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Word (computer architecture)

Index Word (computer architecture)

In computing, a word is the natural unit of data used by a particular processor design. [1]

307 relations: Address bus, Addressing mode, Adler-32, Aliasing (computing), AmigaBASIC, AN/GYK-12, Apollo Guidance Computer, Arbitrary-precision arithmetic, ARINC 429, ARINC 708, Arithmetic logic unit, Array data structure, Asynchronous communication, Atlas (computer), Atlas Autocode, Autocoder, Avid DNxHD, B (programming language), Barrel shifter, BCD (character encoding), BCPL, Bendix G-15, BINAC, Binary data, Binary prefix, Binary-coded decimal, Bit, Bit array, Bit field, Bit manipulation, Bit slicing, Bit-length, Bit-level parallelism, Bit-serial architecture, Bitap algorithm, Bitmap, Bitwise operation, BLAKE (hash function), BMP file format, Boolean algebra, Boolean data type, Booting, Boyer–Moore majority vote algorithm, BRLESC, Bus (computing), Byte, Byte addressing, CAR and CDR, Carry flag, Cascaded integrator–comb filter, ..., Catena, CDC 1604, CDC Cyber, CDC STAR-100, Cell software development, Central processing unit, CER-10, Checksum, Colossal Cave Adventure, Comma-separated values, Commutation (telemetry), Comparison of cryptographic hash functions, Compatible Time-Sharing System, Computational chemistry, Computer, Computer algebra, Computer architecture, Computer data storage, Computer memory, Core rope memory, CP-823/U, Cray X-MP, Cray-1, Cray-2, Cray-3, Cray-4, Data General Nova, Data redundancy, Data type, DATANET-30, Datatron, De Bruijn sequence, DEC Alpha, Decimal computer, DECstation, Delay line memory, Digital recording, Digital signal (signal processing), Diode matrix, Direct memory access, DYSEAC, ECC memory, EDVAC, Emmy Noether, Endianness, ENIAC, Erlang (programming language), Executable and Linkable Format, False sharing, Fat binary, Ferranti Pegasus, Field specification, File Transfer Protocol, Find first set, Flash memory, Floating-point arithmetic, FM Towns, FUJIC, Fusion tree, GDDR5 SDRAM, Gerrit Blaauw, GF(2), Glossary of computer graphics, GNU Compiler Collection, GNU Multiple Precision Arithmetic Library, Goodyear MPP, GOST 10859, Grayscale, Harvard architecture, Harvard Mark III, Hash function, Hash table, HC-256, History of computing hardware, History of computing hardware (1960s–present), Hollerith constant, Honeywell 316, Honeywell 6000 series, Honeywell 800, Honeywell Level 6, HostLink Protocol, HP 35s, Hungarian notation, IBM 1130, IBM 1401, IBM 1410, IBM 1620, IBM 305 RAMAC, IBM 650, IBM 701, IBM 7030 Stretch, IBM 7080, IBM 7090, IBM AN/FSQ-31 SAC Data Processing System, IBM POWER microprocessors, IBM SSEC, IBM System/4 Pi, ICT 1301, IEC 61131-3, ILLIAC, ILLIAC IV, Instruction set architecture, Integer (computer science), Intel 4004, Interpreter (computing), IPv4, IPv6, ITU-R BT.656, Kw, Leading zero, Leading-one detector, Lexical analysis, LGM-30 Minuteman, LGP-30, Linear congruential generator, List of computer system emulators, List of computer term etymologies, List of ReBoot characters, Luleå algorithm, Macsyma, Magic number (programming), Magnetic-core memory, Manchester Baby, Manchester Mark 1, MANIAC II, Mary Lee Woods, Mask (computing), Memory address, Memory buffer register, Memory geometry, Memory organisation, Metrovick 950, Microcode, Microcontroller, Microprocessor, MISTRAM, MLAN, Motorola 56000, Motorola 68000 series, MUSASINO-1, NCR 315, ND812, Nibble, Numeral system, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, OCaml, Octal, ORACLE (computer), ORDVAC, Parallax Propeller, Parallel computing, PCI Express, PDP-10, PDP-11, PDP-6, PDP-8, PERQ, Pointer (computer programming), Power of two, Predecessor problem, Primitive data type, Priority queue, Program Segment Prefix, Project Gemini, Pseudorandom binary sequence, Ptrace, RAMDAC, RAYDAC, Read-only memory, Readability, Register file, Resource fork, RGB color model, Rotary encoder, Row hammer, S-algol, S/PDIF, SAPO (computer), SDS Sigma series, Selenia Gp-16, Semiconductor memory, Sequence container (C++), Serpent (cipher), SHA-3, Sigmaquad, Sign extension, Signal Word, SILLIAC, Six-bit character code, Sixth generation of video game consoles, Sizeof, Software synthesizer, Soviet integrated circuit designation, SPEEDAC, Stride of an array, String (computer science), Struct (C programming language), Swift (programming language), Syllable (computing), Synchronous dynamic random-access memory, Tagged architecture, Tagged pointer, TeX font metric, Text file, THE multiprogramming system, TI MSP430, Timeline of binary prefixes, Transdichotomous model, Transfer (computing), Transmission Control Protocol, TX-2, UNI/O, Union type, Units of information, UNIVAC, UNIVAC 1050, UNIVAC 1103, UNIVAC BP, UNIVAC I, UNIVAC LARC, Ural (computer), V850, Van Emde Boas tree, Variable-length code, Video game console, Viking program, Von Neumann architecture, Werner Buchholz, Windows Registry, Word (computer architecture), Word (disambiguation), Word clock, Word mark (computer hardware), Word RAM, Word-addressable, X + Y sorting, X86, XScale, Yamaha YM3812, Z25 (computer), Z3 (computer), Z4 (computer), ZX Spectrum graphic modes, .bss, 10,000, 12-bit, 24-bit, 3-Way, 32-bit, 36 (number), 36-bit, 42 (number), 48-bit, 60-bit, 64-bit computing, 65,536, 8b/10b encoding. Expand index (257 more) »

Address bus

An address bus is a computer bus (a series of lines connecting two or more devices) that is used to specify a physical address.

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Addressing mode

Addressing modes are an aspect of the instruction set architecture in most central processing unit (CPU) designs.

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Adler-32 is a checksum algorithm which was invented by Mark Adler in 1995, and is a modification of the Fletcher checksum.

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Aliasing (computing)

In computing, aliasing describes a situation in which a data location in memory can be accessed through different symbolic names in the program.

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AmigaBASIC was an interpreted BASIC programming language implementation for the Amiga, designed and written by Microsoft.

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The AN/GYK-12 is an obsolete 32-bit minicomputer developed by Litton Industries for the United States Army.

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Apollo Guidance Computer

The Apollo Guidance Computer (AGC) was a digital computer produced for the Apollo program that was installed on board each Apollo Command Module (CM) and Lunar Module (LM).

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Arbitrary-precision arithmetic

In computer science, arbitrary-precision arithmetic, also called bignum arithmetic, multiple-precision arithmetic, or sometimes infinite-precision arithmetic, indicates that calculations are performed on numbers whose digits of precision are limited only by the available memory of the host system.

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ARINC 429, "Mark33 Digital Information Transfer System (DITS)," is also known as the Aeronautical Radio INC.

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ARINC 708 is a specification for airborne pulse Doppler weather radar systems primarily found on commercial aircraft.

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Arithmetic logic unit

An arithmetic logic unit (ALU) is a combinational digital electronic circuit that performs arithmetic and bitwise operations on integer binary numbers.

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Array data structure

In computer science, an array data structure, or simply an array, is a data structure consisting of a collection of elements (values or variables), each identified by at least one array index or key.

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Asynchronous communication

In telecommunications, asynchronous communication is transmission of data, generally without the use of an external clock signal, where data can be transmitted intermittently rather than in a steady stream.

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Atlas (computer)

The Atlas Computer was a joint development between the University of Manchester, Ferranti, and Plessey.

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Atlas Autocode

Atlas Autocode (AA)R.A. Brooker and J.S. Rohl,, University of Manchester Computer Science Department, 1965.

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Autocoder was the name given to certain assemblers for a number of IBM computers of the 1950s and 1960s.

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Avid DNxHD

Avid DNxHD ("Digital Nonlinear Extensible High Definition") is a lossy high-definition video post-production codec developed by Avid for multi-generation compositing with reduced storage and bandwidth requirements.

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B (programming language)

B is a programming language developed at Bell Labs circa 1969.

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Barrel shifter

A barrel shifter is a digital circuit that can shift a data word by a specified number of bits without the use of any sequential logic, only pure combinational logic.

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BCD (character encoding)

BCD ("Binary-Coded Decimal"), also called alphanumeric BCD, alphameric BCD, BCD Interchange Code, or BCDIC, is a family of representations of numerals, uppercase Latin letters, and some special and control characters as six-bit character codes.

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BCPL ("Basic Combined Programming Language"; or 'Before C Programming Language' (a common humorous backronym)) is a procedural, imperative, and structured computer programming language.

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Bendix G-15

The Bendix G-15 computer was introduced in 1956 by the Bendix Corporation, Computer Division, Los Angeles, California.

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BINAC (Binary Automatic Computer) was an early electronic computer designed for Northrop Aircraft Company by the Eckert–Mauchly Computer Corporation (EMCC) in 1949.

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Binary data

Binary data is data whose unit can take on only two possible states, traditionally termed 0 and +1 in accordance with the binary numeral system and Boolean algebra.

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Binary prefix

A binary prefix is a unit prefix for multiples of units in data processing, data transmission, and digital information, notably the bit and the byte, to indicate multiplication by a power of 2.

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Binary-coded decimal

In computing and electronic systems, binary-coded decimal (BCD) is a class of binary encodings of decimal numbers where each decimal digit is represented by a fixed number of bits, usually four or eight.

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The bit (a portmanteau of binary digit) is a basic unit of information used in computing and digital communications.

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Bit array

A bit array (also known as bit map, bit set, bit string, or bit vector) is an array data structure that compactly stores bits.

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Bit field

A bit field is a data structure used in computer programming.

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Bit manipulation

Bit manipulation is the act of algorithmically manipulating bits or other pieces of data shorter than a word.

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Bit slicing

Bit slicing is a technique for constructing a processor from modules of processors of smaller bit width, for the purpose of increasing the word length; in theory to make an arbitrary n-bit CPU.

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Bit-length is the number of binary digits, called bits, necessary to represent an integer in the binary number system.

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Bit-level parallelism

Bit-level parallelism is a form of parallel computing based on increasing processor word size.

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Bit-serial architecture

In digital logic applications, bit-serial architectures send data one bit at a time, along a single wire, in contrast to bit-parallel word architectures, in which data values are sent all bits or a word at once along a group of wires.

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Bitap algorithm

The bitap algorithm (also known as the shift-or, shift-and or Baeza-Yates–Gonnet algorithm) is an approximate string matching algorithm.

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In computing, a bitmap is a mapping from some domain (for example, a range of integers) to bits.

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Bitwise operation

In digital computer programming, a bitwise operation operates on one or more bit patterns or binary numerals at the level of their individual bits.

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BLAKE (hash function)

BLAKE and BLAKE2 are cryptographic hash functions based on Dan Bernstein's ChaCha stream cipher, but a permuted copy of the input block, XORed with some round constants, is added before each ChaCha round.

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BMP file format

The BMP file format, also known as bitmap image file or device independent bitmap (DIB) file format or simply a bitmap, is a raster graphics image file format used to store bitmap digital images, independently of the display device (such as a graphics adapter), especially on Microsoft Windows and OS/2 operating systems.

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Boolean algebra

In mathematics and mathematical logic, Boolean algebra is the branch of algebra in which the values of the variables are the truth values true and false, usually denoted 1 and 0 respectively.

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Boolean data type

In computer science, the Boolean data type is a data type that has one of two possible values (usually denoted true and false), intended to represent the two truth values of logic and Boolean algebra.

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In computing, booting is starting up a computer or computer appliance until it can be used.

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Boyer–Moore majority vote algorithm

The Boyer–Moore majority vote algorithm is an algorithm for finding the majority of a sequence of elements using linear time and constant space.

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The BRLESC I (Ballistic Research Laboratories Electronic Scientific Computer) was a first-generation electronic computer built by the United States Army's Ballistic Research Laboratory (BRL) at Aberdeen Proving Ground with assistance from the National Bureau of Standards (now the National Institute of Standards and Technology), and was designed to take over the computational workload of EDVAC and ORDVAC, which themselves were successors of ENIAC.

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Bus (computing)

In computer architecture, a bus (a contraction of the Latin omnibus) is a communication system that transfers data between components inside a computer, or between computers.

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The byte is a unit of digital information that most commonly consists of eight bits, representing a binary number.

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Byte addressing

Byte addressing refers to hardware architectures which support accessing individual bytes of data rather than only larger units called words, which would be word-addressable.

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In computer programming, car and cdr are primitive operations on cons cells (or "non-atomic S-expressions") introduced in the Lisp programming language.

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Carry flag

In computer processors the carry flag (usually indicated as the C flag) is a single bit in a system status (flag) register used to indicate when an arithmetic carry or borrow has been generated out of the most significant ALU bit position.

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Cascaded integrator–comb filter

In digital signal processing, a cascaded integrator–comb (CIC) is an optimized class of finite impulse response (FIR) filter combined with an interpolator or decimator.

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The word catena (Latin for chain) or catenae (plural) may refer to.

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CDC 1604

The CDC 1604 was a 48-bit computer designed and manufactured by Seymour Cray and his team at the Control Data Corporation (CDC).

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CDC Cyber

The CDC Cyber range of mainframe-class supercomputers were the primary products of Control Data Corporation (CDC) during the 1970s and 1980s.

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The CDC STAR-100 is a vector supercomputer that was designed, manufactured, and marketed by Control Data Corporation (CDC).

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Cell software development

Software development for the Cell microprocessor involves a mixture of conventional development practices for the Power Architecture-compatible PPU core, and novel software development challenges with regard to the functionally reduced SPU coprocessors.

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Central processing unit

A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions.

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CER model 10 was a vacuum tube, transistor and electronic relay based computer developed at IBK-Vinča and the Mihajlo Pupin Institute (Belgrade) in 1960.

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A checksum is a small-sized datum derived from a block of digital data for the purpose of detecting errors which may have been introduced during its transmission or storage.

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Colossal Cave Adventure

Colossal Cave Adventure (also known as ADVENT, Colossal Cave, or Adventure) is a text adventure game, developed originally in 1976, by Will Crowther for the PDP-10 mainframe.

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Comma-separated values

In computing, a comma-separated values (CSV) file is a delimited text file that uses a comma to separate values.

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Commutation (telemetry)

Commutation is a processes whereby multiple data streams ("measurands"), possibly with differing data rates, are combined into a single frame-based stream for transmission, before being separated again (decommutated) upon reception; it is a form of time-division multiplexing.

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Comparison of cryptographic hash functions

The following tables compare general and technical information for a number of cryptographic hash functions.

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Compatible Time-Sharing System

The Compatible Time-Sharing System (CTSS), was one of the first time-sharing operating systems; it was developed at the MIT Computation Center.

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Computational chemistry

Computational chemistry is a branch of chemistry that uses computer simulation to assist in solving chemical problems.

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A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.

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Computer algebra

In computational mathematics, computer algebra, also called symbolic computation or algebraic computation, is a scientific area that refers to the study and development of algorithms and software for manipulating mathematical expressions and other mathematical objects.

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Computer architecture

In computer engineering, computer architecture is a set of rules and methods that describe the functionality, organization, and implementation of computer systems.

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Computer data storage

Computer data storage, often called storage or memory, is a technology consisting of computer components and recording media that are used to retain digital data.

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Computer memory

In computing, memory refers to the computer hardware integrated circuits that store information for immediate use in a computer; it is synonymous with the term "primary storage".

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Core rope memory

Core rope memory is a form of read-only memory (ROM) for computers, first used in the 1960s by early NASA Mars space probes and then in the Apollo Guidance Computer (AGC) designed and programmed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Instrumentation Lab and built by Raytheon.

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The CP-823/U, Univac 1830, was the first digital airborne 30-bit computing system.

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Cray X-MP

The Cray X-MP is a supercomputer designed, built and sold by Cray Research.

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The Cray-1 was a supercomputer designed, manufactured and marketed by Cray Research.

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The Cray-2 is a supercomputer with four vector processors made by Cray Research starting in 1985.

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The Cray-3 was a vector supercomputer, Seymour Cray's designated successor to the Cray-2.

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The Cray-4 was intended to be Cray Computer Corporation's successor to the failed Cray-3 supercomputer.

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Data General Nova

The Data General Nova is a series of 16-bit minicomputers released by the American company Data General.

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Data redundancy

In computer main memory, auxiliary storage and computer buses, data redundancy is the existence of data that is additional to the actual data and permits correction of errors in stored or transmitted data.

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Data type

In computer science and computer programming, a data type or simply type is a classification of data which tells the compiler or interpreter how the programmer intends to use the data.

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The DATANET-30 was a computer manufactured by General Electric designed in 1961-1963 to be used as a communications computer.

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The Datatron is an obsolete family of decimal vacuum tube computers developed by ElectroData Corporation and first shipped in 1954.

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De Bruijn sequence

In combinatorial mathematics, a de Bruijn sequence of order n on a size-k alphabet A is a cyclic sequence in which every possible length-n string on A occurs exactly once as a substring (i.e., as a contiguous subsequence).

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DEC Alpha

Alpha, originally known as Alpha AXP, is a 64-bit reduced instruction set computing (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) developed by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC), designed to replace their 32-bit VAX complex instruction set computer (CISC) ISA.

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Decimal computer

Decimal computers are computers which can represent numbers and addresses in decimal as well as providing instructions to operate on those numbers and addresses directly in decimal, without conversion to a pure binary representation.

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The DECstation was a brand of computers used by DEC, and refers to three distinct lines of computer systems—the first released in 1978 as a word processing system, and the latter (more widely known) two both released in 1989.

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Delay line memory

Delay line memory is a form of computer memory, now obsolete, that was used on some of the earliest digital computers.

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Digital recording

In digital recording, audio signals picked up by a microphone or other transducer or video signals picked up by a camera or similar device are converted into a stream of discrete numbers, representing the changes over time in air pressure for audio, and chroma and luminance values for video, then recorded to a storage device.

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Digital signal (signal processing)

In the context of digital signal processing (DSP), a digital signal is a discrete-time signal for which not only the time but also the amplitude has discrete values; in other words, its samples take on only values from a discrete set (a countable set that can be mapped one-to-one to a subset of integers).

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Diode matrix

A diode matrix is a two-dimensional grid of wires: each "intersection" wherein one row crosses over another has either a diode connecting them, or the wires are isolated from each other.

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Direct memory access

Direct memory access (DMA) is a feature of computer systems that allows certain hardware subsystems to access main system memory (Random-access memory), independent of the central processing unit (CPU).

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DYSEAC was the second Standards Electronic Automatic Computer.

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ECC memory

Error-correcting code memory (ECC memory) is a type of computer data storage that can detect and correct the most common kinds of internal data corruption.

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EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer) was one of the earliest electronic computers.

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Emmy Noether

Amalie Emmy NoetherEmmy is the Rufname, the second of two official given names, intended for daily use.

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Endianness refers to the sequential order in which bytes are arranged into larger numerical values when stored in memory or when transmitted over digital links.

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ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) was amongst the earliest electronic general-purpose computers made.

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Erlang (programming language)

Erlang is a general-purpose, concurrent, functional programming language, as well as a garbage-collected runtime system.

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Executable and Linkable Format

In computing, the Executable and Linkable Format (ELF, formerly named Extensible Linking Format), is a common standard file format for executable files, object code, shared libraries, and core dumps.

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False sharing

In computer science, false sharing is a performance-degrading usage pattern that can arise in systems with distributed, coherent caches at the size of the smallest resource block managed by the caching mechanism.

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Fat binary

A fat binary (or multiarchitecture binary) is a computer executable program which has been expanded (or "fattened") with code native to multiple instruction sets which can consequently be run on multiple processor types.

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Ferranti Pegasus

Pegasus was an early vacuum tube (valve) computer built by Ferranti, Ltd of Great Britain.

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Field specification

A field specification or fspec defines a portion of a word in some programming language.

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File Transfer Protocol

The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard network protocol used for the transfer of computer files between a client and server on a computer network.

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Find first set

In software, find first set (ffs) or find first one is a bit operation that, given an unsigned machine word, identifies the least significant index or position of the bit set to one in the word.

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Flash memory

Flash memory is an electronic (solid-state) non-volatile computer storage medium that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed.

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Floating-point arithmetic

In computing, floating-point arithmetic is arithmetic using formulaic representation of real numbers as an approximation so as to support a trade-off between range and precision.

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FM Towns

system is a Japanese PC variant, built by Fujitsu from February 1989 to the summer of 1997.

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FUJIC was the first electronic digital computer in operation in Japan.

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Fusion tree

In computer science, a fusion tree is a type of tree data structure that implements an associative array on -bit integers.

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GDDR5, an abbreviation for double data rate type five synchronous graphics random-access memory, is a modern type of synchronous graphics random-access memory (SGRAM) with a high bandwidth ("double data rate") interface designed for use in graphics cards, game consoles, and high-performance computation.

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Gerrit Blaauw

Gerrit Anne (Gerry) Blaauw (July 17, 1924 - March 21, 2018) was a Dutch computer scientist, known as one of the principal designers of the IBM System/360 line of computers, together with Fred Brooks, Gene Amdahl, and others.

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GF(2) (also F2, Z/2Z or Z2) is the '''G'''alois '''f'''ield of two elements.

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Glossary of computer graphics

This is a glossary of terms relating computer graphics.

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GNU Compiler Collection

The GNU Compiler Collection (GCC) is a compiler system produced by the GNU Project supporting various programming languages.

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GNU Multiple Precision Arithmetic Library

GNU Multiple Precision Arithmetic Library (GMP) is a free library for arbitrary-precision arithmetic, operating on signed integers, rational numbers, and floating point numbers.

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Goodyear MPP

The Goodyear Massively Parallel Processor (MPP) was a massively parallel processing supercomputer built by Goodyear Aerospace for the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

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GOST 10859

GOST 10859 (1964) is a standard of the Soviet Union which defined how to encode data on punched cards.

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In photography, computing, and colorimetry, a grayscale or greyscale image is one in which the value of each pixel is a single sample representing only an amount of light, that is, it carries only intensity information.

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Harvard architecture

The Harvard architecture is a computer architecture with physically separate storage and signal pathways for instructions and data.

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Harvard Mark III

The Harvard Mark III, also known as ADEC (for Aiken Dahlgren Electronic Calculator) was an early computer that was partially electronic and partially electromechanical.

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Hash function

A hash function is any function that can be used to map data of arbitrary size to data of a fixed size.

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Hash table

In computing, a hash table (hash map) is a data structure that implements an associative array abstract data type, a structure that can map keys to values.

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HC-256 is a stream cipher designed to provide bulk encryption in software at high speeds while permitting strong confidence in its security.

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History of computing hardware

The history of computing hardware covers the developments from early simple devices to aid calculation to modern day computers.

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History of computing hardware (1960s–present)

The history of computing hardware starting at 1960 is marked by the conversion from vacuum tube to solid-state devices such as the transistor and later the integrated circuit.

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Hollerith constant

Hollerith constants, named in honor of Herman Hollerith, were used in early FORTRAN programs to allow manipulation of character data.

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Honeywell 316

The Honeywell 316 was a popular 16-bit minicomputer built by Honeywell starting in 1969.

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Honeywell 6000 series

The Honeywell 6000 series computers were rebadged versions of General Electric's 600-series mainframes manufactured by Honeywell International, Inc. from 1970 to 1989.

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Honeywell 800

The Datamatic Division of Honeywell announced the H-800 electronic computer in 1958.

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Honeywell Level 6

The Honeywell Level 6 was a line of 16-bit minicomputers, later upgraded to 32-bits, manufactured by Honeywell, Inc. from the mid 1970s.

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HostLink Protocol

HostLink is communication protocol for use with or between PLC's made by Omron.

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HP 35s

The HP 35s (F2215A) is the latest in Hewlett-Packard's long line of non-graphing programmable scientific calculators.

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Hungarian notation

Hungarian notation is an identifier naming convention in computer programming, in which the name of a variable or function indicates its intention or kind, and in some dialects its type.

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IBM 1130

The IBM 1130 Computing System, introduced in 1965, was IBM's least expensive computer at that time.

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IBM 1401

The IBM 1401 is a variable wordlength decimal computer that was announced by IBM on October 5, 1959.

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IBM 1410

The IBM 1410, a member of the IBM 1400 series, was a variable wordlength decimal computer that was announced by IBM on September 12, 1960 and marketed as a midrange "Business Computer".

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IBM 1620

The IBM 1620 was announced by IBM on October 21, 1959, and marketed as an inexpensive "scientific computer".

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The IBM 305 RAMAC was the first commercial computer that used a moving-head hard disk drive (magnetic disk storage) for secondary storage.

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IBM 650

The IBM 650 Magnetic Drum Data-Processing Machine is one of IBM's early computers, and the world’s first mass-produced computer.

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IBM 701

The IBM 701 Electronic Data Processing Machine, known as the Defense Calculator while in development, was IBM’s first commercial scientific computer, which was announced to the public on April 29, 1952.

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IBM 7030 Stretch

The IBM 7030, also known as Stretch, was IBM's first transistorized supercomputer.

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IBM 7080

The IBM 7080 was a variable word length BCD transistor computer in the IBM 700/7000 series commercial architecture line, introduced in August 1961, that provided an upgrade path from the vacuum tube IBM 705 computer.

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IBM 7090

The IBM 7090 is a second-generation transistorized version of the earlier IBM 709 vacuum tube mainframe computers that was designed for "large-scale scientific and technological applications".

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IBM AN/FSQ-31 SAC Data Processing System

The IBM AN/FSQ-31 SAC Data Processing System (FSQ-31, Q-31, colloq.) was a USAF command, control, and coordination system for the Cold War Strategic Air Command (SAC).

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IBM POWER microprocessors

IBM has a series of high performance microprocessors called POWER followed by a number designating generation, i.e. POWER1, POWER2, POWER3 and so forth up to the latest POWER9.

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The IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC) was an electromechanical computer built by IBM.

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IBM System/4 Pi

The IBM System/4 Pi is a family of avionics computers used, in various versions, on the F-15 Eagle fighter, E-3 Sentry, AWACS, Harpoon Missile, NASA's Skylab, MOL, and the Space Shuttle, as well as other aircraft.

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ICT 1301

The ICT 1301 and its smaller derivative ICT 1300 were early business computers from International Computers and Tabulators.

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IEC 61131-3

IEC 61131-3 is the third part (of 10) of the open international standard IEC 61131 for programmable logic controllers, and was first published in December 1993 by the IEC.

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ILLIAC (Illinois Automatic Computer) was a series of supercomputers built at a variety of locations, some at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

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The ILLIAC IV was the first massively parallel computer.

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Instruction set architecture

An instruction set architecture (ISA) is an abstract model of a computer.

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Integer (computer science)

In computer science, an integer is a datum of integral data type, a data type that represents some range of mathematical integers.

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Intel 4004

The Intel 4004 is a 4-bit central processing unit (CPU) released by Intel Corporation in 1971.

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Interpreter (computing)

In computer science, an interpreter is a computer program that directly executes, i.e. performs, instructions written in a programming or scripting language, without requiring them previously to have been compiled into a machine language program.

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Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) is the fourth version of the Internet Protocol (IP).

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Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is the most recent version of the Internet Protocol (IP), the communications protocol that provides an identification and location system for computers on networks and routes traffic across the Internet.

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ITU-R BT.656

ITU-R Recommendation BT.656, sometimes also called ITU656, describes a simple digital video protocol for streaming uncompressed PAL or NTSC Standard Definition TV (525 or 625 lines) signals.

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kw or KW may refer to.

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Leading zero

A leading zero is any 0 digit that comes before the first nonzero digit in a number string in positional notation.

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Leading-one detector

A leading-one detector is an electronic circuit commonly found in central processing units and especially their arithmetic logic units (ALUs).

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Lexical analysis

In computer science, lexical analysis, lexing or tokenization is the process of converting a sequence of characters (such as in a computer program or web page) into a sequence of tokens (strings with an assigned and thus identified meaning).

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LGM-30 Minuteman

The LGM-30 Minuteman is a U.S. land-based intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM), in service with the Air Force Global Strike Command.

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The LGP-30, standing for Librascope General Purpose and then Librascope General Precision, was an early off-the-shelf computer.

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Linear congruential generator

A linear congruential generator (LCG) is an algorithm that yields a sequence of pseudo-randomized numbers calculated with a discontinuous piecewise linear equation.

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List of computer system emulators

This article lists software and hardware that emulates computing platforms.

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List of computer term etymologies

This is a list of the origins of computer-related terms or terms used in the computing world (i.e., a list of computer term etymologies).

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List of ReBoot characters

This is a list of characters from the animated television series ReBoot.

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Luleå algorithm

The Luleå algorithm of computer science, designed by, is a technique for storing and searching internet routing tables efficiently.

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Macsyma (Project MAC’s SYmbolic MAnipulator) is one of the oldest general purpose computer algebra systems which is still widely used.

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Magic number (programming)

In computer programming, the term magic number has multiple meanings.

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Magnetic-core memory

Magnetic-core memory was the predominant form of random-access computer memory for 20 years between about 1955 and 1975.

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Manchester Baby

The Manchester Baby, also known as the Small-Scale Experimental Machine (SSEM), was the world's first stored-program computer.

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Manchester Mark 1

The Manchester Mark 1 was one of the earliest stored-program computers, developed at the Victoria University of Manchester from the Manchester Baby (operational in June 1948).

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The MANIAC II (Mathematical Analyzer Numerical Integrator and Computer Model II) was a first-generation electronic computer, built in 1957 for use at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory.

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Mary Lee Woods

Mary Lee Woods (12 March 1924 – 29 November 2017) was an English mathematician and computer programmer who worked in a team that developed programs in the School of Computer Science, University of Manchester Mark 1, Ferranti Mark 1 and Mark 1 Star computers.

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Mask (computing)

In computer science, a mask is data that is used for bitwise operations, particularly in a bit field.

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Memory address

In computing, a memory address is a reference to a specific memory location used at various levels by software and hardware.

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Memory buffer register

A memory buffer register (MBR) or memory data register (MDR) is the register in a computer's processor, or central processing unit, CPU, that stores the data being transferred to and from the immediate access storage.

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Memory geometry

In the design of modern computers, memory geometry describes the internal structure of random-access memory.

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Memory organisation

There are several ways to organise memories with respect to the way they are connected to the cache.

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Metrovick 950

The Metrovick 950 was a transistorized computer, built from 1956 onwards by British company Metropolitan-Vickers, to the extent of sixDavid P. Anderson, Tom Kilburn: A Pioneer of Computer Design, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing - Volume 31, Number 2, April–June 2009, p. 84 or seven machines, which were "used commercially within the company" or "mainly for internal use".

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Microcode is a computer hardware technique that imposes an interpreter between the CPU hardware and the programmer-visible instruction set architecture of the computer.

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A microcontroller (MCU for microcontroller unit, or UC for μ-controller) is a small computer on a single integrated circuit.

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A microprocessor is a computer processor that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit on a single integrated circuit (IC), or at most a few integrated circuits.

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MISTRAM (MISsile TRAjectory Measurement) was a high-resolution tracking system used by the United States Air Force (and later NASA) to provide highly detailed trajectory analysis of rocket launches.

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mLAN, short for Music Local Area Network, is a transport level protocol for synchronized transmission and management of multi-channel digital audio, video, control signals and multi-port MIDI over a network.

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Motorola 56000

The Motorola DSP56000 (also known as 56K) is a family of digital signal processor (DSP) chips produced by Motorola Semiconductor (later known as Freescale Semiconductor, now acquired by NXP) starting in 1986 and is still being produced in more advanced models in the 2010s.

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Motorola 68000 series

The Motorola 68000 series (also termed 680x0, m68000, m68k, or 68k) is a family of 32-bit CISC microprocessors.

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The MUSASINO-1 was one of the earliest electronic digital computers built in Japan.

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NCR 315

The NCR 315 Data Processing System, released in January 1962 by NCR, is an obsolete second-generation computer.

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The 12-bit ND812, produced by Nuclear Data, Inc., was a commercial minicomputer developed for the scientific computing market.

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In computing, a nibble (occasionally nybble or nyble to match the spelling of byte) is a four-bit aggregation, or half an octet.

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Numeral system

A numeral system (or system of numeration) is a writing system for expressing numbers; that is, a mathematical notation for representing numbers of a given set, using digits or other symbols in a consistent manner.

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Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is an American multiprogram science and technology national laboratory sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and administered, managed, and operated by UT-Battelle as a federally funded research and development center (FFRDC) under a contract with the DOE.

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OCaml, originally named Objective Caml, is the main implementation of the programming language Caml, created by Xavier Leroy, Jérôme Vouillon, Damien Doligez, Didier Rémy, Ascánder Suárez and others in 1996.

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The octal numeral system, or oct for short, is the base-8 number system, and uses the digits 0 to 7.

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ORACLE (computer)

The ORACLE or Oak Ridge Automatic Computer and Logical Engine, an early computer built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, was based on the IAS architecture developed by John von Neumann.

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The ORDVAC or Ordnance Discrete Variable Automatic Computer, an early computer built by the University of Illinois for the Ballistic Research Laboratory at Aberdeen Proving Ground, was based on the IAS architecture developed by John von Neumann, which came to be known as the von Neumann architecture.

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Parallax Propeller

The Parallax P8X32A Propeller is a multi-core processor parallel computer architecture microcontroller chip with eight 32-bit reduced instruction set computer (RISC) central processing unit (CPU) cores.

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Parallel computing

Parallel computing is a type of computation in which many calculations or the execution of processes are carried out concurrently.

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PCI Express

PCI Express (Peripheral Component Interconnect Express), officially abbreviated as PCIe or PCI-e, is a high-speed serial computer expansion bus standard, designed to replace the older PCI, PCI-X, and AGP bus standards.

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The PDP-10 is a mainframe computer family manufactured by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) from 1966 into the 1980s.

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The PDP-11 is a series of 16-bit minicomputers sold by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) from 1970 into the 1990s, one of a succession of products in the PDP series.

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The PDP-6 (Programmed Data Processor-6) was a computer model developed by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) in 1963.

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The PDP-8 was a 12-bit minicomputer produced by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC).

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The PERQ, also referred to as the Three Rivers PERQ or ICL PERQ, was a pioneering workstation computer produced in the late 1970s through the early 1980s.

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Pointer (computer programming)

In computer science, a pointer is a programming language object that stores the memory address of another value located in computer memory.

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Power of two

In mathematics, a power of two is a number of the form where is an integer, i.e. the result of exponentiation with number two as the base and integer as the exponent.

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Predecessor problem

In computer science, the predecessor problem involves maintaining a set of items to, given an element, efficiently query which element precedes or succeeds that element in an order.

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Primitive data type

In computer science, primitive data type is either of the following.

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Priority queue

In computer science, a priority queue is an abstract data type which is like a regular queue or stack data structure, but where additionally each element has a "priority" associated with it.

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Program Segment Prefix

The Program Segment Prefix (PSP) is a data structure used in DOS systems to store the state of a program.

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Project Gemini

Project Gemini was NASA's second human spaceflight program.

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Pseudorandom binary sequence

A pseudorandom binary sequence (PRBS) is a binary sequence that, while generated with a deterministic algorithm, is difficult to predict and exhibits statistical behavior similar to a truly random sequence.

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ptrace is a system call found in Unix and several Unix-like operating systems.

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A random-access memory digital-to-analog converter (RAMDAC) is a combination of three fast digital-to-analog converters (DACs) with a small static random-access memory (SRAM) used in computer graphics display controllers to store the color palette and to generate the analog signals (usually a voltage amplitude) to drive a color monitor.

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The RAYDAC (for Raytheon Digital Automatic Computer) was a one-of-a-kind computer built by Raytheon.

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Read-only memory

Read-only memory (ROM) is a type of non-volatile memory used in computers and other electronic devices.

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Readability is the ease with which a reader can understand a written text.

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Register file

A register file is an array of processor registers in a central processing unit (CPU).

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Resource fork

The resource fork is a fork or section of a file on Apple's classic Mac OS operating system, which was also carried over to the modern macOS for compatibility, used to store structured data along with the unstructured data stored within the data fork.

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RGB color model

The RGB color model is an additive color model in which red, green and blue light are added together in various ways to reproduce a broad array of colors.

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Rotary encoder

A rotary encoder, also called a shaft encoder, is an electro-mechanical device that converts the angular position or motion of a shaft or axle to analog or digital output signals.

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Row hammer

Row hammer (also written as rowhammer) is an unintended side effect in dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) that causes memory cells to leak their charges and interact electrically between themselves, possibly leaking the contents of nearby memory rows that were not addressed in the original memory access.

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S-algol (St Andrews Algol) is a computer programming language derivative of ALGOL 60 developed at the University of St Andrews in 1979 by Ron Morrison and Tony Davie.

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S/PDIF (Sony/Philips Digital Interface) is a type of digital audio interconnect used in consumer audio equipment to output audio over reasonably short distances.

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SAPO (computer)

The SAPO (short for Samočinný počítač, “automatic computer”) was the first Czechoslovak computer.

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SDS Sigma series

The SDS Sigma series is a series of computers that were introduced by Scientific Data Systems in 1966.

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Selenia Gp-16

The Selenia Gp-16 was a general purpose minicomputer designed by the Italian company Selenia of STET group.

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Semiconductor memory

Semiconductor memory is a digital electronic data storage device, often used as computer memory, implemented with semiconductor electronic devices on an integrated circuit (IC).

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Sequence container (C++)

In computing, sequence containers refer to a group of container class templates in the standard library of the C++ programming language that implement storage of data elements.

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Serpent (cipher)

Serpent is a symmetric key block cipher that was a finalist in the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) contest, where it was ranked second to Rijndael.

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SHA-3 (Secure Hash Algorithm 3) is the latest member of the Secure Hash Algorithm family of standards, released by NIST on August 5, 2015.

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SigmaQuad - Quad Data Rate SRAM is a type of static RAM computer memory that can transfer up to four words of data in each clock cycle.

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Sign extension

Sign extension is the operation, in computer arithmetic, of increasing the number of bits of a binary number while preserving the number's sign (positive/negative) and value.

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Signal Word

Signal word may refer to.

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The SILLIAC (Sydney version of the '''Ill'''inois '''A'''utomatic '''C'''omputer, i.e. the Sydney ILLIAC), an early computer built by the University of Sydney, Australia, was based on the ILLIAC and ORDVAC computers developed at the University of Illinois, which in turn were based on the IAS architecture developed by John von Neumann.

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Six-bit character code

A six-bit character code is a character encoding designed for use on computers with word lengths a multiple of 6.

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Sixth generation of video game consoles

In the history of video games, the sixth-generation era (sometimes referred to as the 128-bit era; see "Bits and system power" below) refers to the computer and video games, video game consoles, and video game handhelds available at the turn of the 21st century which was from 1998 to 2005.

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In the programming languages C and C++, the unary operator sizeof generates the size of a variable or datatype, measured in the number of char-sized storage units required for the type.

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Software synthesizer

A software synthesizer, also known as a softsynth, is a computer program, or plug-in that generates digital audio, usually for music.

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Soviet integrated circuit designation

This article describes the nomenclature for integrated circuits manufactured in the Soviet Union.

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SPEEDAC, the SPErry Electronic Digital Automatic Computer, was an early digital computer built by Sperry Corporation in 1953.

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Stride of an array

In computer programming, the stride of an array (also referred to as increment, pitch or step size) is the number of locations in memory between beginnings of successive array elements, measured in bytes or in units of the size of the array's elements.

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String (computer science)

In computer programming, a string is traditionally a sequence of characters, either as a literal constant or as some kind of variable.

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Struct (C programming language)

A struct in the C programming language (and many derivatives) is a composite data type (or record) declaration that defines a physically grouped list of variables to be placed under one name in a block of memory, allowing the different variables to be accessed via a single pointer, or the struct declared name which returns the same address.

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Swift (programming language)

Swift is a general-purpose, multi-paradigm, compiled programming language developed by Apple Inc. for iOS, macOS, watchOS, tvOS, and Linux.

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Syllable (computing)

In computing, a syllable is a name for a platform-dependent unit of information storage.

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Synchronous dynamic random-access memory

Synchronous dynamic random-access memory (SDRAM) is any dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) where the operation of its external pin interface is coordinated by an externally supplied clock signal.

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Tagged architecture

In computer science, a tagged architecture is a particular type of computer architecture where every word of memory constitutes a tagged union, being divided into a number of bits of data, and a tag section that describes the type of the data: how it is to be interpreted, and, if it is a reference, the type of the object that it points to.

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Tagged pointer

In computer science, a tagged pointer is a pointer (concretely a memory address) with additional data associated with it, such as an indirection bit or reference count.

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TeX font metric

TeX font metric (TFM) is a font file format used by the TeX typesetting system.

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Text file

A text file (sometimes spelled "textfile"; an old alternative name is "flatfile") is a kind of computer file that is structured as a sequence of lines of electronic text.

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THE multiprogramming system

The THE multiprogramming system or THE OS was a computer operating system designed by a team led by Edsger W. Dijkstra, described in monographs in 1965-66 (Jun 14, 1965) and published in 1968.

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The MSP430 is a mixed-signal microcontroller family from Texas Instruments.

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Timeline of binary prefixes

This article presents a timeline of binary prefixes used to name memory units, in comparison of decimal and binary prefixes for measurement of information and computer storage.

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Transdichotomous model

In computational complexity theory, and more specifically in the analysis of algorithms with integer data, the transdichotomous model is a variation of the random access machine in which the machine word size is assumed to match the problem size.

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Transfer (computing)

In computer technology, transfers per second and its more common secondary terms gigatransfers per second (abbreviated as GT/s) and megatransfers per second (MT/s) are informal language that refer to the number of operations transferring data that occur in each second in some given data-transfer channel.

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Transmission Control Protocol

The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is one of the main protocols of the Internet protocol suite.

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The MIT Lincoln Laboratory TX-2 computer was the successor to the Lincoln TX-0 and was known for its role in advancing both artificial intelligence and human-computer interaction.

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The UNI/O bus is an asynchronous serial bus created by Microchip Technology for low speed communication in embedded systems.

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Union type

In computer science, a union is a value that may have any of several representations or formats within the same position in memory; or it is a data structure that consists of a variable that may hold such a value.

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Units of information

In computing and telecommunications, a unit of information is the capacity of some standard data storage system or communication channel, used to measure the capacities of other systems and channels.

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UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer) is a line of electronic digital stored-program computers starting with the products of the Eckert–Mauchly Computer Corporation.

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The UNIVAC 1050 was a variable word-length (one to 16 characters) decimal and binary computer.

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The UNIVAC 1103 or ERA 1103, a successor to the UNIVAC 1101, was a computer system designed by Engineering Research Associates and built by the Remington Rand corporation in October 1953.

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The Univac Buffer Processor (BP) was used in several real-time computer system installations in the 1960s as a network concentrator and front end system to the UNIVAC 418 and UNIVAC 490/494 real-time systems.

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The UNIVAC I (UNIVersal Automatic Computer I) was the first commercial computer produced in the United States.

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The UNIVAC LARC, short for the Livermore Advanced Research Computer, is a mainframe computer designed to a requirement published by Edward Teller in order to run hydrodynamic simulations for nuclear weapon design.

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Ural (computer)

Ural (Урал) is a series of mainframe computers built in the former Soviet Union.

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V850 is the trademark name for a 32-bit RISC CPU architecture of Renesas Electronics for embedded microcontrollers, introduced in early 90's by NEC and still being developed as of 2018.

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Van Emde Boas tree

A Van Emde Boas tree (or Van Emde Boas priority queue), also known as a vEB tree, is a tree data structure which implements an associative array with -bit integer keys.

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Variable-length code

In coding theory a variable-length code is a code which maps source symbols to a variable number of bits.

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Video game console

A video game console is an electronic, digital or computer device that outputs a video signal or visual image to display a video game that one or more people can play.

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Viking program

The Viking program consisted of a pair of American space probes sent to Mars, Viking 1 and Viking 2.

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Von Neumann architecture

The von Neumann architecture, which is also known as the von Neumann model and Princeton architecture, is a computer architecture based on the 1945 description by the mathematician and physicist John von Neumann and others in the First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC.

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Werner Buchholz

Werner Buchholz (born 24 October 1922 in Detmold, Germany) is a noted American computer scientist.

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Windows Registry

The registry is a hierarchical database that stores low-level settings for the Microsoft Windows operating system and for applications that opt to use the registry.

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Word (computer architecture)

In computing, a word is the natural unit of data used by a particular processor design.

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Word (disambiguation)

A word is a unit of language.

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Word clock

A word clock or wordclock (sometimes sample clock, which can have a broader meaning) is a clock signal used to synchronise other devices, such as digital audio tape machines and compact disc players, which interconnect via digital audio signals.

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Word mark (computer hardware)

In computer hardware, a word mark or flag is a bit in each memory location on some variable word length computers (e.g., IBM 1401, 1410, 1620) used to mark the end of a word.

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Word RAM

In theoretical computer science, the word RAM (word random access machine) model is a model of computation that is a random access machine able to do bitwise operations on a single word of bits.

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Word-addressable is a computer architecture term.

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X + Y sorting

In computer science, X + Y sorting is the problem of sorting pairs of numbers by their sum.

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x86 is a family of backward-compatible instruction set architectures based on the Intel 8086 CPU and its Intel 8088 variant.

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XScale is a microarchitecture for central processing units initially designed by Intel implementing the ARM architecture (version 5) instruction set.

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Yamaha YM3812

The Yamaha YM3812, also known as the OPL2, is a sound chip created by Yamaha Corporation in 1985 and famous for its wide use in IBM PC-based sound cards such as the AdLib, Sound Blaster and Pro AudioSpectrum (8bit), as well as several arcade games by Nichibutsu, Toaplan and others.

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Z25 (computer)

The Zuse Z25 was a program-controlled electronic computer using transistors developed by Zuse KG in Bad Hersfeld and put into production in 1963.

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Z3 (computer)

The Z3 was a German electromechanical computer designed by Konrad Zuse.

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Z4 (computer)

The Z4 was the world's first commercial digital computer, designed by German engineer Konrad Zuse and built by his company Zuse Apparatebau in 1945.

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ZX Spectrum graphic modes

The ZX Spectrum is generally considered to have limited graphical capabilities in comparison to some other home computers of the same era such as the Commodore 64, largely due to its lack of a dedicated graphics chip.

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In computer programming, the name.bss or bss is used by many compilers and linkers for the portion of an object file or executable containing statically-allocated variables that are not explicitly initialized to any value.

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10,000 (ten thousand) is the natural number following 9,999 and preceding 10,001.

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Possibly the best-known 12-bit CPU is the PDP-8 and its relatives, such as the Intersil 6100 microprocessor produced in various incarnations from August 1963 to mid-1990.

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Notable 24-bit machines include the CDC 924 – a 24-bit version of the CDC 1604, CDC lower 3000 series, SDS 930 and SDS 940, the ICT 1900 series, and the Datacraft minicomputers/Harris H series.

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In cryptography, 3-Way is a block cipher designed in 1994 by Joan Daemen.

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32-bit microcomputers are computers in which 32-bit microprocessors are the norm.

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36 (number)

36 (thirty-six) is the natural number following 35 and preceding 37.

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Prior to the introduction of computers, the state of the art in precision scientific and engineering calculation was the ten-digit, electrically powered, mechanical calculator, such as those manufactured by Friden, Marchant and Monroe.

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42 (number)

42 (forty-two) is the natural number that succeeds 41 and precedes 43.

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In computer architecture, 48-bit integers can represent 281,474,976,710,656 (248 or 2.814749767×1014) discrete values.

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Computers with 60-bit words include the CDC 6000 series, the CDC 7600, and some of the CDC Cyber series.

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64-bit computing

In computer architecture, 64-bit computing is the use of processors that have datapath widths, integer size, and memory address widths of 64 bits (eight octets).

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65536 is the natural number following 65535 and preceding 65537.

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8b/10b encoding

In telecommunications, 8b/10b is a line code that maps 8-bit words to 10-bit symbols to achieve DC-balance and bounded disparity, and yet provide enough state changes to allow reasonable clock recovery.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Word_(computer_architecture)

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