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Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). [1]

294 relations: Abstinence-only sex education, Active measures, Adverse effect, AIDS orphan, AIDS-defining clinical condition, Alternative medicine, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Anal cancer, Anal sex, Anthony Eden, Antibody, Antiviral drug, Apoptosis, Arthur Ashe, Asymptomatic, Baby bottle, Bacteria, Bacterial vaginosis, Belarus, Belgian Congo, Belgium, Benetton Group, Biological system, Biology, Biphobia, Birth defect, Bisexuality, Blood transfusion, Body piercing, Botswana, Breastfeeding, Bronchus, Burkitt's lymphoma, Bushmeat, Cachexia, Caesarean section, Cameroon, Cancer, Candidiasis, Cardiovascular disease, Catholic Church and HIV/AIDS, CCR5, CDC classification system for HIV infection, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Cervical cancer, Chimpanzee, Chlamydia infection, Chromosome, Chronic condition, Circumcision, ..., Circumcision and HIV, Co-receptor, Coinfection, Colonialism, Condom, Confidentiality, Conjunctiva, Consent, Conspiracy theory, Cuba, Cytokine, Cytotoxic T cell, David Kirby (activist), Democratic Republic of the Congo, Dendritic cell, Developed country, Diabetes mellitus, Diagnosis of HIV/AIDS, Diarrhea, Discrimination against people with HIV/AIDS, Disease surveillance, DNA, Drug development, Drug injection, Dyslipidemia, East Asia, Economic impact of HIV/AIDS, Emtricitabine, Esophageal candidiasis, Esophagus, Feces, Female condom, Fever, Fever of unknown origin, Freddie Mercury, French language, Fungus, Fusion gene, Gay-related immune deficiency, Gene product, Genital ulcer, Genome, Genus, Gonorrhea, Government spending, Gross domestic product, Guillain–Barré syndrome, Haemophilia, Haiti, Harm reduction, Hepatitis, Hepatitis C, Herbalism, Heterosexuality, HIV, HIV and pregnancy, HIV superinfection, HIV vaccine, HIV-associated lipodystrophy, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder, HIV-positive people, HIV/AIDS denialism, HIV/AIDS denialism in South Africa, HIV/AIDS in Africa, HIV/AIDS in the United Kingdom, Homophobia, Human capital, Human papillomavirus infection, Human sexual activity, Human T-lymphotropic virus, Hypodermic needle, Immune system, Incubation period, Infection, Infectious disease (medical specialty), Infectious mononucleosis, Infectivity, Influenza vaccine, Influenza-like illness, Integrase, Intention (criminal law), International Center for Research on Women, Isoniazid, Ivory Coast, Johnson Aziga, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, Kaposi's sarcoma, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, Kidney disease, Kinshasa, Lamivudine, Latvia, Lentivirus, LGBT community, Life (magazine), Life expectancy, Lipodystrophy, London Borough of Hackney, Long-term nonprogressor, Luc Montagnier, Lung, Lymph node, Lymphadenopathy, Macrophage, Maculopapular rash, Management of HIV/AIDS, Mantoux test, Medical cannabis, Medical research, Men who have sex with men, Mental disorder, Microbicides for sexually transmitted diseases, Miscarriage, Misconceptions about HIV/AIDS, Moldova, Morphology (biology), Mosquito, Mucous membrane, Multivitamin, Murder, Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Natural history of disease, Needle exchange programme, Neoplasm, New World monkey, New York City, Nicholas Eden, 2nd Earl of Avon, Night monkey, Night sweats, Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Nonoxynol-9, Operation INFEKTION, Opioid use disorder, Opportunistic infection, Oral sex, Organ transplantation, Osteoporosis, Pandemic, Parasitism, Peer education, Peripheral neuropathy, Persistent generalized lymphadenopathy, Pharyngitis, Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, Pneumocystis jirovecii, Pneumocystis pneumonia, Polymerase chain reaction, Portugal, Post-exposure prophylaxis, Pre-exposure prophylaxis, Premastication, Primary central nervous system lymphoma, Primate, Promiscuity, Prostitution, Protease inhibitor (pharmacology), Public health intervention, Quality of life, Quarantine, Quebec, Queen (band), Raltegravir, Rash, Recklessness (law), Reference Daily Intake, Religion and HIV/AIDS, Respiratory tract infection, Retrovirus, Reverse transcriptase, Reverse-transcriptase inhibitor, RNA, RNA virus, Robert Gallo, Rock Hudson, Russia, Rutgers University, RV 144, Safe sex, San Francisco, Scarification, Science (journal), Selenium, Self-esteem, Senegal, Sense (molecular biology), Seroconversion, Sex education, Sexual assault, Sexually transmitted infection, Shunning, Simian immunodeficiency virus, Social rejection, Solidarity, Sooty mangabey, South Africa, Spermicide, Springer Science+Business Media, Sputum, STDs in the porn industry, Sub-Saharan Africa, Substance abuse, Subtypes of HIV, Suicidal ideation, Syphilis, T helper cell, T. B. Joshua, Tattoo, Tenofovir disoproxil, The New York Times, The New York Times International Edition, Toxoplasmosis, Trachea, Transcription (biology), Treatment as prevention, Trichomoniasis, Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, Tuberculosis, Ukraine, Unemployment, United Nations, United States Department of Health and Human Services, United States National Library of Medicine, United States Preventive Services Task Force, Universal precautions, Upper respiratory tract infection, Vaccination, Vertically transmitted infection, Viral load, Viral replication, Viremia, Virgin cleansing myth, Virulence, Virus, Vitamin A, Weakness, West Africa, WHO disease staging system for HIV infection and disease, World Health Organization, World Press Photo, Zidovudine, Zinc, Zoonosis. Expand index (244 more) »

Abstinence-only sex education

Abstinence-only sex education is a form of sex education that teaches not having sex outside of marriage.

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Active measures

Active measures (активные мероприятия) is a term for the actions of political warfare conducted by the Soviet and Russian security services (Cheka, OGPU, NKVD, KGB, FSB) to influence the course of world events, in addition to collecting intelligence and producing "politically correct" assessment of it.

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Adverse effect

In medicine, an adverse effect is an undesired harmful effect resulting from a medication or other intervention such as surgery.

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AIDS orphan

An AIDS orphan is a child who became an orphan because one or both parents died from AIDS.

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AIDS-defining clinical condition

AIDS-defining clinical conditions (a.k.a. AIDS-defining illnesses or AIDS-defining diseases) is the list of diseases published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) that are associated with AIDS, and used worldwide as a guideline for AIDS diagnosis.

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Alternative medicine

Alternative medicine, fringe medicine, pseudomedicine or simply questionable medicine is the use and promotion of practices which are unproven, disproven, impossible to prove, or excessively harmful in relation to their effect — in the attempt to achieve the healing effects of medicine.--> --> --> They differ from experimental medicine in that the latter employs responsible investigation, and accepts results that show it to be ineffective. The scientific consensus is that alternative therapies either do not, or cannot, work. In some cases laws of nature are violated by their basic claims; in some the treatment is so much worse that its use is unethical. Alternative practices, products, and therapies range from only ineffective to having known harmful and toxic effects.--> Alternative therapies may be credited for perceived improvement through placebo effects, decreased use or effect of medical treatment (and therefore either decreased side effects; or nocebo effects towards standard treatment),--> or the natural course of the condition or disease. Alternative treatment is not the same as experimental treatment or traditional medicine, although both can be misused in ways that are alternative. Alternative or complementary medicine is dangerous because it may discourage people from getting the best possible treatment, and may lead to a false understanding of the body and of science.-->---> Alternative medicine is used by a significant number of people, though its popularity is often overstated.--> Large amounts of funding go to testing alternative medicine, with more than US$2.5 billion spent by the United States government alone.--> Almost none show any effect beyond that of false treatment,--> and most studies showing any effect have been statistical flukes. Alternative medicine is a highly profitable industry, with a strong lobby. This fact is often overlooked by media or intentionally kept hidden, with alternative practice being portrayed positively when compared to "big pharma". --> The lobby has successfully pushed for alternative therapies to be subject to far less regulation than conventional medicine.--> Alternative therapies may even be allowed to promote use when there is demonstrably no effect, only a tradition of use. Regulation and licensing of alternative medicine and health care providers varies between and within countries. Despite laws making it illegal to market or promote alternative therapies for use in cancer treatment, many practitioners promote them.--> Alternative medicine is criticized for taking advantage of the weakest members of society.--! Terminology has shifted over time, reflecting the preferred branding of practitioners.. Science Based Medicine--> For example, the United States National Institutes of Health department studying alternative medicine, currently named National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, was established as the Office of Alternative Medicine and was renamed the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine before obtaining its current name. Therapies are often framed as "natural" or "holistic", in apparent opposition to conventional medicine which is "artificial" and "narrow in scope", statements which are intentionally misleading. --> When used together with functional medical treatment, alternative therapies do not "complement" (improve the effect of, or mitigate the side effects of) treatment.--> Significant drug interactions caused by alternative therapies may instead negatively impact functional treatment, making it less effective, notably in cancer.--> Alternative diagnoses and treatments are not part of medicine, or of science-based curricula in medical schools, nor are they used in any practice based on scientific knowledge or experience.--> Alternative therapies are often based on religious belief, tradition, superstition, belief in supernatural energies, pseudoscience, errors in reasoning, propaganda, fraud, or lies.--> Alternative medicine is based on misleading statements, quackery, pseudoscience, antiscience, fraud, and poor scientific methodology. Promoting alternative medicine has been called dangerous and unethical.--> Testing alternative medicine that has no scientific basis has been called a waste of scarce research resources.--> Critics state that "there is really no such thing as alternative medicine, just medicine that works and medicine that doesn't",--> that the very idea of "alternative" treatments is paradoxical, as any treatment proven to work is by definition "medicine".-->.

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American Association for the Advancement of Science

The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an American international non-profit organization with the stated goals of promoting cooperation among scientists, defending scientific freedom, encouraging scientific responsibility, and supporting scientific education and science outreach for the betterment of all humanity.

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Anal cancer

Anal cancer is a cancer (malignant tumor) which arises from the anus, the distal opening of the gastrointestinal tract.

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Anal sex

Anal sex or anal intercourse is generally the insertion and thrusting of the erect penis into a person's anus, or anus and rectum, for sexual pleasure.

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Anthony Eden

Robert Anthony Eden, 1st Earl of Avon, (12 June 1897 – 14 January 1977) was a British Conservative politician who served three periods as Foreign Secretary and then a relatively brief term as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1955 to 1957.

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An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.

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Antiviral drug

Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections rather than bacterial ones.

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Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.

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Arthur Ashe

Arthur Robert Ashe Jr. (July 10, 1943 – February 6, 1993) was an American professional tennis player who won three Grand Slam titles.

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In medicine, a disease is considered asymptomatic if a patient is a carrier for a disease or infection but experiences no symptoms.

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Baby bottle

A baby bottle, or nursing bottle, or feeding bottle, is a bottle with a teat (also called a nipple in the US) to drink directly from.

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Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Bacterial vaginosis

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a disease of the vagina caused by excessive growth of bacteria.

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Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.

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Belgian Congo

The Belgian Congo (Congo Belge,; Belgisch-Congo) was a Belgian colony in Central Africa between 1908 and 1960 in what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).

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Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.

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Benetton Group

Benetton Group S.r.l. (correct; often mispronounced or) is a global fashion brand based in Ponzano Veneto, Italy.

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Biological system

A biological system is a complex network of biologically relevant entities.

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Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.

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Biphobia is aversion toward bisexuality and toward bisexual people as a social group or as individuals.

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Birth defect

A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause.

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Bisexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction, or sexual behavior toward both males and females, or romantic or sexual attraction to people of any sex or gender identity; this latter aspect is sometimes alternatively termed pansexuality. The term bisexuality is mainly used in the context of human attraction to denote romantic or sexual feelings toward both men and women, and the concept is one of the three main classifications of sexual orientation along with heterosexuality and homosexuality, all of which exist on the heterosexual–homosexual continuum.

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Blood transfusion

Blood transfusion is generally the process of receiving blood or blood products into one's circulation intravenously.

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Body piercing

Body piercing, a form of body modification, is the practice of puncturing or cutting a part of the human body, creating an opening in which jewelry may be worn.

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Botswana, officially the Republic of Botswana (Lefatshe la Botswana), is a landlocked country located in Southern Africa.

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Breastfeeding, also known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a woman's breast.

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A bronchus, is a passage of airway in the respiratory system that conducts air into the lungs.

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Burkitt's lymphoma

Burkitt lymphoma is a cancer of the lymphatic system, particularly B lymphocytes found in the germinal center.

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Bushmeat, wildmeat, or game meat is meat from non-domesticated mammals, reptiles, amphibians and birds hunted for food in tropical forests.

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Cachexia, or wasting syndrome, is loss of weight, muscle atrophy, fatigue, weakness and significant loss of appetite in someone who is not actively trying to lose weight.

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Caesarean section

Caesarean section, also known as C-section or caesarean delivery, is the use of surgery to deliver one or more babies.

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No description.

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Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

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Candidiasis is a fungal infection due to any type of Candida (a type of yeast).

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Cardiovascular disease

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.

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Catholic Church and HIV/AIDS

The Catholic Church's position on HIV/AIDS prevention has attracted controversy due to its opposition to condom use.

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C-C chemokine receptor type 5, also known as CCR5 or CD195, is a protein on the surface of white blood cells that is involved in the immune system as it acts as a receptor for chemokines.

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CDC classification system for HIV infection

The CDC Classification System for HIV Infection is the medical classification system used by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to classify HIV disease and infection.

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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.

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Cervical cancer

Cervical cancer is a cancer arising from the cervix.

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The taxonomical genus Pan (often referred to as chimpanzees or chimps) consists of two extant species: the common chimpanzee and the bonobo.

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Chlamydia infection

Chlamydia infection, often simply known as chlamydia, is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis.

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A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.

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Chronic condition

A chronic condition is a human health condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects or a disease that comes with time.

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Male circumcision is the removal of the foreskin from the human penis.

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Circumcision and HIV

Male circumcision reduces the risk of HIV transmission from women to men.

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A co-receptor is a cell surface receptor that binds a signalling molecule in addition to a primary receptor in order to facilitate ligand recognition and initiate biological processes, such as entry of a pathogen into a host cell.

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In microbiology, coinfection is the simultaneous infection of a host by multiple pathogen species.

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Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.

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A condom is a sheath-shaped barrier device, used during sexual intercourse to reduce the probability of pregnancy or a sexually transmitted infection (STI).

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Confidentiality involves a set of rules or a promise usually executed through confidentiality agreements that limits access or places restrictions on certain types of information.

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The conjunctiva lines the inside of the eyelids and covers the sclera (the white of the eye).

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In common speech, consent occurs when one person voluntarily agrees to the proposal or desires of another.

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Conspiracy theory

A conspiracy theory is an explanation of an event or situation that invokes an unwarranted conspiracy, generally one involving an illegal or harmful act carried out by government or other powerful actors.

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Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.

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Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.

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Cytotoxic T cell

A cytotoxic T cell (also known as TC, cytotoxic T lymphocyte, CTL, T-killer cell, cytolytic T cell, CD8+ T-cell or killer T cell) is a T lymphocyte (a type of white blood cell) that kills cancer cells, cells that are infected (particularly with viruses), or cells that are damaged in other ways.

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David Kirby (activist)

David Lawrence Kirby (December 6, 1957 – May 5, 1990) was an HIV/AIDS activist, and the subject of a photograph taken at his deathbed by Therese Frare.

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Democratic Republic of the Congo

The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo), also known as DR Congo, the DRC, Congo-Kinshasa or simply the Congo, is a country located in Central Africa.

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Dendritic cell

Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells (also known as accessory cells) of the mammalian immune system.

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Developed country

A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.

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Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.

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Diagnosis of HIV/AIDS

HIV tests are used to detect the presence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the virus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), in serum, saliva, or urine.

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Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.

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Discrimination against people with HIV/AIDS

Discrimination against people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV, PLHA or PLWHA) is the experience of prejudice against PLHIV which falls within the purview of the law.

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Disease surveillance

Disease surveillance is an epidemiological practice by which the spread of disease is monitored in order to establish patterns of progression.

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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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Drug development

Drug development is the process of bringing a new pharmaceutical drug to the market once a lead compound has been identified through the process of drug discovery.

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Drug injection

Drug injection is a method of introducing a drug into the bloodstream via a hollow hypodermic needle and a syringe, which is pierced through the skin into the body (usually intravenous, but also intramuscular or subcutaneous).

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Dyslipidemia is an abnormal amount of lipids (e.g. triglycerides, cholesterol and/or fat phospholipids) in the blood.

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East Asia

East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.

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Economic impact of HIV/AIDS

HIV and AIDS affects economic growth by reducing the availability of human capital.

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Emtricitabine (commonly called FTC, systematic name 2',3'-dideoxy-5-fluoro-3'-thiacytidine), with trade name Emtriva (formerly Coviracil), is a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) for the prevention and treatment of HIV infection in adults and children.

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Esophageal candidiasis

Esophageal candidiasis is an opportunistic infection of the esophagus by Candida albicans.

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The esophagus (American English) or oesophagus (British English), commonly known as the food pipe or gullet (gut), is an organ in vertebrates through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach.

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Feces (or faeces) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested in the small intestine.

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Female condom

A female condom (also known as a femidom or internal condom) is a device that is used during sexual intercourse as a barrier contraceptive to reduce the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs – such as gonorrhea, syphilis, and HIV, though its protection against them is inferior to that by male condoms) and unintended pregnancy.

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Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.

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Fever of unknown origin

Fever of unknown origin (FUO), pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) or febris e causa ignota (febris E.C.I.) refers to a condition in which the patient has an elevated temperature (fever) but despite investigations by a physician no explanation has been found.

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Freddie Mercury

Freddie Mercury (born Farrokh Bulsara; 5 September 194624 November 1991) was a British singer, songwriter and record producer, best known as the lead vocalist of the rock band Queen.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

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A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.

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Fusion gene

A fusion gene is a hybrid gene formed from two previously separate genes.

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Gay-related immune deficiency

Gay-related immune deficiency (GRID) was the original name for a disease currently known as AIDS.

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Gene product

A gene product is the biochemical material, either RNA or protein, resulting from expression of a gene.

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Genital ulcer

A genital ulcer is located on the genital area, usually caused by sexually transmitted diseases such as genital herpes, syphilis, chancroid, or Chlamydia trachomatis.

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In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.

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A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.

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Gonorrhea, also spelled gonorrhoea, is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

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Government spending

Government spending or expenditure includes all government consumption, investment, and transfer payments.

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Gross domestic product

Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.

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Guillain–Barré syndrome

Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) is a rapid-onset muscle weakness caused by the immune system damaging the peripheral nervous system.

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Haemophilia, also spelled hemophilia, is a mostly inherited genetic disorder that impairs the body's ability to make blood clots, a process needed to stop bleeding.

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Haiti (Haïti; Ayiti), officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a sovereign state located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea.

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Harm reduction

Harm reduction, or harm minimization, is a range of public health policies designed to lessen the negative social and/or physical consequences associated with various human behaviors, both legal and illegal.

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Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver tissue.

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Hepatitis C

Hepatitis C is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) that primarily affects the liver.

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Herbalism (also herbal medicine or phytotherapy) is the study of botany and use of plants intended for medicinal purposes or for supplementing a diet.

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Heterosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexual behavior between persons of the opposite sex or gender.

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The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

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HIV and pregnancy

HIV in pregnancy is the presence of the HIV virus in a woman while pregnant.

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HIV superinfection

HIV superinfection (also called HIV reinfection) is a condition in which a person with an established human immunodeficiency virus infection acquires a second strain of HIV, often of a different subtype.

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HIV vaccine

An HIV vaccine is a vaccine which would either protect individuals who do not have HIV from contracting that virus, or otherwise may have a therapeutic effect for persons who have or later contract HIV/AIDS.

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HIV-associated lipodystrophy

HIV-associated lipodystrophy, also known as lipodystrophy in HIV-infected patients (LD-HIV), is a condition characterized by loss of subcutaneous fat associated with infection with HIV.

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HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder

HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are neurological disorders associated with HIV infection and AIDS.

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HIV-positive people

HIV-positive people are people who have the human immunodeficiency virus HIV, the agent of the currently incurable disease AIDS.

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HIV/AIDS denialism

HIV/AIDS denialism is the belief, contradicted by conclusive medical and scientific evidence, that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) does not cause acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

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HIV/AIDS denialism in South Africa

In South Africa, HIV/AIDS denialism had a significant impact on public health policy from 1999 to 2008, during the presidency of Thabo Mbeki.

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HIV/AIDS in Africa

HIV/AIDS is a major public health concern and cause of death in many parts of Africa.

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HIV/AIDS in the United Kingdom

In 2015, the prevalence of HIV in the United Kingdom was estimated at 101,200 (0.16% of the population), 13% of whom are unaware of their infection.

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Homophobia encompasses a range of negative attitudes and feelings toward homosexuality or people who are identified or perceived as being lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (LGBT).

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Human capital

Human capital is a term popularized by Gary Becker, an economist and Nobel Laureate from the University of Chicago, and Jacob Mincer.

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Human papillomavirus infection

Human papillomavirus infection is an infection by human papillomavirus (HPV).

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Human sexual activity

Human sexual activity, human sexual practice or human sexual behaviour is the manner in which humans experience and express their sexuality.

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Human T-lymphotropic virus

The human T-lymphotropic virus, human T-cell lymphotropic virus, or human T-cell leukemia-lymphoma virus (HTLV) family of viruses are a group of human retroviruses that are known to cause a type of cancer called adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and a demyelinating disease called HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP).

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Hypodermic needle

Hypodermic needle features A hypodermic needle (from Greek ὑπο- (under-), and δέρμα (skin)), one of a category of medical tools which enter the skin, called sharps, is a very thin, hollow tube with a sharp tip that contains a small opening at the pointed end.

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Immune system

The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.

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Incubation period

Incubation period is the time elapsed between exposure to a pathogenic organism, a chemical, or radiation, and when symptoms and signs are first apparent.

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Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.

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Infectious disease (medical specialty)

Infectious disease, also known as infectious diseases, infectious medicine, infectious disease medicine or infectiology, is a medical specialty dealing with the diagnosis, control and treatment of infections.

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Infectious mononucleosis

Infectious mononucleosis (IM, mono), also known as glandular fever, is an infection usually caused by the Epstein–Barr virus (EBV).

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In epidemiology, infectivity is the ability of a pathogen to establish an infection.

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Influenza vaccine

Influenza vaccines, also known as flu shots or flu jabs, are vaccines that protect against infection by Influenza viruses.

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Influenza-like illness

Influenza-like illness (ILI), also known as acute respiratory infection (ARI) and flu-like syndrome/symptoms, is a medical diagnosis of possible influenza or other illness causing a set of common symptoms.

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Retroviral integrase (IN) is an enzyme produced by a retrovirus (such as HIV) that enables its genetic material to be integrated into the DNA of the infected cell.

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Intention (criminal law)

In criminal law, intent is one of three general classes of mens rea necessary to constitute a conventional, as opposed to strict liability, crime.

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International Center for Research on Women

The International Center for Research on Women (ICRW) is a non-profit organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States, with a regional office in New Delhi, India.

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Isoniazid, also known as isonicotinylhydrazide (INH), is an antibiotic used for the treatment of tuberculosis.

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Ivory Coast

Ivory Coast, also known as Côte d'Ivoire and officially as the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a sovereign state located in West Africa.

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Johnson Aziga

Johnson Aziga (born 1956) is a Ugandan-born Canadian man formerly residing in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, notable as the first person to be charged and convicted of first-degree murder in Canada for spreading HIV, after two women whom he had infected without their knowledge died.

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Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS

The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS) is the main advocate for accelerated, comprehensive and coordinated global action on the HIV/AIDS pandemic.

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Kaposi's sarcoma

Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a type of cancer that can form masses in the skin, lymph nodes, or other organs.

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Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus

Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the ninth known human herpesvirus; its formal name according to the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) is HHV-8.

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Kidney disease

Kidney disease, or renal disease, also known as nephropathy, is damage to or disease of a kidney.

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Kinshasa (formerly Léopoldville (Léopoldville or Dutch)) is the capital and the largest city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

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Lamivudine, commonly called 3TC, is an antiretroviral medication used to prevent and treat HIV/AIDS.

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Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.

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Lentivirus (lente-, Latin for "slow") is a genus of retroviruses that cause chronic and deadly diseases characterized by long incubation periods, in the human and other mammalian species.

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LGBT community

The LGBT community or GLBT community, also referred to as the gay community, is a loosely defined grouping of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, LGBT organizations, and subcultures, united by a common culture and social movements.

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Life (magazine)

Life was an American magazine that ran regularly from 1883 to 1972 and again from 1978 to 2000.

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Life expectancy

Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.

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Lipodystrophy syndromes are a group of genetic or acquired disorders in which the body is unable to produce and maintain healthy fat tissue.

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London Borough of Hackney

The London Borough of Hackney is a London Borough in Inner London, United Kingdom.

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Long-term nonprogressor

Long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs), sometimes also called "elite controllers", are individuals infected with HIV, who maintain a CD4 count greater than 500 without antiretroviral therapy with a detectable viral load.

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Luc Montagnier

Luc Antoine Montagnier (born 18 August 1932) is a French virologist and joint recipient with Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and Harald zur Hausen of the 2008 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

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The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.

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Lymph node

A lymph node or lymph gland is an ovoid or kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, and of the adaptive immune system, that is widely present throughout the body.

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Lymphadenopathy or adenopathy is disease of the lymph nodes, in which they are abnormal in size, number, or consistency.

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Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós).

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Maculopapular rash

A maculopapular rash is a type of rash characterized by a flat, red area on the skin that is covered with small confluent bumps.

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Management of HIV/AIDS

The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection.

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Mantoux test

The Mantoux test or Mendel-Mantoux test (also known as the Mantoux screening test, tuberculin sensitivity test, Pirquet test, or PPD test for purified protein derivative) is a tool for screening for tuberculosis (TB) and for tuberculosis diagnosis.

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Medical cannabis

Medical cannabis, or medical marijuana, is cannabis and cannabinoids that are recommended by doctors for their patients.

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Medical research

Biomedical research (or experimental medicine) encompasses a wide array of research, extending from "basic research" (also called bench science or bench research), – involving fundamental scientific principles that may apply to a ''preclinical'' understanding – to clinical research, which involves studies of people who may be subjects in clinical trials.

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Men who have sex with men

Men who have sex with men (MSM), also known as males who have sex with males, are male persons who engage in sexual activity with members of the same sex, regardless of how they identify themselves; many such men do not sexually identify as gay, homosexual or bisexual.

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Mental disorder

A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.

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Microbicides for sexually transmitted diseases

Microbicides for sexually transmitted diseases are pharmacologic agents and chemical substances that are capable of killing or destroying certain microorganisms that commonly cause human infection (for example, the human immunodeficiency virus). Microbicides are a diverse group of chemical compounds that exert their activity by a variety of different mechanisms of action. Multiple compounds are being developed and tested for their microbicidal activity in clinical trials. Microbicides can be formulated in various delivery systems including gels, creams, lotions, aerosol sprays, tablets or films (which must be used near the time of sexual intercourse) and sponges and vaginal rings (or other devices that release the active ingredient(s) over a longer period). Some of these agents are being developed for vaginal application, and for rectal use by those engaging in anal sex. Although there are many approaches to preventing sexually transmitted diseases in general (and HIV in particular), current methods have not been sufficient to halt the spread of these diseases (particularly among women and people in less-developed nations). Sexual abstinence is not a realistic option for women who want to bear children, or who are at risk of sexual violence. In such situations, the use of microbicides could offer both primary protection (in the absence of condoms) and secondary protection (if a condom breaks or slips off during intercourse). It is hoped that microbicides may be safe and effective in reducing the risk of HIV transmission during sexual activity with an infected partner.

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Miscarriage, also known as spontaneous abortion and pregnancy loss, is the natural death of an embryo or fetus before it is able to survive independently.

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Misconceptions about HIV/AIDS

The spread of HIV/AIDS has affected millions of people worldwide; AIDS is considered a pandemic.

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Moldova (or sometimes), officially the Republic of Moldova (Republica Moldova), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north, east, and south (by way of the disputed territory of Transnistria).

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Morphology (biology)

Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.

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Mosquitoes are small, midge-like flies that constitute the family Culicidae.

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Mucous membrane

A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.

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A multivitamin is a preparation intended to serve as a dietary supplement - with vitamins, dietary minerals, and other nutritional elements.

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Murder is the unlawful killing of another human without justification or valid excuse, especially the unlawful killing of another human being with malice aforethought.

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Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection

Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection (MAI) is an atypical mycobacterial infection, i.e. one with nontuberculous mycobacteria or NTM, caused by ''Mycobacterium avium'' complex ("MAC"), which is made of three mycobacteria species, M. avium, M. intracellulare, and M. chimaera.

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National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) is one of the 27 institutes and centers that make up the National Institutes of Health (NIH), an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).

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National Institutes of Health

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research, founded in the late 1870s.

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Natural history of disease

The natural history of disease is the course a disease takes in individual people from its pathological onset ("inception") until its eventual resolution through complete recovery or death.

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Needle exchange programme

A needle and syringe programme (NSP), syringe-exchange programme (SEP), or needle exchange program (NEP) is a social service that allows injecting drug users (IDUs) to obtain hypodermic needles and associated paraphernalia at little or no cost.

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Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.

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New World monkey

New World monkeys are the five families of primates that are found in the tropical regions of Central and South America and Mexico: Callitrichidae, Cebidae, Aotidae, Pitheciidae, and Atelidae.

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New York City

The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.

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Nicholas Eden, 2nd Earl of Avon

Nicholas Eden, 2nd Earl of Avon, OBE (3 October 1930 – 17 August 1985), styled Viscount Eden between 1961 and 1977, was a British Army officer and, later, a Conservative politician.

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Night monkey

The night monkeys, also known as the owl monkeys or douroucoulis, are the members of the genus Aotus of New World monkeys (monotypic in family Aotidae).

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Night sweats

Night sweats, also known as nocturnal hyperhidrosis, is the occurrence of excessive sweating during sleep.

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Non-Hodgkin lymphoma

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a group of blood cancers that includes all types of lymphoma except Hodgkin's lymphomas.

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Nonoxynol-9, sometimes abbreviated as N-9, is an organic compound that is used as a surfactant.

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Operation INFEKTION was a KGB disinformation campaign to spread information that the United States invented HIV/AIDS as part of a biological weapons research project at Fort Detrick, Maryland.

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Opioid use disorder

Opioid use disorder is a medical condition characterized by a problematic pattern of opioid use that causes clinically significant impairment or distress.

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Opportunistic infection

An opportunistic infection is an infection caused by pathogens (bacteria, viruses, fungi, or protozoa) that take advantage of an opportunity not normally available, such as a host with a weakened immune system, an altered microbiota (such as a disrupted gut microbiota), or breached integumentary barriers.

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Oral sex

Oral sex, sometimes referred to as oral intercourse, is sexual activity involving the stimulation of the genitalia of a person by another person using the mouth (including the lips, tongue or teeth) or throat.

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Organ transplantation

Organ transplantation is a medical procedure in which an organ is removed from one body and placed in the body of a recipient, to replace a damaged or missing organ.

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Osteoporosis is a disease where increased bone weakness increases the risk of a broken bone.

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A pandemic (from Greek πᾶν pan "all" and δῆμος demos "people") is an epidemic of infectious disease that has spread across a large region; for instance multiple continents, or even worldwide.

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In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.

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Peer education

Peer education is an approach to health promotion, in which community members are supported to promote health-enhancing change among their peers.

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Peripheral neuropathy

Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is damage to or disease affecting nerves, which may impair sensation, movement, gland or organ function, or other aspects of health, depending on the type of nerve affected.

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Persistent generalized lymphadenopathy

Persistent generalized lymphadenopathy (PGL) is enlarged painful lymph nodes occurring in a couple of different areas for more than three to six months for which no other reason can be found.

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Pharyngitis is inflammation of the back of the throat, known as the pharynx.

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Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine

Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV)— the latest version is known as Pneumovax 23 (PPV-23)— is the first pneumococcal vaccine derived from a capsular polysaccharide, and an important landmark in medical history.

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Pneumocystis jirovecii

Pneumocystis jirovecii (previously P. carinii) is a yeast-like fungus of the genus Pneumocystis.

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Pneumocystis pneumonia

Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a form of pneumonia that is caused by the yeast-like fungus Pneumocystis jirovecii.

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Polymerase chain reaction

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique used in molecular biology to amplify a single copy or a few copies of a segment of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence.

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Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.

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Post-exposure prophylaxis

Post-exposure prophylaxis, also known as post-exposure prevention (PEP), is any preventive medical treatment started after exposure to a pathogen (such as a disease-causing virus), in order to prevent the infection from occurring.

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Pre-exposure prophylaxis

Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is the use of drugs to prevent disease in people who have not yet been exposed to the disease-causing agent.

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Premastication, pre-chewing, or kiss feeding is the act of chewing food for the purpose of physically breaking it down in order to feed another that is incapable of masticating the food by themselves.

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Primary central nervous system lymphoma

A primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), also known as microglioma and primary brain lymphoma, is a primary intracranial tumor appearing mostly in patients with severe immunodeficiency (typically patients with AIDS).

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A primate is a mammal of the order Primates (Latin: "prime, first rank").

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Promiscuity is the practice of having casual sex frequently with different partners or being indiscriminate in the choice of sexual partners.

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Prostitution is the business or practice of engaging in sexual activity in exchange for payment.

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Protease inhibitor (pharmacology)

Protease inhibitors (PIs) are a class of antiviral drugs that are widely used to treat HIV/AIDS and hepatitis C. Protease inhibitors prevent viral replication by selectively binding to viral proteases (e.g. HIV-1 protease) and blocking proteolytic cleavage of protein precursors that are necessary for the production of infectious viral particles.

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Public health intervention

A public health intervention is any effort or policy that attempts to improve mental and physical health on a population level.

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Quality of life

Quality of life (QOL) is the general well-being of individuals and societies, outlining negative and positive features of life.

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A quarantine is used to separate and restrict the movement of people; it is a 'a restraint upon the activities or communication of persons or the transport of goods designed to prevent the spread of disease or pests', for a certain period of time.

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Quebec (Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is.

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Queen (band)

Queen are a British rock band that formed in London in 1970.

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Raltegravir (RAL), sold under the brand name Isentress, is an antiretroviral medication used, together with other medication, to treat HIV/AIDS.

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A rash is a change of the human skin which affects its color, appearance, or texture.

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Recklessness (law)

In criminal law and in the law of tort, recklessness may be defined as the state of mind where a person deliberately and unjustifiably pursues a course of action while consciously disregarding any risks flowing from such action.

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Reference Daily Intake

The Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily intake level of a nutrient that is considered to be sufficient to meet the requirements of 97–98% of healthy individuals in every demographic in the United States.

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Religion and HIV/AIDS

The relationship between religion and HIV/AIDS is complicated, and often controversial.

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Respiratory tract infection

Respiratory tract infection (RTI) refers to any of a number of infectious diseases involving the respiratory tract.

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A retrovirus is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus with a DNA intermediate and, as an obligate parasite, targets a host cell.

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Reverse transcriptase

A reverse transcriptase (RT) is an enzyme used to generate complementary DNA (cDNA) from an RNA template, a process termed reverse transcription.

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Reverse-transcriptase inhibitor

Reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs) are a class of antiretroviral drugs used to treat HIV infection or AIDS, and in some cases hepatitis B. RTIs inhibit activity of reverse transcriptase, a viral DNA polymerase that is required for replication of HIV and other retroviruses.

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Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.

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RNA virus

An RNA virus is a virus that has RNA (ribonucleic acid) as its genetic material.

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Robert Gallo

Robert Charles Gallo (born March 23, 1937) is an American biomedical researcher.

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Rock Hudson

Rock Hudson (born Roy Harold Scherer, Jr.; November 17, 1925 – October 2, 1985) was an American actor, generally known for his turns as a leading man during the 1950s and 1960s.

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Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Rutgers University

Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, commonly referred to as Rutgers University, Rutgers, or RU, is an American public research university and is the largest institution of higher education in New Jersey.

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RV 144

RV 144, or the Thai trial, is the name of an HIV vaccine clinical trial combining two vaccines that failed on their own, vaccinating in Thailand over the course of 24 weeks in October 2003 then testing for HIV until July 2006, publicly releasing efficacy findings in September 2009.

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Safe sex

Safe sex is sexual activity engaged in by people who have taken precautions to protect themselves against sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as HIV.

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San Francisco

San Francisco (initials SF;, Spanish for 'Saint Francis'), officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural, commercial, and financial center of Northern California.

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Scarifying (also scarification modification) involves scratching, etching, burning / branding, or superficially cutting designs, pictures, or words into the skin as a permanent body modification.

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Science (journal)

Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.

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Selenium is a chemical element with symbol Se and atomic number 34.

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Self-esteem reflects an individual's overall subjective emotional evaluation of his or her own worth.

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Senegal (Sénégal), officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country in West Africa.

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Sense (molecular biology)

In molecular biology and genetics, the sense of nucleic acid molecules (often DNA or RNA) is the nature of their roles and their complementary molecules' nucleic acid units' roles in specifying amino acids.

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In immunology, seroconversion is the time period during which a specific antibody develops and becomes detectable in the blood.

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Sex education

Sex education is the instruction of issues relating to human sexuality, including emotional relations and responsibilities, human sexual anatomy, sexual activity, sexual reproduction, age of consent, reproductive health, reproductive rights, safe sex, birth control and sexual abstinence.

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Sexual assault

Sexual assault is an act in which a person coerces or physically forces a person to engage in a sexual act against their will.

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Sexually transmitted infection

Sexually transmitted infections (STI), also referred to as sexually transmitted diseases (STD) or venereal diseases (VD), are infections that are commonly spread by sexual activity, especially vaginal intercourse, anal sex and oral sex.

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Shunning can be the act of social rejection, or emotional distance.

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Simian immunodeficiency virus

Simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) are retroviruses that cause persistent infections in at least 45 species of African non-human primates.

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Social rejection

Social rejection occurs when an individual is deliberately excluded from a social relationship or social interaction.

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Solidarity is unity (as of a group or class) which produces or is based on unities of interests, objectives, standards, and sympathies.

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Sooty mangabey

The sooty mangabey (Cercocebus atys) is an Old World monkey found in forests from Senegal in a margin along the coast down to Ghana.

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South Africa

South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.

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Spermicide is a contraceptive substance that destroys sperm, inserted vaginally prior to intercourse to prevent pregnancy.

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Springer Science+Business Media

Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.

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Sputum is mucus and is the name used for the coughed-up material (phlegm) from the lower airways (trachea and bronchi).

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STDs in the porn industry

STDs in the porn industry deals with the occupational safety and health issue in the sex industry of transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs/STDs), especially HIV/AIDS, which became a major cause of concern since the 1980s, especially for pornographic film actors.

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Sub-Saharan Africa

Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.

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Substance abuse

Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others, and is a form of substance-related disorder.

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Subtypes of HIV

One of the obstacles to treatment of the human immunodeficiency virus is its high genetic variability.

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Suicidal ideation

Suicidal ideation, also known as suicidal thoughts, is thinking about or having an unusual preoccupation with suicide.

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Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum.

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T helper cell

The T helper cells (Th cells) are a type of T cell that play an important role in the immune system, particularly in the adaptive immune system.

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T. B. Joshua

Temitope Balogun Joshua (born June 12, 1963), commonly referred to as T. B. Joshua, is a Nigerian Pastor, televangelist and philanthropist.

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A tattoo is a form of body modification where a design is made by inserting ink, dyes and pigments, either indelible or temporary, into the dermis layer of the skin to change the pigment.

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Tenofovir disoproxil

Tenofovir disoproxil, sold under the trade name Viread among others, is a medication used to treat chronic hepatitis B and to prevent and treat HIV/AIDS.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The New York Times International Edition

The New York Times International Edition is an English-language newspaper printed at 38 sites throughout the world and sold in more than 160 countries and territories.

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Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii.

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The trachea, colloquially called the windpipe, is a cartilaginous tube that connects the pharynx and larynx to the lungs, allowing the passage of air, and so is present in almost all air-breathing animals with lungs.

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Transcription (biology)

Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.

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Treatment as prevention

Treatment as prevention is a concept in public health that the transmission of an infection can be prevented by treating people with the infection so that they become less likely to transmit the infection to others.

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Trichomoniasis (trich) is an infectious disease caused by the parasite Trichomonas vaginalis.

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Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX), also known as co-trimoxazole among other names, is an antibiotic used to treat a variety of bacterial infections.

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Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).

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Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.

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Unemployment is the situation of actively looking for employment but not being currently employed.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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United States Department of Health and Human Services

The United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), also known as the Health Department, is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services.

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United States National Library of Medicine

The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), operated by the United States federal government, is the world's largest medical library.

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United States Preventive Services Task Force

The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) is "an independent panel of experts in primary care and prevention that systematically reviews the evidence of effectiveness and develops recommendations for clinical preventive services".

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Universal precautions

Universal precautions refers to the practice, in medicine, of avoiding contact with patients' bodily fluids, by means of the wearing of nonporous articles such as medical gloves, goggles, and face shields.

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Upper respiratory tract infection

Upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) are illnesses caused by an acute infection which involves the upper respiratory tract including the nose, sinuses, pharynx or larynx.

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Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material (a vaccine) to stimulate an individual's immune system to develop adaptive immunity to a pathogen.

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Vertically transmitted infection

A vertically transmitted infection is an infection caused by pathogens (such as bacteria and viruses) that uses mother-to-child transmission, that is, transmission directly from the mother to an embryo, fetus, or baby during pregnancy or childbirth.

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Viral load

Viral load, also known as viral burden, viral titre or viral titer, is a numerical expression of the quantity of virus in a given volume.

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Viral replication

Viral replication is the formation of biological viruses during the infection process in the target host cells.

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Viremia (UK: viraemia) is a medical condition where viruses enter the bloodstream and hence have access to the rest of the body.

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Virgin cleansing myth

The virgin cleansing myth (also referred to as the virgin cure myth, virgin rape myth, or simply virgin myth) is the belief that having sex with a virgin girl cures a man of HIV/AIDS or other sexually transmitted diseases.

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Virulence is a pathogen's or microbe's ability to infect or damage a host.

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A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.

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Vitamin A

Vitamin A is a group of unsaturated nutritional organic compounds that includes retinol, retinal, retinoic acid, and several provitamin A carotenoids (most notably beta-carotene).

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Weakness or asthenia is a symptom of a number of different conditions.

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West Africa

West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.

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WHO disease staging system for HIV infection and disease

WHO Disease Staging System for HIV Infection and Disease was first produced in 1990 by the World Health Organisation and updated in September 2005.

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World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.

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World Press Photo

World Press Photo Foundation is an independent, non-profit organization based in Amsterdam, Netherlands.

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Zidovudine (ZDV), also known as azidothymidine (AZT), is an antiretroviral medication used to prevent and treat HIV/AIDS.

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Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.

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Zoonoses are infectious diseases that can be transmitted between animals and humans.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HIV/AIDS

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