3119 relations: A Brief History of Time, A Young Girl Reading, A.C. 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A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes is a popular-science book on cosmology (the study of the universe) by British physicist Stephen Hawking.
Young Girl Reading, or The Reader (La Liseuse), is an 18th-century oil painting by Jean-Honoré Fragonard.
A.C. Cossor Ltd. was a British electronics company founded in 1859.
A0620-00 (abbreviated from 1A 0620-00) is a binary star system in the constellation of Monoceros.
AB7, also known as SMC WR7, is a binary star in the Small Magellanic Cloud.
Abdominal pain, also known as a stomach ache, is a symptom associated with both non-serious and serious medical issues.
Abdominal trauma is an injury to the abdomen.
Abdominal ultrasonography (also called abdominal ultrasound imaging or abdominal sonography) is a form of medical ultrasonography (medical application of ultrasound technology) to visualise abdominal anatomical structures.
An abdominal x-ray is an x-ray of the abdomen.
Abell 2029 or A2029 is a large cluster of galaxies away in the constellation Virgo.
Abell 2142, or A2142, is a huge, X-ray luminous galaxy cluster in the constellation Corona Borealis.
Abell 2744, nicknamed Pandora's Cluster, is a giant galaxy cluster resulting from the simultaneous pile-up of at least four separate, smaller galaxy clusters that took place over a span of 350 million years.
Abell 400 is a galaxy cluster which contains the galaxy NGC 1128 with two supermassive black holes (3C 75) spiraling towards merger.
Abell 665 is a galaxy cluster in the Abell catalogue in the constellation Ursa Major.
Abrin is an extremely toxic toxalbumin found in the seeds of the rosary pea (or jequirity pea), Abrus precatorius.
A Broadband Imaging X-ray All-sky Survey, or ABRIXAS was a space-based German X-ray telescope.
An abscess is a collection of pus that has built up within the tissue of the body.
In physics, absorption of electromagnetic radiation is the way in which the energy of a photon is taken up by matter, typically the electrons of an atom.
According to quantum mechanics, atoms and molecules can only hold certain defined quantities of energy, or exist in specific states.
Abstract photography, sometimes called non-objective, experimental, conceptual or concrete photography, is a means of depicting a visual image that does not have an immediate association with the object world and that has been created through the use of photographic equipment, processes or materials.
Acanthosis nigricans is a brown to black, poorly defined, velvety hyperpigmentation of the skin.
Accélérateur Grand Louvre d'analyse élémentaire (AGLAE) is a particle accelerator housed by the Center for Research and Restoration of Museums of France in the Louvre museum in Paris, France.
An accessory bone or supernumerary bone is a bone that is not normally present in the body, but can be found as a variant in a significant number of people.
An accretion disk is a structure (often a circumstellar disk) formed by diffused material in orbital motion around a massive central body.
Achilles tendon rupture is when the Achilles tendon, at the back of the ankle, breaks.
Infants with achondrogenesis, type 2 have short arms and legs, a small chest with short ribs, and underdeveloped lungs.
The Escherichia coli Acriflavine resistance (acrA and acrB genes) encode a multi-drug efflux system that is believed to protect the bacterium against hydrophobic inhibitors.
Acrogeria (also known as Gottron's syndrome) is a cutaneous condition characterized by premature aging, more especially in the form of unusually fragile, thin skin on the hands and feet (distal extremities).
The acromioclavicular joint, or AC joint, is a joint at the top of the shoulder.
Actinism is the property of solar radiation that leads to the production of photochemical and photobiological effects.
An active galactic nucleus (AGN) is a compact region at the center of a galaxy that has a much higher than normal luminosity over at least some portion—and possibly all—of the electromagnetic spectrum, with characteristics indicating that the excess luminosity is not produced by stars.
Active optics is a technology used with reflecting telescopes developed in the 1980s, which actively shapes a telescope's mirrors to prevent deformation due to external influences such as wind, temperature, mechanical stress.
An active-pixel sensor (APS) is an image sensor where each picture element ("pixel") has a photodetector and an active amplifier.
The acute chest syndrome is a vaso-occlusive crisis of the pulmonary vasculature commonly seen in people with sickle cell anemia.
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a cancer of the myeloid line of blood cells, characterized by the rapid growth of abnormal cells that build up in the bone marrow and blood and interfere with normal blood cells.
Acute pericarditis is a type of pericarditis (inflammation of the sac surrounding the heart, the pericardium) usually lasting less than 6 weeks.
AD Leonis (Gliese 388) is a red dwarf star.
Ada E. Yonath (עדה יונת.) (born 22 June 1939) is an Israeli crystallographer best known for her pioneering work on the structure of the ribosome.
Adam Koenig (born February 22, 1971) is an American politician and a Republican member of the Kentucky House of Representatives representing District 69 since January 2007.
Adam John Munich (born May 2, 1994) is an American polymath.
Adelaide Provincial Hospital is a provincial government-funded hospital for the Nxuba Local Municipality area in Adelaide, Eastern Cape in South Africa.
Adelbert Van de Walle was a Flemish-Belgian architect, art historian and professor in the History of Art and Archaeology at the University of Ghent (UGent).
ADOX Fotowerke Dr.
Neurogenesis is the process by which neurons are generated from neural stem cells.
The Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS), formerly the AXAF CCD Imaging Spectrometer, is an instrument built by a team from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Center for Space Research and the Pennsylvania State University for the Chandra X-ray Observatory.
The Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a research facility at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California.
The Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory (in Argonne, Illinois, USA) is a national synchrotron-radiation light source research facility funded by the United States Department of Energy Office of Science.
The Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA, formerly named ASTRO-D) was the fourth cosmic X-ray astronomy mission by JAXA, and the second for which the United States provided part of the scientific payload.
AEDC Range G is a two-stage light-gas gun owned by the United States Air Force.
Agfa-Gevaert N.V. (Agfa) is a Belgian-German multinational corporation that develops, manufactures, and distributes analogue and digital imaging products and systems, as well as IT solutions.
AGILE (Astro‐Rivelatore Gamma a Immagini Leggero) is an X-ray and Gamma ray astronomical satellite of the Italian Space Agency (ASI).
Dame Agnes Gwendoline Hunt DBE RRC (31 December 1866 – 24 July 1948) was a British nurse, who is generally recognised as the first orthopaedic nurse.
Ahmed Mater (born 1979, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia) is a Saudi artist and physician.
O29-L1-G43 | nebty.
Aid to Southeast Asia (ASA) - humanitarian organization, providing help for the countries of Southeast Asia (mainly, Vietnam) on the people-to-people basis, aiming to strengthen world peace and respect for human rights.
The Air Force Nuclear Weapons Center (AFNWC) is a USAF Named Unit, assigned to the Air Force Materiel Command at Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico.
An air shower is an extensive (many kilometres wide) cascade of ionized particles and electromagnetic radiation produced in the atmosphere when a primary cosmic ray (i.e. one of extraterrestrial origin) enters the atmosphere.
Aircraft hijacking (also air piracy or aircraft piracy, especially within the special aircraft jurisdiction of the United States and in the US state of Mississippi, and as skyjacking in some nations) is the unlawful seizure of an aircraft by an individual or a group.
(31 May 1914 – 8 February 2006) was a Japanese composer, best known for his works on the film scores of the Godzilla movies since 1954.
Al or Albert Jolson (born Asa Yoelson; May 26, c.1886 – October 23, 1950) was an American singer, comedian, and stage and film actor.
Alagille syndrome, Alagille-Watson syndrome or ALGS, is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder that affects the liver, heart, kidney, and other systems of the body.
Alan L. Hart (October 4, 1890 – July 1, 1962) was an American physician, radiologist, tuberculosis researcher, writer and novelist.
Albert A. Bouwers (1893–1972) was a Dutch optical engineer.
Albert C. Geyser is known for creating the Cornell Tube in 1905, named after the college with which he was associated.
Hamilton Howard "Albert" FishMurder Cases of the Twentieth Century - Biographies and Bibliographies of 280 Convicted or Accused Killers; David K. Frasier — McFarland & Company (Publisher), Copyright September, 1996; (May 19, 1870 – January 16, 1936) was an American serial killer.
Albert Londe (26 November 1858 – 11 September 1917) was an influential French photographer, medical researcher and chronophotographer.
Albert Salomon (1883–1976), Leonard Gold, Rosaline and Myer Feinstein Lecture Series, 2001.
Alberta Hospital Edmonton is a psychiatric hospital operating under the governance of Alberta Health Services.
Sir Alec John Jeffreys, (born 9 January 1950) is a British geneticist, who developed techniques for genetic fingerprinting and DNA profiling which are now used worldwide in forensic science to assist police detective work and to resolve paternity and immigration disputes.
Alejandro Posadas (December 28, 1870 – November 21, 1902) was an Argentinian physician and surgeon specializing in pediatric surgery.
Alemayehu Bezabeh Desta (Amharic: አለማየሁ በዛበህ ደስታ; born c. 1986) is an Ethiopian-born athlete who represents Spain internationally.
Alex Grey (born November 29, 1953) is an American visionary artist, author, teacher, and Vajrayana practitioner.
Alex Wilder is a fictional superhero and later a supervillain in the Marvel Comics series Runaways.
Alexander Raven Thomson, usually known as Raven (1899–1955), was a Scottish politician and philosopher.
Alfred James Broomhall (6 December 1911 – 11 May 1994), also A. J. Broomhall, was a British Protestant Christian medical missionary to China, and author and historian of the China Inland Mission (renamed as Overseas Missionary Fellowship in 1964, known today as OMF International based in Singapore).
Algol, designated Beta Persei (β Persei, abbreviated Beta Per, β Per), known colloquially as the Demon Star, is a bright multiple star in the constellation of Perseus and one of the first non-nova variable stars to be discovered.
ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is one of seven detector experiments at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN.
Dr Alice Mary Stewart, née Naish (4 October 19063 June 2002) was a physician and epidemiologist specialising in social medicine and the effects of radiation on health.
Alicia Margarita Soderberg (born 1977) is an American astrophysicist who is an assistant professor of Astronomy at Harvard University and a postdoctoral fellow at the Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics whose research focuses on supernovae.
Aliwal North Hospital is a 50-bed government funded District hospital that renders level 1 care to patients in the catchment area of the Maletswai Local Municipality in Aliwal North, Eastern Cape in South Africa.
All Saints Hospital is a Provincial government funded hospital in Ngcobo, Eastern Cape in South Africa.
Allan MacLeod Cormack (February 23, 1924 – May 7, 1998) was a South African American physicist who won the 1979 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (along with Godfrey Hounsfield) for his work on X-ray computed tomography (CT).
Alpha Centauri (α Centauri, abbreviated Alf Cen or α Cen) is the star system closest to the Solar System, being from the Sun.
Alpha Coronae Borealis (α Coronae Borealis, abbreviated Alpha CrB, α CrB), also named Alphecca, is a binary star in the constellation of Corona Borealis.
The alpha helix (α-helix) is a common motif in the secondary structure of proteins and is a righthand-spiral conformation (i.e. helix) in which every backbone N−H group donates a hydrogen bond to the backbone C.
An alpha particle X-ray spectrometer (APXS) is a spectrometer that analyses the chemical element composition of a sample from the scattered alpha particles, and fluorescent X-rays after the sample is irradiated with alpha particles and X-rays from radioactive sources.
Alphablocks is a British CGI-animated children's educational television programme that is designed to teach children how to spell with the use of animated blocks representing each letter.
Alström syndrome (AS), also called Alström–Hallgren syndrome, is a rare genetic disorder caused by mutations in the gene ALMS1.
Altnagelvin Area Hospital is the main hospital for the North West of Northern Ireland.
Aluminium-26, 26Al, is a radioactive isotope of the chemical element aluminium, decaying by either of the modes beta-plus or electron capture, both resulting in the stable nuclide magnesium-26.
The Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center at Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine is a cancer treatment, research and education institution with five locations in the St. Louis area.
Amager Hospital is located in Denmark on the island of Amager in Copenhagen.
Amber is fossilized tree resin, which has been appreciated for its color and natural beauty since Neolithic times.
The AMC AMX is a two-seat GT-style sports car that was produced by American Motors Corporation for the 1968 through 1970 model years.
The 215th meeting of the American Astronomical Society (AAS) took place in Washington, D.C., Jan.
The American Board of Nuclear Medicine (ABNM) certifies physicians as specialists in the practice of nuclear medicine.
American Mining Congress v. Mine Safety & Health Administration, 995 F.2d 1106 (1993) is a decision by the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit concerning the issues of administrative law and agency oversight.
The American Roentgen Ray Society (ARRS) is a radiology society in the United States.
American Science and Engineering Inc, (AS&E) is an American manufacturer of advanced X-ray equipment and related technologies, originating in 1958 as a developer for NASA, with an early focus on X-ray astronomy led by Riccardo Giacconi.
The American Society for Nondestructive Testing, Inc. or ASNT is a technical society for nondestructive testing (NDT) professionals.
The American Society of Radiologic Technologists (ASRT), located in Albuquerque, New Mexico, is a professional membership association for medical imaging technologists, radiation therapists and radiologic science students.
Ames Laboratory is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory located in Ames, Iowa and affiliated with Iowa State University.
Amethyst is a violet variety of quartz often used in jewelry.
Amyloids are aggregates of proteins that become folded into a shape that allows many copies of that protein to stick together forming fibrils.
The AN/FPQ-16 Perimeter Acquisition Radar Attack Characterization System (PARCS or EPARCS) is a powerful phased-array radar system located in North Dakota.
Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans.
Anatomy (Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.
The medicine of the ancient Egyptians is some of the oldest documented.
Ancoats Hospital was the commonly used name for the large inner-city hospital, located in Ancoats, to the north of the city centre of Manchester, England.
And Kill Once More, by American novelist Al Fray, was published in 1955 by Graphic Publishing Company, Hasbrouck Heights, N.J.
Andor Technology Ltd is a developer and manufacturer of high performance light measuring solutions (scientific digital cameras).
Andries Vosloo Hospital is a Provincial government funded hospital for the Blue Crane Route Local Municipality area in Somerset East, Eastern Cape in South Africa.
Andrzej Sołtan (25 October 1897 – 10 December 1959) was a Polish nuclear physicist.
Aneuploidy is the presence of an abnormal number of chromosomes in a cell, for example a human cell having 45 or 47 chromosomes instead of the usual 46.
Aneutronic fusion is any form of fusion power in which neutrons carry no more than 1% of the total released energy.
Ang Tanging Ina Mo (Last na 'To!) (lit."Your Only Mom (The Last One!)") is a 2010 Filipino dramedy film starring Ai-Ai de las Alas, Eugene Domingo, and certain others.
Angelo Battelli (28 March 1862 – 11 December 1916) was an Italian scientist, notable for having measured temperatures and heats of fusion of non-metallic substances, metallic conductivities and thermoelectric effects in magnetic metals, and the Thomson effect.
Angiocardiography is contrast radiography of the heart and great vessels.
Angiography or arteriography is a medical imaging technique used to visualize the inside, or lumen, of blood vessels and organs of the body, with particular interest in the arteries, veins and the heart chambers.
In geometric optics, the angle of incidence is the angle between a ray incident on a surface and the line perpendicular to the surface at the point of incidence, called the normal.
ANKA (abbreviation for „Angströmquelle Karlsruhe“) is a synchrotron light source facility at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT).
An ankle fracture is a break of the ankle bones.
Ann Hornschemeier is an American astronomer specializing in X-ray emission from X-ray binary populations.
Anophthalmia, (Greek: ανόφθαλμος, "without eye"), is the medical term for the absence of one or both eyes.
Anterograde pyelography is the procedure used to visualize the upper collecting system of the urinary tract, i.e., kidney and ureter.
An anti-ballistic missile (ABM) is a surface-to-air missile designed to counter ballistic missiles (see missile defense).
The Antikythera mechanism is an ancient Greek analogue computer and orrery used to predict astronomical positions and eclipses for calendar and astrological purposes decades in advance.
Antimatter comets (and antimatter meteoroids) are hypothetical comets (meteoroids) composed solely of antimatter instead of ordinary matter.
An antimicrobial is an agent that kills microorganisms or stops their growth.
The Antlia Cluster (or Abell S0636) is a cluster of galaxies located in the Hydra-Centaurus Supercluster.
Antonín Svoboda (1907–1980) was a Czech computer scientist, mathematician, electrical engineer, and researcher.
A multi-anvil press, or anvil press is a type of device related to a machine press that is used to create extraordinarily high pressures within a small volume.
Aortography involves placement of a catheter in the aorta and injection of contrast material while taking X-rays of the aorta.
Apollo 8, the second manned spaceflight mission in the United States Apollo space program, was launched on December 21, 1968, and became the first manned spacecraft to leave Earth orbit, reach the Earth's Moon, orbit it and return safely to Earth.
Apollo Hospitals, Visakhapatnam is a branch of Apollo Group of Hospitals located in Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Randomness has many uses in science, art, statistics, cryptography, gaming, gambling, and other fields.
Arabidopsis thaliana, the thale cress, mouse-ear cress or arabidopsis, is a small flowering plant native to Eurasia and Africa.
Arbroath Infirmary is a hospital serving the town of Arbroath and the greater area of Angus, Scotland.
The Arches Cluster is the densest known star cluster in the Milky Way located about 100 light years from its center, in the constellation Sagittarius (The Archer), 25,000 light-years from Earth.
Lieutenant-Colonel Archibald Campbell Campbell, 1st Baron Blythswood FRS (22 February 1835 – 8 July 1908), was a Scottish soldier, Tory politician, amateur scientist and Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Scotland.
Archimedes of Syracuse (Ἀρχιμήδης) was a Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer.
The Archimedes Palimpsest is a parchment codex palimpsest, which originally was a 10th-century Byzantine Greek copy of an otherwise unknown work of Archimedes of Syracuse and other authors.
The Arctowski Medal is awarded by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences "for studies in solar physics and solar-terrestrial relationships." Named in honor of Henryk Arctowski, it was first awarded in 1969.
Argoman the Fantastic Superman (Come rubare la corona d'Inghilterra) is a 1967 English-language Italian superhero-Eurospy film directed by Sergio Grieco.
Argon compounds, the chemical compounds that contain the element argon, are rarely encountered due to the inertness of the argon atom.
Argonne National Laboratory is a science and engineering research national laboratory operated by the University of Chicago Argonne LLC for the United States Department of Energy located near Lemont, Illinois, outside Chicago.
Argus was a two-beam high power infrared neodymium doped silica glass laser with a output aperture built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in 1976 for the study of inertial confinement fusion.
The Argyle Diamond Mine is a diamond mine located in the East Kimberley region in the remote north of Western Australia.
Aribex Was the first company to provide a portable, handheld X-ray device.
Ariel 5 was a joint British and American space observatory dedicated to observing the sky in the X-ray band.
Arno Fischer (born in Wedding, Berlin, 14 April 1927: died in Neustrelitz, 13 September 2011) was a German photographer and university teacher.
Arnold Hardy (February 2, 1922 – December 5, 2007) was an American amateur photographer who won the 1947 Pulitzer Prize for Photography.
The Array of Low Energy X-ray Imaging Sensors (ALEXIS) X-ray telescopes feature curved mirrors whose multilayer coatings reflect and focus low-energy X-rays or extreme ultraviolet light the way optical telescopes focus visible light.
Arrow Lakes Hospital is a fourteen-bed facility, located in Nakusp, British Columbia.
Ars Longa Vita Brevis is the second album by the English progressive rock group the Nice.
Art forgery is the creating and selling of works of art which are falsely credited to other, usually more famous artists.
Art history is the study of objects of art in their historical development and stylistic contexts; that is genre, design, format, and style.
Art of Life is the fourth studio album by Japanese heavy metal band X Japan, released on August 25, 1993 by Atlantic Records.
Artem Isahaki (Isaakovich) Alikhanian (Արտեմ Ալիխանյան, Артём Исаакович Алиханьян, 24 June 1908 – 25 February 1978) was a Soviet Armenian physicist, one of the founders and first director of the Yerevan Physics Institute, a correspondent member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1946), academic of the Armenian Academy of Sciences.
Arthritis is a term often used to mean any disorder that affects joints.
Arthur Holly Compton (September 10, 1892 – March 15, 1962) was an American physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1927 for his 1923 discovery of the Compton effect, which demonstrated the particle nature of electromagnetic radiation.
The Arthur H. Compton House is a historic house at 5637 South Woodlawn Avenue in Chicago, Illinois.
Arthur Lindo Patterson (23 July 1902, Nelson, New Zealand - 6 November 1966, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) was a pioneering British X-ray crystallographer.
Arthur Rudolph Berthold Wehnelt (April 4, 1871 in Rio de Janeiro – February 15, 1944 in Berlin) was a German physicist, noted for important contributions in the fields of X-ray physics, gas discharges and electron emission.
Arthur Williams Wright (September 8, 1836 – December 19, 1915) was an American physicist.
Cartilage structures and functions can be damaged.
In natural science and signal processing, an artifact is any error in the perception or representation of any information, introduced by the involved equipment or technique(s).
Asbestos-related diseases are disorders of the lung and pleura caused by the inhalation of asbestos fibres.
Ascariasis is a disease caused by the parasitic roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides.
Ascending cholangitis, also known as acute cholangitis or simply cholangitis, is an infection of the bile duct (cholangitis), usually caused by bacteria ascending from its junction with the duodenum (first part of the small intestine).
The Ashbourne portrait is one of the numberless portraits that have been falsely identified as portrayals of William Shakespeare.
Asia-Pacific International University is a private Christian university located in Thailand.
Aspergillosis is the name given to a wide variety of diseases caused by infection by fungi of the genus Aspergillus.
Assata Olugbala Shakur (born JoAnne Deborah Byron; July 16, 1947, sometimes referred to by her married surname Chesimard) is a former member of the Black Liberation Army, who was convicted (under New Jersey's "aiding and abetting" statute) of the first-degree murder of State Trooper Werner Foerster during a shootout on the New Jersey Turnpike in 1973.
Asteroid impact avoidance comprises a number of methods by which near-Earth objects (NEO) could be diverted, preventing destructive impact events.
Asteroid laser ablation is a proposed method for deflecting asteroids, involving the use of a laser array to alter the orbit of an asteroid.
Astron was a Soviet spacecraft launched on 23 March 1983 at 12:45:06 UTC, using Proton launcher, which was designed to fulfill an astrophysics mission.
The Astronomical Netherlands Satellite (ANS; also known as Astronomische Nederlandse Satelliet) was a space-based X-ray and ultraviolet telescope.
Astronomical spectroscopy is the study of astronomy using the techniques of spectroscopy to measure the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation, including visible light and radio, which radiates from stars and other celestial objects.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
The Astroparticle and Cosmology (APC) laboratory in Paris gathers researchers (experimentalists, theorists and observers) working in different areas including high-energy astrophysics, cosmology, gravitation, and neutrino physics.
An astrophysical plasma is a plasma (highly ionized gas) that occurs beyond the solar system.
Astrophysical X-ray sources are astronomical objects with physical properties which result in the emission of X-rays.
Astrosat is India's first dedicated multi-wavelength space observatory.
In medicine, a disease is considered asymptomatic if a patient is a carrier for a disease or infection but experiences no symptoms.
The Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) is a six-metre telescope on Cerro Toco in the Atacama Desert in the north of Chile, near the Llano de Chajnantor Observatory.
Atelectasis is the collapse or closure of a lung resulting in reduced or absent gas exchange.
Dame Athene Margaret Donald (née Griffith; born 15 May 1953) is a British physicist.
The atmosphere of Jupiter is the largest planetary atmosphere in the Solar System.
The atmosphere of Titan is the layer of gases surrounding Titan, the largest moon of Saturn.
Atmosphere-Space Interactions Monitor (ASIM) is a project led by the European Space Agency that will place cameras and X-ray/γ-ray detectors on the International Space Station, where it will observe the upper atmosphere to study sprites, jets and elves and terrestrial gamma-ray flashes in connection with thunderstorms.
Atmospheric electricity is the study of electrical charges in the Earth's atmosphere (or that of another planet).
Atmospheric physics is the application of physics to the study of the atmosphere.
The atoms and ions of a crystalline lattice, which are bonded with each other with considerable inter molecular forces, are not motionless.
An atomic line filter (ALF) is an advanced optical band-pass filter used in the physical sciences for filtering electromagnetic radiation with precision, accuracy, and minimal signal strength loss.
Atomic, Living in Dread and Promise is a documentary film about nuclear history directed by Mark Cousins.
Atomic, molecular, and optical physics (AMO) is the study of matter-matter and light-matter interactions; at the scale of one or a few atoms and energy scales around several electron volts.
In physics, attenuation or, in some contexts, extinction is the gradual loss of flux intensity through a medium.
Attenuation coefficient or narrow beam attenuation coefficient of the volume of a material characterizes how easily it can be penetrated by a beam of light, sound, particles, or other energy or matter.
Attophysics also known as attoscience is a branch of physics wherein attosecond (10−18 s) duration pulses of electrons or photons are used to probe dynamic processes in matter with unprecedented time resolution.
AU Microscopii (AU Mic) is a small star located away – about 8 times as far as the closest star after the Sun.
The Auger effect is a physical phenomenon in which the filling of an inner-shell vacancy of an atom is accompanied by the emission of an electron from the same atom.
Augmented Reality (AR) is an interactive experience of a real-world environment whose elements are "augmented" by computer-generated perceptual information, sometimes across multiple sensory modalities, including visual, auditory, haptic, somatosensory, and olfactory.
Augusto Righi (27 August 1850 – 8 June 1920) was an Italian physicist and a pioneer in the study of electromagnetism.
Auriga is one of the 88 modern constellations; it was among the 48 constellations listed by the 2nd-century astronomer Ptolemy.
Auschwitz concentration camp was a network of concentration and extermination camps built and operated by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland during World War II.
1 Electron gun 2 Linear accelerator (linac) 3 Booster ring 4 Storage ring 5 Beamline 6 Endstation (or experimental workstation, i.e., laboratory) --> The Australian Synchrotron is a 3 GeV national synchrotron radiation facility located in Clayton, in the south-eastern suburbs of Melbourne, Victoria, which opened in 2007.
Automated inspection (AXI) is a technology based on the same principles as automated optical inspection (AOI).
Automatic Exposure Control (AEC) is an X-ray exposure termination device.
An autopsy (post-mortem examination, obduction, necropsy, or autopsia cadaverum) is a highly specialized surgical procedure that consists of a thorough examination of a corpse by dissection to determine the cause and manner of death or to evaluate any disease or injury that may be present for research or educational purposes.
An autoradiograph is an image on an x-ray film or nuclear emulsion produced by the pattern of decay emissions (e.g., beta particles or gamma rays) from a distribution of a radioactive substance.
Avgust Berthold (20 July 1880 – 1 August 1919) was a Slovenian photographer who is associated with the Impressionist movement.
Axial Biotech, Inc. was a privately held molecular diagnostics company based in Salt Lake City, Utah.
Axillary nerve palsy is a neurological condition in which the axillary (also called circumflex) nerve has been damaged by shoulder dislocation.
Álvaro Freire de Villalba Alvim (16 April 1863 – 21 May 1928) was a Brazilian physician, pioneer in radiology and radiotherapy.
The ångström or angstrom is a unit of length equal to (one ten-billionth of a metre) or 0.1 nanometre.
Étienne Destot (March 1, 1864 – December 3, 1918) was a French radiologist and anatomist who was a native of Dijon.
Ötzi (also called the Iceman, the Similaun Man, the Man from Hauslabjoch, the Tyrolean Iceman, and the Hauslabjoch mummy) is a nickname given to the well-preserved natural mummy of a man who lived between 3400 and 3100 BCE.
B.J. Vorster Hospital is a Provincial government funded hospital for the Kou-Kamma Local Municipality area in Kareedouw, Eastern Cape in South Africa.
B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences (BPKIHS) (ी.), is a medical institution in Nepal.
Back injuries result from damage, wear, or trauma to the bones, muscles, or other tissues of the back.
Back strain (pulled back muscle) is the injury occurring to muscles or tendons.
Background radiation is a measure of the ionizing radiation present in the environment at a particular location which is not due to deliberate introduction of radiation sources.
Background Radiation Equivalent Time, or BRET, is a unit of measurement of ionizing radiation dosage.
Backscatter X-ray is an advanced X-ray imaging technology.
Bacterial cellulose is an organic compound with the formula produced by certain types of bacteria.
Baku Cargo Terminal (BCT) of Heydar Aliyev International Airport in Baku is one of the biggest cargo terminals in the Commonwealth of Independent States.
Bala S. Manian is an Indian-born Silicon Valley entrepreneur who has started a string of medical technology companies such as ReaMetrix, Digital Optics and Quantum Dot Corporation.
Balfour Stewart (1 November 182819 December 1887) was a Scottish physicist.
The Bali Mandara Eye Hospital (Rumah Sakit Mata Bali Mandara, until 2013 Australia Bali Memorial Eye Centre or ABMEC) is an ophthalmology clinic and day surgery centre in Indonesia, built in memory of the 2002 Bali bombings.
A ball grid array (BGA) is a type of surface-mount packaging (a chip carrier) used for integrated circuits.
Bambisana Hospital is a Provincial government funded hospital in Lusikisiki, Eastern Cape in South Africa.
Bangkok Adventist Hospital, also known locally as Mission Hospital, is a non-profit general hospital with a registered capacity of 200 beds and 24 bassinets, located on Phitsanulok Road in Bangkok, Thailand.
Banknotes of the Swiss franc are issued by the Swiss National Bank in denominations of 10, 20, 50, 100, 200 and 1,000 Swiss francs.
Baramulla (ˌbærəˈmʊlə) is a city and a municipality in the Baramulla district in the state of Jammu and Kashmir (India).
Baramulla district is one of the 22 districts in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.
Barbara S. Askins (born 1939) is an American chemist.
Barbara McClintock (June 16, 1902 – September 2, 1992) was an American scientist and cytogeneticist who was awarded the 1983 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
Baritosis is a benign type of pneumoconiosis, which is caused by long-term exposure to barium dust.
Barium fluoride (BaF2) is a chemical compound of barium and fluorine and is a salt.
Barium sulfate (or sulphate) is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula BaSO4.
Barium sulfate suspension, often simply called barium, is a contrast agent used during X-rays.
Barnard's Star is a very-low-mass red dwarf about 6 light-years away from Earth in the constellation of Ophiuchus.
The Baroness is a fictional character from the G.I. Joe: A Real American Hero toyline by Hasbro, originally appearing in the first issue of the G.I. Joe: A Real American Hero comic series by Marvel Comics in June, 1982.
Matienzo Base (Base Aérea Teniente Benjamín Matienzo, or more often Base Matienzo or Estación Matienzo) is an Argentine Antarctic base and scientific research station named after Lieutenant Benjamín Matienzo, an Argentine aviation pioneer.
Basilar invagination is invagination (infolding) of the base of the skull that occurs when the top of the C2 vertebra migrates upward.
Basingstoke and North Hampshire Hospital (BNHH) is a 450-bed National Health Service (NHS) hospital in Basingstoke, Hampshire, England run by Hampshire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust.
Be/X-ray binaries (BeXRBs) are a class of high-mass X-ray binaries that consist of a Be star and a neutron star.
Beam's Eye View (or BEV) is an imaging technique used in radiation therapy for the quality assurance and planning of External Beam Radiation Therapy treatments.
The Beau Street Hoard, found in Bath, Somerset, is the fifth-largest hoard ever found in Britain and the largest ever discovered in a British Roman town.
Bedford Provincial Hospital is a Provincial government funded hospital in the Nxuba Local Municipality area of Bedford, Eastern Cape in South Africa.
GRB 991216, nicknamed the Beethoven Burst by Dr.
Ben Gurion International Airport (נמל התעופה הבינלאומי בן גוריון; مطار بن غوريون الدولي), commonly referred to as Ben Gurion Airport or Natbag (נתב״ג), is the main international airport of Israel and the busiest airport in the country, located to the southeast of Tel Aviv.
Benco Dental is an American dental product and equipment distributor based in Pittston, Pennsylvania.
BeppoSAX was an Italian–Dutch satellite for X-ray astronomy which played a crucial role in resolving the origin of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), the most energetic events known in the universe.
Bergen Davis (March 31, 1869 – June 30, 1958) was an American physicist and a professor at Columbia University.
Berlin Mexikoplatz (in German Bahnhof Berlin Mexikoplatz) is a railway station in the Zehlendorf district of Berlin, Germany.
Bernard Haisch is a German-born American astrophysicist who has done research in solar-stellar astrophysics and stochastic electrodynamics.
Bernard Waldman (October 12, 1913 – November 1, 1986) was an American physicist who flew on the Hiroshima atomic bombing mission as a cameraman during World War II.
Bernhard Carl "Bert" Trautmann OBE (22 October 1923 – 19 July 2013) was a German professional footballer who played as a goalkeeper for Manchester City from 1949 to 1964.
Category:American mineralogists Category:1902 births Category:1991 deaths.
Beryl is a mineral composed of beryllium aluminium cyclosilicate with the chemical formula Be3Al2(SiO3)6.
Beryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4.
Besanosaurus (meaning "Besano lizard") is a genus of large ichthyosaur (a marine reptile, not a dinosaur) that lived during the middle Triassic period, approximately 235 million years ago.
The Berliner Elektronenspeicherring-Gesellschaft für Synchrotronstrahlung m. b. H. (English: Berlin Electron Storage Ring Society for Synchrotron Radiation), abbreviated BESSY, is a research establishment in the Adlershof district of Berlin.
Beta Doradus (Beta Dor, β Doradus, β Dor) is the second brightest star in the southern constellation of Dorado.
A beta particle, also called beta ray or beta radiation, (symbol β) is a high-energy, high-speed electron or positron emitted by the radioactive decay of an atomic nucleus during the process of beta decay.
A betatron is a type of cyclic particle accelerator.
Betelgeuse, also designated Alpha Orionis (α Orionis, abbreviated Alpha Ori, α Ori), is the ninth-brightest star in the night sky and second-brightest in the constellation of Orion.
Bethel Baptist Hospital, Inc.
The Beyond Einstein program is a NASA project designed to explore the limits of Einstein's theory of General Relativity.
A bhangmeter is a non-imaging radiometer installed on reconnaissance and navigation satellites to detect atmospheric nuclear detonations and determine the yield of the nuclear weapon.
Bhaskar–Jagannathan syndrome is an extremely rare genetic disorder and there is a limited amount of information related to it.
Bhisho Provincial Hospital is a Provincial government funded hospital in Bhisho, Eastern Cape in South Africa.
Bhuj Airport is a domestic airport located in Bhuj in the Kutch District of the state of Gujarat, India.
Bian Que (also pronounced Pien Chueh, Wade–Giles: Pien Ch'iao; died 310 BC) was, according to legend, the earliest known Chinese physician.
A bib is a garment worn hanging from the neck on the chest to protect clothing from accidentally spilled food.
Bibian Mentel-Spee (born 27 September 1972) is a three-fold Winter Paralympics gold-medalist, and five-times world champion para-snowboarding athlete from the Netherlands.
Bilateral cingulotomy is a form of psychosurgery, introduced in 1948 as an alternative to lobotomy.
Billy McComb (April 12, 1922 — April 30, 2006) was a British-born American magician and comedian.
A binary star is a star system consisting of two stars orbiting around their common barycenter.
The Bioindustry Park Silvano Fumero (BiPCa) is a Science and Technology Park located in Canavese near Turin in the north-west of Italy.
Biological small-angle scattering is a small-angle scattering method for structure analysis of biological materials.
Biomedical engineering (BME) is the application of engineering principles and design concepts to medicine and biology for healthcare purposes (e.g. diagnostic or therapeutic).
Biomolecular engineering is the application of engineering principles and practices to the purposeful manipulation of molecules of biological origin.
A biopsy is a medical test commonly performed by a surgeon, interventional radiologist, or an interventional cardiologist involving extraction of sample cells or tissues for examination to determine the presence or extent of a disease.
Bird eggs are laid by the females and incubated for a time that varies according to the species; a single young hatches from each egg.
A Birkeland current is a set of currents that flow along geomagnetic field lines connecting the Earth’s magnetosphere to the Earth's high latitude ionosphere.
A black hole is a region of spacetime exhibiting such strong gravitational effects that nothing—not even particles and electromagnetic radiation such as light—can escape from inside it.
The is a group of fictional characters who serve as villains in the Sailor Moon manga series by Naoko Takeuchi.
The Black Widow Pulsar (B1957+20) is an eclipsing binary millisecond pulsar discovered in 1988.
BlackBerry Passport is a smartphone developed by BlackBerry Limited.
Bladder stones or uroliths are a common occurrence in animals, especially in domestic animals such as dogs and cats.
Blitzars are a hypothetical type of astronomical object in which a spinning pulsar rapidly collapses into a black hole.
Block 10 was a cellblock at the Auschwitz Concentration Camp where women and men were used as experimental subjects for German doctors.
Blount's disease is a growth disorder of the tibia (shin bone) that causes the lower leg to angle inward, resembling a bowleg.
Blue Monkey is a 1987 Canadian horror film directed by William Fruet.
Bluewater Health is a hospital in Sarnia, Ontario.
Robert Richard "Bob" Chappuis (February 24, 1923 – June 14, 2012) was an American football player who played halfback and quarterback for the University of Michigan Wolverines in 1942, 1946, and 1947.
George Robert "Bob" Humphrys (16 April 1952 – 18 August 2008) was a Welsh broadcaster, chiefly known as a sports presenter on BBC Wales.
In modern Western body piercing, a wide variety of materials are used.
The Bogdanov affair is an academic dispute regarding the legitimacy of a series of theoretical physics papers written by French twins '''Igor''' and '''Grichka Bogdanov''' (alternately spelt Bogdanoff).
The Bojinka plot (بوجينكا; Oplan Bojinka) was a large-scale, three-phase attack planned by terrorists Ramzi Yousef and Khalid Sheikh Mohammed for January 1995.
Bomb disposal is the process by which hazardous explosive devices are rendered safe.
A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton.
Bone age is the degree of maturation of a child's bones.
A bone fracture (sometimes abbreviated FRX or Fx, Fx, or #) is a medical condition in which there is a partial or complete break in the continuity of the bone.
"Boom" is a song and the first single from rapper Royce da 5'9"'s debut studio album Rock City (Version 2.0) which was released in 2002 through E1 Music (formerly "Koch Records) and Game Recordings after another record label had turned down his first version of the album.
(Banks of the Seine at Argenteuil) is an oil painting controversially not accepted by leading fine arts experts to be a work by Claude Monet.
Boris Innokentievich Zubarev (Зубарев Борис Иннокентьевич; 20 April 1875, Saint Petersburg — 15 July 1952, Perm) was a Russian physicist.
Boron suboxide (chemical formula B6O) is a solid compound with a structure built of eight icosahedra at the apexes of the rhombohedral unit cell.
The Botanischer Garten der Universität Würzburg (9 hectares) is a botanical garden maintained by the University of Würzburg.
Bowel management is the process which a person with a bowel disability uses to manage fecal incontinence or constipation.
Bowel obstruction, also known as intestinal obstruction, is a mechanical or functional obstruction of the intestines which prevents the normal movement of the products of digestion.
Bowral and District Hospital is an acute care public hospital servicing the Southern Highlands region in New South Wales, Australia.
A boxer's fracture is the break of the 5th metacarpal bones of the hand near the knuckle.
The Australian Centre for Neutron Scattering (ACNS), formerly the Bragg Institute, is a landmark neutron and X-ray scattering facility in Australia.
The Bragg peak is a pronounced peak on the Bragg curve which plots the energy loss of ionizing radiation during its travel through matter.
In physics, a Bragg plane is a plane in reciprocal space which bisects a reciprocal lattice vector, \scriptstyle \mathbf, at right angles.
In physics, Bragg's law, or Wulff–Bragg's condition, a special case of Laue diffraction, gives the angles for coherent and incoherent scattering from a crystal lattice.
Braggite is a sulfide mineral of platinum, palladium and nickel with chemical formula: (Pt, Pd, Ni)S.
Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.
In medicine, breast imaging is the representation or reproduction of a breast's form.
The Brian Piccolo Award is an honor that is given to players of the Chicago Bears.
A brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) is defined as the brightest galaxy in a cluster of galaxies.
The British Institute of Radiology (BIR) is a radiology society and charity based in London, United Kingdom.
Bronchography is a radiological technique, which involves x-raying the respiratory tree after coating the airways with contrast.
Bronchoscopy is an endoscopic technique of visualizing the inside of the airways for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.
The Bronx Zoo is a zoo located within Bronx Park in the Bronx, a borough of New York City.
Brookhaven Instruments Corporation is a Nova Instruments company.
Brooklyn Technical High School, commonly referred to as Brooklyn Tech, and administratively designated as High School 430, is a New York City public high school that specializes in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.
The Brooks College of Health is a college at the University of North Florida.
Brown dwarfs are substellar objects that occupy the mass range between the heaviest gas giant planets and the lightest stars, having masses between approximately 13 to 75–80 times that of Jupiter, or approximately to about.
Bruno Pontecorvo (Бру́но Макси́мович Понтеко́рво, Bruno Maksimovich Pontecorvo; 22 August 1913 – 24 September 1993) was an Italian nuclear physicist, an early assistant of Enrico Fermi and the author of numerous studies in high energy physics, especially on neutrinos.
Bruno Benedetto Rossi (13 April 1905 – 21 November 1993) was an Italian experimental physicist.
The bis-triazinyl bipyridines (BTBPs) are a class of chemical compounds which are tetradentate ligands similar in shape to quaterpyridine.
Buckminsterfullerene is a type of fullerene with the formula C60.
Buddy's Circus is an American animated short film.
The Bullet Cluster (1E 0657-558) consists of two colliding clusters of galaxies.
Burgersdorp Hospital is a Provincial government funded hospital for the Gariep Local Municipality area in Burgersdorp Eastern Cape in South Africa.
A burn is a type of injury to skin, or other tissues, caused by heat, cold, electricity, chemicals, friction, or radiation.
Bursaite is a sulfosalt of the lillianite family.
The Bursting Pulsar (GRO J1744-28) is a low-mass x-ray binary with a period of 11.8 days.
Buschke–Ollendorff syndrome, also known as dermatofibrosis lenticularis disseminata, is a rare genetic disorder associated with LEMD3.
Butterworth Hospital is a Provincial government funded hospital for the Mnquma Local Municipality area in Butterworth, Eastern Cape in South Africa.
Major Charles Edmund Stanley Phillips OBE FIP FRSE (1871–1945) was a 20th-century British physicist and radiologist.
Trenitalia c2c Limited, Trenitalia c2c Limited formerly NXET Trains Limited trading as c2c, is an English train operating company owned by Trenitalia that operates the Essex Thameside railway franchise.
Cabergoline (brand names Dostinex and others), an ergot derivative, is a potent dopamine receptor agonist on D2 receptors.
Cachuela Esperanza is a village in the Bolivian Departamento Beni.
Cadang-cadang is a disease caused by Coconut cadang-cadang viroid (CCCVd), a lethal viroid of coconut (Cocos nucifera), anahaw (Saribus rotundifolius) buri (Corypha utan), and African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis).
Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is a stable crystalline compound formed from cadmium and tellurium.
Cadmium tungstate (CdWO4 or CWO), the cadmium salt of tungstic acid, is a dense, chemically inert solid which is used as a scintillation crystal to detect gamma rays.
Caesium (British spelling and IUPAC spelling) or cesium (American spelling) is a chemical element with symbol Cs and atomic number 55.
Caesium nitrate or cesium nitrate is a chemical compound with the chemical formula CsNO3.
Cala Provincial Hospital is a Provincial government funded hospital for the Sakhisizwe Local Municipality area in Cala, Eastern Cape, in South Africa.
A calcaneal fracture is a break of the calcaneus (heel bone).
Calcific bursitis refers to calcium deposits within the bursae.
Calcific tendinitis is a form of tendinitis, a disorder characterized by deposits of hydroxyapatite (a crystalline calcium phosphate) in any tendon of the body, but most commonly in the tendons of the rotator cuff (shoulder), causing pain and inflammation.
A calculus (plural calculi), often called a stone, is a concretion of material, usually mineral salts, that forms in an organ or duct of the body.
The Camborne School of Mines (Cornish: Scoll Balow Cambron), commonly abbreviated to CSM, was founded in 1888.
Cambria (1889-1928) is a ghost town located in the Black Hills of Weston County, Wyoming, United States.
Camden Medical is a private medical centre in Singapore.
Camelopardalis is a large but obscure constellation of the northern sky representing a giraffe.
The Canadian Synchrotron Radiation Facility (CSRF) (Institut canadien du rayonnement synchrotron – ICRS) was Canada's national synchrotron facility from 1983–2005.
Cancer in cats is the leading cause of death among older animals.
Toffee apples, also known as candy apples in North America, are whole apples covered in a hard toffee or sugar candy coating, with a stick inserted as a handle.
The Canterbury-St Martin's hoard is a coin-hoard found in the 19th century at Canterbury, Kent dating from the 6th century.
Canzibe Hospital is a Provincial government funded hospital in Canzibe, Eastern Cape in South Africa.
Capella, also designated Alpha Aurigae (α Aurigae, abbreviated Alpha Aur, α Aur), is the brightest star in the constellation of Auriga, the sixth-brightest in the night sky, and the third-brightest in the northern celestial hemisphere after Arcturus and Vega.
CapeRay Medical (Pty) Ltd is a privately held company based in Cape Town, South Africa, that develops, manufactures, and supplies medical imaging equipment for the diagnosis of breast cancer.
Captain Scarlet is the fictional main character in Gerry Anderson's British Supermarionation science-fiction television series Captain Scarlet and the Mysterons and its computer-animated remake, Gerry Anderson's New Captain Scarlet.
Captain Ultra (Griffin Gogol) is a fictional character, a superhero appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics.
Captain Universe is a fictional character, a superhero appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon fiber testing is a material science test involving the testing of all carbon fiber containing materials.
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.
Cardiac catheterization (heart cath) is the insertion of a catheter into a chamber or vessel of the heart.
Cardiac imaging techniques include coronary catheterization, echocardiogram, Intravascular ultrasound, Cardiac PET scan, Cardiac CT scan and Cardiac MRI.
An atrial myxoma is a benign tumor of the heart, most commonly found within the left and then the right atria on the interatrial septum.
Cardiomegaly is a medical condition in which the heart is enlarged.
The cardiophrenic angle is the angle between the heart and the diaphragm, as seen on imaging (most commonly X-ray).
Carestream Health, formerly Eastman Kodak Company's Health Group, is an independent subsidiary of Onex Corporation, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Cargo scanning or non-intrusive inspection (NII) refers to non-destructive methods of inspecting and identifying goods in transportation systems.
Carl Clauberg (28 September 1898 – 9 August 1957) was a German gynecologist who conducted medical experiments on human subjects (mainly Jewish) at Auschwitz concentration camp.
Not to be confused with bioethicist Carl E. Schneider or psychologist Kurt Schneider.Carl Schneider (December 19, 1891 in Gembitz, Kreis Mogilno, Province of Posen – December 11, 1946 in Frankfurt am Main), professor at Heidelberg University, (1933–1945) chairman of its department of Psychiatry, director of its clinic, was a senior researcher for the Action T4 euthanasia program.
Carla Killough McClafferty (born July 11, 1958), is an American author of non-fiction for children, writing mostly about science and history.
Carlton Bolling College is an 11–18 co-educational Community school, located in Bradford in West Yorkshire, England.
Carol Jo Crannell (November 15, 1938 – May 10, 2009) was a solar physicist known for her work on solar flares and on the astrophysical observation of x-rays and gamma rays.
Dame Carole Jordan, (born 19 July 1941) is a British physicist, astrophysicist, astronomer and academic.
Caroli disease (communicating cavernous ectasia, or congenital cystic dilatation of the intrahepatic biliary tree) is a rare inherited disorder characterized by cystic dilatation (or ectasia) of the bile ducts within the liver.
Cartilage is a resilient and smooth elastic tissue, a rubber-like padding that covers and protects the ends of long bones at the joints, and is a structural component of the rib cage, the ear, the nose, the bronchial tubes, the intervertebral discs, and many other body components.
Case Western Reserve University (also known as Case Western Reserve, Case Western, Case, and CWRU) is a private doctorate-granting university in Cleveland, Ohio.
In quantum field theory, the Casimir effect and the Casimir–Polder force are physical forces arising from a quantized field.
Castle Bravo was the first in a series of high-yield thermonuclear weapon design tests conducted by the United States at Bikini Atoll, Marshall Islands, as part of Operation Castle.
Cats, like all living organisms, occasionally have mutations that affect their body type.
The health of domestic cats is a well studied area in veterinary medicine.
The Cat's Eye Nebula or NGC 6543, is a relatively bright planetary nebula in the northern constellation of Draco, discovered by William Herschel on February 15, 1786.
Cataclysmic variable stars (CV) are stars which irregularly increase in brightness by a large factor, then drop back down to a quiescent state.
A catheterization laboratory or cath lab is an examination room in a hospital or clinic with diagnostic imaging equipment used to visualize the arteries of the heart and the chambers of the heart and treat any stenosis or abnormality found.
The cathode ray tube (CRT) is a vacuum tube that contains one or more electron guns and a phosphorescent screen, and is used to display images.
Cathodoluminescence is an optical and electromagnetic phenomenon in which electrons impacting on a luminescent material such as a phosphor, cause the emission of photons which may have wavelengths in the visible spectrum.
Cancer is a disease caused by genetic changes leading to uncontrolled cell growth and tumor formation.
Blessed Cecília Schelingová (24 December 1916 – 31 July 1955) - in religious Zdenka - was a Slovak Roman Catholic professed religious of the Congregation of the Sisters of Charity of the Holy Cross and a victim of communist persecution in the former Czechoslovakia.
Cecil Rupert Chaworth Lyster CBE (14 December 1859 – 26 January 1920) was a British physician, electrotherapist and radiologist.
CECOSESOLA (Central de las cooperativas de Lara, Cooperatives of Social Services of Lara State) is a hierarchy-free, solidary association of cooperatives in Venezuela, with emphasis on cultivation and distribution of food and health care.
Cefn Coed Colliery Museum is a former coal mine, now operating as a museum.
Celestial navigation, also known as astronavigation, is the ancient and modern practice of position fixing that enables a navigator to transition through a space without having to rely on estimated calculations, or dead reckoning, to know their position.
The Celobar incident was a pharmaceutical fraud that occurred in Brazil in 2003, and resulted in the death of nine X-ray patients by barium poisoning.
In astronomy, CENBOL (derived from "CENtrifugal pressure supported BOundary Layer) is the region of an accretion flow around a black hole.
Centaurus A or NGC 5128 is a galaxy in the constellation of Centaurus.
The Centaurus Cluster (A3526) is a cluster of hundreds of galaxies, located approximately 170 million light years away in the Centaurus constellation.
Centaurus X-3 (4U 1118-60) is an X-ray pulsar with a period of 4.84 seconds.
The Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences(CNMS) was the first to open of the five Nanoscale Science Research Centers the United States Department of Energy sponsors.
The Center for Nanoscale Materials is one of five Nanoscale Science Research Centers the United States Department of Energy sponsors.
The Central Industrial Security Force (CISF) (established in its present form: 15 June 1983) is a Central Armed Police Force in India.
The Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering (CIAE) is a higher seat of learning, research and development in the field of agriculture, situated in the lake city of Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India.
A vigorous ground-based cellular and animal model research program will help quantify the risk to the CNS from space radiation exposure on future long distance space missions and promote the development of optimized countermeasures.
Centro de Salud Familiar La Fe (also known as La Fe Clinic and formerly known as the Father Rahm Clinic) is a health center located in South El Paso in the El Segundo Barrio neighborhood.
A cephalogram is an X-ray of the craniofacial area.
A cerebral arteriovenous malformation (cerebral AVM, CAVM, cAVM) is an abnormal connection between the arteries and veins in the brain—specifically, an arteriovenous malformation in the cerebrum.
Cerebral atrophy is a common feature of many of the diseases that affect the brain.
The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) is an experiment in astroparticle physics to search for axions originating from the Sun.
Cervical cancer is a cancer arising from the cervix.
Cervical cancer staging is the assessment of cervical cancer to decide how far the disease has progressed.
A cervical collar, also known as a neck brace, is a medical device used to support a person's neck.
A cervical fracture, commonly called a broken neck, is a catastrophic fracture of any of the seven cervical vertebrae in the neck.
Cervical spine disorders are illnesses that affect the cervical spine, which is made up of the upper first seven vertebrae, encasing and shielding the spinal cord.
Chalmers Hospital is an NHS general hospital located in Banff, Scotland, a small coastal town around 46.5 miles north west of Aberdeen.
The Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S) is an image taken by the Chandra X-ray Observatory satellite.
The Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO), previously known as the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), is a Flagship-class space observatory launched on STS-93 by NASA on July 23, 1999.
Chandrayaan-1 (lit: Moon vehicle) was India's first lunar probe.
Chang'e 1 was an unmanned Chinese lunar-orbiting spacecraft, part of the first phase of the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program.
Channelling is the process that constrains the path of a charged particle in a crystalline solid Many physical phenomena can occur when a charged particle is incident upon a solid target, e.g., elastic scattering, inelastic energy-loss processes, secondary-electron emission, electromagnetic radiation, nuclear reactions, etc.
Characteristic X-rays are emitted when outer-shell electrons fill a vacancy in the inner shell of an atom, releasing X-rays in a pattern that is "characteristic" to each element.
A charge amplifier is an electronic current integrator that produces a voltage output proportional to the integrated value of the input current.
Charlene Stuart Meade (née Todman born 1931 in Sydney) is the first Australian to participate in the Stoke Mandeville Games, the precursor to the modern Paralympic Games.
Charles Christian Lauritsen (April 4, 1892 – April 13, 1968) was a Danish-born American physicist.
Sir Charles Galton Darwin, KBE, MC, FRS (18 December 1887 – 31 December 1962) was an English physicist who served as director of the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) during the Second World War.
Charles Glover Barkla FRS FRSE (7 June 1877 – 23 October 1944) was a British physicist, and the winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1917 for his work in X-ray spectroscopy and related areas in the study of X-rays (Roentgen rays).
Charles Lacy Veach (September 18, 1944 – October 3, 1995) was a USAF fighter pilot and NASA astronaut.
Charles Thomson Rees Wilson, CH, FRS (14 February 1869 – 15 November 1959) was a Scottish physicist and meteorologist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics for his invention of the cloud chamber.
Charles Thurstan Holland (1863–1941) was a general practitioner in Liverpool who was best known by his pioneering research in the field of Radiology.
Charles Wisner Barrell (6 July, 1885 – 20 June 1974) was an American writer.
Charles Russell "Charlie" Dunn (c. 1898 – September 23, 1993) was an American bootmaker of handmade Western, or cowboy, boots for more than 80 years.
Victor Chase Stein (also known as TalkbackRunaways: Volume 1, #6), is a fictional character, a superhero in the Marvel Comics Runaways.
Chavakachcheri Hospital is a government hospital in Chavakachcheri, Sri Lanka.
Chemical physics is a subdiscipline of chemistry and physics that investigates physicochemical phenomena using techniques from atomic and molecular physics and condensed matter physics; it is the branch of physics that studies chemical processes from the point of view of physics.
Chemistry: A Volatile History is a 2010 BBC documentary on the history of chemistry presented by Jim Al-Khalili.
Chimene Mary "Chemmy" Crawford-Alcott (Alcott; born 10 July 1982) is a British former World Cup alpine ski racer.
Chennai International Airport is an international airport serving the city of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India and its metropolitan area.
Cherenkov radiation (sometimes spelled "Cerenkov") is electromagnetic radiation emitted when a charged particle (such as an electron) passes through a dielectric medium at a speed greater than the phase velocity of light in that medium.
Cherubism is a rare genetic disorder that causes prominence in the lower portion in the face.
Chest photofluorography, or abreugraphy (also called mass miniature radiography), is a photofluorography technique for mass screening for tuberculosis using a miniature (50 to 100 mm) photograph of the screen of an X-ray fluoroscopy of the thorax, first developed in 1936.
A chest radiograph, colloquially called a chest X-ray (CXR), or chest film, is a projection radiograph of the chest used to diagnose conditions affecting the chest, its contents, and nearby structures.
"Chief of Hearts" is the eighteenth episode of The Simpsons' twenty-first season.
Chișinău International Airport is Moldova's main international airport, located southeast of the centre of Chișinău, the capital city.
Congenital hemidysplasia with ichthyosiform erythroderma and limb defects (also known as "CHILD syndrome") is a genetic disorder with onset at birth seen almost exclusively in females.
Juvenile arthritis (JA), also known as childhood arthritis, is any form of chronic arthritis or chronic arthritis-related conditions which affects individuals under the age of 16.
Childhood cancer (also known as pediatric cancer) is cancer in a child.
Childhood rhabdomyosarcoma is a cancer that develops out of the cells that form skeletal muscles.
The Chimala Mission Hospital is a Christian hospital located in Chimala (village), Mbarali (district), Mbeya (region), Tanzania (country), East Africa.
Chinchilla is a town and a locality in the Western Downs Region, Queensland, Australia.
The space program of the People's Republic of China is directed by the China National Space Administration (CNSA).
Chiropractic is a form of alternative medicine mostly concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of mechanical disorders of the musculoskeletal system, especially the spine.
Chiropractors primarily use manipulation ("adjustment") of the spine as a treatment.
Cholangiography is the imaging of the bile duct (also known as the biliary tree) by x-rays.
Christopher David Impey (born 25 January 1956) is a British astronomer, educator, and author.
Christ taking leave of his Mother is a subject in Christian art, most commonly found in Northern art of the 15th and 16th centuries.
The Christie NHS Foundation Trust in Withington, Manchester, is one of the largest cancer treatment centres in Europe.
Chromosomal crossover (or crossing over) is the exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes that results in recombinant chromosomes during sexual reproduction.
The Cinema of India consists of films produced in the nation of India.
The cinema of West Bengal (ṭôliuḍ), also known as Tollywood refers to the Indian Bengali language film industry based in the Tollygunge region of Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
Circinus is a small, faint constellation in the southern sky, first defined in 1756 by the French astronomer Nicolas-Louis de Lacaille.
A circular bacterial chromosome is a bacterial chromosome in the form of a molecule of circular DNA.
A circumstellar disc (or circumstellar disk) is a torus, pancake or ring-shaped accumulation of matter composed of gas, dust, planetesimals, asteroids or collision fragments in orbit around a star.
Clann na Poblachta (– "Family/Children of the Republic") was an Irish republican political party founded in 1946 by Seán MacBride, a former Chief of Staff of the Irish Republican Army.
Clarence Augustus Chant (May 31, 1865–November 18, 1956) was a Canadian astronomer and physicist.
Clarence Bert "Herschie" Herschberger (July 24, 1876 – December 14, 1936) was an American football fullback, punter and placekicker.
Clarence Madison Dally (1865–1904) was an American glassblower, noted as an assistant to Thomas Edison in his work on X-rays and as an early victim of radiation dermatitis and its complications.
Classical electromagnetism or classical electrodynamics is a branch of theoretical physics that studies the interactions between electric charges and currents using an extension of the classical Newtonian model.
Claudio Pellegrini (born in Rome on May 9, 1935) is an Italian physicist known for his pioneering work on X-ray free electron lasers and collective effects in relativistic particle beams.
Claudius Regaud (born 30 January 1870 in Lyons, France; died 29 December 1940 in Couzon-au-Mont-d'Or, France) was a French doctor and biologist, one of the pioneers in radiotherapy at the Curie Institute.
Clay minerals are one of the most diverse minerals but all have a commonalty of crystal or grain sizes below 2 µm.
Clay-shoveler's fracture is a stable fracture through the spinous process of a vertebra occurring at any of the lower cervical or upper thoracic vertebrae, classically at C6 or C7.
Clear-cell sarcoma (formerly known as malignant melanoma of the soft parts) is a rare form of cancer called sarcoma.
Cleidocranial dysostosis (CCD), also called cleidocranial dysplasia, is a birth defect that mostly affects the bones and teeth.
Clifford Alan Pickover (born August 15, 1957) is an American author, editor, and columnist in the fields of science, mathematics, science fiction, innovation, and creativity and is employed at the IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center in Yorktown, New York.
Clifford Howard Stockwell (September 26, 1897 – April 26, 1987) was a Canadian geologist, who published many scientific papers, reports and memoirs in the fields of Mineralogy, Structural Geology, Petrology, and Stratigraphy.
A clinic (or outpatient clinic or ambulatory care clinic) is a healthcare facility that is primarily focused on the care of outpatients.
Clinical psychology is an integration of science, theory and clinical knowledge for the purpose of understanding, preventing, and relieving psychologically-based distress or dysfunction and to promote subjective well-being and personal development.
The clivus (Latin for "slope") is a bony part of the cranium at the skull base, a shallow depression behind the dorsum sellæ that slopes obliquely backward.
The Cloverleaf quasar (H1413+117, QSO J1415+1129) is a bright, gravitationally lensed quasar.
Coarctation of the aorta (CoA or CoAo), also called aortic narrowing, is a congenital condition whereby the aorta is narrow, usually in the area where the ductus arteriosus (ligamentum arteriosum after regression) inserts.
A coccyx fracture is a fracture of the coccyx, commonly called a 'broken tailbone' or ‘puzzle fracture.’ The coccyx is located at the base of the spine, under the sacrum.
The Cockcroft–Walton (CW) generator, or multiplier, is an electric circuit that generates a high DC voltage from a low-voltage AC or pulsing DC input.
Coded Apertures or Coded-Aperture Masks are grids, gratings, or other patterns of materials opaque to various wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation.
Coeliac disease, also spelled celiac disease, is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the small intestine.
Cofimvaba Hospital is a Provincial government funded hospital in Cofimvaba, Eastern Cape in South Africa.
Coherent diffractive imaging (CDI) is a “lensless” technique for 2D or 3D reconstruction of the image of nanoscale structures such as nanotubes, nanocrystals, porous nanocrystalline layers, defects, potentially proteins, and more.
"Cold Turkey" is a song written by John Lennon, released as a single in 1969 by the Plastic Ono Band on Apple Records, catalogue Apples 1001 in the United Kingdom, Apple 1813 in the United States.
The type II and XI collagenopathies are a group of disorders that affect connective tissue, the tissue that supports the body's joints and organs.
A Colles' fracture is a type of fracture of the distal forearm in which the broken end of the radius is bent backwards.
A colliding-wind binary is a binary star system in which the two members are massive stars that emit powerful, radiatively-driven stellar winds.
In chemistry, a colloid is a mixture in which one substance of microscopically dispersed insoluble particles is suspended throughout another substance.
Daniel "Colt" McCoy (born September 5, 1986) is an American football quarterback for the Washington Redskins of the National Football League (NFL).
The columella (meaning "little column") or (in older texts) pillar is a central anatomical feature of a coiled snail shell, a gastropod shell.
The coma is the nebulous envelope around the nucleus of a comet, formed when the comet passes close to the Sun on its highly elliptical orbit; as the comet warms, parts of it sublime.
Coma Berenices is an ancient asterism in the northern sky which has been defined as one of the 88 modern constellations.
A comet is an icy small Solar System body that, when passing close to the Sun, warms and begins to release gases, a process called outgassing.
Comet Hyakutake (formally designated C/1996 B2) is a comet, discovered on 31 January 1996, that passed very close to Earth in March of that year.
Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9 (formally designated D/1993 F2) was a comet that broke apart in July 1992 and collided with Jupiter in July 1994, providing the first direct observation of an extraterrestrial collision of Solar System objects.
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) refers to pneumonia (any of several lung diseases) contracted by a person with little contact with the healthcare system.
Category:Television technology Category:Display technology.
A Compound refractive lens (CRL) is a series of individual lenses arranged in a linear array in order to achieve focusing of X-rays in the energy range of 5-40 keV.
The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) was a space observatory detecting photons with energies from 20 keV to 30 GeV, in Earth orbit from 1991 to 2000.
Compton scattering, discovered by Arthur Holly Compton, is the scattering of a photon by a charged particle, usually an electron.
Photo courtesy of Dr.
Computational photography or computational imaging refers to digital image capture and processing techniques that use digital computation instead of optical processes.
Computed tomography (CT) scanning of the head uses a series of x-rays of the head taken from many different directions.
Computer vision is a field that deals with how computers can be made for gaining high-level understanding from digital images or videos.
Computer-aided detection (CADe), also called computer-aided diagnosis (CADx), are systems that assist doctors in the interpretation of medical images.
Computer-assisted surgery (CAS) represents a surgical concept and set of methods, that use computer technology for surgical planning, and for guiding or performing surgical interventions.
Computer-generated imagery (CGI) is the application of computer graphics to create or contribute to images in art, printed media, video games, films, television programs, shorts, commercials, videos, and simulators.
Condensed matter physics is the field of physics that deals with the macroscopic and microscopic physical properties of matter.
In microtomography X-ray scanners, cone beam reconstruction is one of two common scanning methods, the other being Fan beam reconstruction.
Congenital dermal sinus is an uncommon form of cranial or spinal dysraphism.
Congenital distal spinal muscular atrophy (congenital dSMA) is a hereditary genetic condition characterized by muscle wasting (atrophy), particularly of distal muscles in legs and hands, and by early-onset contractures (permanent shortening of a muscle or joint) of the hip, knee, and ankle.
Congenital stenosis of vena cava is a congenital anomaly in which the superior vena cava or inferior vena cava has an aberrant interruption or coarctation.
Congenital syphilis is syphilis present in utero and at birth, and occurs when a child is born to a mother with syphilis.
Congenital vertebral anomalies are a collection of malformations of the spine.
Connections is a 10-episode documentary television series and 1978 book (Connections, based on the series) created, written, and presented by science historian James Burke.
Consent searches are searches made by law enforcement personnel in the United States based on the consent of the individual whose person or property is being searched.
The conservation and restoration of ivory objects is activities dedicated to the preservation and projection of ivory object that have a value either historically or personally.
A conservation scientist is a museum professional who works in the field of conservation science and whose focus is on the research of cultural heritage (e.g. art, artifacts, buildings, and monuments) through scientific inquiry.
The conservation-restoration of cultural heritage focuses on protection and care of tangible cultural heritage, including artworks, architecture, archaeology, and museum collections.
Conspiracy theories are a prevalent feature of culture and politics in Turkey.
The Constellation-X Observatory (HTXS or Con-X) was a mission concept for an X-ray space observatory to be operated by NASA; in 2008 it was merged with ESA and JAXA efforts in the same direction to produce the International X-ray Observatory project, announced on July 24, 2008.
The construction of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System included over of oil pipeline, 12 pump stations, and a new tanker port.
The Voyager Golden Record contains 116 images plus a calibration image and a variety of natural sounds, such as those made by surf, wind, and thunder, and animal sounds, including the songs of birds, whales and dolphins.
Continuous fever is a type or pattern of fever in which temperature does not touch the baseline and remains above normal throughout the day.
Contortion (sometimes contortionism) is a performance art in which performers, contortionists, showcase their skills of extreme physical flexibility.
In medicine, a contraindication is a condition or factor that serves as a reason to withhold a certain medical treatment due to the harm that it would cause the patient.
A contrast agent (or contrast medium) is a substance used to increase the contrast of structures or fluids within the body in medical imaging.
Control rods are used in nuclear reactors to control the fission rate of uranium and plutonium.
The United Nations Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW or CCWC), concluded at Geneva on October 10, 1980, and entered into force in December 1983, seeks to prohibit or restrict the use of certain conventional weapons which are considered excessively injurious or whose effects are indiscriminate.
A cooling flow occurs according to the theory that the intracluster medium (ICM) in the centres of galaxy clusters should be rapidly cooling at the rate of tens to thousands of solar masses per year.
In baseball, a corked bat is a specially modified baseball bat that has been filled with cork or other lighter, less dense substances to make the bat lighter.
Corneal transplantation, also known as corneal grafting, is a surgical procedure where a damaged or diseased cornea is replaced by donated corneal tissue (the graft).
The Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-based Sciences and Education (CLASSE) is a particle accelerator facility located in Wilson Laboratory on the Cornell University campus in Ithaca, NY.
A corona (Latin, 'crown') is an aura of plasma that surrounds the Sun and other stars.
Corona Borealis is a small constellation in the Northern Celestial Hemisphere.
Coronal holes are areas where the Sun's corona is colder, hence darker, and has lower-density plasma than average because there is lower energy and gas levels.
Coronal loops form the basic structure of the lower corona and transition region of the Sun.
A coronal mass ejection (CME) is a significant release of plasma and magnetic field from the solar corona.
In astronomy and in astrophysics, for radiative losses of the solar corona, it is meant the energy flux radiated from the external atmosphere of the Sun (traditionally divided into chromosphere, transition region and corona), and, in particular, the processes of production of the radiation coming from the solar corona and transition region, where the plasma is optically-thin.
A coronary catheterization is a minimally invasive procedure to access the coronary circulation and blood filled chambers of the heart using a catheter.
Corpora arenacea (or brain sand or acervuli or corpus arenaceum) are calcified structures in the pineal gland and other areas of the brain such as the choroid plexus.
Corrosion in space is the corrosion of materials occurring in outer space.
Cosmic background radiation is electromagnetic radiation from the big bang.
Cosmic infrared background is infrared radiation caused by stellar dust.
Cosmic Odyssey is a 2002 documentary television series about the cosmos, created by Avanti Pictures, narrated by William Shatner, and produced by Soapbox Entertainment for The Discovery Channel.
Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System and even from distant galaxies.
Cosmic Vision (also known as Cosmic Vision 2015–2025) is a European Space Agency (ESA) long-term space science missions programme spanning between years 2015 and 2025, a successor to the Horizon 2000 long-term scientific programme.
A cosmic-ray observatory is a scientific installation built to detect high-energy-particles coming from space called cosmic rays.
A cough is a sudden and often repetitively occurring, protective reflex, which helps to clear the large breathing passages from fluids, irritants, foreign particles and microbes.
The measurement of ionizing radiation is sometimes expressed as being a rate of counts per unit time as registered by a radiation monitoring instrument, for which counts per minute (cpm) and counts per second (cps) are commonly used quantities.
The Crab Nebula (catalogue designations M1, NGC 1952, Taurus A) is a supernova remnant in the constellation of Taurus.
The Crab Pulsar (PSR B0531+21) is a relatively young neutron star.
Cradock Provincial Hospital is a Provincial government funded hospital for the Inxuba Yethemba Local Municipality area in Cradock, Eastern Cape in South Africa.
Craniopharyngioma is a rare type of brain tumor derived from pituitary gland embryonic tissue that occurs most commonly in children, but also affects adults.
The Crescent Nebula (also known as NGC 6888, Caldwell 27, Sharpless 105) is an emission nebula in the constellation Cygnus, about 5000 light-years away from Earth.
This is a list of criminal (or arguably, allegedly, or potentially criminal) acts intentionally involving radioactive substances.
In epistemology, criteria of truth (or tests of truth) are standards and rules used to judge the accuracy of statements and claims.
A Crookes tube (also Crookes–Hittorf tube) is an early experimental electrical discharge tube, with partial vacuum, invented by English physicist William Crookes and others around 1869-1875, in which cathode rays, streams of electrons, were discovered.
In geometry and science, a cross section is the non-empty intersection of a solid body in three-dimensional space with a plane, or the analog in higher-dimensional spaces.
When two particles interact, their mutual cross section is the area transverse to their relative motion within which they must meet in order to scatter from each other.
Croup, also known as laryngotracheobronchitis, is a type of respiratory infection that is usually caused by a virus.
Cryo bio-crystallography is the application of crystallography at cryogenic temperatures.
A crystal oscillator is an electronic oscillator circuit that uses the mechanical resonance of a vibrating crystal of piezoelectric material to create an electrical signal with a precise frequency.
Metals, and specifically rare-earth elements (RE), form numerous chemical complexes with boron.
A crystallographic database is a database specifically designed to store information about the structure of molecules and crystals.
Crystallography is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in crystalline solids (see crystal structure).
A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.
Cue Card (foaled 30 April 2006) is a British Thoroughbred racehorse.
German culture has spanned the entire German-speaking world.
A cultured pearl is a pearl created by an oyster farmer under controlled conditions.
Cunderdin is a town located in the Wheatbelt region of Western Australia 156 km east of Perth, along the Great Eastern Highway.
Curiosity is a car-sized rover designed to explore Gale Crater on Mars as part of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory mission (MSL).
Curious George Goes to the Hospital is a children's book written and illustrated by Margret Rey and H. A. Rey and published by Houghton Mifflin in 1966.
Curse of the Faceless Man is a 1958 independently made American low-budget black-and-white horror film, produced by Robert E. Kent, directed by Edward L. Cahn, that stars Richard Anderson, Elaine Edwards, Adele Mara, and Luis van Rooten.
Cutting for Stone (2009) is a novel written by Ethiopian-born Indian-American medical doctor and author Abraham Verghese.
CXOU J164710.2-455216 is an anomalous X-ray pulsar in the massive galactic open cluster Westerlund 1.
The CyberKnife is a frameless robotic radiosurgery system used for treating benign tumors, malignant tumors and other medical conditions.
The Cybermen are a fictional race of cyborgs who are among the most persistent enemies of the Doctor in the British science fiction television programme, Doctor Who.
Cybermed Inc. (Korean: 사이버메드), located in Seoul, South Korea, has been active in the field of 3D image processing and dental software since its conception in 1998.
The cyclol hypothesis is the first structural model of a folded, globular protein.
Cygnus is a northern constellation lying on the plane of the Milky Way, deriving its name from the Latinized Greek word for swan.
Cygnus X-1 (abbreviated Cyg X-1) is a galactic X-ray source in the constellation Cygnus, and the first such source widely accepted to be a black hole.
Cygnus X-3 is one of the stronger binary X-ray sources in the sky.
A cyst is a closed sac, having a distinct membrane and division compared with the nearby tissue.
Cysticercosis is a tissue infection caused by the young form of the pork tapeworm.
A cystocele, also known as a prolapsed bladder, is a medical condition in which a woman's bladder bulges into her vagina.
The D-DIA or deformation-DIA is an apparatus used for high pressure and high temperature deformation experiments.
Daewoong Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd (Korean: 대웅제약) is a Seoul, South Korea-based bioengineering company operating as a subsidiary of Daewoong Co., Ltd., a global health care group.
DAFNE or DAΦNE (Double Annular Φ Factory for Nice Experiments), is an electron-positron collider at the INFN Frascati National Laboratory in Frascati, Italy.
Daisy Maude Orleman Robinson (November 6, 1869 – March 12, 1942) was an American medical doctor, a dermatologist, decorated for her work in France during World War I.
Damage tolerance is a property of a structure relating to its ability to sustain defects safely until repair can be effected.
Damascus steel was the forged steel composing the blades of swords smithed in the Near East from ingots of wootz steel.
Danish Space Research Institute (DSRI) (Danish: Dansk Rumforskningsinstitut, short DRI or DRKI) was the space agency of Denmark from 1966 to 2005.
Dark matter is a theorized form of matter that is thought to account for approximately 80% of the matter in the universe, and about a quarter of its total energy density.
The Dark Universe Observatory (DUO) is a planned NASA space-based telescope.
The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of emerging technologies for use by the military.
Darren Ng (born 18 December 1983) is a Chinese-Australian professional basketball player.
Data mining in agriculture is a very recent research topic.
David Francis Dravecky (born February 14, 1956) is an American former professional baseball player, a motivational speaker, and an author.
David Arthur Shirley (born March 30, 1934) is an American chemist, best known as the fourth director of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory from 1980 to 1989, and for spearheading the funding and creation of the Advanced Light Source.
David John Axon (1951 – 5 April 2012) was a British astrophysicist specialising in observations of active galactic nuclei.
Dr David Duncan Main (1856-1934) was a British doctor, best known for his medical missionary work in Hangzhou, the capital of the south-eastern Chinese Province Zhejiang, during the late 1800s and early 1900s.
Sir David Hardie (4 June 1856 – 11 November 1945) was an Australian medical practitioner.
David Locke Webster (November 6, 1888 – December 17, 1976) was an American physicist and physics professor, whose early research on X-rays and Parson's magneton influenced Arthur Compton.
David Israel Macht (February 14, 1882 – October 14, 1961) was a pharmacologist and Doctor of Hebrew Literature, responsible for many contributions to pharmacology during the first half of the 20th century.
David Mervyn Blow (27 June 1931 – 8 June 2004) was an influential British biophysicist.
David Hardy Whiffen FRS(15 August 1922 – 2 December 2002) was an English physicist and pioneer of Infra-red and Electron Spin Resonance known for the "Whiffen Effect".
Dayton Clarence Miller (March 13, 1866 – February 22, 1941) was an American physicist, astronomer, acoustician, and accomplished amateur flautist.
The Dóchas Centre (Irish: lárionad le Dóchas) is a closed, medium security prison, for females aged 18 years and over, located in Mountjoy Prison in Dublin.
The de Sitter effect was described by Willem de Sitter in 1913 (as well as by Daniel Frost Comstock in 1910) and used to support the special theory of relativity against a competing 1908 emission theory by Walther Ritz that postulated a variable speed of light.
Dead Sea Scrolls (also Qumran Caves Scrolls) are ancient Jewish religious, mostly Hebrew, manuscripts found in the Qumran Caves near the Dead Sea.
Christopher Alder was a trainee computer programmer and former British Army paratrooper who had served in the Falklands War and was commended for his service with the Army in Northern Ireland.
In nuclear science, the decay chain refers to a series of radioactive decays of different radioactive decay products as a sequential series of transformations.
The following events occurred in December 1915.
The following events occurred in December 1916.
Deelfontein is a village in the Great Karoo, Northern Cape, region of South Africa on the route of the Pretoria to Cape Town railway.
Degos disease, also known as Köhlmeier-Degos disease or malignant atrophic papulosis (MAP), is an extremely rare condition caused by blockage of arteries and veins.
Delayed puberty is described as delayed puberty with exceptions when an organism has passed the usual age of onset of puberty with no physical or hormonal signs that it is beginning.
The Delhi Metro is a metro system serving Delhi and its satellite cities of Faridabad, Gurgaon, Bahadurgarh, Noida and Ghaziabad in the National Capital Region of India. Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Limited (DMRC), a state-owned company with equal equity participation from the Government of India and the Government of Delhi, built and operates the Delhi Metro. It is the second oldest metro in India after the Kolkata Metro. The Delhi Metro is the world's 10th longest metro system in length and 16th largest in ridership. A member of CoMET, the network consists of seven colour-coded regular lines and the faster Airport Express line, with a total length of serving 208 stations (including 6 on Airport Express line). The system has a mix of underground, at-grade, and elevated stations using both broad-gauge and standard-gauge. The power output is supplied by 25-kilovolt, 50-hertz alternating current through overhead catenary. The trains are usually of six and eight coaches length. DMRC operates over 3,000 trips daily, with first trains starting at around 05:00 and last at 23:30. In the financial year 2016–17, the Delhi Metro had an average daily ridership of 2.76 million passengers and served 100 crore (1.0 billion) riders in total during the year. The Delhi Metro Rail Corporation was certified by the United Nations in 2011 as the first metro rail and rail-based system in the world to get "carbon credits for reducing greenhouse gas emissions" and helping in reducing pollution levels in the city by 630,000 tonnes every year. Planning for the metro started in 1984 when the Delhi Development Authority and the Urban Arts Commission came up with a proposal for developing a multi-modal transport system for the city. Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) was incorporated in May 1995, construction started in 1998, and the first section, on the Red Line, opened in 2002. The development of the network was divided into phases, Phase I containing 3 lines was completed by 2006, and Phase II in 2011. Phase III is scheduled for completion by 2018 (originally planned for 2016). The Rapid Metro Gurgaon which opened in 2013, whilst linked to Delhi Metro by the Yellow Line is a separate metro system (with a different owner/operator from the Delhi Metro), although tokens from the Delhi Metro can be used on its network.
A delta ray is a secondary electron with enough energy to escape a significant distance away from the primary radiation beam and produce further ionization", and is sometimes used to describe any recoil particle caused by secondary ionization.
DEMO (DEMOnstration Power Station) is a proposed nuclear fusion power station that is intended to build upon the ITER experimental nuclear fusion reactor.
Demonstrative evidence is evidence in the form of a representation of an object.
Dene Barton Community Hospital is a small NHS hospital located in Cotford St Luke, near Taunton, Somerset, England.
A dense plasma focus (DPF) is a type of plasma device originally developed as a fusion power device starting in the early 1960s.
Dental avulsion is the complete displacement of a tooth from its socket in alveolar bone owing to trauma.
Dental braces (also known as braces, orthodontic cases, or cases) are devices used in orthodontics that align and straighten teeth and help position them with regard to a person's bite, while also aiming to improve dental health.
Dental radiographs are commonly called X-rays.
A dental therapist is a member of the dental team who provides preventative and restorative dental care, usually for children and adolescents.
Dermatomyositis (DM) is a long term inflammatory disorder which affects muscles.
Dermatophytosis, also known as ringworm, is a fungal infection of the skin.
Deutsche Physik (literally: "German Physics") or Aryan Physics (Arische Physik) was a nationalist movement in the German physics community in the early 1930s.
dextro-Transposition of the great arteries (d-Transposition of the great arteries, dextro-TGA, or d-TGA), sometimes also referred to as complete transposition of the great arteries, is a birth defect in the large arteries of the heart.
Diabetic foot ulcer is a major complication of diabetes mellitus, and probably the major component of the diabetic foot.
Dialectical materialism (sometimes abbreviated diamat) is a philosophy of science and nature developed in Europe and based on the writings of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
Diamond is a solid form of carbon with a diamond cubic crystal structure.
A diamond anvil cell (DAC) is a high-pressure device used in scientific experiments.
Diamond Light Source ("Diamond") is the UK's national synchrotron science facility located at the Harwell Science and Innovation Campus in Oxfordshire.
Dianetics (from Greek dia, meaning "through", and nous, meaning "mind") is a set of ideas and practices regarding the metaphysical relationship between the mind and body created by science fiction writer L. Ron Hubbard.
Diaphragmatic rupture (also called diaphragmatic injury or tear) is a tear of the diaphragm, the muscle across the bottom of the ribcage that plays a crucial role in respiration.
Diastasis symphysis pubis is the separation of normally joined pubic bones, as in the dislocation of the bones, without a fracture.
Diastematomyelia (occasionally diastomyelia) is a congenital disorder in which a part of the spinal cord is split, usually at the level of the upper lumbar vertebra.
Diatrizoate, also known as amidotrizoate, is a contrast agent used during X-rays.
Dibrugarh (Pron:ˌdɪbru:ˈgor) is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India.
Dicomed (or DICOMED) was founded in 1968 and in the early 1970s became a leading manufacturer of precision color film recorders such as the D47 and D48.
A dielectric gas, or insulating gas, is a dielectric material in gaseous state.
A diener is a morgue worker responsible for handling, moving, and cleaning the corpse (though, at some institutions, dieners perform the entire dissection at autopsy).
--> Diffraction refers to various phenomena that occur when a wave encounters an obstacle or a slit.
Diffraction topography (short: "topography") is an quantum beam imaging technique based on Bragg diffraction.
A diffractometer (pronunciation: di-"frak-'tä-m&-t&r) is a measuring instrument for analyzing the structure of a material from the scattering pattern produced when a beam of radiation or particles (such as X-rays or neutrons) interacts with it.
Diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB) is an inflammatory lung disease of unknown cause.
A digital image is a numeric representation, normally binary, of a two-dimensional image.
Digital imaging or digital image acquisition is the creation of a digitally encoded representation of the visual characteristics of an object, such as a physical scene or the interior structure of an object.
Digital motion X-ray (Digital Motion X-Ray: Non-fluoroscopic) Conventional radiography is now used for the recording of motion studies.
Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is a fluoroscopy technique used in interventional radiology to clearly visualize blood vessels in a bony or dense soft tissue environment.
Dihydrogen complexes are coordination complexes containing intact H2 as a ligand.
Dihydroxyacetone, or DHA, also known as glycerone, is a simple saccharide (a triose) with formula.
Direct energy conversion (DEC) or simply direct conversion converts a charged particle's kinetic energy into a voltage.
A directed-energy weapon (DEW) is a ranged weapon system that inflicts damage at a target by emission of highly focused energy, including laser, microwaves and particle beams.
Dirk Bootsma (born 1936) is a Dutch geneticist.
Dirk Coster (October 5, 1889 – February 12, 1950), was a Dutch physicist.
Mary Virginia "Jimmie" Carpenter was a 21-year-old woman from Texarkana, Texas, who went missing in Denton, Texas, in the summer of 1948.
A Disaster Mortuary Operational Response Team or DMORT is a team of experts in the fields of victim identification and mortuary services.
Discoid meniscus is a rare human anatomic variant that usually affects the lateral meniscus of the knee.
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4 inhibitors) are enzyme inhibitors that inhibit the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4).
Many major physiological processes depend on regulation of proteolytic enzyme activity and there can be dramatic consequences when equilibrium between an enzyme and its substrates is disturbed.
The discovery of the neutron and its properties was central to the extraordinary developments in atomic physics that occurred in the first half of the 20th century.
Diseases of the foot generally are not limited, that is they are related to or manifest elsewhere in the body.
Diskagma ("disc-like fragment") is a genus of problematic fossil from a Paleoproterozoic (2200 million years old) paleosol from South Africa, and significant as the oldest likely eukaryote and earliest evidence for life on land.
A distal radius fracture, also known as wrist fracture, is a break of the part of the radius bone which is close to the wrist.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
DNA glycosylases are a family of enzymes involved in base excision repair, classified under EC number EC 3.2.2.
DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome.
DNA repair protein XRCC4 also known as X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 4 or XRCC4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the XRCC4 gene.
A doctor's office in American English, a doctor's surgery in British English, a doctor’s room in Australian English or a doctor's practice, is a medical facility in which one or more medical doctors, usually general practitioners (GP), receive and treat patients.
Document cameras, also known as visual presenters, visualisers (in the United Kingdom), digital overheads, or docucams, are real-time image capture devices for displaying an object to a large audience.
Doege–Potter syndrome (DPS) is a paraneoplastic syndrome in which hypoglycemia is associated with solitary fibrous tumors.
Donald Lee "Don" Demeter (born June 25, 1935) is an American former professional baseball player.
Dora Nginza Hospital is a large Provincial government funded hospital, situated on Spondo Street in Zwide township of Port Elizabeth in South Africa.
Dorte Juul Jensen is a senior scientist and head of the Center for Fundamental Research: Metal Structures in Four Dimensions and Materials Research Division, Risø DTU National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde, Denmark.
Radiation dosimetry in the fields of health physics and radiation protection is the measurement, calculation and assessment of the ionizing radiation dose absorbed by the human body.
Double electron capture is a decay mode of atomic nucleus.
A double seam is a canning process for sealing a tin can by mechanically interlocking the can body and a can end (or lid).
A double-contrast barium enema is a form of contrast radiography in which x-rays of the colon and rectum are taken using two forms of contrast to make the structures easier to see.
Douglas W. Owsley, Ph.D. (born July 21, 1951) is an American anthropologist who is the current Head of Physical Anthropology at the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History (NMNH).
Dr Maliso Mphele Hospital is a Provincial government funded hospital in Tsolo, Eastern Cape in South Africa.
Draco is a constellation in the far northern sky.
Dragon's Egg is a 1980 hard science fiction novel by Robert L. Forward.
Dragutin Gorjanović-Kramberger (born October 25, 1856 in Zagreb, died December 24, 1936, Zagreb) was a Croatian geologist, paleontologist, and archeologist.
Dromaeosauridae is a family of feathered theropod dinosaurs.
Dual X-ray Absorptiometry and Laser technique (DXL) in the area of bone density studies for osteoporosis assessment is an improvement to the DXA Technique, adding an exact laser measurement of the thickness of the region scanned.
The Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility (DARHT) is a facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory which is part of the Department of Energy's stockpile stewardship program.
Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, previously DEXA) is a means of measuring bone mineral density (BMD).
In 1922 American physicist William Duane presented the hypothesis that the scattering of X-Ray photons by a crystal could be best explained by a mechanism of discrete quantized transactions between the crystal and the incident X-Ray photons, where the reaction of the crystal is constrained by a simple quantum rule, and the incident photons behave as free particles.
The Duane–Hunt law, named after the American physicists William Duane and Franklin Hunt, gives the maximum frequency of X-rays that can be emitted by Bremsstrahlung in an X-ray tube by accelerating electrons through an excitation voltage V into a metal target.
Duncan Village Day Hospital is a Provincial government funded day hospital situated Braelyn in East London, Eastern Cape in South Africa.
Dundee Royal Infirmary, often shortened to DRI, was a major teaching hospital in Dundee, Scotland.
Duodenal atresia is the congenital absence or complete closure of a portion of the lumen of the duodenum.
Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust is a conservation organization with a mission to save species from extinction.
Dwight Correctional Center (DCC) was established in 1930 as the Oakdale Reformatory for Women.
The dynamical theory of diffraction describes the interaction of waves with a regular lattice.
Dysbaric osteonecrosis or DON is a form of avascular necrosis where there is death of a portion of the bone that is thought to be caused by nitrogen embolism (blockage of the blood vessels by a bubble of nitrogen coming out of solution) in divers.
Edward Elmer Smith (also E. E. Smith, E. E. Smith, Ph.D., E. E. "Doc" Smith, Doc Smith, "Skylark" Smith, or—to his family—Ted; May 2, 1890 – August 31, 1965) was an American food engineer (specializing in doughnut and pastry mixes) and science-fiction author, best known for the Lensman and Skylark series.
The Eagle Nebula (catalogued as Messier 16 or M16, and as NGC 6611, and also known as the Star Queen Nebula and The Spire) is a young open cluster of stars in the constellation Serpens, discovered by Jean-Philippe de Chéseaux in 1745–46.
Helen Earlene Risinger (March 20, 1927 – July 29, 2008) was a pitcher who played from through in the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League.
Earth's magnetic field, also known as the geomagnetic field, is the magnetic field that extends from the Earth's interior out into space, where it meets the solar wind, a stream of charged particles emanating from the Sun.
East Jefferson General Hospital is a hospital in Metairie, Louisiana (U.S.). The hospital broke ground in 1965 and is still expanding.
Eastern Maine Medical Center (frequently shorted to Eastern Maine or simply EMMC) is a hospital located in Bangor, Maine that serves communities throughout central, eastern, and northern Maine.
The Eastman Dental Hospital is a specialist hospital for dental treatment located in London, England, and a part of the University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust.
Edward Vincent "Ed" Sullivan (September 28, 1901 – October 13, 1974) was an American television personality, sports and entertainment reporter, and syndicated columnist for the New York Daily News and the Chicago Tribune New York News Syndicate.
Edith Anne Stoney (6 January 1869 – 25 June 1938) was a physicist born in Dublin in an old-established Anglo-Irish scientific family.
Edith Hinkley Quimby (July 10, 1891 – October 11, 1982) was an American medical researcher and physicist, best known as one of the founders of nuclear medicine.
Edmund Clifton Stoner FRS (2 October 1899 – 27 December 1968) was a British theoretical physicist.
Edmund Montagu Prinsep Fisher (13 January 1872 – 31 March 1918), was a British architect, the son of historian Herbert William Fisher.
Eduard Hagenbach-Bischoff (20 February 1833 in Basel – 23 December 1910 in Basel) was a Swiss physicist.
Edward Butts Lewis (May 20, 1918 – July 21, 2004) was an American geneticist, a corecipient of the 1995 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
The Edward Hines Jr.
Edward Purdy Ney (October 28, 1920 – July 9, 1996) was an American physicist who made major contributions to cosmic ray research, atmospheric physics, heliophysics, and infrared astronomy.
Edward Lawrie Tatum (December 14, 1909 – November 5, 1975) was an American geneticist.
Edward Teller (Teller Ede; January 15, 1908 – September 9, 2003) was a Hungarian-American theoretical physicist who is known colloquially as "the father of the hydrogen bomb", although he claimed he did not care for the title.
Edward William Davies was elected Mayor of Fremantle, Western Australia, in 1901, but was removed two months later on the grounds of insanity.
The “radiation effect” results from radiation heat exchange between human bodies and surrounding surfaces, such as walls and ceilings.
The energy released from a nuclear weapon detonated in the troposphere can be divided into four basic categories.
EI Niš (full legal name: Holding-Korporacija Elektronska industrija a.d. Niš) or Electronics Industry Niš, is a holding company with headquarters in Niš, Serbia.
The Eifel National Park (Nationalpark Eifel) is the 14th national park in Germany and the first in North Rhine-Westphalia.
Einstein Observatory (HEAO-2) was the first fully imaging X-ray telescope put into space and the second of NASA's three High Energy Astrophysical Observatories.
Elbow dysplasia is a condition involving multiple developmental abnormalities of the elbow-joint in the dog, specifically the growth of cartilage or the structures surrounding it.
ETV system at University library Regensburg, Germany An Electric Track Vehicle System (ETV) is a conveyor system for light goods transport.
Electrogravitics is claimed to be an unconventional type of effect or anti-gravity force created by an electric field's effect on a mass.
Electromagnetic articulography (EMA) is a method of measuring the position of parts of the mouth.
An electromagnetic field (also EMF or EM field) is a physical field produced by electrically charged objects.
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
Electromagnetic radiation can be classified into two types: ionizing radiation and non-ionizing radiation, based on the capability of a single photon with more than 10 eV energy to ionize oxygen or break chemical bonds.
The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequencies (the spectrum) of electromagnetic radiation and their respective wavelengths and photon energies.
The electromagnetic wave equation is a second-order partial differential equation that describes the propagation of electromagnetic waves through a medium or in a vacuum.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
Electron beam tomography (EBT) is a specific form of computed tomography (CT) in which the X-ray tube is not mechanically spun in order to rotate the source of X-ray photons.
In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule (or other physical structure) in atomic or molecular orbitals.
Electron crystallography is a method to determine the arrangement of atoms in solids using a transmission electron microscope (TEM).
Electron diffraction refers to the wave nature of electrons.
An electron gun (also called electron emitter) is an electrical component in some vacuum tubes that produces a narrow, collimated electron beam that has a precise kinetic energy.
In physics, chemistry, and electronic engineering, an electron hole (often simply called a hole) is the lack of an electron at a position where one could exist in an atom or atomic lattice.
An electron microprobe (EMP), also known as an electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) or electron micro probe analyzer (EMPA), is an analytical tool used to non-destructively determine the chemical composition of small volumes of solid materials.
An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination.
Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) or electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is a method for studying materials with unpaired electrons.
Electron precipitation (also called energetic electron precipitation or EEP) is an atmospheric phenomenon that occurs when previously trapped electrons enter the Earth's atmosphere, thus creating communications interferences and other disturbances.
In chemistry and atomic physics, an electron shell, or a principal energy level, may be thought of as an orbit followed by electrons around an atom's nucleus.
Electron spectroscopy is an analytical technique to study the electronic structure and its dynamics in atoms and molecules.
Electron-beam welding (EBW) is a fusion welding process in which a beam of high-velocity electrons is applied to two materials to be joined.
Electronics Corporation of India Limited (ECIL) (भारत इलेक्ट्रॉनिक्स निगम लिमिटेड (ईसीआईएल)) is a Government of India Enterprise under the Department of Atomic Energy, established on April 11, 1967 by A. S. Rao at Hyderabad, to create a strong indigenous base in electronics.
Elena Moiseevna Rzhevskaya (Russian: Еле́на Моисе́евна Рже́вская, born Elena Kagan; 27 October 1919 – 25 April 2017) was a writer and former Soviet war interpreter.
Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste is an international research center located in Basovizza on the outskirts of Trieste, Italy.
Elizabeth Fleischman (5 March 1867 – 3 August 1905) was an American radiographer who is considered an X-ray pioneer.
Elizabeth Sthreshley Townsend (died 1919) was an American inventor who held patents on multiple inventions.
The Elling Woman is a bog body discovered in 1938 west of Silkeborg, Denmark.
Elliot Provincial Hospital is a Provincial government funded hospital for the Sakhisizwe Local Municipality area in Elliot, Eastern Cape in South Africa.
The Elliott Cresson Medal, also known as the Elliott Cresson Gold Medal, was the highest award given by the Franklin Institute.
Elscint Ltd. was an Israeli technology company that developed, manufactured and sold medical imaging solutions, including: Nuclear medicine, computed tomography magnetic resonance imaging and X-ray scanners.
Embedded stellar clusters, or simply embedded clusters (EC), are open clusters that are still surrounded by their progenitor molecular cloud.
Emelia Jane Gorecka (born 29 January 1994), is a British middle and long-distance runner.
An Emergency Care Practitioner (ECP) generally come from a background in paramedicine and most have additional academic qualifications, usually at university, with enhanced skills in medical assessment and extra clinical skills over and above those of a standard paramedic, qualified nurse or other ambulance crew such as technicians.
The Emergency Severity Index (ESI) is a five-level emergency department triage algorithm, initially developed in 1999.
Emil Herman Grubbe (1 January 1875 — 26 March 1960) was probably the first American to use x-rays in the treatment of cancer.
Emmanuel Carvallo was a French mathematician.
An enchondroma is a cartilage cyst found in the bone marrow.
Encyclopedia is a television series created by the HBO Network and the for-profit branch of the Children's Television Workshop (CTW) (now known as Sesame Workshop), Distinguished Productions, Inc.
Endoexoenteric refers to a specific radiographic manifestation of lymphoma of the bowel.
Endoscopic foreign body retrieval refers to the removal of ingested objects from the esophagus, stomach and duodenum by endoscopic techniques.
An endospore is a dormant, tough, and non-reproductive structure produced by certain bacteria from the Firmicute phylum.
Enectalí Figueroa-Feliciano a.k.a. "Tali", Ph.D., (born 1971) is a physicist and professor at Northwestern University who pioneers the development and application of transition edge sensor (TES) detectors to experiments for detecting dark matter, neutrino interactions, and for X-ray astronomy.
An enema is the injection of fluid into the lower bowel by way of the rectum.
A quantum mechanical system or particle that is bound—that is, confined spatially—can only take on certain discrete values of energy.
Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, EDX, EDXS or XEDS), sometimes called energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA) or energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDXMA), is an analytical technique used for the elemental analysis or chemical characterization of a sample.
An environmental hazard is a substance, a state or an event which has the potential to threaten the surrounding natural environment / or adversely affect people's health, including pollution and natural disasters such as storms and earthquakes Any single or combination of toxic chemical, biological, or physical agents in the environment, resulting from human activities or natural processes, that may impact the health of exposed subjects, including pollutants such as heavy metals, pesticides, biological contaminants, toxic waste, industrial and home chemicals.
Environmental health is the branch of public health concerned with all aspects of the natural and built environment affecting human health.
Environmental toxicants and fetal development is the impact of different toxic substances from the environment on the development of the fetus.
Eophrynus is an extinct genus of arachnids from the extinct order Trigonotarbida, which lived during the Late Carboniferous period in Europe.
Eophrynus prestvicii is an extinct species of arachnid belonging to the order Trigonotarbida.
EOS is a medical imaging system whose aim is to provide frontal and lateral radiography images, while limiting the X-ray dose absorbed by the patient in a sitting or standing position.
EOS imaging is a medical device company based in Paris, France that designs, develops, and markets EOS,an imaging system associated with several orthopedic solutions along the patient care pathway – from diagnosis to post-operative treatments.
Eosinophilic pneumonia (EP) is a disease in which an eosinophil, a type of white blood cell, accumulates in the lung.
Ephebiphobia is the fear of youth.
Epidemiological studies of the health effects of low levels of ionizing radiation, in particular the incidence and mortality from various forms of cancer, have been carried out in different population groups exposed to such radiation.
Epiglottitis is inflammation of the epiglottis—the flap at the base of the tongue that keeps food from going into the trachea (windpipe).
An EPROM (rarely EROM), or erasable programmable read-only memory, is a type of memory chip that retains its data when its power supply is switched off.
Epsilon Eridani (ε Eridani, abbreviated Epsilon Eri, ε Eri), also named Ran, is a star in the southern constellation of Eridanus, at a declination of 9.46° south of the celestial equator.
Epsilon Indi (ε Indi, ε Ind) is a star system approximately 12 light-years from Earth in the constellation of Indus consisting of a K-type main-sequence star, ε Indi A, and two brown dwarfs, ε Indi Ba and ε Indi Bb, in a wide orbit around it.
Epsom & Ewell Cottage Hospital is a small hospital in Epsom in the English county of Surrey.
Equine nasal cysts are epithelium lined, single or loculated cavities filled with fluid or pus.
Equivalent dose is a dose quantity H representing the stochastic health effects of low levels of ionizing radiation on the human body.
Equus is a fictional comic book supervillain, a cyborg mercenary in the DC Comics universe who serves as an opponent of Superman.
Eric Henry Stoneley Burhop, (31 January 191122 January 1980) was an Australian physicist and humanitarian.
Eric John Hosmer (born October 24, 1989) is an American professional baseball first baseman for the San Diego Padres of Major League Baseball (MLB).
The Eridanus Group, sometimes called the Eridanus Cloud, is a nearby loose grouping of galaxies at a mean distance of approximately 75 Mly (23 ± 2 Mpc) in the constellation Eridanus.
Ernst Lecher (1 June 1856 – 19 July 1926) was an Austrian physicist who, from 1909, was head of the First Institute of Physics in Vienna.
ERp27 (Endoplasmic Reticulum protein 27.7 kDa) is a homologue of PDI (protein disulfide-isomerase), localised to the Endoplasmic Reticulum.
Escape from Monsta Island! is a studio album released by the Monsta Island Czars, a collective notably featuring MF Doom under his King Geedorah alias.
An esophageal motility study (EMS) or esophageal manometry is a test to assess motor function of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES), esophageal body and lower esophageal sphincter (LES).
The esophagus (American English) or oesophagus (British English), commonly known as the food pipe or gullet (gut), is an organ in vertebrates through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach.
Eta Carinae (η Carinae, abbreviated to η Car), formerly known as Eta Argus, is a stellar system containing at least two stars with a combined luminosity greater than five million times that of the Sun, located around 7,500 light-years (2,300 parsecs) distant in the constellation Carina.
Ethics in technology is a sub-field of ethics addressing the ethical questions specific to the Technology Age.
Ethmoid hematoma is a progressive and locally destructive disease of horses.
Eugene Paul "E.
Eupodophis is an extinct genus of snake from the Late Cretaceous period.
The eureka effect (also known as the Aha! moment or eureka moment) refers to the common human experience of suddenly understanding a previously incomprehensible problem or concept.
The European Day of Radiology (EDoR) is an annual day of action that will take place for the first time on February 10, 2011.
The European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) is a joint research facility situated in Grenoble, France, and supported by 22 countries (13 member countries: France, Germany, Italy, UK, Spain, Switzerland, Belgium, The Netherlands, Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Russia and 9 associate countries: Austria, Portugal, Israel, Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia, India and South Africa).
The European X-ray free-electron laser (European XFEL) is an X-ray research laser facility commissioned during 2017.
EV Lacertae (EV Lac, Gliese 873, HIP 112460) is a faint red dwarf star 16.5 light years away in the constellation Lacerta.
Eva Marie Cassidy (February 2, 1963 – November 2, 1996) was an American singer and guitarist known for her interpretations of jazz and blues.
The Evans County Heart Study was a long-term cardiovascular study on residents of Evans County, Georgia.
Robert Craig Knievel Jr. (October 17, 1938 – November 30, 2007), professionally known as Evel Knievel, was an American stunt performer, painter and entertainer.
"Evidence" is a science fiction short story by American writer Isaac Asimov.
Exercise-associated hyponatremia, or EAH, is a fluid-electrolyte disorder caused by a decrease in sodium levels (hyponatremia) during or up to 24 hours after prolonged physical activity.
The exhumation and reburial of Richard III began with the discovery of the king's remains within the site of the former Greyfriars Friary Church in Leicester, England, in September 2012.
The ExoMars rover is a planned robotic Mars rover, part of the international ExoMars programme led by the European Space Agency and the Russian Roscosmos State Corporation.
The European X-ray Observatory Satellite (EXOSAT), originally named HELOS, was an X-ray telescope operational from May 1983 until April 1986 and in that time made 1780 observations in the X-ray band of most classes of astronomical object including active galactic nuclei, stellar coronae, cataclysmic variables, white dwarfs, X-ray binaries, clusters of galaxies, and supernova remnants.
Exothermic welding, also known as exothermic bonding, thermite welding (TW), and thermit welding, is a welding process that employs molten metal to permanently join the conductors.
The physical exploration of the Moon began when Luna 2, a space probe launched by the Soviet Union, made an impact on the surface of the Moon on September 14, 1959.
Explorer 35 (IMP-E, AIMP 2, Anchored IMP 2, Interplanetary Monitoring Platform-E) was a spin-stabilized spacecraft instrumented for interplanetary studies, at lunar distances, of the interplanetary plasma, magnetic field, energetic particles, and solar X rays.
Explorer 7 was launched October 13, 1959 at 10:36 a.m. Eastern Time by a Juno II rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station to an orbit of 573 km by 1073 km and inclination of 50.27°.
X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) includes both Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) and X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES).
External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) or teletherapy is the most common form of radiotherapy (radiation therapy).
In astronomy, extinction is the absorption and scattering of electromagnetic radiation by dust and gas between an emitting astronomical object and the observer.
Extreme ultraviolet radiation (EUV or XUV) or high-energy ultraviolet radiation is electromagnetic radiation in the part of the electromagnetic spectrum spanning wavelengths from 124 nm down to 10 nm, and therefore (by the Planck–Einstein equation) having photons with energies from 10 eV up to 124 eV (corresponding to 124 nm to 10 nm respectively).
The Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) is an instrument on the SOHO spacecraft used to obtain high-resolution images of the solar corona in the ultraviolet range.
Extreme ultraviolet lithography (also known as EUV or EUVL) is a next-generation lithography technology using an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength, currently expected to be 13.5 nm.
An extremophile (from Latin extremus meaning "extreme" and Greek philiā (φιλία) meaning "love") is an organism that thrives in physically or geochemically extreme conditions that are detrimental to most life on Earth.
Fabrice de Nola is an Italian-Belgian artist born in Messina (Sicily) in 1964.
Facet syndrome (also commonly known as facet joint disease, facet osteoarthritis, facet hypertrophy or facet arthritis) is a syndrome in which the facet joints (synovial diarthroses, from C2 to S1) degenerate to the point of causing painful symptoms.
Facial trauma, also called maxillofacial trauma, is any physical trauma to the face.
The Faculty of Agriculture of Kagawa University specialises in pure and applied research in bioscience and biotechnology.
Fairchild Camera and Instrument Corporation was a company founded by Sherman Fairchild.
False color (or false colour) refers to a group of color rendering methods used to display images in color which were recorded in the visible or non-visible parts of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Farmer's lung (not to be confused with silo-filler's disease) is a hypersensitivity pneumonitis induced by the inhalation of biologic dusts coming from hay dust or mold spores or any other agricultural products.
Faster-than-light (also superluminal or FTL) communication and travel are the conjectural propagation of information or matter faster than the speed of light.
The FDMNES program calculates the spectra of different spectroscopies related to the real or virtual absorption of x-ray in material.
FEFF8 is self-consistent real space multiple-scattering code for simultaneous calculations of x-ray-absorption spectra and electronic structure.
Femoral neck targeting is the process of calculating the centre of the femoral neck during hip resurfacing surgery.
Femoroacetabular Impingement (FAI), or hip impingement syndrome, may affect the hip joint in young and middle-aged adults and occurs when the ball shaped femoral head rubs abnormally or does not permit a normal range of motion in the acetabular socket.
Fernandus Payne (February 13, 1881 – October 13, 1977) was an American zoologist, geneticist and educator.
Ferrous metallurgy is the metallurgy of iron and its alloys.
The FH-2000 or Field Howitzer 2000 was developed by Singapore Technologies for the Singapore Army.
A Fibonacci crystal or quasicrystal is a model used to study systems with aperiodic structure.
Fibrocystic breasts or fibrocystic breast disease or fibrocystic breast condition commonly referred to as "FBC" is a condition of breast tissue affecting an estimated 30-60% of women and at least 50% of women of childbearing age.
Fibrothorax is a medical condition characterised by scarring (fibrosis) of the pleural space surrounding the lungs that is severe enough to cause reduced movement of the lung and ribcage.
Field electron emission (also known as field emission (FE) and electron field emission) is emission of electrons induced by an electrostatic field.
A field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is an integrated circuit designed to be configured by a customer or a designer after manufacturing hence "field-programmable".
The Fighting Machine (also known as "Tripod") is one of the fictional machines used by the Martians in H.G. Wells' 1898 classic science fiction novel The War of the Worlds.
The film badge dosimeter or film badge is a personal dosimeter used for monitoring cumulative radiation dose due to ionizing radiation.
Film stock is an analog medium that is used for recording motion pictures or animation.
Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is a diagnostic procedure used to investigate lumps or masses.
Fiona A. Harrison is the Kent and Joyce Kresa Leadership Chair of the Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy at Caltech, Benjamin M. Rosen Professor of Physics at Caltech and the Principal Investigator for NASA's Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) mission.
The First Labour Government of New Zealand was the government of New Zealand from 1935 to 1949.
Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) is an open standard defining a digital file format useful for storage, transmission and processing of data: formatted as N-dimensional arrays (for example a 2D image), or tables.
Fitzsimons Army Hospital — known as Fitzsimons Army Medical Center (FAMC) from 1974 — was a U.S. Army facility located on in Aurora, Colorado, USA.
A flare star is a variable star that can undergo unpredictable dramatic increases in brightness for a few minutes.
FLASH, acronym of Free Electron LASer in Hamburg, a particle accelerator-based soft X-ray laser located at the DESY accelerator facilities in Hamburg, Germany.
Flat feet (also called pes planus or fallen arches) is a postural deformity in which the arches of the foot collapse, with the entire sole of the foot coming into complete or near-complete contact with the ground.
Flat panel detectors are a class of solid-state x-ray digital radiography devices similar in principle to the image sensors used in digital photography and video.
A flat fee, also referred to as a flat rate or a linear rate, refers to a pricing structure that charges a single fixed fee for a service, regardless of usage.
Flatford Mill (Scene on a Navigable River) is an oil painting by English artist John Constable, painted in 1816.
Flock worker's lung is an occupational lung disease caused by exposure to flock, small fibers that are glued to a backing in order to create a specific texture.
Florence Ada Stoney (1870 – 7 October 1932) was an Irish radiologist and the first female radiologist in the United Kingdom.
Florence v. Board of Chosen Freeholders,, was a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court held that officials may strip-search individuals who have been arrested for any crime before admitting the individuals to jail, even if there is no reason to suspect that the individual is carrying contraband.
Floyd Karker Richtmyer (October 12, 1881 – November 7, 1939) was a physicist and educator in the United States.
Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation.
A fluorescent lamp, or fluorescent tube, is a low-pressure mercury-vapor gas-discharge lamp that uses fluorescence to produce visible light.
Fluoroscopy is an imaging technique that uses X-rays to obtain real-time moving images of the interior of an object.
In radiography, focal plane tomography is tomography (imaging a single plane, or slice, of an object) by simultaneously moving the X-ray generator and X-ray detector so as to keep a consistent exposure of only the plane of interest during image acquisition.
Food drunkenness is the physiological state of a person after consuming large amounts of food after starvation.
Food irradiation is the process of exposing food and food packaging to ionizing radiation.
"Fools for Love" is the fifth episode of the third season of House and the fifty-first episode overall.
One of the most common locations for a foreign body is the alimentary tract.
Forensic engineering has been defined as "the investigation of failures - ranging from serviceability to catastrophic - which may lead to legal activity, including both civil and criminal". It therefore includes the investigation of materials, products, structures or components that fail or do not operate or function as intended, causing personal injury, damage to property or economic loss.
Forensic facial reconstruction (or forensic facial approximation) is the process of recreating the face of an individual (whose identity is often not known) from their skeletal remains through an amalgamation of artistry, anthropology, osteology, and anatomy.
The Fornax Cluster is a cluster of galaxies lying at a distance of 19 megaparsecs (62 million light-years).
Fort Beaufort Hospital is a Provincial government funded hospital in the Raymond Mhlaba Local Municipality area in Fort Beaufort, Eastern Cape in South Africa.
Fort Grey TB Hospital is a specialised Provincial government-funded TB hospital situated in East London, Eastern Cape in South Africa.
Forward March Hare is an animated Looney Tunes cartoon released in 1953 featuring Bugs Bunny.
A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.
The Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager, or FOXSI, is a sounding rocket payload built by UC Berkeley and led by Säm Krucker to test high energy grazing-incidence focusing optics paired with solid-state pixelated detectors to observe the Sun.
A foxtail is a spikelet or cluster of a grass, that serves to disperse its seeds as a unit.
France Anne-Dominic Córdova (born August 5, 1947) is an American astrophysicist and administrator, who is the fourteenth director of the National Science Foundation.
Frances Wick (October 2, 1875 – June 15, 1941) was an American physicist known for her studies on luminescence.
Francis Kofi Ampenyin Allotey (9 August 1932 – 2 November 2017) was a Ghanaian mathematical physicist.
Francis Carter Wood (December 30, 1869 – January 5, 1951) was an American cancer researcher, a pioneer in the use of X-rays and radium for treatment of cancer.
Francis Harry Compton Crick (8 June 1916 – 28 July 2004) was a British molecular biologist, biophysicist, and neuroscientist, most noted for being a co-discoverer of the structure of the DNA molecule in 1953 with James Watson, work which was based partly on fundamental studies done by Rosalind Franklin, Raymond Gosling and Maurice Wilkins.
Francis John Drake, MA MB BS (Melb) (12 December 1860 - 17 December 1929) was resident medical superintendent, Launceston Hospital.
Francis William Aston FRS (1 September 1877 – 20 November 1945) was an English chemist and physicist who won the 1922 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his discovery, by means of his mass spectrograph, of isotopes, in a large number of non-radioactive elements, and for his enunciation of the whole number rule.
Franciscan Health Indianapolis (formerly Franciscan St. Francis Health) is a medical facility serving Carmel, Indianapolis, Mooresville, Plainfield, and south-central Indiana.
Francium is a chemical element with symbol Fr and atomic number 87.
Frank Austin may refer to.
Hugh Francis "Frank" Carson KSG (6 November 1926 – 22 February 2012) was a Northern Irish comedian and actor, best known on television in series such as The Comedians and Tiswas.
Frank Forrester Church III (July 25, 1924 – April 7, 1984) was an American lawyer and politician.
Frank K. Schmidlin (1861-1939) was an Australian X-ray pioneer, that was among the first to utilize the new technology of x-rays for medical applications.
Francisco Santos "Frank" Mir III (born May 24, 1979) is an American mixed martial artist who competes for Bellator MMA in the Heavyweight division.
Frank James Reynolds (November 29, 1923 – July 20, 1983) was an American television journalist for CBS and ABC News.
Frank William Green (March 15, 1876 – December 24, 1953) was a Canadian physician and politician.
Franklin's lost expedition was a British voyage of Arctic exploration led by Captain Sir John Franklin that departed England in 1845 aboard two ships, and.
Frederick Woodward Branson, FIC, FCS (6 March 1851 – 30 November 1933) was a British chemist, glassblower, instrument maker and X-ray pioneer.
A free-electron laser (FEL) is a kind of laser whose lasing medium consists of very-high-speed electrons moving freely through a magnetic structure, hence the term free electron.
The French Bulldog, also known as Frenchie, is a small breed of domestic dog.
The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870 when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War until 1940 when France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.
Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.
A frequency band is an interval in the frequency domain, delimited by a lower frequency and an upper frequency.
Frere Hospital is a large, provincial, government funded hospital situated in East London, Eastern Cape in South Africa.
Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid-state joining process that uses a non-consumable tool to join two facing workpieces without melting the workpiece material.
Friedrich Dessauer (19 July 1881 – 16 February 1963) was a physicist, a philosopher, a socially engaged entrepreneur and a journalist.
Friedrich Wilhelm Berthold Rinne (16 March 1863 in Osterode am Harz – 12 March 1933 in Freiburg im Breisgau) was a German mineralogist, crystallographer and petrographer.
Fritz Suhren (10 June 1908 – 12 June 1950) was a German SS officer and Nazi concentration camp commandant.
Frontier Hospital is a Level 2 Regional government funded hospital in Queenstown, Eastern Cape in South Africa.
, trading as Fujifilm (stylized as FUJiFILM), or simply Fuji, is a Japanese multinational photography and imaging company headquartered in Tokyo.
A full-body scanner is a device that detects objects on a person's body for security screening purposes, without physically removing clothes or making physical contact.
Fungal sinusitis is the inflammation of the lining mucosa of the paranasal sinuses due to fungal infection.
The furcula ("little fork" in Latin) or wishbone is a forked bone found in birds and some dinosaurs, and is formed by the fusion of the two clavicles.
Fusion power is a form of power generation in which energy is generated by using fusion reactions to produce heat for electricity generation.
A fusor is a device that uses an electric field to heat ions to conditions suitable for nuclear fusion.
In molecular biology, G-quadruplex secondary structures are formed in nucleic acids by sequences that are rich in guanine.
G350.1-0.3 is a supernova remnant which is located in the constellation Scorpius.
Gadolinium is a chemical element with symbol Gd and atomic number 64.
Gadolinium oxysulfide (Gd2O2S), also called gadolinium sulfoxylate, GOS or Gadox, is an inorganic compound, a mixed oxide-sulfide of gadolinium.
Gaenslen's test, also known as Gaenslen's maneuver, is a medical test used to detect musculoskeletal abnormalities and primary-chronic inflammation of the lumbar vertebrae and sacroiliac joint.
is a female Japanese competitive eater and singer.
The Galactic Center is the rotational center of the Milky Way.
Galactorrhea hyperprolactinemia is increased blood prolactin levels associated with galactorrhea (abnormal milk secretion).
A galaxy is a gravitationally bound system of stars, stellar remnants, interstellar gas, dust, and dark matter.
IDCS J1426.5+3508 (IDCS 1426 for short) is an extremely massive young galaxy cluster.
Galaxy groups and clusters are the largest known gravitationally bound objects to have arisen thus far in the process of cosmic structure formation.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
Gamma-ray astronomy is the astronomical observation of gamma rays,Astronomical literature generally hyphenates "gamma-ray" when used as an adjective, but uses "gamma ray" without a hyphen for the noun.
In gamma-ray astronomy, gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are extremely energetic explosions that have been observed in distant galaxies.
A gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS) is an instrument for measuring the distribution (or spectrum—see figure) of the intensity of gamma radiation versus the energy of each photon.
In a medical facility, such as a hospital or clinic, a gantry holds radiation detectors and/or a radiation source used to diagnose or treat a patient's illness.
"Garbadge Man" is a song by American alternative rock band Hole, written collectively by the band's original line-up.
Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) is a medical condition where there is an obstruction at the level of the pylorus, which is the outlet of the stomach.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), also known as acid reflux, is a long-term condition where stomach contents come back up into the esophagus resulting in either symptoms or complications.
Gastrointestinal perforation, also known as ruptured bowel, is a hole in the wall of part of the gastrointestinal tract.
Gastroparesis (GP also called delayed gastric emptying) is a medical condition consisting of a paresis (partial paralysis) of the stomach, resulting in food remaining in the stomach for an abnormally long time.
The gastropod shell is part of the body of a gastropod or snail, a kind of mollusc.
The Gateway Arch is a monument in St. Louis, Missouri, United States.
Gauze sponges are disposable medical supplies commonly used in medicine and surgery.
The Gayer-Anderson Cat is an Ancient Egyptian statue of a cat, which dates from the Late Period (around 664–332 BC).
Gaylen C. Hansen (born September 21, 1921) is an American artist best known for neo-expressionist figurative paintings that feature the flora and fauna of the Palouse, a geographically unusual area in Eastern Washington state where he lives and works, and “the Kernal,” Hansen’s alter-ego frontiersman whose often-perilous adventures are depicted in many of the artist’s canvases.
GE Healthcare is an American multinational conglomerate incorporated in New York and headquartered in Chicago, Illinois.
GEC Medical was a unit of the General Electric Company that was headquartered in what was known as East Lane Industrial Estate in North Wembley, behind the Hirst Research Centre which fronted East Lane.
The Geiger–Müller tube or G–M tube is the sensing element of the Geiger counter instrument used for the detection of ionizing radiation.
The Geisel School of Medicine is the medical school of Dartmouth College, an Ivy League research university located in Hanover, New Hampshire, United States.
A Geissler tube is an early gas discharge tube used to demonstrate the principles of electrical glow discharge, similar to modern neon lighting.
The gemstone irradiation is a process in which a gemstone is artificially irradiated in order to enhance its optical properties.
General antiparticle spectrometer (GAPS) is a planned experiment that will use a high-altitude balloon flying in Antarctica to look for antideuteron particles from outer space cosmic rays, in an effort to search for dark matter.
Charles Sherwood Stratton (January 4, 1838 – July 15, 1883), better known by his stage name "General Tom Thumb", was a dwarf who achieved great fame as a performer under circus pioneer P.T. Barnum.
Genetic engineering has involved to encompass multiple techniques.
Genetic recombination (aka genetic reshuffling) is the production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent.
Genevieve M. Matanoski is an American epidemiologist and professor at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, where she has worked for over 55 years.
Genie (born 1957) is the pseudonym for an American feral child who was a victim of severe abuse, neglect, and social isolation.
Eugene Cyril Smith III (born October 10, 1990) is an American football quarterback for the Los Angeles Chargers of the National Football League (NFL).
Geophotography (also geo-photography or geological photography) is a subfield of geology that involves the use of photography or other imaging techniques in the visible or near-visible (e.g. ultraviolet, infrared) spectrum to realistically record objects, features, and processes of geological significance.
Georg Clemens Perthes (17 January 1869 – 3 January 1927) was a German surgeon and X-ray diagnostic pioneer.
George Wells Beadle (October 22, 1903 – June 9, 1989) was an American scientist in the field of genetics, and Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine Nobel laureate who with Edward Tatum discovered the role of genes in regulating biochemical events within cells in 1958.
George Frederick Chapline Jr. (born May 6, 1942) is an American theoretical physicist, based at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.
Brigadier General George Miller Sternberg (June 8, 1838 – November 3, 1915) was a U.S. Army physician who is considered the first U.S. bacteriologist, having written Manual of Bacteriology (1892).
George R. Rossman is an American mineralogist and the Professor of Mineralogy at the California Institute of Technology.
George Whipple Clark is an American astronomer and professor emeritus at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Georges Sagnac (14 October 1869 – 26 February 1928) was a French physicist who lent his name to the Sagnac effect, a phenomenon which is at the basis of interferometers and ring laser gyroscopes developed since the 1970s.
The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite system (GOES), operated by the United States' National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service division, supports weather forecasting, severe storm tracking, and meteorology research.
Gerhard Theodor Materlik (born 16 January 1945) is a German physicist and science manager.
The Deutsche Gesellschaft für Pneumologie und Beatmungsmedizin (DGP, "German Respiratory Society) is the largest and oldest medical professional organization for respiratory disorders in the German-speaking world and serves as a forum for all medical practitioners and scientists in the field of respiratory medicine.
The German Shoe Museum (Deutsches Schuhmuseum Hauenstein, full name: Museum für Schuhproduktion und Industriegeschichte Hauenstein) is a museum in Hauenstein, Palatinate.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Gerodermia osteodysplastica (GO), also called geroderma osteodysplasticum and Walt Disney dwarfism, is a rare autosomal recessive connective tissue disorder included in the spectrum of cutis laxa syndromes.
Gesellschaft der Ärzte in Wien (College of Physicians in Vienna) is a medical society with a long-standing tradition in Austria.
The Getty Conservation Institute (GCI), located in Los Angeles, California, is a program of the J. Paul Getty Trust.
Gill-man — commonly called The Creature — is the lead antagonist of the 1954 black-and-white science fiction film Creature from the Black Lagoon and its two sequels Revenge of the Creature (1955) and The Creature Walks Among Us (1956).
ASTRO-C, renamed Ginga (Japanese for 'galaxy'), was an X-ray astronomy satellite launched from the Kagoshima Space Center on 5 February 1987 using M-3SII launch vehicle.
Gingivitis is a non-destructive disease that occurs around the teeth.
John Ferraro (born November 28) is an American professional wrestler and strongman, best known by his ring name Gino Martino.
The Glasmine 43 was an anti-personnel mine with a glass body used by the Germans during World War II.
is a fictional French boxer from Nintendo's Punch-Out!! video game series.
Glen Grey Provincial Hospital is a Provincial government funded hospital for the Emalahleni Local Municipality area in Lady Frere, Eastern Cape in South Africa.
Gliese 229 (also written as Gl 229 or GJ 229) is a red dwarf about 19 light years away in the constellation Lepus.
Gliese 832 (Gl 832 or GJ 832) is a red dwarf of spectral type M2V in the southern constellation Grus.
Global Gathering 2005 was held on Friday 29 July 2005 (5 pm – 2 am) and Saturday 30 July 2005 (2 pm – 6 am) at Long Marston Airfield, near Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire, England.
Global Tungsten & Powders Corp. is a supplier for tungsten and molybdenum powders and specialty products.
A globular cluster is a spherical collection of stars that orbits a galactic core as a satellite.
This page is a glossary of astronomy.
Most of the terms listed in Wikipedia glossaries are already defined and explained within Wikipedia itself.
This article is a glossary of classical physics.
Most of the terms listed in Wikipedia glossaries are already defined and explained within Wikipedia itself.
The following are common definitions related to the machine vision field.
Most of the terms listed in Wikipedia glossaries are already defined and explained within Wikipedia itself.
In molecular biology, glycoside hydrolase family 22 is a family of glycoside hydrolases.
Sir Godfrey Newbold Hounsfield, CBE, FRS, (28 August 1919 – 12 August 2004) was an English electrical engineer who shared the 1979 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine with Allan McLeod Cormack for his part in developing the diagnostic technique of X-ray computed tomography (CT).
GOES-16, formerly known as GOES-R before reaching geostationary orbit, is the first of the GOES-R series of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) operated by NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), as well as the current operational geostationary weather satellite in the GOES East position at 75.2°W, providing a view centered on the Americas.
The Golden Charter of Bern (also: Golden Bull, in German: Goldene Handfeste or Berner Handfeste) is a medieval charter purporting to have been issued by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II.
The Golden Goose Award is a United States award established in 2012 that officially recognizes scientists whose federally funded basic research has led to innovations or inventions which have a significant impact on humanity or society.
Gossypiboma, textiloma or more broadly Retained Foreign Object (RFO) is the technical term for a surgical complications resulting from foreign materials, such as a surgical sponge, accidentally left inside a patient's body.
Goulburn Base Hospital is a public district hospital located in the city of Goulburn, New South Wales in Australia.
Gout is a form of inflammatory arthritis characterized by recurrent attacks of a red, tender, hot, and swollen joint.
Government Medical College, Ernakulam (previously Cochin Medical College) is one of the medical colleges in the state of Kerala situated at Kalamassery, Kochi.
Sir Grafton Elliot Smith, FRS FRCP (15 August 1871 – 1 January 1937) was an Australian-British anatomist, Egyptologist and a proponent of the hyperdiffusionist view of prehistory.
The International Astrophysical Observatory "GRANAT" (usually known as Granat; Гранат), was a Soviet (later Russian) space observatory developed in collaboration with France, Denmark and Bulgaria.
Grand Manan Island (also simply Grand Manan) is a Canadian island, and the largest of the Fundy Islands in the Bay of Fundy.
A gravastar is an object hypothesized in astrophysics as an alternative to the black hole theory by Pawel O. Mazur and Emil Mottola.
A gravitational lens is a distribution of matter (such as a cluster of galaxies) between a distant light source and an observer, that is capable of bending the light from the source as the light travels towards the observer.
Gravitational waves are the disturbance in the fabric ("curvature") of spacetime generated by accelerated masses and propagate as waves outward from their source at the speed of light.
The gray (symbol: Gy) is a derived unit of ionizing radiation dose in the International System of Units (SI).
Grazing incidence X-ray and neutron diffraction (GID, GIXD, GIND), typically from a crystalline structure uses small incident angles for the incoming X-ray or neutron beam, so that diffraction can be made surface sensitive.
GRB 000131 was a gamma-ray burst (GRB) that was detected on 31 January 2000 at 14:59 UTC.
GRB 011211 was a gamma-ray burst (GRB) detected on December 11, 2001.
GRB 020813 was a gamma-ray burst (GRB) that was detected on 13 August 2002 at 02:44 UTC.
GRB 030329 was a gamma-ray burst (GRB) that was detected on 29 March 2003 at 11:37 UTC.
GRB 031203 was a gamma-ray burst (GRB) detected on December 3, 2003.
GRB 050709 was a gamma-ray burst (GRB) detected on July 9, 2005.
GRB 051221A was a gamma ray burst (GRB) that was detected by NASA's Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Mission on December 21, 2005.
GRB 070714B was a gamma-ray burst (GRB) that was detected on 14 July 2007 at 04:59 UTC.
GRB 090423 was a gamma-ray burst (GRB) detected by the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Mission on April 23, 2009 at 07:55:19 UTC whose afterglow was detected in the infrared and enabled astronomers to determine that its redshift is z.
GRB 101225A, also known as the "Christmas burst", was a cosmic explosion first detected by NASA's Swift observatory on Christmas Day 2010.
Swift J1644+57 (also indicated as GRB 110328A when it was discovered) is the name of the event that was observed on March 28, 2011, the tidal disruption of a star by a supermassive black hole.
GRB 970228"GRB" indicates that the event was a gamma-ray burst, and the numbers follow a YYMMDD format corresponding to the date on which the burst occurred: 28 February 1997.
GRB 970508 was a gamma-ray burst (GRB) detected on May 8, 1997, at 21:42 UTC.
GRB 980425 was a gamma-ray burst (GRB) that was detected on 25 April 1998 at 21:49 UTC.
The GRE physics test is an examination administered by the Educational Testing Service (ETS).
The Great Industrial Exposition of Berlin 1896 (German Große Berliner Gewerbeausstellung 1896) was a large exposition that has also been dubbed "the impeded world fair" (in German "Die verhinderte Weltausstellung").
The Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey, or GOODS, is an astronomical survey combining deep observations from three of NASA's Great Observatories: the Hubble Space Telescope, the Spitzer Space Telescope, and the Chandra X-ray Observatory, along with data from other space-based telescopes, such as XMM Newton, and some of the world's most powerful ground-based telescopes.
NASA's series of Great Observatories satellites are four large, powerful space-based astronomical telescopes.
Green bean galaxies (GBGs) are very rare astronomical objects that are thought to be quasar ionization echos.
Gregory Richard Gianforte (born April 17, 1961) is an American businessman, author, engineer and politician serving as the U.S. Representative for Montana's at-large congressional district.
Gregor Wentzel (17 February 1898 – 12 August 1978) was a German physicist known for development of quantum mechanics.
Grenz rays are part of the electromagnetic spectrum comprising low energy (ultrasoft) X-rays.
Grey Provincial Hospital is a Provincial government funded hospital in King William's Town, Eastern Cape in South Africa.
Griffith Observatory is a facility in Los Angeles, California, sitting on the south-facing slope of Mount Hollywood in Los Angeles' Griffith Park.
Grisel’s syndrome is a non-traumatic subluxation of the atlanto-axial joint caused by inflammation of the adjacent tissues.
A Groshong line is a type of both tunneled or non-tunneled intravenous catheter used for central venous access.
Gross anatomy (also called topographical anatomy) is the study of anatomy at the visible (macroscopic) level.
Guayos is a small town and consejo popular (i.e. "people's council") located in the municipality of Cabaiguán, province of Sancti Spíritus, Cuba.
Guido Holzknecht (3 December 1872 – 30 October 1931) was an Austrian radiologist who was a native of Vienna.
Gunshot residue (GSR), also known as cartridge discharge residue (CDR), "gunfire residue" (GFR), or firearm discharge residue (FDR), is residue deposited on the hands and clothes of someone who discharges a firearm.
A gunshot wound (GSW), also known as ballistic trauma, is a form of physical trauma sustained from the discharge of arms or munitions.
Gustafsonia is an extinct genus of carnivoran belonging to the family Amphicyonidae (a bear dog).
Charles-Marie Gustave Le Bon (7 May 1841 – 13 December 1931) was a French polymath whose areas of interest included anthropology, psychology, sociology, medicine, invention, and physics.
György Kepes (October 4, 1906 – December 29, 2001) was a Hungarian-born painter, photographer, designer, educator, and art theorist.
Gypsy is one of the robot characters on the television series Mystery Science Theater 3000.
An HI region or H I region (read H one) is a cloud in the interstellar medium composed of neutral atomic hydrogen (HI), in addition to the local abundance of helium and other elements.
An H II region or HII region is a region of interstellar atomic hydrogen that is ionized.
Herbert Stanley Allen FRSE FRS (29 December 1873 – 27 April 1954) was an English physicist noted as a pioneer in early X-ray research, working under J. J. Thomson at the University of London and alongside Nobel laureate Charles Glover Barkla at the University of Edinburgh.
Hair removal, also known as epilation or depilation, is the deliberate removal of body hair.
Hakeem Muata Oluseyi (born James Edward Plummer, Jr.) is an American astrophysicist, cosmologist, inventor, educator, science communicator, author, actor, and humanitarian.
Halton Christian "Chip" Arp (March 21, 1927 – December 28, 2013) was an American astronomer.
A hamartoma is a mostly benign, focal malformation that resembles a neoplasm in the tissue of its origin.
Henricus Antonius "Han" van Meegeren (10 October 1889 – 30 December 1947) was a Dutch painter and portraitist and is considered to be one of the most ingenious art forgers of the 20th century.
The hand is a very complex organ with multiple joints, different types of ligament, tendons and nerves.
Handigodu Syndrome is a rare and painful osteoarthritic disorder endemic to the Malnad region in the state of Karnataka, India.
Hank Worden (born Norton Earl Worden July 23, 1901 – December 6, 1992) was an American cowboy-turned-character actor who appeared in many Westerns including The Lone Ranger.
Hannah Glidden Myrick (1871–1973) was a physician who received her medical degree from Johns Hopkins University in 1900, thereby helping to blaze the trail for more women to enter medicine.
Hans Gustav Adolf Gross or Groß (26 December 1847 – 9 December 1915) was an Austrian criminal jurist and criminologist, the "Founding Father" of criminal profiling.
Harald Trefall (10 November 1925 – March 2008) was a Norwegian professor of experimental physics and later politician.
Hard radiation is a loose term for ionizing radiation which is at the higher end of the energy spectrum.
Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT) also known as Insight is a Chinese X-ray space observatory, launched on June 15, 2017 to observe black holes, neutron stars, active galactic nuclei and other phenomena based on their X-ray and gamma-ray emissions.
Harold Elford Johns, OC (4 July 1915 – 23 August 1998) was a Canadian medical physicist, noted for his extensive contributions to the use of ionizing radiation to treat cancer.
Sir Harrie Stewart Wilson Massey (16 May 1908 – 27 November 1983) was an Australian mathematical physicist who worked primarily in the fields of atomic and atmospheric physics.
Harry Hale Buckwalter (November 1, 1867 – March 7, 1930), sometimes credited as Harry H. Buckwalter or Henry H. Buckwalter, was an American photographer, journalist, photojournalist, and silent film director and producer.
Harry Price (17 January 1881 – 29 March 1948) was a British psychic researcher and author, who gained public prominence for his investigations into psychical phenomena and his exposing fraudulent spiritualist mediums.
In computational physics and chemistry, the Hartree–Fock (HF) method is a method of approximation for the determination of the wave function and the energy of a quantum many-body system in a stationary state.
Harvey Williams Cushing (April 8, 1869 – October 7, 1939) was an American neurosurgeon, pathologist, writer and draftsman.
The Harvey's Resort Hotel bombing took place on August 26–27, 1980, when three men planted an elaborately booby trapped bomb containing of dynamite at Harvey's Resort Hotel (now "Harveys") in Stateline, Nevada, United States.
Hawking radiation is blackbody radiation that is predicted to be released by black holes, due to quantum effects near the event horizon.
A hazard is an agent which has the potential to cause harm to a vulnerable target.
Hévíz Spa and the Szent András Hospital, Hévíz (St. Andrew's State Hospital for Rheumatology and Rehabilitation) is a spa in Hungary.
HD 110432 is a Be star in the constellation Crux, behind the southern Coalsack Nebula.
HE0450-2958 is an unusual quasar.
The Heaf test, a diagnostic skin test, was long performed to determine whether or not children had been exposed to tuberculosis infection.
Health First Strathcona Primary Care Centre opened in Sherwood Park in February 2004.
All types of asbestos fibers are known to cause serious health hazards in humans.
The Health Intervention and Technology Assessment Program (HITAP) is a semi-autonomous research unit under Thailand’s Ministry of Public Health.
Health physics is the applied physics of radiation protection for health and health care purposes.
The Health Physics Society (HPS) is a nonprofit scientific professional organization whose mission is excellence in the science and practice of radiation safety.
The health threat from cosmic rays is the danger posed by galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar energetic particles to astronauts on interplanetary missions or any missions that venture through the Van-Allen Belts or outside the Earth's magnetosphere.
Health care in Ireland is two-tier: public and private sectors exist.
Heart failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.
In X-ray tubes, the heel effect or more accurately, the anode heel effect is a variation of the intensity of X-rays emitted by the anode depending on the direction of emission.
Heinrich Ernst Albers-Schönberg (January 21, 1865 – June 4, 1921) was a German gynecologist and radiologist who was a native of Hamburg.
Heinrich Rudolf Hertz (22 February 1857 – 1 January 1894) was a German physicist who first conclusively proved the existence of the electromagnetic waves theorized by James Clerk Maxwell's electromagnetic theory of light.
Heinz Fiedler was a Major general in East Germany's Ministry for State Security (Stasi).
Helen Brooke Taussig (May 24, 1898 – May 20, 1986) was an American cardiologist, working in Baltimore and Boston, who founded the field of pediatric cardiology.
Helen Fairchild (November 21, 1885 – January 18, 1918) was an American nurse who served as part of the American Expeditionary Force during World War I, and who became known for her wartime letters to her family in the U.S., which vividly depicted the realities of combat nursing during World War I. She died of post-operative complications after surgery for a gastric ulcer while on duty with British base hospital #10/#16 on the Western Front.
Helena May Weiss (February 6, 1909 – January 21, 2004) was an American museum administrator and registrar.
The Helically Symmetric Experiment (HSX), stylized as Helically Symmetric eXperiment, is an experimental plasma confinement device at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, with design principles that are hoped to be incorporated into a fusion reactor.
Helios-A and Helios-B (also known as and), are a pair of probes launched into heliocentric orbit for the purpose of studying solar processes.
The Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) is a German research laboratory in Dresden and member of the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres.
Hemarthrosis (or haemarthrosis) is a bleeding into joint spaces.
Hemopericardium refers to blood in the pericardial sac of the heart.
The Henderson limit is the X-ray dose (energy per unit mass) a cryo-cooled crystal can absorb before the diffraction pattern decays to half of its original intensity.
The Hennepin County Government Center is the courthouse and primary county government administration building for Hennepin County in the State of Minnesota.
Antoine Henri Becquerel (15 December 1852 – 25 August 1908) was a French physicist, Nobel laureate, and the first person to discover evidence of radioactivity.
Henry Andrews Bumstead (March 12, 1870 – December 31, 1920) was an American physicist who taught at Yale from 1897 to 1920.
Henry Jasper Redfern, FSMC, BOA, (1871–1928), or Jasper Redfern was a British optician, photographer, exhibitor, filmmaker, proprietor of photographic and lantern retail business, cinema pioneer and x-ray and radiographic pioneer.
Henry Gwyn Jeffreys Moseley (23 November 1887 – 10 August 1915) was an English physicist, whose contribution to the science of physics was the justification from physical laws of the previous empirical and chemical concept of the atomic number.
Henry Granger Piffard (10 September 1842 – 8 June 1910) was author of the first systematic treatise on dermatology in America.
Henry Snowden Ward (27 February 1865 – 7 December 1911) was an English photographer and author.
Henry Stanley Plummer, M.D. (–) was a prominent internist and endocrinologist who, along with William Mayo, Charles Mayo, Stinchfield, E. Starr Judd, Christopher Graham, and Donald Balfour founded Mayo Clinic.
Henry "Hank" Wallman (1915 at the Chalmers University of Technology (in Swedish).–1992) was an American mathematician, known for his work in lattice theory, dimension theory, topology, and electronic circuit design.
Henry Wimshurst (1804–1884), Nature, No.
Herb Dean (born September 30, 1970) is an American mixed martial arts referee and former fighter.
Emeritus Professor Sir Herbert Jackson, KBE, FRS (1863–1936) was a British chemist.
Hermann Joseph Muller (December 21, 1890 – April 5, 1967) was an American geneticist, educator, and Nobel laureate best known for his work on the physiological and genetic effects of radiation (mutagenesis) as well as his outspoken political beliefs.
Hero Hotline is a fictional DC Comics corporate superteam introduced in Action Comics Weekly #637 (cover-dated Jan. 1989).
Hewu Hospital is a Provincial government funded hospital in Whittlesea, Eastern Cape in South Africa.
"Hey Boy Hey Girl" is a song by British big beat duo The Chemical Brothers.
A high ankle sprain, also known as a syndesmotic sprain, is a sprain of the syndesmotic ligaments that connect the tibia and fibula in the lower leg, thereby creating a mortise and tenon joint for the ankle.
HEAO-1 was an X-ray telescope launched in 1977.
The High Energy Transient Explorer (abbreviated HETE; also known as Explorer 79) was an American astronomical satellite with international participation (mainly Japan and France).
High harmonic generation (HHG) is a non-linear process during which a target (gas, plasma or solid sample) is illuminated by an intense laser pulse.
The term high voltage usually means electrical energy at voltages high enough to inflict harm on living organisms.
High-energy X-rays or HEX-rays are very hard X-rays, with typical energies of 80–1000 keV (1 MeV), about one order of magnitude higher than conventional X-rays (and well into gamma-ray energies over 120 keV).
The hilum overlay sign is an imaging appearance on chest radiographs in which the outline of the hilum can be seen at the level of a mass or collection in the mid chest.
Hinode (ひので,, Sunrise), formerly Solar-B, is a Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency Solar mission with United States and United Kingdom collaboration.
A hip dislocation a disruption of the joint between the femur and pelvis.
Hip dysplasia is an abnormality of the hip joint where the socket portion does not fully cover the ball portion, resulting in an increased risk for joint dislocation.
In dogs, hip dysplasia is an abnormal formation of the hip socket that, in its more severe form, can eventually cause crippling lameness and painful arthritis of the joints.
Hip replacement is a surgical procedure in which the hip joint is replaced by a prosthetic implant, that is, a hip prosthesis.
The Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center, also known as Hiroshima Synchrotron Orbital Radiation (HiSOR), at Hiroshima University is a national user research facility in Japan.
Histogram equalization is a method in image processing of contrast adjustment using the image's histogram.
Historadiography is a technique formerly utilized in the fields of histology and cellular biology to provide semiquantitative information regarding the density of a tissue sample.
The history of art criticism, as part of art history, is the study of objects of art in their historical development and stylistic contexts, i.e. genre, design, format, and style, which include aesthetic considerations.
Astronomy is the oldest of the natural sciences, dating back to antiquity, with its origins in the religious, mythological, cosmological, calendrical, and astrological beliefs and practices of prehistory: vestiges of these are still found in astrology, a discipline long interwoven with public and governmental astronomy, and not completely disentangled from it until a few centuries ago in the Western World (see astrology and astronomy).
The history of chemistry represents a time span from ancient history to the present.
The history of chiropractic began in 1895 when Daniel David Palmer of Iowa performed the first chiropractic adjustment on a partially deaf janitor, Harvey Lillard.
The history of electromagnetic theory begins with ancient measures to understand atmospheric electricity, in particular lightning.
The recorded history of observation of the planet Mars dates back to the era of the ancient Egyptian astronomers in the 2nd millennium BCE.
The history of medicine shows how societies have changed in their approach to illness and disease from ancient times to the present.
The history of molecular biology begins in the 1930s with the convergence of various, previously distinct biological and physical disciplines: biochemistry, genetics, microbiology, virology and physics.
The first neuroimaging technique ever is the so-called ‘human circulation balance’ invented by Angelo Mosso in the 1880s and able to non-invasively measure the redistribution of blood during emotional and intellectual activity.
The study of neurology and neurosurgery dates back to prehistoric times, but the academic disciplines did not begin until the 16th century.
Although research into optical data storage has been ongoing for many decades, the first popular system was the Compact Disc, introduced in 1982, adapted from audio (CD-DA) to data storage (the CD-ROM format) with the 1985 Yellow Book, and re-adapted as the first mass market optical storage medium with CD-R and CD-RW in 1988.
Physics (from the Ancient Greek φύσις physis meaning "nature") is the fundamental branch of science.
The history of radiation therapy or radiotherapy can be traced back to experiments made soon after the discovery of x-rays (1895), when it was shown that exposure to radiation produced cutaneous burns.
The history of spectroscopy began in the 17th century.
Surgery (W. J. Bishop, The early history of Surgery. Hale, London, 1960.
The history of the FA Cup in association football dates back to 1871–72.
The periodic table is an arrangement of the chemical elements and are organized on the basis of their atomic numbers, electron configurations and recurring chemical properties.
The earliest known telescope appeared in 1608 in the Netherlands when an eyeglass maker named Hans Lippershey tried to obtain a patent on one.
This article chronicles the history and origins of the Teller–Ulam design, the technical concept behind modern thermonuclear weapons, also known as hydrogen bombs.
The history of X-ray astronomy begins in the 1920s, with interest in short wave communications for the U.S. Navy.
HM 1, also known as Havlen-Moffat 1, is an open cluster located in the constellation of Scorpius, close to the galactic plane.
HMS Gurkha was a of the Royal Navy.
Hoàng Thị Thân (born in 1944 at Phú Cường (Thủ Dâù Một, South Viêt Nam)) is the first woman to graduate from the Department of Geological Engineering of Laval University (Quebec, Canada), the first female Vietnamese geological engineer and archeologist.
Hobart International Airport is an airport located in Cambridge, northeast of Hobart.
Hodge 301 is a star cluster in the Tarantula Nebula, visible from Earth's Southern Hemisphere.
Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is a type of lymphoma which is generally believed to result from white blood cells of the lymphocyte kind.
Hogarth Painting the Comic Muse (originally known as The Artist Painting the Comic Muse) is a painting in the National Portrait Gallery, London by the British artist William Hogarth.
In radiation thermodynamics, a hohlraum (a non-specific German word for a "hollow space" or "cavity") is a cavity whose walls are in radiative equilibrium with the radiant energy within the cavity.
Hollow Atoms (discovered in 1990 by a French team of researchers around Jean-Pierre Briand) are short-lived multiply excited neutral atoms which carry a large part of their Z electrons (Z... projectile nuclear charge) in high-n levels while inner shells remain (transiently) empty.
Holography is the science and practice of making holograms.
Holt–Oram syndrome (also called atrio-digital syndrome, atriodigital dysplasia, cardiac-limb syndrome, heart-hand syndrome type 1, HOS, ventriculo-radial syndrome) is an autosomal dominant disorder that affects bones in the arms and hands (the upper limbs) and often causes heart problems.
A Holweck pump is a type of vacuum pump that utilises the drag of air molecules against a rotating surface.
The third season of the animated sitcom Home Movies originally began airing in the United States on the Adult Swim programming block for the television network Cartoon Network from August 4, 2002 to May 25, 2003.
Homeopathy or homœopathy is a system of alternative medicine developed in 1796 by Samuel Hahnemann, based on his doctrine of like cures like (similia similibus curentur), a claim that a substance that causes the symptoms of a disease in healthy people would cure similar symptoms in sick people.
Horatio George Adamson (28 November 1865 – 6 July 1955) was a British dermatologist.
Horst Schumann (1 May 1906 – 5 May 1983), SS-Sturmbannführer (major) and medical doctor, conducted sterilization and castration experiments at Auschwitz and was particularly interested in the mass sterilization of Jews by means of X-rays.
Horst Widmann (born 8 August 1938 in Leoben, Austria) is an Austrian painter.
"Hospital for Hire" is an episode of the award-winning British comedy television series The Goodies.
A hospital information system (HIS) is an element of health informatics that focuses mainly on the administrational needs of hospitals.
Hospital Nacional (National Hospital) is a private hospital in Panama City, Panama.
A hospital ship is a ship designated for primary function as a floating medical treatment facility or hospital.
Hot carrier injection (HCI) is a phenomenon in solid-state electronic devices where an electron or a “hole” gains sufficient kinetic energy to overcome a potential barrier necessary to break an interface state.
The Hounsfield scale or CT numbers, named after Sir Godfrey Hounsfield, is a quantitative scale for describing radiodensity.
The first season of House premiered November 16, 2004 and ended May 24, 2005.
Houston Orthopedic and Spine Hospital is the number one rated hospital in Houston for surgery according to Consumer Reports.
Howard Robard Hughes Jr. (December 24, 1905 – April 5, 1976) was an American business magnate, investor, record-setting pilot, film director, and philanthropist, known during his lifetime as one of the most financially successful individuals in the world.
Howard Sochurek (27 November 1924 – 25 April 1994), was an American photojournalist.
HR 511 (also designated V987 Cassiopeiae and Gliese 75 among others) is an orange dwarf of spectral type K0V in the constellation Cassiopeia.
Hrymailiv (Гримайлів; Grzymałów; רימאלאוו, Rimalov) is an urban-type settlement in the Husiatyn Raion (district) of Ternopil Oblast (province) in western Ukraine.
The H's and T's is a mnemonic used to aid in remembering the possible reversible causes of cardiac arrest.
The Hubble Deep Field (HDF) is an image of a small region in the constellation Ursa Major, constructed from a series of observations by the Hubble Space Telescope.
Hudson is a town in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States, with a total population of 19,063 as of the 2010 census.
Hugh Macdonald Sinclair, FRCP (4 February 1910 – 22 June 1990) was a doctor, medical researcher, and expert in human nutrition.
Hugh Turvey (born 5 June 1971) is a British artist, photographer and experimentalist who works primarily with X-ray technology.
Hugo M. Rietveld (7 March 1932 – 16 July 2016) was a Dutch crystallographer who is famous for his publication on the full profile refinement method in powder diffraction, which became later known as the Rietveld refinement method.
The humanitarian response by national governments to the 2010 Haiti earthquake included numerous national governments from around the world pledging to coordinate and send humanitarian aid to the Haitian people affected by the disaster.
A humerus fracture is a break of the humerus bone in the upper arm.
The Hunsrück Slate (Hunsrück-Schiefer) is a Lower Devonian lithostratigraphic unit, a type of rock strata, in the German regions of the Hunsrück and Taunus.
A Hyder flare is an intense brightening that occurs in the solar chromosphere.
Hydrodilatation or hydraulic arthrographic capsular distension or distension arthrography is a medical treatment for adhesive capsulitis of shoulder.
Hydronephrosis describes urine-filled dilation of the renal pelvis and/or calyces as a result of obstruction.
Hydropneumothorax is defined as the presence of both air and fluid within the pleural space.
In fluid mechanics, a fluid is said to be in hydrostatic equilibrium or hydrostatic balance when it is at rest, or when the flow velocity at each point is constant over time.
Hydrus is a small constellation in the deep southern sky.
Hyperdontia is the condition of having supernumerary teeth, or teeth that appear in addition to the regular number of teeth.
Hyperostosis frontalis interna is a common, benign thickening of the inner side of the frontal bone of the skull.
Hyperprolactinemia or hyperprolactinaemia is the presence of abnormally high levels of prolactin in the blood.
Hyperspectral imaging, like other spectral imaging, collects and processes information from across the electromagnetic spectrum.
Hypertensive encephalopathy (HE) is general brain dysfunction due to significantly high blood pressure.
Hypertrophic Osteodystrophy (HOD) is a bone disease that occurs in fast-growing large and giant breed dogs.
Hypochondroplasia (HCH) is a developmental disorder caused by an autosomal dominant genetic defect in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 gene (FGFR3) that results in a disproportionately short stature, micromeliaupdate 2013 and a head that appears large in comparison with the underdeveloped portions of the body.
Hysterosalpingography (HSG), also known as uterosalpingography, is a radiologic procedure to investigate the shape of the uterine cavity and the shape and patency of the fallopian tubes.
HZE ions are the high-energy nuclei component of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) which have an electric charge greater than +2.
The IBM Personal Computer, commonly known as the IBM PC, is the original version and progenitor of the IBM PC compatible hardware platform.
ICD-9-CM Volume 3 is a system of procedural codes used by health insurers to classify medical procedures for billing purposes.
Standards for the identification of cell death have changed.
If Looks Could Kill (released in the United Kingdom as Teen Agent) is a 1991 American action comedy film directed by William Dear and starring Richard Grieco.
IGR may refer to.
IGR J17091-3624 (also IGR J17091) is a stellar mass black hole 28,000 light years away.
IGR J17329-2731 as described by European Space Agency astronomers is a single faint transient X-ray source (ATel #10644) observed with Swift/XRT on 16 August 2017 from 2:26 to 2:45 UTC with an effective exposure of time of 1 ks.
II Pegasi is a binary star system in the constellation of Pegasus with an apparent magnitude of 7.4 and a distance of 130 light years.
The Ilizarov apparatus is a type of external fixation used in orthopedic surgery to lengthen or reshape limb bones; as a limb-sparing technique to treat complex and/or open bone fractures; and in cases of infected nonunions of bones that are not amenable with other techniques.
An image intensifier or image intensifier tube is a vacuum tube device for increasing the intensity of available light in an optical system to allow use under low-light conditions, such as at night, to facilitate visual imaging of low-light processes, such as fluorescence of materials in X-rays or gamma rays (X-ray image intensifier), or for conversion of non-visible light sources, such as near-infrared or short wave infrared to visible.
An image sensor or imaging sensor is a sensor that detects and conveys the information that constitutes an image.
Image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) is the process of frequent two and three-dimensional imaging, during a course of radiation treatment, used to direct radiation therapy utilizing the imaging coordinates of the actual radiation treatment plan.
An imaging biomarker is a biologic feature, or biomarker detectable in an image.
Imaging instruments produce diagnostic images.
Imaging phantom, or simply phantom, is a specially designed object that is scanned or imaged in the field of medical imaging to evaluate, analyze, and tune the performance of various imaging devices.
The Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer (IXPE) is a future space observatory with three identical telescopes designed to measure the polarization of cosmic X-rays.
Impossible colors or forbidden colors are supposed colors that cannot be perceived in normal seeing of light that is a combination of various intensities of the various frequencies of visible light, but are reported to be seen in special circumstances.
An improvised firearm (sometimes called a zip gun) is a firearm manufactured other than by a firearms manufacturer or a gunsmith, and is typically constructed by adapting existing materials to the purpose.
The iron or was excavated at the Inariyama Kofun in 1968.
Articles related specifically to biomedical engineering include.
This is an alphabetical list of articles pertaining specifically to electrical and electronics engineering.
Health is the state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and a positive concept emphasizing social and personal resources, as well as physical capacities.
This is a list of terms related to oncology.
Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behavior and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.
The index of physics articles is split into multiple pages due to its size.
This is an index to articles about terms used in discussion of radio propagation.
This is a list of Wave topics.
The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is the space agency of the Government of India headquartered in the city of Bangalore.
Indigenous Australian art or Australian Aboriginal art is art made by the Indigenous peoples of Australia and in collaborations between Indigenous Australians and others.
Indira Gandhi International Airport serves as the primary civilian aviation hub for the National Capital Region of Delhi, India.
Industrial radiography is a method of non-destructive testing where many types of manufactured components can be examined to verify the internal structure and integrity of the specimen.
The Industry Social Service of the State of Rio de Janeiro comprehends SESI's work in Rio de Janeiro state.
Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is a type of fusion energy research that attempts to initiate nuclear fusion reactions by heating and compressing a fuel target, typically in the form of a pellet that most often contains a mixture of deuterium and tritium.
Inertial electrostatic confinement is a branch of fusion research that uses an electric field to elevate a plasma to fusion conditions.
Infantile cortical hyperostosis is a self-limited inflammatory disorder of infants that causes bone changes, soft tissue swelling and irritability.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Inflammatory aortic aneurysm (IAA), also known as Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA), is a type of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) where the walls of the aneurysm become thick and inflamed.
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
Active thermography is an advanced nondestructive testing procedure, which uses a thermography measurement of a tested material thermal response after its external excitation.
An infrared telescope is a telescope that uses infrared light to detect celestial bodies.
An inspection is, most generally, an organized examination or formal evaluation exercise.
The Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU) was a nuclear research institute in Karlsruhe, Germany.
Institute of Inorganic Chemistry Slovak Academy of Sciences (IIC SAS; Ústav anorganickej chémie Slovenskej akadémie vied) belongs to Scientific Section 2, Biological and Chemical Sciences of Slovak Academy of Sciences.
The Institute of Mathematical Problems of Biology RAS (Институт математических проблем биологии) is a research institute specializing in computational biology and bioinformatics.
The National Oncologic Institute or ION (Instituto Oncológico Nacional) is a specialized hospital for cancer treatment, located in Panama City, Panama.
Instrumental analysis is a field of analytical chemistry that investigates analytes using scientific instruments.
Instruments used specially in radiology are as follows.
INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) is a currently operational space telescope for observing gamma rays.
Integrins are transmembrane receptors that facilitate cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion.
An Interacting binary star is a type of binary star in which one or both of the component stars has filled or exceeded its Roche lobe.
An Intermediate Polar (also called a DQ Herculis Star) is a type of cataclysmic variable binary star system with a white dwarf and a cool main-sequence secondary star.
The intermetacarpal joints are in the hand formed between the metacarpal bones.
Intermittent fever is a type or pattern of fever in which there is an interval where temperature is elevated for several hours followed by an interval when temperature drops back to normal.
Internal conversion is a radioactive decay process wherein an excited nucleus interacts electromagnetically with one of the orbital electrons of the atom.
The International Congress of Radiology (ICR) is a meeting of radiologists for the exchange of ideas and the harmonisation of international standards and practice, first held in 1925 in London and held at regular intervals since then.
The International Day of Radiology (IDoR) is an annual event promoting the role of medical imaging in modern healthcare.
The International Red Cross wound classification system is a system whereby certain features of a wound are scored: the size of the skin wound(s); whether there is a cavity, fracture or vital structure injured; the presence or absence of metallic foreign bodies.
The International X-ray Observatory (IXO) is a cancelled X-ray telescope that was to be launched in 2021 as a joint effort by NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA).
The interplanetary medium is the material which fills the Solar System, and through which all the larger Solar System bodies, such as planets, dwarf planets, asteroids, and comets, move.
Interstellar is a 2014 epic science fiction film directed, co-written, and co-produced by Christopher Nolan.
In astronomy, the interstellar medium (ISM) is the matter and radiation that exists in the space between the star systems in a galaxy.
Interventional cardiology is a branch of cardiology that deals specifically with the catheter based treatment of structural heart diseases.
Interventional oncology (abbreviated IO) is a subspecialty field of interventional radiology that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of cancer and cancer-related problems using targeted minimally invasive procedures performed under image guidance.
An intervertebral disc (or intervertebral fibrocartilage) lies between adjacent vertebrae in the vertebral column.
In astronomy, the intracluster medium (ICM) is the superheated plasma that permeates a galaxy cluster.
Intraoperative electron radiation therapy (IOERT) is the application of electron radiation directly to the residual tumor or tumor bed during cancer surgery.
An intravenous pyelogram (IVP), also called an intravenous urogram (IVU), is a radiological procedure used to visualize abnormalities of the urinary system, including the kidneys, ureters, and bladder.
Intussusception is a medical condition in which a part of the intestine folds into the section next to it.
This article outlines the history of Canadian technological invention.
An involucrum (plural involucra) is a layer of new bone growth outside existing bone seen in pyogenic osteomyelitis.
Iodine-125 (125I) is a radioisotope of iodine which has uses in biological assays, nuclear medicine imaging and in radiation therapy as brachytherapy to treat a number of conditions, including prostate cancer, uveal melanomas, and brain tumors.
Iohexol, sold under the trade names Omnipaque among others, is a contrast agent used during X-rays.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Ion implantation is low-temperature process by which ions of one element are accelerated into a solid target, thereby changing the physical, chemical, or electrical properties of the target.
On 1 January 2018 the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1999 (IRR99) were superseded by the.
The ionization chamber is the simplest of all gas-filled radiation detectors, and is widely used for the detection and measurement of certain types of ionizing radiation; X-rays, gamma rays, and beta particles.
Ionizing radiation (ionising radiation) is radiation that carries enough energy to liberate electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them.
The ionosphere is the ionized part of Earth's upper atmosphere, from about to altitude, a region that includes the thermosphere and parts of the mesosphere and exosphere.
Iota Aurigae (ι Aurigae, abbreviated Iot Aur, ι Aur), also named Hassaleh, is a star in the northern constellation of Auriga.
Iota Orionis (ι Orionis, abbreviated Iot Ori, ι Ori) is a multiple star system in the equatorial constellation of Orion the hunter.
Iotrolan (trade name Isovist) is a radiocontrast agent, a substance used to improve the visibility of body structures on images obtained by X-ray techniques.
Iotroxic acid, also known as meglumine iotroxate, is a molecule used as a contrast medium during X-rays.
Ioxilan is a diagnostic contrast agent.
Ipodate sodium (sodium iopodate) is an iodine-containing radiopaque contrast media used for X-rays.
iPTF14hls is an unusual supernova star that has erupted continuously for the last three years (as of 2017).
*"Science is a rewarding and challenging career.
Iron-55 or 55Fe is a radioactive isotope of iron with a nucleus containing 26 protons and 29 neutrons.
Iron–platinum nanoparticles (FePt NPs) are 3D superlattices composed of an approximately equal atomic ratio of Fe and Pt.
Irradiation is the process by which an object is exposed to radiation.
Ischemic colitis (also spelled ischaemic colitis) is a medical condition in which inflammation and injury of the large intestine result from inadequate blood supply.
Naturally occurring gadolinium (64Gd) is composed of 6 stable isotopes, 154Gd, 155Gd, 156Gd, 157Gd, 158Gd and 160Gd, and 1 radioisotope, 152Gd, with 158Gd being the most abundant (24.84% natural abundance).
Naturally occurring palladium (46Pd) is composed of six stable isotopes, 102Pd, 104Pd, 105Pd, 106Pd, 108Pd, and 110Pd, although two of them are theoretically unstable.
Although phosphorus (15P) has 23 isotopes from 24P to 46P, only one of these isotopes is stable 31P; as such, it is considered a monoisotopic element.
Although thorium (90Th) has 6 naturally occurring isotopes, none of these isotopes are stable; however, one isotope, 232Th, is relatively stable, with a half-life of 1.405×1010 years, considerably longer than the age of the Earth, and even slightly longer than the generally accepted age of the universe.
Isotretinoin, also known as 13-cis-retinoic acid (and colloquially referred to by its former brand name Accutane or Roaccutane), is a medication primarily used to treat severe acne.
Zoological conspiracy theories involving Israel are occasionally found in the media or on the Internet, typically in Muslim-majority countries, alleging use of animals by Israel to attack civilians or to conduct espionage.
The Italian Space Agency (Agenzia Spaziale Italiana; ASI) is a government agency established in 1988 to fund, regulate and coordinate space exploration activities in Italy.
Ivan Ivanovich Borgman (24 February 1849- 17 May 1914) was a Russian physicist who first demonstrated in 1897 that X-rays and radioactive materials induced thermoluminescence.
Ivan Pului (son of Iwan Pului Іва́н Пулю́й, син Па́вла Пулю́я; Johann Puluj; 2 February 1845 – 31 January 1918) was a Ukrainian physicist and inventor, who has been championed as an early developer of the use of X-rays for medical imaging.
Ivan Romanovich Tarkhanov (Иван Романович Тарханов) or Ivane Tarkhnishvili (ივანე რამაზის–ძე თარხნიშვილი, თარხან-მოურავი; June 1846 – September 1908) was a Georgian physiologist and science populariser from the Tarkhan-Mouravi noble family.
Ivy Mike was the codename given to the first test of a full-scale thermonuclear device, in which part of the explosive yield comes from nuclear fusion.
John Michael 'Rab' Rabinovich, later known as Prof John Michael Robson FRSE FRCS FRCSE LLD (1900–1982) was a geneticist and physicist who co-founded the science of mutagenesis by mutations in fruit flies exposed to mustard gas, and who first observed neutron beta decay.
(John) Michael Brady (born 30 April 1945) FRS One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from the royalsociety.org website where: is an Emeritus professor of Oncological Imaging at the University of Oxford and a Fellow of Keble College, Oxford.
Prof John Norman Collie FRSE FRS (10 September 1859 – 1 November 1942), commonly referred to as J. Norman Collie, was a British scientist, mountaineer and explorer.
Julius Robert Oppenheimer (April 22, 1904 – February 18, 1967) was an American theoretical physicist and professor of physics at the University of California, Berkeley.
is the second Super Sentai series.
Jacob Moritz Blumberg (27 June 1873 – 1955) was a German Jewish surgeon and gynaecologist and inventor and namesake of the Blumberg sign.
Jacques Forestier (27 July 1890, Aix-les-Bains – 15 March 1978) was a French internist who was a pioneer in the field of rheumatology.
Jaipur International Airport is the primary airport serving Jaipur, the capital of the Indian state of Rajasthan.
Jaipur Metro is a rapid transit system in the city of Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.
Jalal Jalal Shokouhi (born 1950, Miandoab, West Azerbaijan) is an Iranian radiologist, writer and historical and cultural researcher.
James Abram Garfield (November 19, 1831 – September 19, 1881) was the 20th President of the United States, serving from March 4, 1881, until his assassination later that year.
Leo James Rainwater (December 9, 1917 – May 31, 1986) was an American physicist who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1975 for his part in determining the asymmetrical shapes of certain atomic nuclei.
James Stanley Hey FRS (3 May 1909 – 27 February 2000) was an English physicist and radio astronomer.
James W. Mayer was a physical chemist, who was active in the field of ion-solid interactions.
James Dewey Watson (born April 6, 1928) is an American molecular biologist, geneticist and zoologist, best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA in 1953 with Francis Crick and Rosalind Franklin.
James Wimshurst (13 April 1832 – 3 January 1903) was an English inventor, engineer and shipwright.
Jane Frances Kaczmarek (born December 21, 1955) is an American actress.
American entertainer Janet Jackson has released forty-nine music videos, in addition to eight video albums and two concert tour videos.
Janet "Jenny" Luy Lim-Napoles (born Janet Lim y Luy; January 15, 1964) is a businesswoman who is believed to have masterminded the Priority Development Assistance Fund Scam.
Jansen's metaphyseal chondrodysplasia (JMC) is a disease that results from ligand-independent activation of the type 1 (PTHR1) of the parathyroid hormone receptor, due to one of three reported mutations (activating mutation).
The following events occurred in January 1918.
As latecomers to Japan's religious scene, both Catholic and Protestant churches have experienced considerable difficulty in shedding their reputation as "foreign religions." While at times the "Westernness" of Christianity has contributed to its appeal among Japanese, for the most part it has been viewed as a problem.
Jarrah (الجراح, جراح) is an Arabic-language word for surgeon.
The Jaseng Hospital of Oriental Medicine (Hangul: 자생한방병원) is the largest oriental medical hospital specializing in non-surgical treatment of spine and joint disorders in Korea.
Jason Christopher Prior (born 20 December 1988) is an English footballer who plays as a striker for National League South side Havant & Waterlooville.
Jürgen Schmitt is a German astronomer and physicist at the University of Hamburg, where he is a professor of astrophysics.
Jean Baptiste Perrin (30 September 1870 – 17 April 1942) was a French physicist who, in his studies of the Brownian motion of minute particles suspended in liquids, verified Albert Einstein’s explanation of this phenomenon and thereby confirmed the atomic nature of matter (sedimentation equilibrium).
Jeffrey Robert Immelt (born February 19, 1956) is an American business executive currently working as a venture partner at New Enterprise Associates.
Jeffrey Alan Hoffman (born November 2, 1944) is an American former NASA astronaut and currently a professor of aeronautics and astronautics at MIT.
Jennifer Todd Reeves (born 1971) is a New York-based independent filmmaker.
Jens Voigt (born 17 September 1971) is a German former professional road bicycle racer for several teams, the last one being UCI ProTeam.
Jindřich Bačkovský (May 4, 1912 – 2000) was an eminent Czech physicist whose work focused on X-ray spectroscopy, the structure of crystals, vacuum techniques, radiometry and the physics of high pressures.
Joachim Stöhr (born September 28, 1947) is a physicist and professor emeritus of the Photon Science Department of Stanford University.
Joan T. Schmelz has been a professor of physics at the University of Memphis since 1996.
Joanna (Joka) Maria Vandenberg (born 1938) is a Dutch solid state chemist and crystallographer who immigrated to the United States in 1968.
John Ross "Jock" Ewing Sr. (1909–82) is a character in the popular American television series Dallas, played by Jim Davis (1978–81); in the made-for-TV movie prequel to the series, Dallas: The Early Years (1986), he was played by Dale Midkiff.
Joe Wiseman Howland, M.D., Ph.D. (21 December 1908 – 12 October 1978) a pioneer researcher in radiation toxicity, health and safety.
Johannes Alphonsus Marie "Johan" Bleeker (born 20 July 1942) is a Dutch space technology scientist.
Johan Ludvig Heiberg (27 November 1854 – 4 January 1928) was a Danish philologist and historian.
Johann Wilhelm Hittorf (27 March 1824 – 28 November 1914) was a German physicist who was born in Bonn and died in Münster, Germany.
Johannes Petrus Kuenen (Leiden, 11 October 1866 – Leiden, 25 September 1922) was a Dutch physicist.
Johannes Martin Bijvoet (23 January 1892, Amsterdam – 4 March 1980, Winterswijk) was a Dutch chemist and crystallographer at the van 't Hoff Laboratory at Utrecht University.
Johannes Wilde CBE (2 July 1891 – 13 September 1970) was a Hungarian art historian and teacher of art history.
John Charles Howorth Spence ForMemRS HonFRMS is Richard Snell Professor of Physics at Arizona State University and Director of Science at the National Science Foundation BioXFEL Science and Technology Center.
John Paul DeFazio (born 1975) is a Los Angeles-based, award-winning director of photography in the film and television industry, who is also known as a mixed-media and glitch artist, furniture creator and experimental film and music video director.
John Edgar Dick FRS Royal Society, London FRSC (born 1954) is Canada Research Chair in Stem Cell Biology, Senior Scientist at the Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network and Professor in the Department of Molecular Genetics at the University of Toronto in Canada.
John Grieve Woods (17 January 1900 – 27 April 1980) was an Australian general practitioner and soldier.
Captain John Henry Ebersole, M.D., MC USN (26 January 1925 – 23 September 1993) a pioneer in submarine medicine and radiation oncology, selected by Admiral Hyman G. Rickover to serve as medical officer aboard the US Navy's first two nuclear powered submarines, the and the.
John Francis Hall-Edwards FRSE (19 December 1858 – 15 August 1926) was a British physician and pioneer in the medical use of X-rays in the United Kingdom.
John J. Rehr is an American theoretical physicist, a professor of physics at the University of Washington in Seattle.
John Mace Grunsfeld (born October 10, 1958) is an American physicist and a former NASA astronaut.
John Michael "Mike" Lounge (June 28, 1946March 1, 2011) was an American engineer, a United States Navy officer, a Vietnam War veteran, and a NASA astronaut.
Dr John Macintyre or Mcintyre FRSE (2 October 1857 – 29 October 1928) was a Scottish doctor who set up the world's first radiology department at the Glasgow Royal Infirmary, in Glasgow.
Sir John Ramsay CBE FRACS (26 December 1872 – 6 February 1944) was an Australian surgeon, known for his association with the Launceston General Hospital.
John Thomas Patterson (1878–1960) was an American geneticist and professor at the University of Texas.
The John Thomas sign, also known as the Throckmorton sign, is a slang or joke term used in the field of radiology.
John Titor is a name used on several bulletin boards during 2000 and 2001 by a poster claiming to be an American military time traveler from 2036.
John Wayne Gacy Jr. (March 17, 1942 – May 10, 1994) was an American serial killer and rapist.
Jonas Basanavičius (Jan Basanowicz; 23 November 1851 – 16 February 1927) was an activist and proponent of the Lithuanian National Revival.
The Jordan University of Science and Technology (جامعة العلوم والتكنولوجيا الأردنية Jami'at Al-Ulum wa Al-Tiknolojia Al-Urdunia), often abbreviated JUST, is a comprehensive, state-supported university located on the outskirts of Irbid, at Ar Ramtha in northern Jordan.
Jose Pearson TB Hospital is a specialised Provincial government funded TB hospital situated outside Port Elizabeth in South Africa.
Josef Karl Franz Otto Geitler, Ritter von Armingen (14 September 1870 – 20 June 1923) was an Austrian physicist born in Smíchov, today a district in Prague.
Josef Maria Eder 16 March 1855 – 18 October 1944) was an Austrian chemist who specialized in the chemistry of photography.
Joseph Colt Bloodgood (1 November 1867 – 22 October 1935) was a prominent surgeon in the United States based in Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland.
Joseph R. Dwyer (born 1963) is an American physicist known for his lightning research.
Joseph Nisbet LeConte (February 7, 1870 – February 1, 1950) was a noted explorer of the Sierra Nevada.
Father Joseph Patrick Slattery, CM (21 May 1866 – 31 March 1931) physicist, radiologist, Catholic priest, pioneer in the field of radiography in Australia and credited with the first use of fluoroscopy in Australia.
Joseph William Sutton (21 October 1844 – 21 February 1914), identified in the print media as J. W. Sutton, was an Australian engineer, shipbuilder, inventor, pioneer in electric lighting and x-ray pioneer in Queensland.
Judith is a painting by the Italian painter Giorgione, executed around 1504.
Jun Ishiwara or Atsushi Ishihara (石原 純; January 15, 1881 – January 19, 1947) was a Japanese theoretical physicist, known for his works on the electronic theory of metals, the theory of relativity and quantum theory.
Jupiter and Antiope (French: Jupiter et Antiope) is an oil painting by the French artist Antoine Watteau.
Justice League: Crisis on Two Earths is an original direct-to-video animated superhero film released on February 23, 2010.
Justus Mühlenpfordt (22 April 1911 in Lübeck – 2 October 2000) was a German nuclear physicist.
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), also known as juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, is the most common form of arthritis in children and adolescents.
The K-line is a spectral peak in astronomical spectrometry used, along with the L-line, to observe and describe the light spectrum of stars.
Kaatedocus is a genus of diplodocine flagellicaudatan sauropod known from the middle Late Jurassic (Kimmeridgian stage) of northern Wyoming, United States.
The KALI (Kilo Ampere Linear Injector) is a linear electron accelerator|accelerator being developed in by the "DRDO" or "Defence Research and Development Organisation|Defence Research Development Organization" and the "BARC" or "Bhabha Atomic Research Centre".
Kallmann syndrome (KS) is a genetic disorder that prevents a person from starting or fully completing puberty.
Kamoyapithecus (Kamoya + Greek -pithekos “ape”) was a primate that lived in Africa during the late Oligocene period, about 24.2-27.5 million years ago.
Kaonic hydrogen is an exotic atom consisting of a negatively charged kaon orbiting a proton.
Kapıkule is the name of the Turkish border crossing point in Edirne Province on the border of Turkey and Bulgaria.
Kapiolani Community College, formerly Kapiolani Technical School, is a public, co-educational commuter college in Honolulu, Hawaiokinai situated on the slopes of Diamond Head in Waikīkī.
Kappa Fornacis (κ For) is a star system that lies approximately 72 light-years away.
Kapton is a polyimide film developed by DuPont in the late 1960s that remains stable across a wide range of temperatures, from.
The Karachi Institute of Heart Diseases (KIHD), is located in Karachi, became functional on June 3, 2005.
The Karatmeter is a scientific device launched by India-based Titan Company Limited (TATA Group) which uses X-rays to give an exact reading of the purity of gold.
Karol Stanisław Olszewski (29 January 1846 – 24 March 1915) was a Polish chemist, mathematician and physicist.
Kashin–Beck disease (KBD) is a chronic, endemic type of osteochondropathy (disease of the bone) that is mainly distributed from northeastern to southwestern China, including 15 provinces.
Kathleen Mansfield Murry (née Beauchamp; 14 October 1888 – 9 January 1923) was a prominent New Zealand modernist short story writer who was born and brought up in colonial New Zealand and wrote under the pen name of Katherine Mansfield.
Katherine "Kitty" Vissering Oppenheimer (Puening; August 8, 1910 – October 27, 1972) was a German-American biologist and botanist and a member of the Communist Party of America.
Dame Kathleen Lonsdale, DBE, FRS (née Yardley; 28 January 1903 – 1 April 1971) was an Irish crystallographer who proved, in 1929, that the benzene ring is flat by using X-ray diffraction methods to elucidate the structure of hexamethylbenzene.
Katia Mann (born Katharina Hedwig Pringsheim; July 24, 1883 – April 25, 1980) was the youngest child and only daughter (among four sons) of the German Jewish mathematician and artist Alfred Pringsheim and his wife Hedwig Pringsheim, who was an actress in Berlin before her marriage.
Kauno dujotiekio statyba (KDS) (Kaunas Pipeline Construction) is a Lithuanian engineering company specializing in pipelines and installations for the energy industry.
Köhler disease (also spelled "Kohler" and referred to in some texts as Kohler disease I) is a rare bone disorder of the foot found in children between six and nine years of age.
, known as KEK, is a Japanese organization whose purpose is to operate the largest particle physics laboratory in Japan, situated in Tsukuba, Ibaraki prefecture.
The High Energy Accelerator Research Organization KEK digital accelerator (KEK-DA) is a renovation of the KEK 500 MeV booster proton synchrotron, which was shut down in 2006.
Keki Byramjee Grant was an Indian cardologist from Pune, Maharashtra, one of the first and respected cardiologists in the country and the founder of Grant Medical Foundation, which runs the Ruby Hall Clinic, a nationally accredited hospital in Pune.
Kelu-1 is a system of two brown dwarfs of spectral types L2 and L4 located in constellation Hydra at approximately 61 light-years from Earth.
Professor Kenji Takagi (1888–1963) was a Japanese orthopedic surgeon, noted for being the first to carry out a successful arthroscopy of the knee.
Kenneth John Frost (October 3, 1934 – August 5, 2013) was a pioneer in the early space program, designing and flying instruments to detect and measure X-rays and gamma-rays in space, primarily from the Sun.
An odontogenic keratocyst is a rare and benign but locally aggressive developmental cyst.
Keratoprosthesis is a surgical procedure where a diseased cornea is replaced with an artificial cornea.
Ketty La Rocca (14 July 1938, in La Spezia, Kingdom of Italy – 7 February 1976, in Firenze, Italian Republic) was an Italian artist during the 1960s and 70s.
Keutel syndrome (KS) is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by abnormal diffuse cartilage calcification, hypoplasia of the mid-face, peripheral pulmonary stenosis, hearing loss, short distal phalanges (tips) of the fingers and mild mental retardation.
Kevin Pietersen (born 27 June 1980) is a former English cricketer.
The Keweenaw Rocket Range was an isolated launch pad located in U.S. state of Michigan’s Keweenaw Peninsula.
Khao-I-Dang Holding Center was a Cambodian refugee camp located 20 km north of Aranyaprathet in Prachinburi (now Sa Kaeo) Province of Thailand.
Kinetic imaging is an imaging technology developed by Szabolcs Osváth and Krisztián Szigeti in the Department of Biophysics and Radiation Biology at Semmelweis University (Budapest, Hungary).
The kinetic inductance detector (KID) — also known as a microwave kinetic inductance detector (MKID) — is a type of superconducting photon detector first developed by scientists at the California Institute of Technology and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in 2003.
King Abdullah University Hospital (مستشفى الملك المؤسس عبد الله الجامعي), often abbreviated KAUH, is a hospital in Ar Ramtha, Jordan.
King Chimera is a fictional superhero in the DC Comics Universe, a member of the superhero team the Justice Society of America.
King's Daughters Medical Center (KDMC) is located in Ashland, Kentucky and is the city's largest employer at over 4,000 employees, generating more than $155 million in payroll a year.
A kinoform is a type of converging lens that is able to efficiently focus x-ray radiation.
A Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror, or KB mirror for short, focuses beams of X-rays by reflecting them at grazing incidence off a curved surface, usually coated with a layer of a heavy metal.
The Kisin House (r) is an edifice in the Leninsky District of Rostov-on-Don, Russia.
KITT is the short name of two fictional characters from the adventure TV series Knight Rider.
The Klein–Nishina formula gives the differential cross section of photons scattered from a single free electron in lowest order of quantum electrodynamics.
The knee joins the thigh with the leg and consists of two joints: one between the femur and tibia (tibiofemoral joint), and one between the femur and patella (patellofemoral joint).
Knee effusion or swelling of the knee (colloquially known as water on the knee) occurs when excess synovial fluid accumulates in or around the knee joint.
Kolmanskop (Afrikaans for Coleman's head, Kolmannskuppe) is a ghost town in the Namib in southern Namibia, 10 kilometres inland from the port town of Lüderitz.
Komga Hospital is a small Provincial government funded hospital for the Great Kei Local Municipality area in Komga, Eastern Cape in South Africa.
Kongsberg Spacetec AS or KSPT, prior to 1994 Spacetec A/S, is a supplier of ground stations based in Tromsø, Norway.
Kovar (trademark of CRS Holdings, inc., Delaware) is a nickel–cobalt ferrous alloy compositionally identical to Fernico 1, designed to have substantially the same thermal expansion characteristics as borosilicate glass (~5 × 10−6 /K between 30 and 200 °C, to ~10 × 10−6 /K at 800 °C) in order to allow a tight mechanical joint between the two materials over a range of temperatures.
Kramers' law is a formula for the spectral distribution of X-rays produced by an electron hitting a solid target.
Krishnaswamy Ramiah MBE (15 April 1892 – 3 August 1988) was an Indian agricultural scientist, geneticist, parliamentarian and the founder director of Central Rice Research Institute (CRRI), Cuttack, credited with introducing systematic hybridisation programmes in rice breeding in India.
Kristian Olaf Bernhard Birkeland (13 December 1867 – 15 June 1917) was a Norwegian scientist.
KSw 71 is a rapidly-spinning star in the constellation of Lyra.
The Kurchatov Center for Synchrotron Radiation and Nanotechnology (KCSRN) is a Russian interdisciplinary institute for synchrotron-based research.
The Lada XRAY is a compact crossover car produced by the Russian car manufacturer AvtoVAZ.
The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) was a NASA lunar exploration and technology demonstration mission.
Lake District Hospital is a hospital in Lakeview, Oregon, United States.
A laminotomy is an orthopaedic neurosurgical procedure that removes part of the lamina of a vertebral arch in order to relieve pressure in the vertebral canal.
Langley Research Center (LaRC or NASA Langley) located in Hampton, Virginia, United States, is the oldest of NASA's field centers.
Lawrence Eugene Doby (December 13, 1923 – June 18, 2003) was an American professional baseball player in the Negro leagues and Major League Baseball (MLB) who was the second black player to break baseball's color barrier.
Lars Leksell (1907–1986) was a Swedish physician and Professor of Neurosurgery at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden.
LIFE, short for Laser Inertial Fusion Energy, was a fusion energy effort run at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory between 2008 and 2013.
Laser Mégajoule (LMJ) is a large laser-based inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research device being built near Bordeaux, in France by the French nuclear science directorate, CEA.
LASNEX is a computer program that simulates the interactions between x-rays and a plasma, along with many effects associated with these interactions.
Lathom Hall is a former cinema and music venue in Seaforth, Liverpool, England.
Lauriston Building is a Community Hospital in Edinburgh, Scotland.
Sir William Lawrence Bragg, (31 March 1890 – 1 July 1971) was an Australian-born British physicist and X-ray crystallographer, discoverer (1912) of Bragg's law of X-ray diffraction, which is basic for the determination of crystal structure.
Lawrencium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Lr (formerly Lw) and atomic number 103.
Lofgren syndrome is a type of acute sarcoidosis that is frequent in Scandinavian, Irish, African and Puerto Rican women.
A Le Fort fracture of the skull is a classic transfacial fracture of the midface, involving the maxillary bone and surrounding structures in either a horizontal, pyramidal or transverse direction.
Le Sage's theory of gravitation is a kinetic theory of gravity originally proposed by Nicolas Fatio de Duillier in 1690 and later by Georges-Louis Le Sage in 1748.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
A lead apron or leaded apron is a type of protective clothing that acts as a radiation shield.
Lead glass, commonly called crystal, is a variety of glass in which lead replaces the calcium content of a typical potash glass.
Lead poisoning is a type of metal poisoning caused by lead in the body.
Lead shielding refers to the use of lead as a form of radiation protection to shield people or objects from radiation so as to reduce the effective dose.
Lead(II) iodide or lead iodide is a salt with the formula.
Lead(II) oxide, also called lead monoxide, is the inorganic compound with the molecular formula PbO.
The Leduc Community Hospital located 20 kilometres south of Edmonton.
Legg–Calvé–Perthes disease (LCPD, also known as Perthes disease or Legg–Perthes disease) is a childhood hip disorder initiated by a disruption of blood flow to the head of the femur.
Minifigures is a 2010 Lego theme based on a set of collectible Lego minifigures.
Length measurement is implemented in practice in many ways.
Lenox Hill Hospital is one of Northwell Health's hospitals.
Leo Szilard (Szilárd Leó; Leo Spitz until age 2; February 11, 1898 – May 30, 1964) was a Hungarian-German-American physicist and inventor.
Leonardo Torres y Quevedo (28 December 1852 – 18 December 1936) was a Spanish civil engineer and mathematician of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
Sir Leslie Harold Martin, (21 December 1900 – 1 February 1983) was an Australian physicist.
A letter is a grapheme (written character) in an alphabetic system of writing.
Lewis John Stadler (July 6, 1896 – May 12, 1954) was an American geneticist.
Lewis Lichtenstein Strauss ("straws"; January 31, 1896 – January 21, 1974) was a Jewish American businessman, philanthropist, public official, and naval officer.
Lichtenberg figures (German Lichtenberg-Figuren), or "Lichtenberg dust figures", are branching electric discharges that sometimes appear on the surface or in the interior of insulating materials.
LIGA is a German acronym for Lithographie, Galvanoformung, Abformung (Lithography, Electroplating, and Molding) that describes a fabrication technology used to create high-aspect-ratio microstructures.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
A lightbox is a translucent surface illuminated from behind, used for situations where a shape laid upon the surface needs to be seen with high contrast.
Lightning is a sudden electrostatic discharge that occurs typically during a thunderstorm.
"Like a Virgin" is a song recorded by American singer Madonna for her second studio album Like a Virgin (1984).
Limited Radiology Technicians perform X-rays of patients and deliver the images to doctors.
A limp is a type of asymmetric abnormality of the gait.
Lina Marcela Medina de Jurado (born on 23 September 1933) is a Peruvian woman who became the youngest confirmed mother in medical history, giving birth at the age of five years, seven months, and 21 days.
The Lincoln College of Art was an educational institution devoted to the arts, based in the English city of Lincoln with its origins in the mid-nineteenth century.
X-rays beams are produced when an electron is accelerated or decelerated.
A Linear diode array is used for digitizing x-ray images.
The linear no-threshold model (LNT) is a model used in radiation protection to quantify radiation exposure and set regulatory limits.
A linear particle accelerator (often shortened to linac) is a type of particle accelerator that accelerates charged subatomic particles or ions to a high speed by subjecting them to a series of oscillating electric potentials along a linear beamline.
Linus Carl Pauling (February 28, 1901 – August 19, 1994) was an American chemist, biochemist, peace activist, author, educator, and husband of American human rights activist Ava Helen Pauling.
The list of Akan people includes notable individuals of Akan meta-ethnicity and ancestry; the Akan people who are also referred to as (Akanfo) are a meta-ethnicity and Potou–Tano Kwa ethno-linguistic group that are indigenously located on the peninsula of Ashantiland Peninsula near the Equator precisely at the “center of the Earth”.
The following is a list of algorithms along with one-line descriptions for each.
American Restoration is an American reality television series airing on the History channel.
An astronomical catalogue is a list or tabulation of astronomical objects, typically grouped together because they share a common type, morphology, origin, means of detection, or method of discovery.
This is a list of astronomical observatories ordered by name, along with initial dates of operation (where an accurate date is available) and location.
This is a compilation of initialisms and acronyms commonly used in astronomy.
This is a list of persons known for their research in biophysics.
The following is a list of centenarians – specifically, people who became famous as scientists and mathematicians – known for reasons other than their longevity.
This is the list of etymologies for all chemical element names.
This article lists notable civilian accidents involving radioactive materials or involving ionizing radiation from artificial sources such as x-ray tubes and particle accelerators.
This is a list of commemorative coins issued by the Federal Republic of Germany.
This list of Cornell University alumni includes notable graduates, non-graduate former students, and current students of Cornell University, an Ivy League university located in Ithaca, New York.
CBS's Late Show with David Letterman regularly featured different sketches that follow the monologue and precede interviews with guests.
This is a list of Deadliest Catch episodes with original airdate on Discovery Channel.
The Netherlands had a considerable part in the making of modern society.
This is a list of electrical engineers (by no means exhaustive), people who have made notable contributions to electrical engineering or computer engineering.
Emerging technologies are those technical innovations which represent progressive developments within a field for competitive advantage.
This is a list of influential and newsworthy people affiliated with Emory University, a private university in DeKalb County, Georgia, near Atlanta.
The European Space Agency (ESA) operates a number of missions, both operational and scientific, including collaborations with other national space administrations such as the Japanese JAXA, the French CNES, the American NASA, and the Chinese CNSA.
This is a list of examples of lengths, in metres in order to give an understanding of lengths.
This is a selected list of gairaigo, Japanese words originating or based on foreign language (generally Western) terms, including wasei-eigo (Japanese pseudo-Anglicisms).
The following (incomplete) list is composed of items, techniques and processes that were invented by or discovered by people from Germany or German-speaking Europe.
Substances, mixtures and exposure circumstances in this list have been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as Group 1: The agent (mixture) is carcinogenic to humans.
This is a list of the members of the Imperial Guard, a fictional army of superpowered beings in the Marvel Comics universe.
Instruments used in Anatomy dissections are as follows.
Instruments used in Forensics, including autopsy dissections are as follows.
Instruments used in microbiological sterilization and disinfection are as follows.
This page aims to list the inventions and discoveries of which women were the protagonists.
As of 2017, Nobel PrizesThe Nobel Prize is an annual, international prize first awarded in 1901 for achievements in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace.
Kenny vs. Spenny is a Canadian reality comedy series which follows the lives of friends Kenny Hotz and Spencer Rice who face each other in various competitions.
Many scientific, military, medical and commercial laser applications have been developed since the invention of the laser in 1958.
This is a list of laser topics.
This is a list of laser types, their operational wavelengths, and their applications.
The life sciences or biological sciences comprise the branches of science that involve the scientific study of life and organisms – such as microorganisms, plants, and animals including human beings – as well as related considerations like bioethics.
Formerly called the Federation of Malaya until 1963, Malaysia became started to issue stamps under the current name starting in 1963.
Malcolm in the Middle is a Fox sitcom that ran for seven seasons from January 9, 2000 to May 14, 2006 with 151 episodes produced.
This is a list of characters from the TV series Martha Speaks.
Category:Lists of medical abbreviations.
This list of medical specialty colleges in the United States includes medical societies that represent board certified specialist physicians.
This is the list of weapons, gadgets, and equipment in the Men in Black franchise.
The following is a list of the "H" codes for MeSH.
As part of human exploration of the Moon, numerous space missions have been undertaken to study Earth's natural satellite.
This is the episode list of Mr. Bean, a British animated television series based on the 1990 TV series of the same name.
This is a list of NASA missions, both manned and unmanned, since its establishment in 1958.
University College London (UCL) is one of the two founding colleges of the University of London.
The Nobel Prize in Physics (Nobelpriset i fysik) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of physics.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin) is awarded annually by the Swedish Karolinska Institute to scientists and doctors in the various fields of physiology or medicine.
This article lists people who have been featured on the postage stamps of Brazil, including the dates of their stamp appearances.
The English suffixes -phobia, -phobic, -phobe (from Greek φόβος phobos, "fear") occur in technical usage in psychiatry to construct words that describe irrational, abnormal, unwarranted, persistent, or disabling fear as a mental disorder (e.g. agoraphobia), in chemistry to describe chemical aversions (e.g. hydrophobic), in biology to describe organisms that dislike certain conditions (e.g. acidophobia), and in medicine to describe hypersensitivity to a stimulus, usually sensory (e.g. photophobia).
This is a categorized list of physics mnemonics.
This is a list of inhabited places in Germany which are named after people.
The following is a list of portrait drawings by Hans Holbein the Younger that are generally accepted as by his own hand.
This is a list of scattering experiments.
This list of space telescopes (astronomical space observatories) is grouped by major frequency ranges: gamma ray, x-ray, ultraviolet, visible, infrared, microwave and radio.
This is a list of Spanish inventors and discoverers.
The following is a list of episodes of Speed Racer: The Next Generation.
This is a list of fictional supervillains appearing in DC Comics who are or have been enemies of the superhero Superman.
Temperatures Rising is an American television sitcom that aired for two years on the ABC network, during which time it was presented in three different formats and cast line-ups with a total of 46 episodes.
This is a list of things named after Albert Einstein.
This is a list of time capsules.
This is a list of tombs and mausoleums that are either notable in themselves, or contain the remains of a notable person/people.
This is a list of extraterrestrial, supernatural, otherworldly and futuristic items featured in the BBC science-fiction drama Torchwood and its spin-off media.
This is an incomplete list of University of Adelaide people including notable alumni and staff associated with the University of Adelaide in Australia.
List of University of Edinburgh medical people is a list of notable graduates as well as non-graduates, and academic staffs of the University of Edinburgh Medical School in Scotland.
List of University of Edinburgh people is a list of notable graduates as well as non-graduate former students, academic staffs, and university officials of the University of Edinburgh in Scotland.
This is a list of vacuum tubes or thermionic valves, and low-pressure gas-filled tubes, or discharge tubes.
List of X-ray space telescopes is a listing of "telescopes" in outer space that can observe X-ray wavelengths.
Lister House is a heritage-listed office building at 79 Wickham Terrace, Spring Hill, City of Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
The following are lists of stars.
A lithopedion – also spelled lithopaedion or lithopædion – (λίθος.
"Little Boy" was the codename for the atomic bomb dropped on the Japanese city of Hiroshima on 6 August 1945 during World War II by the Boeing B-29 Superfortress Enola Gay, piloted by Colonel Paul W. Tibbets, Jr., commander of the 509th Composite Group of the United States Army Air Forces.
The Little Heroes Foundation, previously the McGuinness McDermott Foundation, was launched in May 1996 in memory of five-year-old Nicholas Berry, and seven-year-old Nathan Maclean who died of cancer.
The Liudhard medalet is a gold Anglo-Saxon coin or small medal found some time before 1844 near St Martin's Church in Canterbury, England.
Tumors that develop within the liver may be either benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous).
Livingstone Hospital is a large Provincial government-funded hospital situated in Korsten, Port Elizabeth in South Africa.
The Local Bubble, or Local Cavity, is a relative cavity in the interstellar medium (ISM) in the Orion Arm of the Milky Way.
The Lockman Hole is an area of the sky in which minimal amounts of neutral hydrogen gas are observed.
The Large Observatory for X-ray Timing (LOFT) is a proposed ESA space mission originally slated to launch around 2022, and now proposed to launch around 2025.
Logansport State Hospital is a psychiatric hospital located in Logansport, Indiana, United States.
Loop quantum gravity (LQG) is a theory of quantum gravity, merging quantum mechanics and general relativity.
Lorenz Böhler (15 January 1885 in Wolfurt, Austria – 20 January 1973 in Vienna) was an Austrian physician and famous surgeon.
Henry Louis Gehrig, born Heinrich Ludwig Gehrig (June 19, 1903June 2, 1941), nicknamed "the Iron Horse", was an American baseball first baseman who played his entire professional career (17 seasons) in Major League Baseball (MLB) for the New York Yankees, from 1923 until 1939.
Louise Elliott (born 1969, Ashington) is a Welsh broadcaster and journalist.
The Lourdes Medical Bureau (Bureau des Constatations Médicales) is an official medical organization based in Lourdes, France, within the Sanctuary of Our Lady of Lourdes.
Low back pain (LBP) is a common disorder involving the muscles, nerves, and bones of the back.
Low-Energy electron diffraction (LEED) is a technique for the determination of the surface structure of single-crystalline materials by bombardment with a collimated beam of low energy electrons (20–200 eV) and observation of diffracted electrons as spots on a fluorescent screen.
Low-energy ion scattering spectroscopy (LEIS), sometimes referred to simply as ion scattering spectroscopy (ISS), is a surface-sensitive analytical technique used to characterize the chemical and structural makeup of materials.
A lower gastrointestinal series is a medical procedure used to examine and diagnose problems with the human colon (large intestine).
LP 993-115 is a star system in the constellation Eridanus.
LS I +61 303 is a microquasar, a binary system containing a massive star and a compact object.
Lubberts' effect is the non-uniform response of an imaging system to x-rays that are absorbed at different depths within the input phosphor.
Ludwig Louis Albert Zehnder (4 May 1854 in Illnau – 24 March 1949 in Oberhofen am Thunersee) was a Swiss physicist, the inventor of an interferometer (See Mach–Zehnder interferometer).
Luhman 16 (WISE 1049−5319, WISE J104915.57−531906.1) is a binary brown-dwarf system in the southern constellation Vela at a distance of approximately from the Sun.
Luigi Puccianti (11 June 1875 – 9 June 1952) was an Italian physicist.
Luis Walter Alvarez (June 13, 1911 – September 1, 1988) was an American experimental physicist, inventor, and professor who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1968.
Lunar soil is the fine fraction of the regolith found on the surface of the Moon.
A Lung counter is a system consisting of a radiation detector, or detectors, and associated electronics that is used to measure radiation emitted from radioactive material that has been inhaled by a person and is sufficiently insoluble as to remain in the lung for weeks, months, or years.
Lung transplantation or pulmonary transplantation is a surgical procedure in which a patient's diseased lungs are partially or totally replaced by lungs which come from a donor.
Lunokhod 2 (Луноход-2, moon walker) was the second of two unmanned lunar rovers landed on the Moon by the Soviet Union as part of the Lunokhod programme.
Lunokhod (Луноход, "Moonwalker") was a series of Soviet robotic lunar rovers designed to land on the Moon between 1969 and 1977.
Lutetium tantalate is a chemical compound of lutetium, tantalum and oxygen with the formula LuTaO4.
Lying, also called recumbency or prostration, or decubitus in medicine (from the Latin verb decumbere ′to lie down′), is a type of human position in which the body is more or less horizontal and supported along its length by the surface underneath.
Lyman James Briggs (May 7, 1874 – March 25, 1963) was an American engineer, physicist and administrator.
Lymphography is a medical imaging technique in which a radiocontrast agent is injected, and then an X-ray picture is taken to visualize structures of the lymphatic system, including lymph nodes, lymph ducts, lymphatic tissues, lymph capillaries and lymph vessels.
Lymphoma (lymposarcoma) in animals is a type of cancer defined by a proliferation of malignant lymphocytes within solid organs such as the lymph nodes, bone marrow, liver and spleen.
In Greek mythology, Lynceus /ˈlɪnˌsuːs/ or /ˈlɪnsˌjuːs/ (Ancient Greek: Λυγκεύς) was one of the ArgonautsBibliotheca I, ix, 16 and served as a lookout on the Argo, and he participated in the hunt for the Calydonian Boar.
Lynx is a constellation named after the animal, usually observed in the northern sky.
Lynx X-ray Surveyor is a concept study for the next X-ray space telescope mission.
Lyra (Latin for lyre, from Greek λύρα) is a small constellation.
Lyudmila Mikhailovna Pavlichenko (12 July 191610 October 1974) was a Soviet sniper in the Red Army during World War II, credited with 309 kills.
The M-V rocket, also called M-5 or Mu-5, was a Japanese solid-fuel rocket designed to launch scientific satellites.
M33 X-7 is a black hole binary system in the galaxy M33.
Machlett Laboratories was a Northeastern United States-based company that manufactured X-ray and high-power vacuum tubes.
Machpelah Cemetery is located on North Street in Le Roy, New York, United States.
Macintyre's X-Ray Film is a 1896 documentary radiography film directed by Scottish medical doctor John Macintyre.
Maclear Hospital is a Provincial government funded hospital for the Elundini Local Municipality area in Maclear, Eastern Cape in South Africa.
The MacRobert Award is regarded as the leading prize recognising UK innovation in engineering by corporations.
Macrocyclic stereocontrol refers to the directed outcome of a given intermolecular or intramolecular chemical reaction, generally an organic reaction, that is governed by the conformational or geometrical preference of a carbocyclic or heterocyclic ring, where the ring containing 8 or more atoms.
Madame Zodiac is a fictional character, a comic book witch published by DC Comics.
Madwaleni Hospital is a Provincial government funded hospital near rural Elliotdale, Eastern Cape in South Africa.
Madzikane Ka Zulu Memorial Hospital is a Provincial government funded hospital in Mount Frere in the Alfred Nzo District of the Eastern Cape province of South Africa.
A magnetar is a type of neutron star with an extremely powerful inferred magnetic field (\sim 10^ - 10^ G).
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the nervous system uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce high quality two- or three-dimensional images of nervous system structures without use of ionizing radiation (X-rays) or radioactive tracers.
Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD; also magneto-fluid dynamics or hydro­magnetics) is the study of the magnetic properties of electrically conducting fluids.
The magnetosphere of Jupiter is the cavity created in the solar wind by the planet's magnetic field.
Mahaicony is a community that is made up several villages on the East Coast of Demerara -- Region 5 (Mahaica Berbice) in Guyana, located at.
The mail or post is a system for physically transporting postcards, letters, and parcels.
Maisoon Al Saleh is an Emirati visual artist based out of Dubai.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
Malaysian Airline System Flight 653 (MH653) was a scheduled domestic flight from Penang to Kuala Lumpur in Malaysia, operated by Malaysian Airline System (MAS).
Portrait of a Man is the conventional title of several male portraits finished by the Italian Renaissance artist Antonello da Messina in the course of his career.
Malta House of Care is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization which provides free basic primary health care to the uninsured through mobile clinics in Hartford, Connecticut.
The Malter effect is named after Louis Malter, who first described the effect.
A malunion is when a fractured bone doesn’t heal properly.
A mammary tumor is a neoplasm originating in the mammary gland.
Mammography (also called mastography) is the process of using low-energy X-rays (usually around 30 kVp) to examine the human breast for diagnosis and screening.
The management of scoliosis is complex and is determined by the severity of the curvature and skeletal maturity, which together help predict the likelihood of progression.
Manchester Black is a fictional antihero and later a supervillain in the DC Comics universe.
Maniac Cop III: Badge of Silence is a 1993 action slasher film written by Larry Cohen and directed by William Lustig.
Alma Manon Gropius (October 5, 1916 – April 22, 1935) was the daughter of the architect Walter Gropius and the composer and diarist Alma Mahler and the stepdaughter of the novelist and poet Franz Werfel.
Manuel de la Pila Iglesias (November 16, 1884 – October 5, 1950) was a Puerto Rican physician practicing in Ponce, Puerto Rico, who specialized in a half-dozen medical specialities.
Marambio Base (Base Marambio) is a permanent, all year-round Argentine Antarctic base named after Vice-Commodore Gustavo Argentino Marambio, an Antarctic aviation pioneer.
Marburger Tapetenfabrik is one of the oldest wallpaper manufacturers in Europe and sells its products under the “Marburg Wallcoverings” brand name.
March fracture, also known as fatigue fracture or stress fracture of metatarsal bone, is the fracture of the distal third of one of the metatarsals occurring because of recurrent stress.
Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a genetic disorder of the connective tissue.
Margaret Diesendorf née Máté (MA, D.Phil.), (1912–1993), was an Australian linguist, poet, editor, translator and educationist.
Margarita Luti (also Margherita Luti or La Fornarina, "the baker's daughter") was the mistress and model of Raphael.
Maria Full of Grace (Spanish title: María, llena eres de gracia, lit., "Maria, you are full of grace") is a 2004 drama film written and directed by Joshua Marston.
Marie Skłodowska Curie (born Maria Salomea Skłodowska; 7 November 18674 July 1934) was a Polish and naturalized-French physicist and chemist who conducted pioneering research on radioactivity.
Mariner 2 (Mariner-Venus 1962), an American space probe to Venus, was the first robotic space probe to conduct a successful planetary encounter.
Mario Gabriele Andretti (born February 28, 1940) is an Italian-born American former racing driver, one of the most successful Americans in the history of the sport.
Mark Morrisroe (January 10, 1959 - July 24, 1989) was an American performance artist and photographer.
The Mark O. Hatfield United States Courthouse is a federal courthouse in Portland, Oregon.
Markarian 335 is a Seyfert galaxy containing a supermassive black hole, located 324 million light-years away in the constellation of Pegasus.
Markarian 501 (or Mrk 501) is a galaxy with a spectrum extending to the highest energy gamma rays.
Markuelia is a genus of fossil worm-like bilaterian animals allied to Ecdysozoa and known from strata of Lower Cambrian to Lower Ordovician age containing five species.
NASA's Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission is an ongoing robotic space mission involving two Mars rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, exploring the planet Mars.
Mars Pathfinder (MESUR Pathfinder) is an American robotic spacecraft that landed a base station with a roving probe on Mars in 1997.
Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) is a robotic space probe mission to Mars launched by NASA on November 26, 2011, which successfully landed Curiosity, a Mars rover, in Gale Crater on August 6, 2012.
Marshall syndrome is a genetic disorder of the connective tissue which can cause hearing loss.
Various martial arts have been attributed to or associated with Zhou Tong, the archery teacher of Song Dynasty general, Yue Fei.
A Marx generator is an electrical circuit first described by Erwin Otto Marx in 1924.
Maryon Pittman Allen (born November 30, 1925) is an American journalist who served as United States Senator from Alabama for five months in 1978, after her husband, Senator James B. Allen, died in office.
The Mascarene parrot or Mascarin (Mascarinus mascarin) is an extinct species of parrot that was endemic to the Mascarene island of Réunion in the western Indian Ocean.
Masel Residence is a heritage-listed detached house at 98 High Street, Stanthorpe, Southern Downs Region, Queensland, Australia.
A maser (an acronym for "microwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation") is a device that produces coherent electromagnetic waves through amplification by stimulated emission.
The mass attenuation coefficient, mass extinction coefficient, or mass narrow beam attenuation coefficient of the volume of a material characterizes how easily it can be penetrated by a beam of light, sound, particles, or other energy or matter.
Master Shake (often shortened to Shake or Cup) is a fictional character on the Adult Swim animated television series Aqua Teen Hunger Force (also known by various alternative titles).
A mastocytoma or mast cell tumor is a type of round-cell tumor consisting of mast cells.
Mastoiditis is the result of an infection that extends to the air cells of the skull behind the ear.
Mater Dei Hospital (MDH), also known simply as Mater Dei, is an acute Catholic hospital that provides health services and specialist services.
Diamond is the allotrope of carbon in which the carbon atoms are arranged in the specific type of cubic lattice called diamond cubic.
The interdisciplinary field of materials science, also commonly termed materials science and engineering is the design and discovery of new materials, particularly solids.
Matthew Thomas Holliday (born January 15, 1980) is an American professional baseball designated hitter and outfielder who is a free agent.
Matter waves are a central part of the theory of quantum mechanics, being an example of wave&ndas