are received by the organism, tissue or cell from outside (say, from the atmosphere or hydrosphere, as in the case of oxygen) and that are used to transmit chemical signals which induce certain physiological or biochemical changes in the organism, tissue or cell.
Gastrointestinal perforation, also known as ruptured bowel, is a hole in the wall of part of the gastrointestinal tract.
GATA-binding factor 1 or GATA-1 (also termed Erythroid transcription factor) is the founding member of the GATA family of transcription factors.
Gaucher's disease or Gaucher disease (GD) is a genetic disorder in which glucocerebroside (a sphingolipid, also known as glucosylceramide) accumulates in cells and certain organs.
Gábor Palotai (born November 29, 1956) is a Swedish–Hungarian designer, artist, graphic designer and typographer.
Gemini 11 (officially Gemini XI) With Gemini IV, NASA changed to Roman numerals for Gemini mission designations.
Genistein is an isoflavone that is described as an angiogenesis inhibitor and a phytoestrogen.
Genome editing, or genome engineering is a type of genetic engineering in which DNA is inserted, deleted, modified or replaced in the genome of a living organism.
In genetics, genotoxicity describes the property of chemical agents that damages the genetic information within a cell causing mutations, which may lead to cancer.
Georg Jochmann (11 October 1874, in Liegnitz – 6 January 1915, in Berlin) was a German internist and bacteriologist, who specialized in infectious diseases.
George Nikov Chaldakov (Bulgarian: Георги Ников Чалдъков) born February 23, 1940, in Burgas, Bulgaria, is a Bulgarian vascular biologist well known for his contributions to the study of secretory function of vascular smooth muscle cells, and the role of neurotrophins and perivascular adipose tissue in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.
George Owen Rees (November 1813 – 27 May 1889) was a Welsh-Italian physician.
Georges Hayem (25 November 1841 – 28 August 1933) was a physician and hematologist born in Paris.
Giemsa stain, named after German chemist and bacteriologist Gustav Giemsa, is used in cytogenetics and for the histopathological diagnosis of malaria and other parasites.
Gill-man — commonly called The Creature — is the lead antagonist of the 1954 black-and-white science fiction film Creature from the Black Lagoon and its two sequels Revenge of the Creature (1955) and The Creature Walks Among Us (1956).
Giovanni Battista Grassi (27 March 1854 – 4 May 1925) was an Italian physician and zoologist, most well known for his pioneering works on parasitology, especially on malariology.
Givinostat (INN) or gavinostat (originally ITF2357) is a histone deacetylase inhibitor with potential anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic, and antineoplastic activities.
Gap junction alpha-1 protein (GJA1), also known as connexin 43 (Cx43), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GJA1 gene on chromosome 6.
Gleich's syndrome or episodic angioedema with eosinophilia is a rare disease in which the body swells up episodically (angioedema), associated with raised antibodies of the IgM type and increased numbers of eosinophil granulocytes, a type of white blood cells, in the blood (eosinophilia).
The glomerulus, plural glomeruli, is a network of capillaries known as a tuft, located at the beginning of a nephron in the kidney.
Most of the terms listed in Wikipedia glossaries are already defined and explained within Wikipedia itself.
This glossary of medical terms is a list of definitions about medicine, its sub-disciplines, and related fields.
Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which are a class of steroid hormones.
Glucose transporter 3 (or GLUT3), also known as solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 3 (SLC2A3) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC2A3 gene.
Glutathione reductase (GR) also known as glutathione-disulfide reductase (GSR) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the GSR gene.
The glycocalyx, also known as the pericellular matrix, is a glycoprotein and glycolipid covering that surrounds the cell membranes of some bacteria, epithelia, and other cells.
Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in humans, animals, fungi, and bacteria.
Glycolipids are lipids with a carbohydrate attached by a glycosidic bond or covalently bonded.
Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to amino acid side-chains.
Goblet cells are simple columnar epithelial cells that secrete gel-forming mucins, like mucin MUC5AC.
Goodpasture syndrome (GPS) is a rare autoimmune disease in which antibodies attack the basement membrane in lungs and kidneys, leading to bleeding from the lungs and kidney failure.
G protein coupled receptor 132, also termed G2A, is classified as a member of the proton sensing G protein coupled receptor (GPR) subfamily.
Probable G-protein coupled receptor 84 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GPR84 gene.
Graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) is a medical complication following the receipt of transplanted tissue from a genetically different person.
Granulation tissue is new connective tissue and microscopic blood vessels that form on the surfaces of a wound during the healing process.
In cell biology, a granule is a small particle.
Granulocytes are a category of white blood cells characterized by the presence of granules in their cytoplasm.
Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF or GCSF), also known as colony-stimulating factor 3 (CSF 3), is a glycoprotein that stimulates the bone marrow to produce granulocytes and stem cells and release them into the bloodstream.
Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), also known as colony-stimulating factor 2 (CSF2), is a monomeric glycoprotein secreted by macrophages, T cells, mast cells, natural killer cells, endothelial cells and fibroblasts that functions as a cytokine.
In medicine, granulocytosis is the presence in peripheral blood of an increased number of granulocytes, a category of white blood cells.
Granuloma is an inflammation found in many diseases.
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), formerly known as Wegener's granulomatosis (WG), is a long-term systemic disorder that involves both granulomatosis and polyangiitis.
Granulomatous meningoencephalitis (GME) is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) of dogs and, rarely, cats.
Gravitational biology is the study of the effects gravity has on living organisms.
Glutaredoxin domain-containing cysteine-rich protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GRXCR1 gene.
Gasdermin D (GSDMD) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GSDMD gene on chromosome 8.
Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) is a rapid-onset muscle weakness caused by the immune system damaging the peripheral nervous system.
Haemosporidiasina (Haemosporidia) is a subclass of apicomplexans described by Jacques Euzéby in 1988.
Hairy cell leukemia is an uncommon hematological malignancy characterized by an accumulation of abnormal B lymphocytes.
Halo nevus (also known as "Leukoderma acquisitum centrifugum," "Perinevoid vitiligo," and "Sutton nevus") is a mole that is surrounded by a depigmented ring or 'halo'.
Hannes Stockinger (born May 8, 1955) is an Austrian scientist, university professor and since 2010 Head of the Centre for Pathophysiology, Infectiology and Immunology and the Institute for Hygiene and Applied Immunology at the Medical University of Vienna.
Haptotaxis (from Greek ἅπτω (hapto, "touch, fasten") and τάξις (taxis, "arrangement, order")) is the directional motility or outgrowth of cells, e.g. in the case of axonal outgrowth, usually up a gradient of cellular adhesion sites or substrate-bound chemoattractants (the gradient of the chemoattractant being expressed or bound on a surface, in contrast to the classical model of chemotaxis, in which the gradient develops in a soluble fluid.). These gradients are naturally present in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the body during processes such as angiogenesis or artificially present in biomaterials where gradients are established by altering the concentration of adhesion sites on a polymer substrate.
Hard tissue (also termed calcified tissue) is tissue which is mineralized and has a firm intercellular matrix.
Hartmann F. Stähelin, M.D. (October 20, 1925 – July 5, 2011) was a Swiss pharmacologist with an outstanding record in basic and applied cancer and immunology research.
Hyaluronan synthase 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the HAS1 gene.
Hyaluronan synthase 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the HAS2 gene.
Hashimoto's thyroiditis, also known as chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis and Hashimoto's disease, is an autoimmune disease in which the thyroid gland is gradually destroyed.
Hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 1 (HAVcr-1) also known as T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 (TIM-1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HAVCR1 gene.
Head and neck cancer is a group of cancers that starts in the mouth, nose, throat, larynx, sinuses, or salivary glands.
Apical periodontitis is typically the body’s defense response to the threat of microbial invasion from the root canal.
Heart nanotechnology is the "Engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale" ("Nanotechnology Research").
The hematocrit (Ht or HCT), also known by several other names, is the volume percentage (vol%) of red blood cells in blood.
Hematologic diseases are disorders which primarily affect the blood.
Hematology, also spelled haematology, is the branch of medicine concerned with the study of the cause, prognosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases related to blood.
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the transplantation of multipotent hematopoietic stem cells, usually derived from bone marrow, peripheral blood, or umbilical cord blood.
In diagnostic pathology, a hematoxylin body, or LE body, is a dense, homogeneous, basophilic particle, easily stainable with hematoxylin.
Hemodynamics or hæmodynamics is the dynamics of blood flow.
Hemoglobin Hopkins-2 (Hb Hop-2) is a mutation of the protein hemoglobin, which is responsible for the transportation of oxygen through the blood from the lungs to the musculature of the body in vertebrates.
Hemolysins or haemolysins are lipids and proteins that cause lysis of red blood cells by destroying their cell membrane.
Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is a disease characterized by a triad of hemolytic anemia (anemia caused by destruction of red blood cells), acute kidney failure (uremia), and a low platelet count (thrombocytopenia).
Hemophagocytosis is phagocytosis by histiocytes of erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets, and their precursors in bone marrow and other tissues.
Hemorrhagic gastroenteritis (HGE) is a disease of dogs characterized by sudden vomiting and bloody diarrhea.
Henoch–Schönlein purpura (HSP) also known as IgA vasculitis, anaphylactoid purpura, purpura rheumatica, and Schönlein–Henoch purpura, is a disease of the skin, mucous membranes, and sometimes other organs that most commonly affects children.
Hepatitis B is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) that affects the liver.
Hepatotoxicity (from hepatic toxicity) implies chemical-driven liver damage.
In probability theory and statistics, the Hermite distribution, named after Charles Hermite, is a discrete probability distribution used to model count data with more than one parameter.
High endothelial venules (HEV) are specialized post-capillary venous swellings characterized by plump endothelial cells as opposed to the usual thinner endothelial cells found in regular venules.
Protein HIRA is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HIRA gene.
Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) began as a list of antigens identified as a result of transplant rejection.
The history of genetics dates from the classical era with contributions by Hippocrates, Aristotle and Epicurus.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Hexokinase-1 (HK1) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the HK1 gene on chromosome 10.
HL23V was reputedly a type C RNA tumor virus first isolated in 1975 from cultured human acute myelogenous leukaemia peripheral blood leukocytes, which would have been the first cancer-causing retrovirus isolated from human sera.
HLA-DQ (DQ) is a cell surface receptor protein found on antigen presenting cells.
Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is a type of lymphoma which is generally believed to result from white blood cells of the lymphocyte kind.
Homeopathy or homœopathy is a system of alternative medicine developed in 1796 by Samuel Hahnemann, based on his doctrine of like cures like (similia similibus curentur), a claim that a substance that causes the symptoms of a disease in healthy people would cure similar symptoms in sick people.
Homologous recombination is a type of genetic recombination in which nucleotide sequences are exchanged between two similar or identical molecules of DNA.
Hou Yunde (Chinese: 侯云德; born 13 July 1929) is a Chinese virologist, geneticist and a genetic engineer.
Human papillomavirus-positive oropharyngeal cancer (HPV+OPC) is a subtype of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC), associated with the human papillomavirus type 16 virus (HPV16).
Heat shock 70 kDa protein 1, also termed Hsp72, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HSPA1A gene.
HT-TALENS (HIV-targeted transcription activator-like effector nucleases) is an engineered plant protein that is a proposed cure for AIDS.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
The term human blood group systems is defined by International Society of Blood Transfusion as systems in the human species where cell-surface antigens—in particular, those on blood cells—are "controlled at a single gene locus or by two or more very closely linked homologous genes with little or no observable recombination between them", and include the common ABO and Rh- (Rhesus) antigen systems, as well as many others; thirty-five major human systems are identified as of November 2014.
The human body is the entire structure of a human being.
The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system.
The Human Genome Project (HGP) was an international scientific research project with the goal of determining the sequence of nucleotide base pairs that make up human DNA, and of identifying and mapping all of the genes of the human genome from both a physical and a functional standpoint.
The human musculoskeletal system (also known as the locomotor system, and previously the activity system) is an organ system that gives humans the ability to move using their muscular and skeletal systems.
Hunter syndrome, or mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II), is a lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme iduronate-2-sulfatase (I2S).
HybriCell is a therapeutic vaccine developed by Brazilian immunologist Jose Alexandre Barbuto.
Hybridoma technology is a method for producing large numbers of identical antibodies (also called monoclonal antibodies).
Hydrogen cyanide (HCN), sometimes called prussic acid, is a chemical compound with the chemical formula HCN.
Hyperalgesia (or; 'hyper' from Greek ὑπέρ (huper, “over”), '-algesia' from Greek algos, ἄλγος (pain)) is an increased sensitivity to pain, which may be caused by damage to nociceptors or peripheral nerves and can cause hypersensitivity to stimulus, stimuli which would normally not be cause for a pain reaction (ex/ eyes or brain having a painful reaction to daylight).
Hypereosinophilia is an elevation in an individual's circulating blood eosinophil count above 15.0 x 109/L (i.e. 1,500/μL).
The hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is a disease characterized by a persistently elevated eosinophil count (≥ 1500 eosinophils/mm³) in the blood for at least six months without any recognizable cause, with involvement of either the heart, nervous system, or bone marrow.
Hyperviscosity syndrome is a group of symptoms triggered by increase in the viscosity of the blood.
In chemistry, hypochlorite is an ion with the chemical formula ClO−.
Hypophosphatemia is an electrolyte disturbance in which there is an abnormally low level of phosphate in the blood.
Hypopyon is a medical condition involving inflammatory cells in the anterior chamber of the eye.
Inclusion-cell (I-cell) disease, also referred to as mucolipidosis II (ML II), is part of the lysosomal storage disease family and results from a defective phosphotransferase (an enzyme of the Golgi apparatus).
The earliest roots of IBM's development of the IBM 2997 Blood cell Separator lay in the personal tragedy of one of IBM's development engineers, George Judson.
ICAM-1 (Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1) also known as CD54 (Cluster of Differentiation 54) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ICAM1 gene.
ICD-10 Chapter III: Diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs, and certain disorders involving the immune mechanism
ICD-10 is an international statistical classification used in health care and related industries.
ICD-10 is an international statistical classification used in health care and related industries.
Icos Corporation (trademark ICOS) was an American biotechnology company and the largest biotechnology company in the U.S. state of Washington, before it was sold to Eli Lilly and Company in 2007.
Idiopathic CD4+ lymphocytopenia (ICL) is a rare medical syndrome in which the body has too few CD4+ T lymphocytes, which are a kind of white blood cell.
The Immune response is the body's response caused by its immune system being activated by antigens.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Immune Therapy Holdings AB or ITH is a Swedish biotechnology R&D holding company headquartered at the Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital in Stockholm.
The immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) is a large protein superfamily of cell surface and soluble proteins that are involved in the recognition, binding, or adhesion processes of cells.
In immunology, activation is the transition of leucocytes and other cell types involved in the immune system.
In immunology, an adjuvant is a component that potentiates the immune responses to an antigen and/or modulates it towards the desired immune responses.
Immunophenotyping is a technique used to study the protein expressed by cells.
Immunosenescence refers to the gradual deterioration of the immune system brought on by natural age advancement.
Immunosuppression is a reduction of the activation or efficacy of the immune system.
Immunosuppressive drugs or immunosuppressive agents or antirejection medications are drugs that inhibit or prevent activity of the immune system.
"In the Blood" is an episode of The Outer Limits television show.
Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms.
Biology is the study of life and its processes.
This is a list of AIDS-related topics, many of which were originally taken from the public domain U.S. Department of Health Glossary of HIV/AIDS-Related Terms, 4th Edition.
Immunology is the study of the immune system during health and disease.
This is a list of terms related to oncology.
Indium-111 is an isotope of indium with a radioactive half-life of 2.80 days, making it useful as a radioactive tracer.
The indium white blood cell scan, also called "indium leukocyte imaging", "indium-111 scan", or simply "indium scan", is a nuclear medicine procedure in which white blood cells (mostly neutrophils) are removed from the patient, tagged with the radioisotope Indium-111, and then injected intravenously into the patient.
Indole-3-carboxaldehyde (I3A), also known as indole-3-aldehyde and 3-formylindole, is a metabolite of dietary which is synthesized by human gastrointestinal bacteria, particularly species of the Lactobacillus genus.
Induced stem cells (iSC) are stem cells derived from somatic, reproductive, pluripotent or other cell types by deliberate epigenetic reprogramming.
Infarction is tissue death (necrosis) due to inadequate blood supply to the affected area.
Infectious canine hepatitis is an acute liver infection in dogs caused by canine adenovirus type-1 (CAV-1).
Infiltration is the diffusion or accumulation (in a tissue or cells) of foreign substances or in amounts in excess of the normal.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory conditions of the colon and small intestine.
Infliximab (trade names Remicade among others) is a chimeric monoclonal antibody biologic drug that works against tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and is used to treat autoimmune diseases.
Influenza A (H1N1) virus is the subtype of influenza A virus that was the most common cause of human influenza (flu) in 2009, and is associated with the 1918 outbreak known as the Spanish Flu.
Born in Osnabrück, Germany on September 28, 1935, Inge Schmitz-Feuerhake's research has assessed the biological effects of ionizing radiation at low dosage levels.
An innate immune defect is a defect in the innate immune response that blunts the response to infection.
The innate immune system, also known as the non-specific immune system or in-born immunity system, is an important subsystem of the overall immune system that comprises the cells and mechanisms involved in the defense of the host from infection by other organisms.
A small proportion of humans show partial or apparently complete inborn resistance to HIV, the virus that causes AIDS.
Integrin alpha M (ITGAM) is one protein subunit that forms the heterodimeric integrin alpha-M beta-2 (αMβ2) molecule, also known as macrophage-1 antigen (Mac-1) or complement receptor 3 (CR3).
Intelligent Medical Imaging, also known as IMI or 'IMII' on Nasdaq, was based in Palm Beach Gardens, Florida.
In molecular biology, intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAMs) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) are part of the immunoglobulin superfamily.
Interferons (IFNs) are a group of signaling proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of several pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, and also tumor cells.
Interferon alfa (INN) or HuIFN-alpha-Le, trade name Multiferon, is a pharmaceutical drug composed of natural interferon alpha (IFN-α) obtained from the leukocyte fraction of human blood following induction with Sendai virus.
Interferon alpha-1/13 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IFNA1 gene.
Interferon beta-1a (also interferon beta 1-alpha) is a cytokine in the interferon family used to treat multiple sclerosis (MS).
Interferon beta-1b is a cytokine in the interferon family used to treat the relapsing-remitting and secondary-progressive forms of multiple sclerosis (MS).
Interferon gamma (IFNγ) is a dimerized soluble cytokine that is the only member of the type II class of interferons.
Human type I interferons (IFNs) are a large subgroup of interferon proteins that help regulate the activity of the immune system.
A sole member makes up the type II interferons (IFNs) that is called IFN-γ (gamma).
Interleukins (ILs) are a group of cytokines (secreted proteins and signal molecules) that were first seen to be expressed by white blood cells (leukocytes).
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is an interleukin, a type of cytokine signaling molecule in the immune system.
The interleukin-5 receptor is a type I cytokine receptor.
Intermediate filaments (IFs) are cytoskeletal components found in the cells of vertebrate animal species, and perhaps also in other animals, fungi, plants, and unicellular organisms.
The intestinal mucosal barrier, also referred to as intestinal barrier, refers to the property of the intestinal mucosa that ensures adequate containment of undesirable luminal contents within the intestine while preserving the ability to absorb nutrients.
Intestinal villi (singular: villus) are small, finger-like projections that extend into the lumen of the small intestine.
Intestine transplantation, intestinal transplantation, or small bowel transplantation is the surgical replacement of the small intestine for chronic and acute cases of intestinal failure.
Intravascular immunity describes the immune response in the bloodstream, and its role is to fight and prevent the spread of pathogens.
Inward-rectifier potassium channels (Kir, IRK) are a specific subset of potassium channels.
Irinotecan, sold under the brand name Camptosar among others, is a medication used to treat colon cancer, and small cell lung cancer.
The (Isolation by Size of Tumor cells / Trophoblastic cells) is a diagnostic blood test that detects circulating tumor cells in a blood sample.
Ixazomib (trade name Ninlaro) is a drug for the treatment of multiple myeloma, a type of white blood cell cancer, in combination with other drugs.
The Myrmecia pilosula, commonly known as the jack jumper, jumping jack, hopper ant, or jumper ant, is a species of venomous ant native to Australia.
Jagged1 (JAG1) is one of five cell surface proteins (ligands) that interact with 4 receptors in the mammalian Notch signaling pathway.
The JAK-STAT signalling pathway is a chain of interactions between proteins in a cell, and is involved in processes such as immunity, cell division, cell death and tumour formation.
Junctional adhesion molecule B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the JAM2 gene.
Junctional adhesion molecule C is a protein that in humans is encoded by the JAM3 gene.
James Gerald Hirsch (October 31, 1922 – May 25, 1987) was an American physician and biomedical researcher who specialized in immunology.
Jan T. Vilček M.D., Ph.D. (born June 17, 1933) is a biomedical scientist, educator, inventor and philanthropist.
Janis Anne Babson (September 9, 1950 – May 12, 1961) was a Canadian girl who received posthumous acclaim with the donation of her corneas for transplant after her death from leukemia at the age of 10.
Jansky–Bielschowsky disease is an extremely rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder that is part of the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) family of neurodegenerative disorders.
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an infection of the brain caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV).
Jean-Baptiste-Gabriel-Joachim Dausset (19 October 1916 – 6 June 2009) was a French immunologist born in Toulouse, France.
Jehovah's Witnesses believe that the Bible prohibits ingesting blood and that Christians should not accept blood transfusions or donate or store their own blood for transfusion.
The Journal of Leukocyte Biology is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering all aspects of immunology.
Jules Jean Baptiste Vincent Bordet (13 June 1870 – 6 April 1961) was a Belgian immunologist and microbiologist.
The junctional epithelium (JE) is that epithelium which lies at, and in health also defines, the base of the gingival sulcus.
Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) is a serious chronic leukemia (cancer of the blood) that affects children mostly aged 4 and younger.
Karl Gottfried Paul Döhle (6 June 1855 – 7 December 1928) was a German pathologist who was a native of Mühlhausen.
A karyotype is the number and appearance of chromosomes in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell.
Kawasaki disease, also known as mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome, is a disease in which blood vessels throughout the body become inflamed.
Keliximab is a monoclonal antibody for the treatment of severe chronic asthma.
Keratic precipitate (KP) is an inflammatory cellular deposit seen on corneal endothelium.
A keratinocyte is the predominant cell type in the epidermis, the outermost layer of the skin, constituting 90% of the cells found there.
A Khodadoust Line or chronic focal transplant reaction is a medical sign that indicates a complication of corneal graft surgery on the eye.
Kidney stone disease, also known as urolithiasis, is when a solid piece of material (kidney stone) occurs in the urinary tract.
Krüppel-like Factor 2 (KLF2), also known as lung Krüppel-like Factor (LKLF), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KLF2 gene on chromosome 19.
L-selectin, also known as CD62L, is a cell adhesion molecule found on lymphocytes and the preimplantation embryo.
A lacteal is a lymphatic capillary that absorbs dietary fats in the villi of the small intestine.
Lactobacillales or lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are an order of Gram-positive, low-GC, acid-tolerant, generally nonsporulating, nonrespiring, either rod- or coccus-shaped bacteria that share common metabolic and physiological characteristics. These bacteria, usually found in decomposing plants and milk products, produce lactic acid as the major metabolic end product of carbohydrate fermentation. This trait has, throughout history, linked LAB with food fermentations, as acidification inhibits the growth of spoilage agents. Proteinaceous bacteriocins are produced by several LAB strains and provide an additional hurdle for spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Furthermore, lactic acid and other metabolic products contribute to the organoleptic and textural profile of a food item. The industrial importance of the LAB is further evidenced by their generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status, due to their ubiquitous appearance in food and their contribution to the healthy microflora of human mucosal surfaces. The genera that comprise the LAB are at its core Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, Lactococcus, and Streptococcus, as well as the more peripheral Aerococcus, Carnobacterium, Enterococcus, Oenococcus, Sporolactobacillus, Tetragenococcus, Vagococcus, and Weissella; these belong to the order Lactobacillales.
The lamina propria is a thin layer of connective tissue that forms part of the moist linings known as mucous membranes or mucosa, which line various tubes in the body, such as the respiratory tract, the gastrointestinal tract, and the urogenital tract.
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease involving clonal proliferation of Langerhans cells, abnormal cells deriving from bone marrow and capable of migrating from skin to lymph nodes.
One classification system for lymphomas divides the diseases according to the size of the white blood cells that has turned cancerous.
Laurie Hill is an American sitcom that ran on ABC from September 30, 1992 until October 28, 1992.
Lebrikizumab (INN) is a humanized monoclonal antibody and an experimental immunosuppressive drug for the treatment of asthma that cannot be adequately controlled with inhalable glucocorticoids.
Leeches are segmented parasitic or predatory worm-like animals that belong to the phylum Annelida and comprise the subclass Hirudinea.
Left shift or blood shift is an increase in the number of immature leukocytes in the peripheral blood, particularly neutrophil band cells.
Legionnaires' disease is a form of atypical pneumonia caused by any type of Legionella bacteria.
Leishman stain (CAS:12627-53-1, EC: 235-732-1, MFCD:00131498), also Leishman's stain, is used in microscopy for staining blood smears.
Leishmania is a genus of trypanosomes that are responsible for the disease leishmaniasis.
Leona Harriet Woods (August 9, 1919 – November 10, 1986), later known as Leona Woods Marshall and Leona Woods Marshall Libby, was an American physicist who helped build the first nuclear reactor and the first atomic bomb.
Leucocyte may refer to.
Leucocytozoon (or Leukocytozoon) is a genus of parasitic alveolates belonging to the phylum Apicomplexa.
A leukoerythroblastic (or leucoerythroblastic) anemia is any anemic condition resulting from space-occupying lesions in the bone marrow; the circulating blood contains immature cells of the granulocytic series and nucleated red blood cells, frequently in numbers that are disproportionately large in relation to the degree of anemia.
The Leuconostocaceae are a family of Gram-positive bacteria, placed within the order of Lactobacillales. Representative genera include Fructobacillus, Leuconostoc, Oenococcus, and Weissella. Bacteria that belong to these three genera are nonspore-forming, round or elongated in shape, and anaerobic or aerotolerant. They usually inhabit nutrient-rich environments such as milk, meat, vegetable products, and fermented drinks. Lactic acid is the main end product of their characteristic heterofermentative carbohydrate metabolism. The phylogeny of the family Leuconostocaceae has recently been evaluated.
Leukapheresis is a laboratory procedure in which white blood cells are separated from a sample of blood.
Leukemia, also spelled leukaemia, is a group of cancers that usually begin in the bone marrow and result in high numbers of abnormal white blood cells.
Leukemia cutis is the infiltration of neoplastic leukocytes or their precursors into the skin resulting in clinically identifiable cutaneous lesions.
The term leukemoid reaction describes an increased white blood cell count, or leukocytosis, which is a physiological response to stress or infection (as opposed to a primary blood malignancy, such as leukemia).
A leukocidin is a type of cytotoxin created by some types of bacteria (Staphylococcus).
Leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD), is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by immunodeficiency resulting in recurrent infections.
Leukocyte adhesion deficiency-1 (LAD1) is a rare and often fatal genetic disorder in humans.
Leukocyte apheresis is a medical device therapy (selective granulocyte/monocyte adsorptive apheresis; GMDN code: 47306) for the treatment of inflammation of the colon.
Leukocyte esterase (LE) is an esterase (a type of enzyme) produced by leukocytes (white blood cells).
Leukocyte extravasation, less commonly called diapedesis, is the movement of leukocytes out of the circulatory system and towards the site of tissue damage or infection.
Leukocyte-promoting factor, also known as leukopoietin, is an obsolete term used to describe substances that are produced by neutrophils when they encounter a foreign antigen.
Leukocytoclastic means "tending to destroy white blood cells", which is exemplified by.
Leukocytosis is white cells (the leukocyte count) above the normal range in the blood.
Leukocyturia describes the presence of leucocytes in the urine.
Leukopenia is a decrease in the number of white blood cells (leukocytes) found in the blood, which places individuals at increased risk of infection.
Leukopoiesis is a form of hematopoiesis in which white blood cells (WBC, or leukocytes) are formed in bone marrow located in bones in adults and hematopoietic organs in the fetus.
Leukoreduction is the removal of white blood cells (or leukocytes) from the blood or blood components supplied for blood transfusion.
Leukorrhea or (leucorrhoea British English) is a thick, whitish or yellowish vaginal discharge.
Leukostasis (also called symptomatic hyperleukocytosis) is a medical emergency most commonly seen in patients with acute myeloid leukemia.
Leukotrienes are a family of eicosanoid inflammatory mediators produced in leukocytes by the oxidation of arachidonic acid (AA) and the essential fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) by the enzyme arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase.
Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is a leukotriene involved in inflammation.
Leukotriene E4 (LTE4) is a cysteinyl leukotriene involved in inflammation.
Levamisole, sold under the trade name Ergamisol among others, is a medication used to treat parasitic worm infections.
Lipid signaling, broadly defined, refers to any biological signaling event involving a lipid messenger that binds a protein target, such as a receptor, kinase or phosphatase, which in turn mediate the effects of these lipids on specific cellular responses.
Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) also known as platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) is a phospholipase A2 enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PLA2G7 gene.
Liquefactive necrosis (or colliquative necrosis) is a type of necrosis which results in a transformation of the tissue into a liquid viscous mass.
Chlorpromazine includes the following list of adverse effects (serious adverse effects appear in bold):Data on the exact incidence of the different adverse effects is greatly lacking so only rough approximations of adverse effect incidence is available.
This is a list of adverse effects of the antipsychotic olanzapine, sorted by frequency of occurrence.
This is a list of adverse effects of the antidepressant paroxetine, sorted by frequency of occurrence.
The following is a list of antibiotics.
This is a list of people who have made notable contributions to genetics.
Category:Lists of words.
There are many conditions of or affecting the human hematologic system — the biological system that includes plasma, platelets, leukocytes, and erythrocytes, the major components of blood and the bone marrow.
In blood banking, the fractions of Whole Blood used for transfusion are also called components.
The following is a list of human clusters of differentiation (or CD) molecules.
The following is a list of hormones found in Homo sapiens.
Category:Lists of medical abbreviations.
Category:Lists of medical abbreviations.
This is a list of roots, suffixes, and prefixes used in medical terminology, their meanings, and their etymology.
The following is a list of the "A" codes for MeSH.
The following is a list of the "A" codes for MeSH.
The following is a list of the "C" codes for MeSH.
The following is a list of the "E01" codes for MeSH.
The following is a list of the "E" codes for MeSH.
The following is a list of the "G" codes for MeSH.
The following is a list of the "G" codes for MeSH.
The American live-action/animated 2001 film Osmosis Jones features a variety of fictional characters created by Marc Hyman.
Periodontal pathology, also termed gum diseases or periodontal diseases, are diseases involving the periodontium (the tooth supporting structures, i.e. the gums).
Liver cancer, also known as hepatic cancer and primary hepatic cancer, is cancer that starts in the liver.
Lobation is a characteristic of the cell nucleus of certain granulocytes, types of white blood cells, where the nucleus is segmented into two or more connected lobes.
In the field of obstetrics, lochia is the vaginal discharge after giving birth (puerperium) containing blood, mucus, and uterine tissue.
Loeffler endocarditis is a form of restrictive cardiomyopathy caused by infiltration of the heart by white blood cells known as eosinophils.
Omolola (Lola) Eniola-Adefeso is an award-winning Professor of Chemical Engineering at the University of Michigan.
Lomustine (INN), abbreviated as CCNU (original brand name (formerly available) is CeeNU, now marketed as Gleostine), is an alkylating nitrosourea compound used in chemotherapy.
Loneliness is a complex and usually unpleasant emotional response to isolation.
Louis Charles Émile Lortet (22 August 1836 – 26 December 1909) was a French physician, botanist, zoologist and Egyptologist who was a native of Oullins.
Love Canal is a neighborhood within Niagara Falls, New York.
Ludwig’s angina, also known as Angina Ludovici, is named after a German physician, Wilhelm Frederick von Ludwig, who first described this condition in 1836.
Luk Van Parijs was an associate professor of biology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Center for Cancer Research.
Lumbar puncture (LP), also known as a spinal tap, is a medical procedure in which a needle is inserted into the spinal canal, most commonly to collect cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for diagnostic testing.
Lutzner cells were discovered by Marvin A. Lutzner, Lucien-Marie Pautrier, and Albert Sézary.
LY6 refers to a family of proteins found in leukocytes.
Lymph is the fluid that circulates throughout the lymphatic system.
Lymph capillaries or lymphatic capillaries are tiny, thin-walled vessels located in the spaces between cells (except in the central nervous system and non-vascular tissues) which serve to drain and process extra-cellular fluid.
A lymph node or lymph gland is an ovoid or kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, and of the adaptive immune system, that is widely present throughout the body.
The lymphatic system is part of the vascular system and an important part of the immune system, comprising a network of lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph (from Latin, lympha meaning "water") directionally towards the heart.
A lymphoblast is a modified naive lymphocyte that also looks completely different.
A lymphocyte is one of the subtypes of white blood cell in a vertebrate's immune system.
Lymphocyte-variant hypereosinophila, also termed lymphocyte variant eosinophilia, is a rare disorder in which eosinophilia or hypereosinophilia (i.e. a large or extremely large increase in the number of eosinophils in the blood circulation) is caused by an aberrant population of lymphocytes.
Lymphocytic pleocytosis is an abnormal increase in the amount of lymphocytes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
Lymphocytosis is an increase in the number of lymphocytes in the blood.
Lymphoid leukemias — also called lymphocytic, lymphogenous, or lymphoblastic leukemias — are a group of leukemias affecting circulating lymphocytes, a type of white blood cells.
Lymphokines are a subset of cytokines that are produced by a type of immune cell known as a lymphocyte.
In cell biology, a lymphokine-activated killer cell (also known as a LAK cell) is a white blood cell that has been stimulated to kill tumor cells.
Lymphoma is a group of blood cancers that develop from lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell).
Lymphoma (lymposarcoma) in animals is a type of cancer defined by a proliferation of malignant lymphocytes within solid organs such as the lymph nodes, bone marrow, liver and spleen.
Lymphopoiesis (lĭm'fō-poi-ē'sĭs) (or lymphocytopoiesis) is the generation of lymphocytes, one of the five types of white blood cell (WBC).
A lysis buffer is a buffer solution used for the purpose of breaking open cells for use in molecular biology experiments that analyze the compounds of the cells (e.g. western blot).
Lysophosphatidylserine is a lysophospholipid which triggers TLR 2.
A lysosome is a membrane-bound organelle found in nearly all animal cells.
M1G (pyrimidopurin-10(3H)-one) is a heterocyclic compound which is a by-product of base excision repair (BER) of a specific type of DNA adduct called M1dG.
The macrolides are a class of natural products that consist of a large macrocyclic lactone ring to which one or more deoxy sugars, usually cladinose and desosamine, may be attached.
Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós).
The terms "macrophage" and "microphage" are used in ecology to describe heterotrophs that consume food in two different ways.
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF or MMIF), also known as glycosylation-inhibiting factor (GIF), L-dopachrome isomerase, or phenylpyruvate tautomerase is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MIF gene.
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a set of cell surface proteins essential for the acquired immune system to recognize foreign molecules in vertebrates, which in turn determines histocompatibility.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
In enzymology, a malate oxidase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are (S)-malate and O2, whereas its two products are oxaloacetate and H2O2.
Male Accessory Gland Infection (MAGI), also known as Male Accessory Gland Inflammation, is a condition with signs of inflammation involving one or more sites in the male genital tract.
Management of Crohn's disease involves first treating the acute symptoms of the disease, then maintaining remission.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS).
Management of ulcerative colitis involves first treating the acute symptoms of the disease, then maintaining remission.
Margatoxin (MgTX) is a peptide that selectively inhibits Kv1.3 voltage-dependent potassium channels.
Marilyn Gist Farquhar (born 1928) is a pathologist and cellular biologist, Professor of Cellular and Molecular Medicine and Pathology, as well as the chair of the Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine,who previously worked at Yale University from 1973 to 1990.
Mary Katharine Levinge Collins is a British Professor of Immunology.
A mast cell (also known as a mastocyte or a labrocyte) is a type of white blood cell.
Bovine mastitis is the persistent, inflammatory reaction of the udder tissue due to physical trauma or microorganisms infections.
Maureen "Mo" Starkey Tigrett (born Mary Cox; 4 August 1946 – 30 December 1994) was a hairdresser from Liverpool, England, best known as the first wife of Ringo Starr, the Beatles' drummer.
The McCutcheon index or chemotactic ratio is the ratio of the net displacement of a bacterium to the length of its actual path.
Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) also known as neonatal aspiration of meconium is a medical condition affecting newborn infants.
Medullary breast carcinoma is a rare type of breast cancer that often can be treated successfully.
The medullary cavity (medulla, innermost part) is the central cavity of bone shafts where red bone marrow and/or yellow bone marrow (adipose tissue) is stored; hence, the medullary cavity is also known as the marrow cavity.
MEFV (Mediterranean fever) is a human gene that provides instructions for making a protein called pyrin (also known as marenostrin).
Megalocytivirus is one of five genera of viruses within the family Iridoviridae and one of three genera within this family which infect teleost fishes, along with Lymphocystivirus and ''Ranasvirus''.
Melatonin receptor agonists are analogues of melatonin that bind to and activate the melatonin receptor.
Melvin Henry Knisely (17 June 1904 - 30 March 1975), was an American physiologist who first observed the pathological clumping of red and white cells, in vivo, at the capillary level.
Meningitis is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges.
Mercaptopurine (6-MP), sold under the brand name Purinethol among others, is a medication used for cancer and autoimmune diseases.
Merrill W. Chase (September 17, 1905 – January 5, 2004) was an immunologist working at the Rockefeller University in New York City who is credited with discovering cell-mediated immunology in the early 1940s.
In all bilaterian animals, the mesoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo.
The mesothelium is a membrane composed of simple squamous epithelium that forms the lining of several body cavities: the pleura (thoracic cavity), peritoneum (abdominal cavity including the mesentery), mediastinum and pericardium (heart sac).
Metamizole or dipyrone, is a painkiller, spasm reliever and fever reliever.
Methyldopa, sold under the brand name Aldomet among others, is a medication used for high blood pressure.
Sir Michael Francis Addison Woodruff, FRS, FRCS (3 April 1911 – 10 March 2001) was an English surgeon and scientist principally remembered for his research into organ transplantation.
Microscopic colitis refers to two related medical conditions which cause diarrhea: collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis.
Microvesicles (circulating microvesicles, or microparticles) are a type of extracellular vesicle, between 50 and 1,000 nanometers (nm) in diameter, found in many types of body fluids as well as the interstitial space between cells.
Microvilli (singular: microvillus) are microscopic cellular membrane protrusions that increase the surface area for diffusion and minimize any increase in volume, and are involved in a wide variety of functions, including absorption, secretion, cellular adhesion, and mechanotransduction.
Midori Naka (Japanese: 仲みどり) (19 June 1909 – 24 August 1945) was a Japanese stage actress of the Shingeki style, famous in her country at the time of her death.
Mifamurtide (trade name Mepact, marketed by Takeda) is a drug against osteosarcoma, a kind of bone cancer mainly affecting children and young adults, which is lethal in about a third of cases.
Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals.
Milk allergy is an adverse immune reaction to one or more proteins in cow's milk.
A molecular switch is a molecule that can be reversibly shifted between two or more stable states.
In medicine, monitoring is the observation of a disease, condition or one or several medical parameters over time.
Monoblasts are normally found in bone marrow and do not appear in the normal peripheral blood.
Monoclonal antibodies (mAb or moAb) are antibodies that are made by identical immune cells that are all clones of a unique parent cell.
Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS, unknown or uncertain may be substituted for undetermined), formerly benign monoclonal gammopathy, is a condition in which an abnormal immunoglobin protein (known as a paraprotein) is found in the blood during standard laboratory blood tests.
Monocytes are a type of leukocyte, or white blood cell.
A mood stabilizer is a psychiatric pharmaceutical drug used to treat mood disorders characterized by intense and sustained mood shifts, typically bipolar disorder type I or type II, borderline personality disorder (BPD) and schizophrenia.
Moore v. Regents of the University of California was a landmark Supreme Court of California decision.
Morphine is a pain medication of the opiate variety which is found naturally in a number of plants and animals.
The Moscow Signal was a reported microwave transmission, varying between 2.5–4 gigahertz, directed at the Embassy of the United States, Moscow from 1953–1976, resulting in an international incident.
Multiple myeloma, also known as plasma cell myeloma, is a cancer of plasma cells, a type of white blood cell normally responsible for producing antibodies.
Murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV 4) is a virus in the genus Rhadinovirus.
Mycoplasma haemofelis (formerly Haemobartonella felis) is a gram negative epierythrocytic parasitic bacterium.
Mycosis is a fungal infection of animals, including humans.
Myeloblastin (leukocyte proteinase 3, leukocyte proteinase 4, Wegener's granulomatosis autoantigen, proteinase PR-3, proteinase-3, PMNL proteinase) is an enzyme.
Myelofibrosis, also known as osteomyelofibrosis, is a relatively rare bone marrow cancer.
A myeloid sarcoma (chloroma, granulocytic sarcoma, extramedullary myeloid tumor), is a solid tumor composed of immature white blood cells called myeloblasts.
Myeloid tissue, in the bone marrow sense of the word myeloid (myelo- + -oid), is tissue of bone marrow, of bone marrow cell lineage, or resembling bone marrow, and myelogenous tissue (myelo- + -genous) is any tissue of, or arising from, bone marrow; in these senses the terms are usually used synonymously, as for example with chronic myeloid/myelogenous leukemia.
Myelokathexis is a congenital disorder of the white blood cells that causes severe, chronic leukopenia (a reduction of circulating white blood cells) and neutropenia (a reduction of neutrophil granulocytes).
Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a peroxidase enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MPO gene on chromosome 17.
The cast of the television series MythBusters perform experiments to verify or debunk urban legends, old wives' tales, and the like.
N,N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT or N,N-DMT) is a tryptamine molecule which occurs in many plants and animals.
N-Formylmethionine (fMet) is a derivative of the amino acid methionine in which a formyl group has been added to the amino group.
N-Formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) or N-formyl-met-leu-phe) is a N-formylated tripeptide and sometimes simply referred to as chemotactic peptide is a potent polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) chemotactic factor and is also a macrophage activator. FMLP is the prototypical representative of the N-fomylated oligopeptide family of chemotactic factors. These oligopeptides are known to be, or mimic the actions of, the N-formyl oligopeptides that are (a) released by tissue bacteria, (b) attract and activate circulating blood leukocytes by binding to specific G protein coupled receptors on these cells, and (c) thereby direct the inflammatory response to sites of bacterial invasion. FMLP is involved in the innate immunity mechanism for host defense against pathogens. FMLP led to the first discovery of a leukocyte receptor for a chemotactic factor, defined three different types of FMLP receptors that have complimentary and/or opposing effects on inflammatory responses as well as many other activities, and helped define the stimulus-response coupling mechanisms by which diverse chemotactic factors and their G protein coupled receptors induce cellular function.
NAD(P)H oxidase is a membrane-associated enzyme that catalyzes the production of superoxide– a reactive free radical– through a one electron transfer from NAD(P)H (NADH or NADPH) to oxygen as the electron acceptor.
Nagraj ("Snake-King") (नागराज in Devanagari script) is a fictional superhero appearing in Raj Comics,.
Nanorobotics is an emerging technology field creating machines or robots whose components are at or near the scale of a nanometre (10−9 meters).
Natalizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody against the cell adhesion molecule α4-integrin.
The National Eye Institute (NEI) was established in 1968 and is located in Bethesda, Maryland.
The National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) is a nonprofit organization founded in 1986 and based in Minneapolis, Minnesota that operates the Be The Match Registry of volunteer hematopoietic cell donors and umbilical cord blood units in the United States.
Natural killer cells or NK cells are a type of cytotoxic lymphocyte critical to the innate immune system.
The nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio (also variously known as the nucleus:cytoplasm ratio, nucleus-cytoplasm ratio, N:C ratio, or N/C) is a measurement used in cell biology.
Necrosis (from the Greek νέκρωσις "death, the stage of dying, the act of killing" from νεκρός "dead") is a form of cell injury which results in the premature death of cells in living tissue by autolysis.
Necrotaxis embodies a special type of chemotaxis when the chemoattractant molecules are released from necrotic or apoptotic cells.
Necrotizing fasciitis (NF), commonly known as flesh-eating disease, is an infection that results in the death of the body's soft tissue.
Neisseria meningitidis, often referred to as meningococcus, is a Gram-negative bacterium that can cause meningitis and other forms of meningococcal disease such as meningococcemia, a life-threatening sepsis.
Neointimal hyperplasia refers to proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells primarily in the tunica intima, resulting in the thickening of arterial walls and decreased arterial lumen space.
Neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM) is defined as a disease that affects an infant and their body's ability to produce or use insulin.
Neonatal meningitis is a serious medical condition in infants.
Neonatal sepsis is a type of neonatal infection and specifically refers to the presence in a newborn baby of a bacterial blood stream infection (BSI) (such as meningitis, pneumonia, pyelonephritis, or gastroenteritis) in the setting of fever.
The nephron (from Greek νεφρός – nephros, meaning "kidney") is the microscopic structural and functional unit of the kidney.
Nephrotic syndrome is a collection of symptoms due to kidney damage.
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are neoplasms that arise from cells of the endocrine (hormonal) and nervous systems.
Neurofibromin 1 (NF1) is a gene in humans that is located on chromosome 17.
Neuroinflammation is inflammation of the nervous tissue.
Neurokinin A, formerly known as Substance K, is a neurologically active peptide translated from the pre-protachykinin gene.
Neutral lipid storage disease (also known as Chanarin–Dorfman syndrome) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by accumulation of triglycerides in the cytoplasm of leukocytes, muscle, liver, fibroblasts, and other tissues.
Neutropenia or neutropaenia is an abnormally low concentration of neutrophils (a type of white blood cell) in the blood.
Neutropenic enterocolitis, also known as typhlitis or typhlenteritis, and less commonly called caecitis or cecitis, is inflammation of the cecum (part of the large intestine) that may be associated with infection.
Neutrophils (also known as neutrocytes) are the most abundant type of granulocytes and the most abundant (40% to 70%) type of white blood cells in most mammals.
Neutrophilia (also called neutrophil leukocytosis or occasionally neutrocytosis) is leukocytosis of neutrophils, that is, a high number of neutrophil granulocytes in the blood.
Nuclear Factor (Erythroid 2) - Like Factor 3, also known as NFE2L3 or 'NRF3', is a transcription factor that in humans is encoded by the Nfe2l3 gene.
Nuclear factor NF-kappa-B p105 subunit is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NFKB1 gene.
Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid, is an organic compound and a form of vitamin B3, an essential human nutrient.
Night of the Blood Beast is a 1958 American science-fiction horror film about a team of scientists who are stalked by an alien creature, which implants its embryos in an astronaut's body during a space flight.
Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2), also known as caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 15 (CARD15) or inflammatory bowel disease protein 1 (IBD1), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NOD2 gene located on chromosome 16.
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a group of blood cancers that includes all types of lymphoma except Hodgkin's lymphomas.
A non-specific immune cell is an immune cell (such as a macrophage, neutrophil, or dendritic cell) that responds to many antigens, not just one antigen.
Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty involving the application of radioactive substances in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.
Nyquist (foaled March 10, 2013) is a retired American Thoroughbred racehorse, winner of the 2016 Kentucky Derby.
Obsidian is a naturally occurring volcanic glass formed as an extrusive igneous rock.
Occult pneumonia is a pneumonia that is not observable directly by the eye, but can only be shown indirectly, especially by radiography.
Oclacitinib (brand name Apoquel) is a veterinary medication used in the control of atopic dermatitis and pruritus from allergic dermatitis in dogs at least 12 months of age.
The ocular immune system protects the eye from infection and regulates healing processes following injuries.
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An oncolytic virus is a virus that preferentially infects and kills cancer cells.
Oncotecture is the pattern of gene expression and associated protein activity that governs tumor behavior.
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.
Ord's thyroiditis is a common form of thyroiditis, an autoimmune disease where the body's own antibodies fight the cells of the thyroid.
Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.
An organ-on-a-chip (OOC) is a multi-channel 3-D microfluidic cell culture chip that simulates the activities, mechanics and physiological response of entire organs and organ systems, a type of artificial organ.
Organic dust toxic syndrome (ODTS) is a potentially severe flu-like syndrome originally described in farmers, mushroom workers, bird breeders and other persons occupationally exposed to dusty conditions.
Osmosis Jones is a 2001 American live-action/animated action comedy adventure film with animated scenes directed by Tom Sito and Piet Kroon and live-action scenes directed by the Farrelly brothers.
Osteomyelitis (OM) is an infection of bone.
Osteomyelitis of the jaws is osteomyelitis (which is infection and inflammation of the bone marrow, sometimes abbreviated to OM) which occurs in the bones of the jaws (i.e. maxilla or the mandible).
Osteopetrosis, literally "stone bone", also known as marble bone disease, Albers-Schönberg disease is an extremely rare inherited disorder whereby the bones harden, becoming denser, in contrast to more prevalent conditions like osteoporosis, in which the bones become less dense and more brittle, or osteomalacia, in which the bones soften.
Osteopontin (OPN), also known as bone sialoprotein I (BSP-1 or BNSP), early T-lymphocyte activation (ETA-1), secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1), 2ar and Rickettsia resistance (Ric), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SPP1 gene (secreted phosphoprotein 1).
An osteosarcoma (OS) or osteogenic sarcoma (OGS) is a cancerous tumor in a bone.
Outer space, or just space, is the expanse that exists beyond the Earth and between celestial bodies.
Biology – The natural science that involves the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to immunology: Immunology is the study of all aspects of the immune system in all organisms.
Oxaceprol is an anti-inflammatory drug used in the treatment of osteoarthritis.
Oxoeicosanoid receptor 1 (OXER1) also known as G-protein coupled receptor 170 (GPR170) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OXER1 gene located on human chromosome 2p21; it is the principle receptor for the 5-Hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid family of carboxy fatty acid metabolites derived from arachidonic acid.
Ozone, or trioxygen, is an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula.
Ozzy & Drix is an American animated television series based on the film Osmosis Jones.
P-selectin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SELP gene.
Selectin P ligand, also known as SELPLG or CD162 (cluster of differentiation 162), is a human gene.
Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit delta isoform also known as phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) delta isoform or p110δ is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PIK3CD gene.
The ATP-gated P2X receptor cation channel family, or simply P2X receptor family, consists of cation-permeable ligand-gated ion channels that open in response to the binding of extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP).
Packed red blood cells, also known as red cell concentrate and packed cells, are red blood cells that have been separated for blood transfusion.
Pancytopenia is a medical condition in which there is a reduction in the number of red and white blood cells, as well as platelets.
Panton–Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is a cytotoxin—one of the β-pore-forming toxins.
A parallel-plate fluid flow chamber is a benchtop (in vitro) model that simulates fluid shear stresses on various cell types exposed to dynamic fluid flow in their natural, physiological environment.
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare, acquired, life-threatening disease of the blood characterized by destruction of red blood cells by the complement system, a part of the body's innate immune system.
Poly polymerase 1 (PARP-1) also known as NAD+ ADP-ribosyltransferase 1 or poly synthase 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PARP1 gene.
Parvovirus is the common name applied to all the viruses in the Parvoviridae taxonomic family.
PASLI disease is a rare genetic disorder of the immune system.
In tissue and organ transplantation, the passenger leukocyte theory is the proposition that leucocytes within a transplanted allograft sensitize the recipient's alloreactive T-lymphocytes, causing transplant rejection.
Pasteurella multocida is a Gram-negative, nonmotile, penicillin-sensitive coccobacillus belonging to the Pasteurellaceae family.
The paternal age effect is the statistical relationship between paternal age at conception and biological effects on the child.
Pathogen reduction using riboflavin and UV light is a method by which infectious pathogens in blood for transfusion are inactivated by adding riboflavin and irradiating with UV light.
Pathology (from the Ancient Greek roots of pathos (πάθος), meaning "experience" or "suffering" and -logia (-λογία), "study of") is a significant field in modern medical diagnosis and medical research, concerned mainly with the causal study of disease, whether caused by pathogens or non-infectious physiological disorder.
Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the CNS in which activated immune cells invade the central nervous system and cause inflammation, neurodegeneration, and tissue damage.
There are many possible pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the development and maintenance of obesity.
Paul Ehrlich (14 March 1854 – 20 August 1915) was a German Jewish physician and scientist who worked in the fields of hematology, immunology, and antimicrobial chemotherapy.
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 2, mitochondrial (PCK2, PEPCK-M), is an isozyme of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK, PEPCK) that in humans is encoded by the PCK2 gene on chromosome 14.
Pelger–Huët anomaly (pronunciation) is a blood laminopathy associated with the lamin B receptor.
For other uses see PUBS (disambiguation page) Percutaneous umbilical cord blood sampling (PUBS), also called cordocentesis, fetal blood sampling, or umbilical vein sampling is a diagnostic genetic test that examines blood from the fetal umbilical cord to detect fetal abnormalities.
Pericytes are contractile cells that wrap around the endothelial cells that line the capillaries and venules throughout the body.
Periodontal disease, also known as gum disease, is a set of inflammatory conditions affecting the tissues surrounding the teeth.
Peripheral blood cells are the cellular components of blood, consisting of red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells (leucocytes), and platelets, which are found within the circulating pool of blood and not sequestered within the lymphatic system, spleen, liver, or bone marrow.
The Petkau effect is an early counterexample to linear-effect assumptions usually made about radiation exposure.
6-phosphofructokinase, liver type (PFKL) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PFKL gene on chromosome 21.
Phagocytes are cells that protect the body by ingesting harmful foreign particles, bacteria, and dead or dying cells.
In cell biology, phagocytosis is the process by which a cell—often a phagocyte or a protist—engulfs a solid particle to form an internal compartment known as a phagosome.
Phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs) are a family of protein toxins that are soluble in phenols that are produced by staphylococcus bacteria.
Phenylbutazone, often referred to as "bute," is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) for the short-term treatment of pain and fever in animals.
A phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibitor, commonly referred to as a PDE4 inhibitor, is a drug used to block the degradative action of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) on cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP).
Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (also called phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases, PI 3-kinases, PI(3)Ks, PI-3Ks or by the HUGO official stem symbol for the gene family, PI3K(s)) are a family of enzymes involved in cellular functions such as cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, motility, survival and intracellular trafficking, which in turn are involved in cancer.
Phospholipids are a class of lipids that are a major component of all cell membranes.
In medicine, photopheresis (aka extracorporeal photopheresis or ECP) is a form of apheresis and photodynamic therapy in which blood is treated with a photosensitizing agent and subsequently irradiated with specified wavelengths of light to achieve an effect.
Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA, or phytohemagglutinin) is a lectin found in plants, especially certain legumes.
Pierre Delbet (15 November 1861 – 17 July 1957) was a French surgeon born in La Ferté-Gaucher.
Placental insufficiency or utero-placental insufficiency is the failure of the placenta to deliver sufficient nutrients to the fetus during pregnancy, and is often a result of insufficient blood flow to the placenta.
Plasma cells, also called plasma B cells, plasmocytes, plasmacytes, or effector B cells, are white blood cells that secrete large volumes of antibodies.
Plasma cell granuloma is a lesional pattern of inflammatory pseudotumour, different from the "inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor" pattern.
Plasmodium azurophilum is a species of the genus Plasmodium.
Plasmodium berghei is a protozoan parasite that causes malaria in certain rodents.
Plasmodium juxtanucleare is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Bennettinia.
Platelets, also called thrombocytes (from Greek θρόμβος, "clot" and κύτος, "cell"), are a component of blood whose function (along with the coagulation factors) is to react to bleeding from blood vessel injury by clumping, thereby initiating a blood clot.
Platelet transfusion, also known as platelet concentrate, is used to prevent or treat bleeding in people with either a low platelet count or poor platelet function.
Platelet-activating factor, also known as PAF, PAF-acether or AGEPC (acetyl-glyceryl-ether-phosphorylcholine), is a potent phospholipid activator and mediator of many leukocyte functions, platelet aggregation and degranulation, inflammation, and anaphylaxis.
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a concentrate of platelet-rich plasma protein derived from whole blood, centrifuged to remove red blood cells.
In dentistry, platform switching is a method used to preserve alveolar bone levels around dental implants.
Pleckstrin homology domain-containing family M member 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PLEKHM2 gene.
In medicine, pleocytosis (or pleiocytosis) is an increased cell count (from Greek pleion, "more"), particularly an increase in white blood cell count, in a bodily fluid, such as cerebrospinal fluid.
A pleural effusion is excess fluid that accumulates in the pleural cavity, the fluid-filled space that surrounds the lungs.
Pleuran is an insoluble polysaccharide (β-(1,3/1,6)-D-glucan), isolated from Pleurotus ostreatus.
Plum syndrome is a very rare genetic disorder.
Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli.
Podostroma cornu-damae (Japanese: カエンタケ) is a species of fungus in the family Hypocreaceae.
Poliomyelitis, often called polio or infantile paralysis, is an infectious disease caused by the poliovirus.
Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is a family of proteins involved in a number of cellular processes such as DNA repair, genomic stability, and programmed cell death.
Polyclonal B cell response is a natural mode of immune response exhibited by the adaptive immune system of mammals.
Polycythemia (also known as polycythaemia or polyglobulia) is a disease state in which the hematocrit (the volume percentage of red blood cells in the blood) is elevated.
Polycythemia vera is an uncommon neoplasm in which the bone marrow makes too many red blood cells.
Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.
) --> Polysulfated glycosaminoglycan (PSGAG), sold under the brand name Adequan, is an injectable drug for dogs and horses that is used to alleviate the lameness, pain, and lowered range of motion caused by arthritis. It is made of repeat disaccharide units (comprising hexosamine and hexuronic acid), and is similar to glycosaminoglycans already present in the cartilage; PSAG thus easily integrates itself there. In vitro studies have shown it to inhibit the enzymes that degrade cartilage and bone, as well as suppress inflammation and stimulate the synthesis of replacement cartilage. While it can cause an increased risk of bleeding, its relatively safe and has a high LD50. PSAG and is one of the most widely prescribed joint supplements for horses. While it is widely used, some studies still show conflicting results in terms of efficacy, causing some to claim that PSGAG is not solely responsible for the significant mitigation of arthritis seen in success cases.
Pore-forming proteins (PFTs, also known as pore-forming toxins) are protein exotoxins, usually produced by bacteria, such as C. septicum and S. aureus.
Positive feedback is a process that occurs in a feedback loop in which the effects of a small disturbance on a system include an increase in the magnitude of the perturbation.
Post-traumatic arthritis (PTA) is a form of osteoarthritis following an injury to a joint.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)Acceptable variants of this term exist; see the Terminology section in this article.
Pre-conception counseling (also called pre-conceptual counseling) is a meeting with a health-care professional (generally a physician or midwife) by a woman before attempting to become pregnant.
Precursor B-cell lymphoblastic leukemia is a form of lymphoid leukemia in which too many B-cell lymphoblasts (immature white blood cells) are found in the blood and bone marrow.
Precursor T-lymphoblastic lymphoma is a type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in which too many T-cell lymphoblasts (immature white blood cells) are found in the lymph nodes and spleen.
Prednisolone is a steroid medication used to treat certain types of allergies, inflammatory conditions, autoimmune disorders, and cancers.
Prenatal development is the process in which an embryo and later fetus develops during gestation.
Prepatellar bursitis is an inflammation of the prepatellar bursa at the front of the knee.
Pressure ulcers, also known as pressure sores, pressure injuries, bedsores, and decubitus ulcers, are localized damage to the skin and/or underlying tissue that usually occur over a bony prominence as a result of pressure or pressure in combination with shear and/or friction.
For Preventing Tay–Sachs disease, three main approaches have been used to prevent or reduce the incidence of Tay–Sachs disease in those who are at high risk.
Pachydermoperiostosis (PDP) or primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (PHO) is a rare genetic disorder that affects both bones and skin.
Progarnia is a genus of parasitic alveolates belonging to the phylum Apicomplexia.
Programmed cell death (or PCD) is the death of a cell in any form, mediated by an intracellular program.
Prolactin (PRL), also known as luteotropic hormone or luteotropin, is a protein that is best known for its role in enabling mammals, usually females, to produce milk.
A prolymphocyte is a white blood cell with a certain state of cellular differentiation in lymphocytopoiesis.
The prostaglandins (PG) are a group of physiologically active lipid compounds having diverse hormone-like effects in animals.
Prostaglandin D2 receptor 2 (DP2 or CRTH2) is a human protein encoded by the PTGDR2 gene and GPR44.
Prostatitis is inflammation of the prostate gland.
Angiogenesis is the process of forming new blood vessels from existing blood vessels.
Protectin D1 also known as neuroprotectin D1 (when it acts in the nervous system) and abbreviated most commonly as PD1 or NPD1 is a member of the class of specialized proresolving mediators.
Protegrins are small peptides containing 16-18 amino acid residues.
Protein C, also known as autoprothrombin IIA and blood coagulation factor XIV, is a zymogen, the activated form of which plays an important role in regulating anticoagulation, inflammation, cell death, and maintaining the permeability of blood vessel walls in humans and other animals.
Proxicromil is a detergent-like, lipophilic oral medication developed in the late 1970s that was not admitted on the market because of its possible carcinogenic effects.
Pseudomonas is a genus of Gram-negative, Gammaproteobacteria, belonging to the family Pseudomonadaceae and containing 191 validly described species.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that can cause disease in plants and animals, including humans.
Psoriasis is a long-lasting autoimmune disease characterized by patches of abnormal skin.
Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI), also referred to as psychoendoneuroimmunology (PENI) or psychoneuroendocrinoimmunology (PNEI), is the study of the interaction between psychological processes and the nervous and immune systems of the human body.
Psychosis is an abnormal condition of the mind that results in difficulties telling what is real and what is not.
Protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, C also known as PTPRC is an enzyme that, in humans, is encoded by the PTPRC gene.
A pulmonary contusion, also known as lung contusion, is a bruise of the lung, caused by chest trauma.
Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) or erythroblastopenia refers to a type of anemia affecting the precursors to red blood cells but not to white blood cells.
Purine metabolism refers to the metabolic pathways to synthesize and break down purines that are present in many organisms.
Purinergic signalling (or signaling: see American and British English differences) is a form of extracellular signalling mediated by purine nucleotides and nucleosides such as adenosine and ATP.
Pus is an exudate, typically white-yellow, yellow, or yellow-brown, formed at the site of inflammation during bacterial or fungal infection.
Pyelonephritis is inflammation of the kidney, typically due to a bacterial infection.
Pyometra or pyometrea is a uterine infection.
Pyroptosis is a highly inflammatory form of programmed cell death that occurs most frequently upon infection with intracellular pathogens and is likely to form part of the antimicrobial response.
Pyuria is the condition of urine containing white blood cells or pus.
Interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) are diagnostic tools for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI).
Quinolinic acid (abbreviated QUIN or QA), also known as pyridine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid, is a dicarboxylic acid with a pyridine backbone.
Radiopharmaceuticals, or medicinal radiocompounds, are a group of pharmaceutical drugs which have radioactivity.
Raillietina echinobothrida is a parasitic tapeworm belonging to the class Cestoda.
Raillietina tetragona (synonym Taenia tetragona Molin) is a parasitic tapeworm belonging to the class Cestoda.
Rangelia is a genus of parasitic alveolates of the phylum Apicomplexia.
The Ranson criteria form a clinical prediction rule for predicting the mortality risk of acute pancreatitis.
Dexamethasone-induced Ras-related protein 1 (RASD1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RASD1 gene on chromosome 17.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive chemical species containing oxygen.
Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.
The red king crab, Paralithodes camtschaticus, also called Kamchatka crab or Alaskan king crab, is a species of king crab native to the Bering Sea.
The red pulp of the spleen is composed of connective tissue known also as the cords of Billroth and many splenic sinuses that are engorged with blood, giving it a red color.
Reference ranges for blood tests are sets of values used by a health professional to interpret a set of medical test results from blood samples.
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a kidney cancer that originates in the lining of the proximal convoluted tubule, a part of the very small tubes in the kidney that transport primary urine.
Reperfusion injury or reperfusion insult, sometimes called ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) or reoxygenation injury, is the tissue damage caused when blood supply returns to tissue (re- + perfusion) after a period of ischemia or lack of oxygen (anoxia or hypoxia).
HIV Resistance Response Database Initiative (RDI) is a not-for-profit organisation established in 2002 with the mission of improving the clinical management of HIV infection through the application of bioinformatics to HIV drug resistance and treatment outcome data.
Resistin also known as adipose tissue-specific secretory factor (ADSF) or C/EBP-epsilon-regulated myeloid-specific secreted cysteine-rich protein (XCP1) is a cysteine-rich adipose-derived peptide hormone that in humans is encoded by the RETN gene.
Respiratory burst (sometimes called oxidative burst) is the rapid release of reactive oxygen species (superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide) from different types of cells.
The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants.
Respirocytes are hypothetical, microscopic, artificial red blood cells that are intended to emulate the function of their organic counterparts, so as to supplement or replace the function of much of the human body's normal respiratory system.
The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.
Rhabdomyolysis is a condition in which damaged skeletal muscle breaks down rapidly.
Rheology (from Greek ῥέω rhéō, "flow" and -λoγία, -logia, "study of") is the study of the flow of matter, primarily in a liquid state, but also as "soft solids" or solids under conditions in which they respond with plastic flow rather than deforming elastically in response to an applied force.
RhoG (Ras homology Growth-related) (or ARGH) is a small (~21 kDa) monomeric GTP-binding protein (G protein), and is an important component of many intracellular signalling pathways.
Robert Rayford (February 3, 1953 – May 15 or 16, 1969), sometimes identified as Robert R. due to his age, was a teenager from Missouri who has been described as the earliest case of HIV/AIDS in North America having been "infected with a virus closely related or identical to human immunodeficiency virus type 1." Rayford died of pneumonia, but his other symptoms baffled the doctors who treated him.
Roseola is an infectious disease caused by certain types of virus.
Rovelizumab, also known as LeukArrest and Hu23F2G, is a humanized monoclonal antibody which was an experimental immunosuppressive drug.
S100 calcium-binding protein A9 (S100A9) also known as migration inhibitory factor-related protein 14 (MRP14) or calgranulin B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the S100A9 gene.
Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P receptor 1 or S1P1), also known as endothelial differentiation gene 1 (EDG1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the S1PR1 gene.
In medicine, sampling is gathering of matter from the body to aid in the process of a medical diagnosis and/or evaluation of an indication for treatment, further medical tests or other procedures.
Saurocytozoon is a genus of parasitic alveolates.
A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a type of electron microscope that produces images of a sample by scanning the surface with a focused beam of electrons.
Schistosoma haematobium (urinary blood fluke) is species of digenetic trematode, belonging to a group (genus) of blood flukes (Schistosoma).
Schizoaffective disorder (SZA, SZD or SAD) is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal thought processes and deregulated emotions.
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.
The Schmidt sting pain index is a pain scale rating the relative pain caused by different hymenopteran stings.
Schnitzler syndrome is a rare disease characterised by onset around middle age of chronic hives (urticaria) and periodic fever, bone pain and joint pain (sometimes with joint inflammation), weight loss, malaise, fatigue, swollen lymph glands and enlarged spleen and liver.
Scleroderma is a group of autoimmune diseases that may result in changes to the skin, blood vessels, muscles, and internal organs.
In sperm banks, screening of potential sperm donors typically includes screening for genetic diseases, chromosomal abnormalities and sexually transmitted infections that may be transmitted through the donor's sperm.
Sea cucumbers are echinoderms from the class Holothuroidea.
A semen analysis (plural: semen analyses), also called "seminogram" evaluates certain characteristics of a male's semen and the sperm contained therein.
Semen quality is a measure of the ability of semen to accomplish fertilization.
Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to infection causes injury to its own tissues and organs.
Septic arthritis, also known as joint infection or infectious arthritis, is the invasion of a joint by an infectious agent resulting in joint inflammation.
Septic shock is a serious medical condition that occurs when sepsis, which is organ injury or damage in response to infection, leads to dangerously low blood pressure and abnormalities in cellular metabolism.
A sequon is a sequence of consecutive amino acids in a protein that can serve as the attachment site to a polysaccharide, frequently an N-linked-Glycan.
Sérgio A. Lira, is a Brazilian-born American immunologist who pioneered the use of genetic approaches to study the function of chemokines.
Serious Hazards of Transfusion (SHOT) is the United Kingdom's haemovigilance scheme.
A serotype or serovar is a distinct variation within a species of bacteria or virus or among immune cells of different individuals.
Serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade A (alpha-1 antiproteinase, antitrypsin), member 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SERPINA2 gene.
Setipiprant (INN) (developmental code names ACT-129968, KYTH-105) is an investigational drug developed for the treatment of asthma and scalp hair loss.
Severe cutaneous adverse reactions or SCARs are a group of potentially lethal adverse drug reactions that involve the skin and mucous membranes of various body openings such as the eyes, ears, and inside the nose, mouth, and lips.
Sex differences in human physiology are distinctions of physiological characteristics associated with either male or female humans.
Sexual dimorphism is the condition where the two sexes of the same species exhibit different characteristics beyond the differences in their sexual organs.
Sexual selection in birds concerns how birds have evolved a variety of mating behaviors, with the peacock tail being perhaps the most famous example of sexual selection and the Fisherian runaway.
Although spinal cord injury (SCI) often causes sexual dysfunction, many people with SCI are able to have satisfying sex lives.
SGEF (Src homology 3 domain-containing Guanine nucleotide Exchange Factor) is a 97 kDa protein involved in intracellular signalling networks. It functions as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for RhoG, a small G protein of the Rho family.
Shelterin (also called telosome) is a protein complex known to protect telomeres in many eukaryotes from DNA repair mechanisms, as well as regulate telomerase activity.
Shock is the state of low blood perfusion to tissues resulting in cellular injury and inadequate tissue function.
Ancher, Michael, "The Sick Girl", 1882, Statens Museum for Kunst. Sickness behavior is a coordinated set of adaptive behavioral changes that develop in ill individuals during the course of an infection.
Sideroblastic anemia or sideroachrestic anemia is a form of anemia in which the bone marrow produces ringed sideroblasts rather than healthy red blood cells (erythrocytes).
Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response.
The biological timeline of radiation poisoning describes the phenomenon where, following a dose of ionizing radiation, a person may have a period of apparent health, lasting for days or weeks, despite a terminal illness.
A silent stroke is a stroke that does not have any outward symptoms associated with stroke, and the patient is typically unaware they have suffered a stroke.
A simple columnar epithelium is a columnar epithelium that is uni-layered.
Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT, or less commonly, SPET) is a nuclear medicine tomographic imaging technique using gamma rays.
The skeleton is the body part that forms the supporting structure of an organism.
Protection from mechanical injury, chemical hazards, and bacterial invasion is provided by the skin because the epidermis is relatively thick and covered with keratin.
Skin window technique is used in immunology where the top layer of skin is scraped off making it possible to identify the immune response that would occur with a diminished physical barrier in the host, and observe mobilization of leukocytes.
Sleep in non-human animals refers to a behavioral and physiological state characterized by altered consciousness, reduced responsiveness to external stimuli, and homeostatic regulation.
Slit-Robo is the name of a cell signaling pathway with many diverse functions including axon guidance and angiogenesis.
"Snakehead" is the ninth episode of the second season of the American science fiction drama television series Fringe.
Snit's Revenge is a two-player board game developed and illustrated by Tom Wham.
Superoxide dismutase also known as superoxide dismutase 1 or SOD1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the SOD1 gene, located on chromosome 21.
Soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) is a type of helminth infection (helminthiasis) caused by different species of roundworms.
A somatic cell count (SCC) is a cell count of somatic cells in a fluid specimen, usually milk.
Somatic fusion, also called protoplast fusion, is a type of genetic modification in plants by which two distinct species of plants are fused together to form a new hybrid plant with the characteristics of both, a somatic hybrid.
Sorafenib (co-developed and co-marketed by Bayer and Onyx Pharmaceuticals as Nexavar), is a kinase inhibitor drug approved for the treatment of primary kidney cancer (advanced renal cell carcinoma), advanced primary liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma), and radioactive iodine resistant advanced thyroid carcinoma.
Soy allergy is a type of food allergy.
SP110 nuclear body protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SP110 gene.
Spent Potlining (SPL) is a waste material generated in the primary aluminium smelting industry.
Sperm chemotaxis is a form of sperm guidance, in which sperm cells (spermatozoa) follow a concentration gradient of a chemoattractant secreted from the oocyte and thereby reach the oocyte.
Sperm guidance is the process by which sperm cells (spermatozoa) are directed to the oocyte (egg) for the aim of fertilization.
Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulators are a class of drugs used as immunomodulators, most notably in cases of multiple sclerosis.
The spleen is an organ found in virtually all vertebrates.
A splenectomy is a surgical procedure that partially or completely removes the spleen.
A sprained ankle, also known as a twisted ankle or rolled ankle, is a common injury where sprain occurs on one or more ligaments of the ankle.
Sputum is mucus and is the name used for the coughed-up material (phlegm) from the lower airways (trachea and bronchi).
Staining is an auxiliary technique used in microscopy to enhance contrast in the microscopic image.
Staphylococcus aureus beta toxin is a toxin produced by Staphylococcus aureus.
STEMCELL Technologies Inc.
Stephen Lyon Crohn (September 5, 1946 – August 23, 2013) also known as "The man who can't catch AIDS", was a man notable for a genetic mutation, which caused him to be immune to AIDS.
The steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, commonly referred to as StAR (STARD1), is a transport protein that regulates cholesterol transfer within the mitochondria, which is the rate-limiting step in the production of steroid hormones.
Stimulus-triggered acquisition of pluripotency (also known as STAP) was a proposed method of generating pluripotent stem cells by subjecting ordinary cells to certain types of stress, such as the application of a bacterial toxin, submersion in a weak acid, or physical trauma.
The stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF1), also known as C-X-C motif chemokine 12 (CXCL12), is a chemokine protein that in humans is encoded by the CXCL12 gene on chromosome 10.
Strychnine (also or) is a highly toxic, colorless, bitter, crystalline alkaloid used as a pesticide, particularly for killing small vertebrates such as birds and rodents.
In biology, a subculture is a new cell or microbiological culture made by transferring some or all cells from a previous culture to fresh growth medium.
Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency (SSADHD), also known as 4-hydroxybutyric aciduria or gamma-hydroxybutyric aciduria, is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of the degradation pathway of the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA.
Sulfadimethoxine (or sulphadimethoxine, trade names Di-Methox or Albon) is a long-lasting sulfonamide antimicrobial medication used in veterinary medicine.
Sulfatide, also known as 3-O-sulfogalactosylceramide, SM4, or sulfated galactocerebroside, is a class of sulfolipids, specifically a class of sulfoglycolipids, which are glycolipids that contain a sulfate group.
Sulfur mustard, commonly known as mustard gas, is the prototypical substance of the sulfur-based family of cytotoxic and vesicant chemical warfare agents known as the sulfur mustards which have the ability to form large blisters on exposed skin and in the lungs.
suPAR, soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor, (NCBI Accession no. AAK31795) is the soluble form of uPAR.
Surfactant protein A1 (SP-A1), also known as Pulmonary surfactant-associated protein A1 (PSP-A) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SFTPA1 gene.
Surfactant protein A2 (SP-A2), also known as Pulmonary surfactant-associated protein A2 (PSP-A2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SFTPA2 gene.
Susumu Tonegawa (利根川 進 Tonegawa Susumu, born September 5, 1939) is a Japanese scientist who was the sole recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1987, for his discovery of the genetic mechanism that produces antibody diversity.
The Symbiotes (later revealed to be known as the Klyntar) are a fictional race of amorphous extraterrestrial symbiotes appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics.
Syncytiotrophoblast (from the Greek 'syn'- "together"; 'cytio'- "of cells"; 'tropho'- "nutrition"; 'blast'- "bud") is the epithelial covering of the highly vascular embryonic placental villi, which invades the wall of the uterus to establish nutrient circulation between the embryo and the mother.
A syncytium or symplasm (plural syncytia; from Greek: σύν (syn).
Synovial fluid, also called synovia,help 1 is a viscous, non-Newtonian fluid found in the cavities of synovial joints.
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum.
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is an inflammatory state affecting the whole body.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), also known simply as lupus, is an autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue in many parts of the body.
A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity.
T cell deficiency is a deficiency of T cells, caused by decreased function of individual T cells, it causes an immunodeficiency of cell-mediated immunity.
T-2 Mycotoxin (pronounced as 'Tee-Two') is a trichothecene mycotoxin.
T-lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (WHO 2008), previously labeled precursor T-lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (WHO 2001) and also known as precursor T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma and precursor T acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma is a form of lymphoid leukemia and lymphoma in which too many T-cell lymphoblasts (immature white blood cells) are found in the blood, bone marrow, and tissues, particularly mediastinal lymph nodes.
T-SPOT.TB is a type of ELISPOT assay used for tuberculosis diagnosis, which belongs to the group of interferon gamma release assays.
Trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) is a trace amine-associated receptor (TAAR) protein that in humans is encoded by the TAAR1 gene.
Trace amine-associated receptor 2 (TAAR2), formerly known as G protein-coupled receptor 58 (GPR58), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TAAR2 gene.
In molecular biology, this protein domain, TACI-CRD2 represents the second cysteine-rich protein domain found in the TACI family of proteins.
Tasty Planet is a top-down video game published by Dingo Games in 2006.
Tay–Sachs disease is a genetic disorder that results in the destruction of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord.
Technetium (99mTc) exametazime is a radiopharmaceutical sold under the trade name Ceretec, and is used by nuclear medicine physicians for the detection of altered regional cerebral perfusion in stroke and other cerebrovascular diseases.
A telomere is a region of repetitive nucleotide sequences at each end of a chromosome, which protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration or from fusion with neighboring chromosomes.
TEMPI Syndrome is a novel orphan disease where the person share five characteristics from which the acronym is derived: telangiectasias, elevated erythropoietin and erythrocytosis, monoclonal gammopathy, perinephric fluid collection, and intrapulmonary shunting.
Terbinafine, sold under the brand name Lamisil among others, is an antifungal medication used to treat ringworm, pityriasis versicolor, and fungal nail infections.
The Terminologia Histologica (TH) is a controlled vocabulary for use in cytology and histology.
Tetanus vaccine, also known as tetanus toxoid (TT), is an inactive vaccine used to prevent tetanus.
Tetratricopeptide repeat domain 16 (TTC16) is an uncharacterized protein that in humans is encoded by the gene TTC16. Another alias for this gene is TPR repeat protein 16, but this is not commonly used.
Transforming growth factor beta 1 or TGF-β1 is a polypeptide member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily of cytokines.
The Inner Life of the Cell is an 8.5-minute 3D computer graphics animation illustrating the molecular mechanisms that occur when a white blood cell in the blood vessels of the human body is activated by inflammation (Leukocyte extravasation).
The Narrative of John Smith (2011) is a novel written in 1883 by Arthur Conan Doyle, published posthumously by The British Library.
Theileria parva is a species of parasites, named in honour of Arnold Theiler, that causes East Coast fever (theileriosis) in cattle, a costly disease in Africa.
Therapy (often abbreviated tx, Tx, or Tx) is the attempted remediation of a health problem, usually following a diagnosis.
Thiamazole, also known as methimazole, is an antithyroid drug, and part of the thioamide group.
Thomas Graf (born 28. September 1944) is a biologist at the Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG) in Barcelona, Spain.
Thoracentesis, also known as thoracocentesis (from the Greek θώραξ thōrax "chest, thorax"—GEN thōrakos—and κέντησις kentēsis "pricking, puncture") or pleural tap (from the Greek πλευρά pleura or πλευρόν pleuron "side, rib"), is an invasive procedure to remove fluid or air from the pleural space for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.
Thrombocytopenia is a condition characterized by abnormally low levels of thrombocytes, also known as platelets, in the blood.
This is a timeline of leukemia, describing especially major discoveries and advances in treatment against the disease.
Tissue factor, also called platelet tissue factor, factor III, or CD142 is a protein encoded by the F3 gene, present in subendothelial tissue and leukocytes.
Toll-like receptor 2 also known as TLR2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TLR2 gene.
Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) also known as CD283 (cluster of differentiation 283) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TLR3 gene.
Toll-like receptor 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TLR4 gene.
Toll-like receptor 8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TLR8 gene.
The tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRSF) is a protein superfamily of cytokine receptors characterized by the ability to bind tumor necrosis factors (TNFs) via an extracellular cysteine-rich domain.
Tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 12 also known as TNF-related weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TNFSF12 gene.
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a class of proteins that play a key role in the innate immune system.
The human palatine tonsils (PT) are covered by stratified squamous epithelium that extends into deep and partly branched tonsillar crypts, of which there are about 10 to 30.
Tonsillitis is inflammation of the tonsils, typically of rapid onset.
Toxic megacolon (megacolon toxicum) is an acute form of colonic distension.
Toxoplasma chorioretinitis, more simply known as ocular toxoplasmosis, is probably the most common cause of infections in the back of the eye (posterior segment) worldwide.
Tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) is an isoenzyme of tryptophan hydroxylase which in humans is encoded by the TPH1 gene.
Trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs), sometimes referred to as trace amine receptors (TAs or TARs), are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that were discovered in 2001.
TRAF3-interacting JNK-activating modulator is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TRAF3IP3 gene.
Transfer factors are essentially small immune messenger molecules that are produced by all higher organisms.
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a multifunctional cytokine belonging to the transforming growth factor superfamily that includes four different isoforms (TGF-β 1 to 4, HGNC symbols TGFB1, TGFB2, TGFB3, TGFB4) and many other signaling proteins produced by all white blood cell lineages.
Transplant rejection occurs when transplanted tissue is rejected by the recipient's immune system, which destroys the transplanted tissue.
The treatment of equine lameness is a complex subject.
Trichophyton tonsurans is a fungus in the family Arthrodermataceae that causes ringworm infection of the scalp.
Trimethoprim (TMP) is an antibiotic used mainly in the treatment of bladder infections.
Trogocytosis (trogo; gnaw) is a process whereby lymphocytes (B, T and NK cells) conjugated to antigen-presenting cells extract surface molecules from these cells and express them on their own surface.
Troxipide is a drug used in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease.
Transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 2, also known as TRPM2, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TRPM2 gene.
Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TRPV2 gene.
Tularemia, also known as rabbit fever, is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis.
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF, tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNFα, cachexin, or cachectin) is a cell signaling protein (cytokine) involved in systemic inflammation and is one of the cytokines that make up the acute phase reaction.
Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes are white blood cells that have left the bloodstream and migrated toward tumor.
Used in hematology, Türk's solution is a composed of a stain (gentian violet) and 1-2% acetic acid.
Type III hypersensitivity occurs when there is accumulation of immune complexes (antigen-antibody complexes) that have not been adequately cleared by innate immune cells, giving rise to an inflammatory response and attraction of leukocytes.
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a long-term condition that results in inflammation and ulcers of the colon and rectum.
Uranium trioxide (UO3), also called uranyl oxide, uranium(VI) oxide, and uranic oxide, is the hexavalent oxide of uranium.
Many urban legends and misconceptions about drugs have been created and circulated among young people and the general public, with varying degrees of veracity.
Uremic pericarditis is a form of pericarditis.
Urethral syndrome is characterised by a set of symptoms typically associated with lower urinary tract infection, such as painful urination (dysuria) and frequency.
A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that affects part of the urinary tract.
A urine test strip or dipstick test is a basic diagnostic tool used to determine pathological changes in a patient’s urine in standard urinalysis.
Uropods are posterior appendages found on a wide variety of crustaceans.
Uropods, in immunology, refer to the hind part of polarized cells during cell migration that stabilize and move the cell.
Uveal melanoma is a cancer (melanoma) of the eye involving the iris, ciliary body, or choroid (collectively referred to as the uvea).
Uveitis is the inflammation of the uvea, the pigmented layer that lies between the inner retina and the outer fibrous layer composed of the sclera and cornea.
The vaginal epithelium is the aglandular inner lining of the vagina consisting of multiple layers of (squamous) cells.
A vaginal wet mount (or vaginal smear or wet prep) is a gynecologic test wherein a sample of vaginal discharge is observed by wet mount microscopy by placing the specimen on a glass slide and mixing with a salt solution.
Vasculitis is a group of disorders that destroy blood vessels by inflammation.
A venous thrombus is a blood clot (thrombus) that forms within a vein.
Venous ulcers (venous insufficiency ulceration, stasis ulcers, stasis dermatitis, varicose ulcers, or ulcus cruris) are wounds that are thought to occur due to improper functioning of venous valves, usually of the legs (hence leg ulcers).
A ventricular assist device (VAD) is an electromechanical device for assisting cardiac circulation, which is used either to partially or to completely replace the function of a failing heart.
Vera Mikhaĭlovna DanchakoffВера Михайловна Данчакова, also romanized as Danchakova, Dantchakoff and Wera Dantschakoff.
Vernolic acid (leukotoxin) is a long chain fatty acid that is monounsaturated and contains an epoxide.
Vertebral osteomyelitis (also termed spinal osteomyelitis, spondylodiskitis, or disk-space infection), is a type of osteomyelitis (which is infection and inflammation of the bone and bone marrow).
Victor Nizet, M.D. is a pediatric physician-scientist who as of 2013 was Professor of Pediatrics and Pharmacy at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) School of Medicine and Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences in La Jolla, California.
Vinblastine is a chemotherapy medication, typically used with other medications, to treat a number of types of cancer.
Vincristine, also known as leurocristine and marketed under the brandname Oncovin among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of types of cancer. This includes acute lymphocytic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, neuroblastoma, and small cell lung cancer among others. It is given intravenously. Most people experience some side effects from vincristine treatment. Commonly it causes a change in sensation, hair loss, constipation, difficulty walking, and headaches. Serious side effects may include neuropathic pain, lung damage, or low blood white cells. It will likely cause harm to the baby if given during pregnancy. It works by stopping cells from dividing properly. Vincristine was first isolated in 1961. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between 1.80 and 42.60 USD per dose. It is a vinca alkaloid that can be obtained from the Madagascar periwinkle Catharanthus roseus.
Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide receptor 1 also known as VPAC1, is a protein, that in humans is encoded by the VIPR1 gene.
A viral disease (or viral infection) occurs when an organism's body is invaded by pathogenic viruses, and infectious virus particles (virions) attach to and enter susceptible cells.
Viral meningitis, also known as aseptic meningitis, is a type of meningitis due to a viral infection.
Viral pathogenesis is the study of how biological viruses cause diseases in their target hosts, usually carried out at the cellular or molecular level.
Viral pneumonia is a pneumonia caused by a virus.
Viral transformation is the change in growth, phenotype, or indefinite reproduction of cells caused by the introduction of inheritable material.
Virology is the study of viruses – submicroscopic, parasitic particles of genetic material contained in a protein coat – and virus-like agents.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
Visna virus (also known as visna-maedi virus, maedi-visna virus and ovine lentivirus) from the genus Lentivirus and subfamily Orthoretrovirinae, is a "prototype" retrovirus that causes encephalitis and chronic pneumonitis in sheep.
V-domain Ig suppressor of T cell activation (VISTA) is a type I transmembrane protein that functions as an immune checkpoint and is encoded by the C10orf54 gene.
Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects.
Integrin α4β1 (Very Late Antigen-4) is an integrin dimer.
A vulnerable plaque is a kind of atheromatous plaque – a collection of white blood cells (primarily macrophages) and lipids (including cholesterol) in the wall of an artery – that is particularly unstable and prone to produce sudden major problems such as a heart attack or stroke.
Wacław Mayzel (September 12, 1847 – April 19, 1916) was a Polish histologist and the first person to describe mitosis.
Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM), also known as lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, is a type of cancer affecting two types of B cells, lymphoplasmacytoid cells and plasma cells.
Washed red blood cells are red blood cells which have had most of the plasma, platelets and white blood cells removed and replaced with an electrolyte solution.
WBC may stand for.
Weibel–Palade bodies are the storage granules of endothelial cells, the cells that form the inner lining of the blood vessels and heart.
Weissella is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria, placed within the family Leuconostocaceae, and formerly considered species of the Leuconostoc paramesenteroides group. The morphology of Weissella species varies from spherical or lenticular cells to irregular rods.
The West Nile virus quickly spread across the United States after the first reported cases in Queens, New York in 1999.
White cell can refer to.
Whole blood (WB) is human blood from a standard blood donation.
Wound healing is an intricate process in which the skin repairs itself after injury.
Wright's stain is a histologic stain that facilitates the differentiation of blood cell types.
Chemokine (C motif) ligand (XCL1) is a small cytokine belonging to the C chemokine family that is also known as lymphotactin.
Y chromosome microdeletion (YCM) is a family of genetic disorders caused by missing gene(s) in the Y chromosome.
is a song by Japanese rock band Radwimps, released on July 26, 2006, as the second of three singles from the band's fourth album, Radwimps 4: Okazu no Gohan.
Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.
Zaurategrast (CDP323) is a small-molecule prodrug antagonist of the vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) binding to α4-integrins.
Zheng Cui is a biochemist currently serving as an Associate Professor of Pathology (Tumor Biology) at Wake Forest University.
13-Hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (13-HODE) is the commonly used term for 13(S)-hydroxy-9Z,11E-octadecadienoic acid (13(S)-HODE).
15-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (also termed 15-HETE, 15(S)-HETE, and 15S-HETE) is an eicosanoid, i.e. a metabolite of arachidonic acid.
The Jilin chemical plant explosions were a series of explosions which occurred on November 13, 2005, in the No.101 Petrochemical Plant in Jilin City, Jilin Province, China, over the period of an hour.
The year 2011 involved many significant scientific events, including the first artificial organ transplant, the launch of China's first space station and the growth of the world population to seven billion.
The year 2012 involved many significant scientific events and discoveries, including the first orbital rendezvous by a commercial spacecraft, the discovery of a particle highly similar to the long-sought Higgs boson, and the near-eradication of guinea worm disease.
During late January 2012, a fake medicine crisis at the Punjab Institute of Cardiology (PIC) hospital in the Lahore region of Punjab, Pakistan, claimed the lives of over 100 heart patients.
Matthew and Grace Huang are an American couple who were wrongfully convicted by the judicial system of Qatar in March 2014 of neglecting their daughter (whom they had adopted), thus leading to her death.
A number of significant scientific events occurred in 2013, including the discovery of numerous Earthlike exoplanets, the development of viable lab-grown ears, teeth, livers and blood vessels, and the atmospheric entry of the most destructive meteor since 1908.
In October 2013, there was an outbreak of Zika fever in French Polynesia, the first outbreak of several Zika outbreaks across Oceania.
5-Oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid (i.e. 5-oxo-6E,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid; also termed 5-oxo-ETE and 5-oxoETE) is a Nonclassic eicosanoid metabolite of arachidonic acid and the most potent naturally occurring member of the 5-HETE family of cell signaling agents.
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