62 relations: Antarctica, Atlantic Ocean, Atmospheric circulation, Butterfly effect, Chaos theory, Climate, Continent, Continental drift, Convection, Coriolis effect, Decade, Desert, Earth, Eddy (fluid dynamics), El Niño, Equator, Geophysical fluid dynamics, George Hadley, Gilbert Walker, Glacial period, Hadley cell, Harmonic, Heat sink, High-pressure area, India, Indian Ocean, Interglacial, Intertropical Convergence Zone, Jet stream, Katabatic wind, Latitude, Low-pressure area, Lowest temperature recorded on Earth, Mesoscale meteorology, Mesozoic, Monsoon, Ocean current, Orography, Pacific Ocean, Plate tectonics, Polar easterlies, Polar front, Rossby wave, Siberian High, Subsidence, Tectonic uplift, Thermal efficiency, Thermal energy, Thermal equator, Thermal loop, ..., Trade winds, Tropical cyclone, Tropopause, Troposphere, Vostok Station, Weather, Westerlies, William Ferrel, Zenith, 30th parallel, 60th parallel, 70th parallel north. Expand index (12 more) » « Shrink index
Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent, containing the geographic South Pole.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceanic divisions, following the Pacific Ocean.
Atmospheric circulation is the large-scale movement of air, and the means (together with the smaller ocean circulation) by which thermal energy is distributed on the surface of the Earth.
In chaos theory, the butterfly effect is the sensitive dependence on initial conditions in which a small change in one state of a deterministic nonlinear system can result in large differences in a later state.
Chaos theory is the field of study in mathematics that studies the behavior of dynamical systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions—a response popularly referred to as the butterfly effect.
Climate is the long-term pattern of weather in a particular area.
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A continent is one of several very large landmasses on Earth.
Continental drift is the movement of the Earth's continents relative to each other, thus appearing to "drift" across the ocean bed.
Convection is the concerted, collective movement of groups or aggregates of molecules within fluids (e.g., liquids, gases) and rheids, through advection or through diffusion or as a combination of both of them.
In physics, the Coriolis effect is the apparent deflection of moving objects when the motion is described relative to a rotating reference frame.
A decade is a period of 10 years.
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A desert is a barren area of land where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life.
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Earth (also the world, in Greek: Gaia, or in Latin: Terra), is the third planet from the Sun, the densest planet in the Solar System, the largest of the Solar System's four terrestrial planets, and the only astronomical object known to accommodate life.
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In fluid dynamics, an eddy is the swirling of a fluid and the reverse current created when the fluid flows past an obstacle.
El Niño is the warm phase of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (commonly called ENSO) and is associated with a band of warm ocean water that develops in the central and east-central equatorial Pacific (between approximately the International Date Line and 120°W), including off the Pacific coast of South America.
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An equator is the intersection of a sphere's surface with the plane perpendicular to the sphere's axis of rotation and midway between the poles.
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Geophysical fluid dynamics is the study of naturally occurring, large-scale flows on Earth and other planets.
George Hadley (February 12, 1685 – June 28, 1768) was an English lawyer and amateur meteorologist who proposed the atmospheric mechanism by which the Trade Winds are sustained, which is now named in his honor as Hadley circulation.
Sir Gilbert Thomas Walker, CSI, FRS (14 June 1868 – 4 November 1958) was a British physicist and statistician of the 20th century.
A glacial period (alternatively glacial or glaciation) is an interval of time (thousands of years) within an ice age that is marked by colder temperatures and glacier advances.
The Hadley cell, named after George Hadley, is a tropical atmospheric circulation which features rising motion near the equator, poleward flow 10–15 kilometers above the surface, descending motion in the subtropics, and equatorward flow near the surface.
The term harmonic in its strictest sense is any member of the harmonic series.
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A heat sink is a passive heat exchanger that transfers the heat generated by an electronic or a mechanical device into a coolant fluid in motion.
A high-pressure area, high or anticyclone is a region where the atmospheric pressure at the surface of the planet is greater than its surrounding environment.
India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia.
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The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface.
An interglacial period (or alternatively interglacial) is a geological interval of warmer global average temperature lasting thousands of years that separates consecutive glacial periods within an ice age.
The Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), known by sailors as the doldrums, is the area encircling the earth near the equator where the northeast and southeast trade winds come together.
Jet streams are fast flowing, narrow air currents found in the atmosphere of some planets, including Earth.
A katabatic wind, from the Greek word katabatikos meaning "to flow downhill", is the technical name for a drainage wind, a wind that carries high density air from a higher elevation down a slope under the force of gravity.
In geography, latitude (φ) is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north-south position of a point on the Earth's surface.
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A low-pressure area, low or depression, is a region where the atmospheric pressure is lower than that of surrounding locations.
The lowest natural temperature ever directly recorded at ground level on Earth is, which was at the Soviet Vostok Station in Antarctica, on July 21, 1983.
Mesoscale meteorology is the study of weather systems smaller than synoptic scale systems but larger than microscale and storm-scale cumulus systems.
The Mesozoic Era is an interval of geological time from about.
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Monsoon (UK:; US) is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.
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An ocean current is a continuous, directed movement of seawater generated by forces acting upon this mean flow, such as breaking waves, wind, the Coriolis effect, cabbeling, and temperature and salinity differences, while tides are caused by the gravitational pull of the Sun and Moon.
Orography (from the Greek όρος, hill, γραφία, to write) is the study of the topographic relief of mountains, and can more broadly include hills, and any part of a region's elevated terrain.
The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth's oceanic divisions.
Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory that describes the large-scale motion of Earth's lithosphere.
The polar easterlies (also Polar Hadley cells) are the dry, cold prevailing winds that blow from the high-pressure areas of the polar highs at the north and south poles towards low-pressure areas within the Westerlies at high latitudes.
In meteorology, the polar front is the boundary between the polar cell and the Ferrel cell in each hemisphere.
Rossby waves, also known as planetary waves, are a natural phenomenon in the atmosphere and oceans of planets that largely owe their properties to rotation.
The Siberian High (also Siberian Anticyclone) is a massive collection of cold or very cold dry air that accumulates on the northeastern part of Eurasian terrain for the cold part of the year, roughly from September till April.
Subsidence is the motion of a surface (usually, the Earth's surface) as it shifts downward relative to a datum such as sea-level.
Tectonic uplift is the portion of the total geologic uplift of the mean Earth surface that is not attributable to an isostatic response to unloading.
In thermodynamics, the thermal efficiency (\eta_ \) is a dimensionless performance measure of a device that uses thermal energy, such as an internal combustion engine, a steam turbine or a steam engine, a boiler, a furnace, or a refrigerator for example.
In thermodynamics, thermal energy refers to the internal energy present in a system by virtue of its temperature.
The thermal equator (also known as "the heat equator") is a belt encircling the Earth, defined by the set of locations having the highest mean annual temperature at each longitude around the globe.
A thermal loop is a movement of air driven by warm air rising at one end of the loop, and cool air descending at the other end, creating a constantly moving loop of air.
The trade winds are the prevailing pattern of easterly surface winds found in the tropics, within the lower portion of the Earth's atmosphere, in the lower section of the troposphere near the Earth's equator.
A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain.
The tropopause is the boundary in the Earth's atmosphere between the troposphere and the stratosphere.
The troposphere is the lowest portion of Earth's atmosphere.
Vostok Station (Станция Восток, Stántsiya Vostók, lit.) is a Russian (formerly Soviet) research station in inland Princess Elizabeth Land, Antarctica.
Weather is the state of the atmosphere, to the degree that it is hot or cold, wet or dry, calm or stormy, clear or cloudy.
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The Westerlies, anti-trades, or Prevailing Westerlies, are prevailing winds from the west toward the east in the middle latitudes between 30 and 60 degrees latitude.
William Ferrel (1817 – 1891), an American meteorologist, developed theories which explained the mid-latitude atmospheric circulation cell in detail, and it is after him that the Ferrel cell is named.
Zenith refers to an imaginary point directly "above" a particular location, on the imaginary celestial sphere.
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30th parallel may refer to.
60th parallel may refer to.
The 70th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 70 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane, in the Arctic.