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Blackshirts

Index Blackshirts

The Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale (MVSN, "Voluntary Militia for National Security"), commonly called the Blackshirts (Camicie Nere, CCNN, singular: Camicia Nera) or squadristi (singular: squadrista), was originally the paramilitary wing of the National Fascist Party and, after 1923, an all-volunteer militia of the Kingdom of Italy. [1]

369 relations: A. C. Cuza, Acerbo Law, Achille Starace, Agostino Podestà, Albanian Fascist Militia, Aldo Vidussoni, Alessandro Pavolini, American Palestine Line, Amerigo Dumini, Anarchism, Anarchism in Italy, Andorra (play), Andrew Marr's The Making of Modern Britain, Anselmo Viviani, Anti-fascism, Antonio Gramsci, Arditi, Arditi del Popolo, Argenta, Emilia–Romagna, Army of the Po, Army officer ranks, Arturo Toscanini, Attilio Teruzzi, August 1922, August 1925, Avanti! (Italian newspaper), Aventine Secession (20th century), Axis & Allies Miniatures, Axis leaders of World War II, Axis order of battle for the invasion of Yugoslavia, Battle of Arbuzovka, Battle of Beda Fomm, Battle of Cable Street, Battle of Culqualber, Battle of Hill 731, Battle of Málaga (1937), Battle of Petrikowka, Battle of Shire, Battle of Sidi Barrani, Battle of Stockton, Battle of the Espero Convoy, Battle of Trebeshina, Belle Vue Zoological Gardens, Benito Mussolini, Beretta Model 38, Biennio Rosso, Biographical Dictionary of the Extreme Right Since 1890, Black, Black August (novel), Black Brigades, ..., Blackshirts (disambiguation), Blue Shirts (Canada), Blue Shirts Society, Boris Pahor, British Union of Fascists, Bruno Brivonesi, Bruno Jesi, Camp Siegfried, Cannone da 76/45 S 1911, Carabinieri Mobile Units Division, Carlo Alberto Biggini, Carlo Scorza, Carmelo Borg Pisani, Castor oil, Cesare Maria De Vecchi, Cesare Rossi (politician), Commandant, Commandant-general, Commonwealth Police, Communist International, Corpo d'Armata Motocorazzato, Corpo Truppe Volontarie, Cremona Motorized Brigade, David Lewis (politician), December 1924, Dino Grandi, Division XXIII di Marzo, East African Campaign (World War II), Emilio Baglioni, English Defence League, Enrico Corradini, Enzo Galbiati, Estado Novo (Portugal), Ettore Muti, Ettore Tolomei, Expulsion of Cham Albanians, Faccetta Nera, Fall of the Fascist regime in Italy, Far-right leagues, Far-right politics, Far-right politics in Croatia, Far-right subcultures, Fasci Italiani di Combattimento, Fascism, Fascism and ideology, Fascism in South America, Fascist Legacy, Fascist paramilitary, Fascist symbolism, February 1924, Ferramonti di Tarsia, First Battle of Bir el Gubi, First marshal of the empire, Flames of War, Flechas Negras Division, Foot whipping, Founding of Blackshirts, Gabriele D'Annunzio, Gastone Sozzi Centuria, Giacomo Acerbo, Giacomo Matteotti, Gianfranco Giachetti, Giorgio Almirante, Giorgio Levi Della Vida, Giovanni Amendola, Giovanni Giolitti, Giovanni Minzoni, Gioventù Italiana del Littorio, Giovinezza, Giuseppe Bottai, Giuseppe Ungaretti, Glossary of Fascist Italy, Gold shirts, Goose step, Grand Council of Fascism, Greco-Italian War, Guardia alla Frontiera, Guglielmo Ferrero, Guido Buffarini Guidi, Harold Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Rothermere, Historical characters in the Southern Victory Series, History of anarchism, History of Argentina, History of Argentina (1916–30), History of Corsica, History of Milan, History of Slovenia, History of the Italian State Police, History of the Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946), House of Savoy, Independent State of Croatia, Index of Italy-related articles, Ines Donati, International Communist Party, It Happened Here, Italian Army, Italian Army in Russia, Italian Civil War, Italian colonists in Albania, Italian conquest of British Somaliland, Italian destroyer Espero (1927), Italian destroyer Ostro (1928), Italian destroyer Ugolino Vivaldi, Italian destroyer Zeffiro (1927), Italian Fascism, Italian general election, 1919, Italian general election, 1921, Italian general election, 1924, Italian general election, 1934, Italian guerrilla war in Ethiopia, Italian invasion of Albania, Italian invasion of Egypt, Italian invasion of France, Italian irredentism in Savoy, Italian military internees, Italian occupation of Corsica, Italian resistance movement, Italian Social Republic, Italian submarine Console Generale Liuzzi, Italo Balbo, Italo Calvino, Italy, Jack Jones (trade unionist), Jacob Thorkelson, January 1924, January 1925, Jean Brodie, Jeunesses Patriotes, John A. Costello, Josip Vilfan, Juan Antonio Ansaldo, Julius Caesar (play), June 1924, June 1941 uprising in eastern Herzegovina, Këmisha e zezë, Kingdom of Italy, Kingdom of Italy under Fascism (1922–1943), Konstantin Rodzaevsky, L'Alba, La Camisa Negra, Lady Alexandra Curzon, Land of Confusion, Lando Ferretti, Let 'Em Eat Cake, Licio Gelli, List of assassinated human rights activists, List of black flags, List of coups d'état and coup attempts, List of defunct paramilitary organizations, List of Girls und Panzer characters, List of Italian divisions in World War II, List of law enforcement agencies, List of military figures by nickname, List of political slogans, Ludwig-Karl Ratschiller, M1895 Colt–Browning machine gun, Macchi C.200, Manifesto of the Fascist Intellectuals, March on Rome, March on Rome (film), Marines, Málaga–Almería road massacre, Michele Bianchi, Milan, Military history of Italy during World War II, Military ranks of the Kingdom of Italy, Milizia Coloniale, Mino Doro, Monty Goldman, Mosley (TV serial), Mussolini: The Untold Story, MVSN, Nathaniel Lichfield, National Fascist Party, National Fascisti, National Republican Guard (Italy), National Syndicalists (Portugal), Nationalist faction (Spanish Civil War), Nicola Bellomo, Norma Cossetto, November 1924, October 1923, October 1929, Opera Nazionale Balilla, Operation Achse, Operation Caravan, Operation Colossus, Operation Crusader order of battle, Operation Southeast Croatia, Order of Battle, East African Campaign (World War II), Organisation for the Maintenance of Supplies, Oswald Mosley, Ouida Bergère, Parma, Patrick Hastings, Pavle Đurišić, Piero Pisenti, Political colour, Political uniform, Priamo Leonardi, Primo Levi, Private army, Quadrumvirs, Raúl Ferrero Rebagliati, Ramiro Ledesma Ramos, Redshirts (Italy), Renzo Morigi, Revolutionary Union (Peru), Riccardo Fedel, Richard III (1995 film), Ricinus, Rob Burton, Roberto Farinacci, Roderick Spode, Royal Italian Army, Royal Italian Army during World War II, Rudolph Valentino, Sacmi, Salussola massacre, Sandro Pertini, Sassari Mechanized Brigade, Scoop (novel), Second Battle of Tembien, Second Italo-Ethiopian War, Settling Accounts, Severino Di Giovanni, Shirt, Side cap, Slovene minority in Italy (1920–47), Socialist ideology of the Kuomintang, Soldati-class destroyer, Squadrismo, Starship Troopers (film), Stewards (paramilitary organization), Sturmabteilung, Tanks in the Spanish Army, Temistocle Testa, The Camp Followers, The Luzhin Defence, The Old Guard (1934 film), Timeline of Trieste, Toto Koopman, Tranquillo Zerbi, Treaty of Peace with Italy, 1947, Trieste, Trieste National Hall, Tullio Tamburini, Umanità Nova, Uniforms and insignia of the Schutzstaffel, Unione Sindacale Italiana, University Militias, Uprising in Montenegro (1941), USS Princess Matoika, Valtellina, Verona trial, Visoki Dečani, Waiting for the Worms, Western Desert Campaign, Whitechapel, Wilfrid Kent Hughes, William Edward David Allen, XXIII de Marzo Group, Zerai Deres, 11th Carabinieri Mechanized Brigade, 12th Infantry Division Sassari, 136th Armoured Division Centauro II, 136th Armoured Division Giovani Fascisti, 13th Infantry Division Re, 14th Infantry Division Isonzo, 151st Infantry Division Perugia, 158th Infantry Division Zara, 15th Infantry Division Bergamo, 1896 in Italy, 18th Infantry Division Messina, 1919 in Italy, 1920 in Italy, 1920s, 1922 in Italy, 19th Infantry Division Venezia, 1st Blackshirt Division (23 March), 1st CCNN Division "Dio lo Vuole", 1st Infantry Division (South Africa), 1st Infantry Division Superga, 20th Infantry Division Friuli, 22nd Infantry Division Cacciatori delle Alpi, 23rd Infantry Division Ferrara, 24th Infantry Division Pinerolo, 26th Infantry Division Assietta, 28th Infantry Division Aosta, 2nd Blackshirt Division (28 October), 2nd CCNN Division "Fiamme Nere", 3/40 Evzone Regiment, 31st Infantry Division Calabria, 32nd Infantry Division Marche, 33rd Infantry Division Acqui, 37th Infantry Division Modena, 38th Infantry Division Puglie, 3rd Blackshirt Division (21 April), 3rd CCNN Division "Penne Nere", 40th Infantry Division Cacciatori d'Africa, 41st Infantry Division Firenze, 44th Infantry Division Cremona, 47th Infantry Division Bari, 48th Infantry Division Taro, 49th Infantry Division Parma, 4th Blackshirt Division (3 January), 50th Infantry Division Regina, 51st Infantry Division Siena, 53rd Infantry Division Arezzo, 54th Infantry Division Napoli, 56th Infantry Division Casale, 57th Infantry Division Lombardia, 59th Infantry Division Cagliari, 5th Blackshirt Division 1 Febbraio, 65th Infantry Division Granatieri di Savoia, 6th Blackshirt Division (Tevere), 6th Infantry Division Cuneo, 7th Blackshirt Division (Cirene), 9th Infantry Division Pasubio. Expand index (319 more) »

A. C. Cuza

Alexandru C. Cuza (November 8, 1857 – 1947), also known as A. C. Cuza, was a Romanian far-right politician and theorist.

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Acerbo Law

The Acerbo Law was an Italian electoral law proposed by Baron Giacomo Acerbo and passed by the Italian Parliament in November 1923.

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Achille Starace

Achille Starace (18 August 1889 – 29 April 1945) was a prominent leader of Fascist Italy before and during World War II.

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Agostino Podestà

Agostino Podestà (Novi Ligure, 27 June 1905 – Bolzano, 18 December 1969) Born in Novi Ligure on 27 June 1905, Podestà graduated in Physics, enrolled in the National Fascist Party (P.N.F.) of Italy in November 1920, and participated as squadrista to the March on Rome.

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Albanian Fascist Militia

The Albanian Fascist Militia (Milizia fascista albanese, MFA) was an Albanian fascist paramilitary group formed in 1939 following the Italian invasion of Albania in April 1939, part of the Italian Blackshirts (MVSN).

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Aldo Vidussoni

Aldo Vidussoni (21 January 1914, in Fogliano Redipuglia, in Gorizia – 30 November 1982, in Cagliari) was an Italian lawyer and Fascist politician.

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Alessandro Pavolini

Alessandro Pavolini (September 27, 1903 – April 28, 1945) was an Italian politician, journalist, and essayist, notable for his involvement in the Fascist government, during World War II, and also, for his cruelty against the opponents of fascism.

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American Palestine Line

The American Palestine Line was a steamship company, formed in 1924 in the U.S., for the purpose of providing direct passenger service from New York to Palestine.

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Amerigo Dumini

Amerigo Dumini (January 3, 1894 – December 25, 1967) was an American-born Italian fascist hitman who led the group responsible for the 1924 assassination of Unitary Socialist Party leader Giacomo Matteotti.

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Anarchism

Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions.

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Anarchism in Italy

Italian anarchism as a movement began primarily from the influence of Mikhail Bakunin, Giuseppe Fanelli, and Errico Malatesta.

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Andorra (play)

Andorra is a play written by the Swiss dramatist Max Frisch in 1961.

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Andrew Marr's The Making of Modern Britain

Andrew Marr's The Making of Modern Britain is a 2009 BBC documentary television series presented by Andrew Marr that covers the period of British history from the death of Queen Victoria to the end of the Second World War.

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Anselmo Viviani

Anselmo Viviani (born 1915) was an Italian cross-country skier who competed in the 1930s and 1940s.

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Anti-fascism

Anti-fascism is opposition to fascist ideologies, groups and individuals.

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Antonio Gramsci

Antonio Francesco Gramsci (22 January 1891 – 27 April 1937) was an Italian Marxist philosopher and politician.

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Arditi

Arditi was the name adopted by Royal Italian Army elite special force of World War I. The name derives from the Italian verb ardire ("to dare") and translates as "The Daring Ones".

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Arditi del Popolo

The Arditi del Popolo (The People's Daring Ones) was an Italian militant anti-fascist group founded at the end of June 1921 to resist the rise of Benito Mussolini's National Fascist Party and the violence of the Blackshirts (squadristi) paramilitaries.

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Argenta, Emilia–Romagna

Argenta (Argentano: Arzènta) is a town and comune in the province of Ferrara, Emilia-Romagna.

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Army of the Po

The Army of the Po (Italian Armata del Po), numbered the Sixth Army (6a Armata), was a field army of the Royal Italian Army (Regio Esercito) during World War II (1939–45).

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Army officer ranks

Armies have military rank systems that are often used by other military services such as air forces or marines.

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Arturo Toscanini

Arturo Toscanini (March 25, 1867 – January 16, 1957) was an Italian conductor.

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Attilio Teruzzi

Attilio Teruzzi (5 May 1882 – 26 April 1950) was an Italian soldier, colonial administrator, and Fascist politician.

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August 1922

The following events occurred in August 1922.

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August 1925

The following events occurred in August 1925.

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Avanti! (Italian newspaper)

Avanti! (meaning "Forward!" in English) is an Italian daily newspaper, born as the official voice of the Italian Socialist Party, published since 25 December 1896.

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Aventine Secession (20th century)

The Aventine Secession was the withdrawal of the Italian Socialist Party from the Italian Chamber of Deputies in 1924–25, following the murder of Giacomo Matteotti.

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Axis & Allies Miniatures

Axis & Allies Miniatures is a miniature wargaming system including both a rule set and a line of 1/100 scale miniature armor (15 mm figure scale) collectible miniatures.

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Axis leaders of World War II

The Axis leaders of World War II were important political and military figures during World War II.

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Axis order of battle for the invasion of Yugoslavia

The Axis order of battle for the invasion of Yugoslavia was made up of the various operational formations of the German Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS, Italian Armed Forces and Hungarian Armed Forces that participated in the invasion of Yugoslavia during World War II, commencing on 6 April 1941.

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Battle of Arbuzovka

The Battle of Arbuzovka was fought between 22 and 25 December 1942 in the valley of Arbuzovka (near Chertkovo, Russia), between Italian and German forces and Soviet forces, as part of the Battle of Stalingrad.

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Battle of Beda Fomm

The rapid British advance during Operation Compass (9 December 1940 – 9 February 1941) forced the Italian 10th Army to evacuate Cyrenaica, the eastern province of Libya.

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Battle of Cable Street

The Battle of Cable Street was a riot that took place in Cable Street, Whitechapel in the East End of London, on Sunday 4 October 1936.

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Battle of Culqualber

The Battle of Culqualber was fought near Culqualber Pass, Ethiopia, from 6 August to 21 November 1941, between Italian and colonial forces and British Commonwealth forces.

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Battle of Hill 731

The Battle of Hill (Height) 731 (Μάχη του υψώματος 731), was a fierce battle fought during World War II in southern Albania, part of the Greco-Italian War.

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Battle of Málaga (1937)

The Battle of Málaga was the culmination of an offensive in early 1937 by the combined Nationalist and Italian forces to eliminate Republican control of the province of Málaga during the Spanish Civil War.

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Battle of Petrikowka

The Battle of Petrikowka (present-day Petrykivka, Ukraine) took place between 27 and 30 September 1941, during World War II.

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Battle of Shire

The Battle of Shire (Italian: Battaglia dello Mayatutors) was a battle fought on the northern front of what was known as the Second Italo-Abyssinian War.

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Battle of Sidi Barrani

The Battle of Sidi Barrani 1940) was the opening battle of Operation Compass, the first big British attack of the Western Desert Campaign of the Second World War.

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Battle of Stockton

The Battle of Stockton-on-Tees, often referred to as the Battle of Stockton, took place on 10 September 1933 at Market Cross in the High Street of Stockton-on-Tees, County Durham, England.

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Battle of the Espero Convoy

The Battle of the Espero Convoy (Battaglia del convoglio Espero) on 28 June 1940, was the first surface engagement between Italian and Allied warships of the Second World War.

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Battle of Trebeshina

The Battle of Trebeshina (Μάχη της Τρεμπεσίνας) or the Battle of Mal Trebeshinë, was a series of engagements fought between the Greek and Italian armies in south-eastern Albania during the Greco-Italian War.

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Belle Vue Zoological Gardens

Belle Vue Zoological Gardens was a large zoo, amusement park, exhibition hall complex and speedway stadium in Belle Vue, Manchester, England, opened in 1836.

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Benito Mussolini

Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF).

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Beretta Model 38

The MAB 38 (Moschetto Automatico Beretta Modello 1938), Modello 38, or Model 38 and its variants were a series of official submachine guns of the Royal Italian Army introduced in 1938 and used during World War II.

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Biennio Rosso

The Biennio Rosso (English: "Red Biennium" or "Two Red Years") was a two-year period, between 1919 and 1920, of intense social conflict in Italy, following the First World War.

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Biographical Dictionary of the Extreme Right Since 1890

The Biographical Dictionary of the Extreme Right Since 1890 is a reference book by Philip Rees, on leading people in the various far right movements since 1890.

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Black

Black is the darkest color, the result of the absence or complete absorption of visible light.

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Black August (novel)

Black August is an adventure novel by the British writer Dennis Wheatley.

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Black Brigades

The Corpo Ausiliario delle Squadre d'azione di Camicie Nere (Italian: Auxiliary Corps of the Black Shirts' Action Squads), most widely known as the Black Brigades (Brigate Nere) was one of the Fascist paramilitary groups, organized and run by the Republican Fascist Party (Partito Fascista Repubblicano, PFR) operating in the Italian Social Republic (in northern Italy), during the final years of World War II, and after the signing of the Italian Armistice in 1943.

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Blackshirts (disambiguation)

Blackshirts or Black Shirt may refer to the following.

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Blue Shirts (Canada)

The "Blue Shirts", were a paramilitary organization sponsored by the National Unity Party in Canada.

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Blue Shirts Society

The Blue Shirts Society, also known as the Society of Practice of the Three Principles of the People (commonly abbreviated as SPTPP), the Spirit Encouragement Society (勵志社, SES) and the China Reconstruction Society (中華復興社, CRS), was a secret fascist clique in the Kuomintang (KMT, or the Chinese Nationalist Party).

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Boris Pahor

Boris Pahor (born 26 August 1913) is a Slovenian novelist best known for his heartfelt descriptions of life as a member of the Slovenian minority in the pre-Second World War increasingly fascist Italy, as well as a Nazi concentration camp survivor.

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British Union of Fascists

The British Union of Fascists, or BUF, was a fascist political party in the United Kingdom formed in 1932 by Oswald Mosley.

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Bruno Brivonesi

Bruno Brivonesi (July 16, 1886 – 1970) was an Italian admiral during World War II.

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Bruno Jesi

Bruno Jesi (Udine, 11 January 1916 - Turin, 11 January 1943) was an Italian military man.

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Camp Siegfried

Camp Siegfried, a summer camp which taught Nazi ideology, was located in Yaphank, New York on Long Island.

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Cannone da 76/45 S 1911

The Cannone da 76/45 S 1911 was a naval gun used by Italy during World War I and World War II.

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Carabinieri Mobile Units Division

The Carabinieri Mobile Units Division (Divisione Unità Mobili Carabinieri) is the Carabinieri formation, established in 2001, dedicated to the performance of military duties abroad, the military police tasks when abroad, the support to Territorial Organization, the participation in civil protection operations and to ensure the emergency reserve for the General Command.

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Carlo Alberto Biggini

Carlo Alberto Biggini (December 9, 1902 – November 19, 1945) was an Italian fascist politician who served as Minister of Education before and after proclamation of the Italian Social Republic under Benito Mussolini.

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Carlo Scorza

Carlo Scorza (15 June 1897, Paola, Province of Cosenza – 23 December 1988) was a prominent member of the National Fascist Party of Italy during World War II.

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Carmelo Borg Pisani

Carmelo Borg Pisani (10 August 1914 – 28 November 1942) was a Maltese-born artist and Italian Fascist who, on being discovered during an espionage mission in Malta, was found guilty by a British war tribunal and executed for alleged treason.

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Castor oil

Castor oil is a vegetable oil obtained by pressing the seeds of the castor oil plant (Ricinus communis).

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Cesare Maria De Vecchi

Cesare Maria De Vecchi, 1st Conte di Val Cismon (14 November 1884 – 23 June 1959) was an Italian soldier, colonial administrator and Fascist politician.

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Cesare Rossi (politician)

Cesare Rossi (born 21 September 1887 in Pescia – died 9 August 1967 in Rome) was an Italian fascist leader who later became estranged from the regime.

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Commandant

Commandant is a title often given to the officer in charge of a military (or other uniformed service) training establishment or academy.

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Commandant-general

Commandant-general is a military rank in several countries and is generally equivalent to that of commandant.

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Commonwealth Police

The Commonwealth Police (COMPOL) was the federal law enforcement agency in Australia between 1917 and 1979.

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Communist International

The Communist International (Comintern), known also as the Third International (1919–1943), was an international communist organization that advocated world communism.

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Corpo d'Armata Motocorazzato

Corpo d'Armata Motocorazzato (Motorised and armoured army corps) was an Italian military unit established on 25 July 1943.

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Corpo Truppe Volontarie

The Corps of Volunteer Troops (Corpo Truppe Volontarie, CTV) was a Fascist Italian expeditionary force which was sent to Spain to support the Nationalist forces under General Francisco Franco against the Spanish Republic during the Spanish Civil War, 1936–39.

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Cremona Motorized Brigade

The Cremona Motorized Brigade was an infantry brigade of the Italian Army.

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David Lewis (politician)

David Lewis (born David Losz; June 23, or October 1909 – May 23, 1981) was a Canadian labour lawyer and social democratic politician.

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December 1924

The following events occurred in December 1924.

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Dino Grandi

Dino Grandi (4 June 1895 – 21 May 1988), 1st Conte di Mordano, was an Italian Fascist politician, minister of justice, minister of foreign affairs and president of parliament.

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Division XXIII di Marzo

The Agrupación XXIII de Marzo was upgraded to Division status as the Division XXIII Marzo prior to the Battle of Santander.

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East African Campaign (World War II)

The East African Campaign (also known as the Abyssinian Campaign) was fought in East Africa during World War II by Allied forces, mainly from the British Empire, against Axis forces, primarily from Italy of Italian East Africa (Africa Orientale Italiana, or AOI), between June 1940 and November 1941.

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Emilio Baglioni

Emilio Baglioni became culinary host to the Hollywood stars, employed by Jack L. Warner of Warner Brothers Studios as the head of the commissary and executive dining room for Jack L. Warner and heads of every department and provided food for the actors and the crew during filming.

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English Defence League

The English Defence League (EDL) is a far-right and counter-jihadist street-based social movement and pressure group in the United Kingdom.

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Enrico Corradini

Enrico Corradini (20 July 1865 – 10 December 1931) was an Italian novelist, essayist, journalist and nationalist political figure.

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Enzo Galbiati

Enzo Emilio Galbiati (23 May 1897 – 23 May 1982) was an Italian soldier and fascist politician.

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Estado Novo (Portugal)

The Estado Novo ("New State"), or the Second Republic, was the corporatist authoritarian regime installed in Portugal in 1933, which was considered fascist.

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Ettore Muti

Ettore Muti (2 May 1902 – 24 August 1943) was an Italian aviator and Fascist politician.

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Ettore Tolomei

Ettore Tolomei (16 August 1865 in Rovereto – 25 May 1952 in Rome) was an Italian nationalist and fascist.

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Expulsion of Cham Albanians

The expulsion of Cham Albanians from Greece was the forced migration of thousands of Cham Albanians from parts of the Greek region of western Epirus after the Second World War to Albania, at the hands of elements of the Greek Resistance; the National Republican Greek League (EDES) (1944) and EDES veteran resistance fighters (1945).

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Faccetta Nera

Faccetta Nera (Italian: "Little Black Face") is a popular marching song of Italy's Fascist regime.

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Fall of the Fascist regime in Italy

The Fall of the Fascist regime in Italy, also known in Italy as 25 Luglio (Venticinque Luglio,; Italian for "25 July") denotes the events in spring and summer 1943 in Italy, which culminated with the meeting of the Grand Council of Fascism on 24–25 July 1943, the passing of a vote of no confidence against Benito Mussolini, and the change of the Italian government.

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Far-right leagues

The far-right leagues (ligues d'extrême droite) were several French far-right movements opposed to parliamentarism, which mainly dedicated themselves to military parades, street brawls, demonstrations and riots.

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Far-right politics

Far-right politics are politics further on the right of the left-right spectrum than the standard political right, particularly in terms of more extreme nationalist, and nativist ideologies, as well as authoritarian tendencies.

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Far-right politics in Croatia

Far-right politics in Croatia refers to any manifestation of far-right politics in the Republic of Croatia.

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Far-right subcultures

Far-Right subculture or Neo-nazi subculture refers to the symbolism, values and traits that hold relevance to various politically extreme right-wing groups and organisations.

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Fasci Italiani di Combattimento

The Italian Fasci of Combat (Fasci Italiani di Combattimento, FIC), until 1919 called Fasci of Revolutionary Action (Fasci d'Azione Rivoluzionaria, FAR), was an Italian fascio organization, created by Benito Mussolini in 1914.

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Fascism

Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian ultranationalism, characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and control of industry and commerce, which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.

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Fascism and ideology

The history of Fascist ideology is long and it involves many sources.

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Fascism in South America

Fascism in South America was an assortment of political parties and movements modelled on fascism.

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Fascist Legacy

Fascist Legacy is a 1989 BBC documentary TV miniseries about Italian war crimes during World War II.

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Fascist paramilitary

A fascist paramilitary is a fighting force - whether armed, unarmed, or merely symbolic - that is independent of regular military command and is established for the defence and advancement of a movement that adheres to the radical nationalist ideology of fascism.

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Fascist symbolism

As there have been many different manifestations of fascism, especially during the interwar years, there were also many different symbols of fascist movements.

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February 1924

The following events occurred in February 1924.

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Ferramonti di Tarsia

Ferramonti di Tarsia, also known as Ferramonti, was an Italian internment camp used to intern political dissidents and ethnic minorities.

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First Battle of Bir el Gubi

The First Battle of Bir el Gubi took place on 19 November 1941 near Bir el Gubi, Libya.

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First marshal of the empire

First Marshal of the Empire (Italian: Primo Maresciallo dell'Impero) was a military rank established by the Italian parliament on March 30, 1938.

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Flames of War

Flames of War (abbreviated as FoW) is a World War II tabletop miniatures wargame produced by the New Zealand company Battlefront Miniatures Ltd.

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Flechas Negras Division

Flechas Negras Division (Black Arrows in Spanish) was a Blackshirts division created when the Flechas Division was further strengthened with support units and renamed.

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Foot whipping

Foot whipping or bastinado is a method of corporal punishment which consists of hitting the bare soles of a person's feet.

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Founding of Blackshirts

The original organization of Mussolini's MVSN (Blackshirts) by Royal Decrees on 1 February 1923 and 4 August 1924 consisted of 15 zones, as follows.

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Gabriele D'Annunzio

General Gabriele D'Annunzio, Prince of Montenevoso, Duke of Gallese (12 March 1863 – 1 March 1938), sometimes spelled d'Annunzio, was an Italian writer, poet, journalist, playwright and soldier during World War I. He occupied a prominent place in Italian literature from 1889 to 1910 and later political life from 1914 to 1924.

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Gastone Sozzi Centuria

The Gastone Sozzi Centuria (Centuria Gastone Sozzi) was a Communist unit raised in Barcelona by Italian and Catalan volunteers who, at the beginning of the Spanish Civil War, went to the defence of Madrid, besieged by the Rebel Army.

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Giacomo Acerbo

Giacomo Acerbo, Baron of Aterno (25 July 1888 – 9 January 1969) was an Italian economist and Fascist politician who drafted the Acerbo Law which solidified Benito Mussolini's position once in power.

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Giacomo Matteotti

Giacomo Matteotti (22 May 1885 – 10 June 1924) was an Italian socialist politician.

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Gianfranco Giachetti

Gianfranco Giachetti (September 27, 1888–November 29, 1936) was an Italian stage and film actor.

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Giorgio Almirante

Giorgio Almirante (27 June 1914 – 22 May 1988) was an Italian politician, the founder and leader of the neo-fascist Italian Social Movement until his retirement in 1987.

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Giorgio Levi Della Vida

Giorgio Levi Della Vida (22 August 1886, Venice – 25 November 1967, Rome) was an Italian Jewish linguist whose expertise lay in Hebrew, Arabic, and other Semitic languages, as well as on the history and culture of the Near East.

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Giovanni Amendola

Giovanni Amendola (15 April 1882 in Naples – 7 April 1926 in Cannes) was an Italian journalist and politician, noted as an opponent of Fascism.

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Giovanni Giolitti

Giovanni Giolitti (27 October 1842 – 17 July 1928) was an Italian statesman.

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Giovanni Minzoni

Giovanni Minzoni was born to a middle-class family.

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Gioventù Italiana del Littorio

The Gioventù Italiana del Littorio (GIL) (English: Italian Youth of the Lictor) was the consolidated youth movement of the National Fascist Party of Italy that was established in 1937, to replace the Opera Nazionale Balilla (ONB) It was created to supervise and influence the minds of all youths, that was effectively directed against the influence of the Catholic Church on youths.

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Giovinezza

"Giovinezza" (Italian for youth) is the official hymn of the Italian National Fascist Party, regime, and army, and was the unofficial national anthem of Italy between 1924 and 1943.

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Giuseppe Bottai

Giuseppe Bottai (3 September 1895 – 9 January 1959) was an Italian journalist, and member of the National Fascist Party of Benito Mussolini.

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Giuseppe Ungaretti

Giuseppe Ungaretti (8 February 1888 – 2 June 1970) was an Italian modernist poet, journalist, essayist, critic, academic, and recipient of the inaugural 1970 Neustadt International Prize for Literature.

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Glossary of Fascist Italy

This is a list of words, terms, concepts, and slogans in the Italian language and Latin language which were specifically used in Fascist Italian monarchy and Italian Social Republic.

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Gold shirts

The Revolutionary Mexicanist Action (Acción Revolucionaria Mexicanista), better known as the Gold shirts (Camisas Doradas), was a Mexican fascist paramilitary organization in the 1930s.

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Goose step

The goose step is a special marching step performed on formal military parades and other ceremonies.

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Grand Council of Fascism

The Grand Council of Fascism (aka: Fascist Grand Council) was the main body of Mussolini's Fascist government in Italy.

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Greco-Italian War

The Greco-Italian War (Italo-Greek War, Italian Campaign in Greece; in Greece: War of '40 and Epic of '40) took place between the kingdoms of Italy and Greece from 28 October 1940 to 23 April 1941.

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Guardia alla Frontiera

The Guardia alla Frontiera (GaF), was an Italian Army Border guard created in 1937 who defended the 1.851 km of northern Italian frontiers with the so-called "Vallo Alpino Occidentale" (487 km with France), "Vallo Alpino Settentrionale" (724 km with Switzerland and 420 km with Austria) and "Vallo Alpino Orientale" (220 km with Yugoslavia).

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Guglielmo Ferrero

Guglielmo Ferrero (July 21, 1871 — August 3, 1942) was an Italian historian, journalist and novelist, author of the Greatness and Decline of Rome (5 volumes, published after English translation 1907–1909).

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Guido Buffarini Guidi

Guido Buffarini Guidi (17 August 1895 – 10 July 1945) was an Italian army officer and politician, executed in 1945.

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Harold Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Rothermere

Harold Sidney Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Rothermere, (26 April 1868 – 26 November 1940) was a leading British newspaper proprietor, owner of Associated Newspapers Ltd.

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Historical characters in the Southern Victory Series

The Southern Victory Series is a series of alternate history novels written by Harry Turtledove.

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History of anarchism

Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates stateless societies often defined as self-governed voluntary institutions, but that several authors have defined as more specific institutions based on non-hierarchical free associations.

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History of Argentina

The history of Argentina can be divided into four main parts: the pre-Columbian time or early history (up to the sixteenth century), the colonial period (1530–1810), the period of nation-building (1810-1880), and the history of modern Argentina (from around 1880).

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History of Argentina (1916–30)

The period spanning from 1916 to 1930 in Argentina is known as the Radical Phase (Etapa Radical), as it began with the election of the Radical Civic Union (UCR) candidate Hipólito Yrigoyen, ending the conservative Generation of '80's domination on politics.

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History of Corsica

That the history of Corsica has been influenced by its strategic position at the heart of the western Mediterranean and its maritime routes, only from Sardinia, from the Isle of Elba, from the coast of Tuscany and from the French port of Nice, was first proposed by the 19th-century German theorist, Friedrich Ratzel.

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History of Milan

The following is a history of Milan, Italy.

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History of Slovenia

The history of Slovenia chronicles the period of the Slovene territory from the 5th century BC to the present.

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History of the Italian State Police

The history of the Italian State Police (Polizia di Stato) began in 1848, continued through the State Police Reform Act of 1981, until today, thus producing more than a century and a half of the institutional history of the men and women who have performed this duty and sometimes gave their lives.

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History of the Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946)

This articles covers the history of Italy as a monarchy and in the World Wars.

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House of Savoy

The House of Savoy (Casa Savoia) is a royal family that was established in 1003 in the historical Savoy region. Through gradual expansion, the family grew in power from ruling a small county in the Alps of northern Italy to absolute rule of the kingdom of Sicily in 1713 to 1720 (exchanged for Sardinia). Through its junior branch, the House of Savoy-Carignano, it led the unification of Italy in 1861 and ruled the Kingdom of Italy from 1861 until 1946 and, briefly, the Kingdom of Spain in the 19th century. The Savoyard kings of Italy were Victor Emmanuel II, Umberto I, Victor Emmanuel III, and Umberto II. The last monarch ruled for a few weeks before being deposed following the Constitutional Referendum of 1946, after which the Italian Republic was proclaimed.

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Independent State of Croatia

The Independent State of Croatia (Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, NDH; Unabhängiger Staat Kroatien; Stato Indipendente di Croazia) was a World War II fascist puppet state of Germany and Italy.

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Index of Italy-related articles

The following is an alphabetical list of articles related to Italy.

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Ines Donati

Ines Donati (June 8, 1900 in San Severino Marche – November 3, 1924 in Matelica) was a political activist and a supporter of the first wave of Italy's Fascist movement.

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International Communist Party

The International Communist Party (ICP) is a left communist international political party which is often described by outside observers as Bordigist, due to the contributions by longtime member Amadeo Bordiga.

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It Happened Here

It Happened Here (also known as It Happened Here: The Story of Hitler's England) is a black-and white 1964 British World War II film written, produced and directed by Kevin Brownlow and Andrew Mollo, who began work on the film as teenagers.

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Italian Army

The Italian Army (Italian: Esercito Italiano) is the land defence force of the Italian Armed Forces of the Italian Republic.

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Italian Army in Russia

The Italian Army in Russia (Armata Italiana in Russia, or ARMIR) was an army-sized unit of the Italian Royal Army (Regio Esercito Italiano) which fought on the Eastern Front during World War II.

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Italian Civil War

The Italian Civil War (Italian: La guerra civile) is the period between September 8, 1943 (the date of the armistice of Cassibile), and May 2, 1945 (the date of the surrender of German forces in Italy) in which the Italian Resistance and the Italian Co-Belligerent Army joined the allies fighting Axis forces including continuing Italian Fascists Italian Social Republic.

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Italian colonists in Albania

The Italian colonists in Albania were Italians who, between the two world wars, moved to Albania to colonize the Balkan country for the Kingdom of Italy.

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Italian conquest of British Somaliland

No description.

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Italian destroyer Espero (1927)

Italian destroyer Espero was a built for the Royal Italian Navy (Regia Marina) during late 1920s.

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Italian destroyer Ostro (1928)

Italian destroyer Ostro was a built for the Royal Italian Navy (Regia Marina) during late 1920s.

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Italian destroyer Ugolino Vivaldi

Ugolino Vivaldi was one of twelve s, built for the Italian Royal Navy (Regia Marina) between the late 1920s and the early 1930s.

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Italian destroyer Zeffiro (1927)

Italian destroyer Zeffiro was a built for the Royal Italian Navy (Regia Marina) during late 1920s.

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Italian Fascism

Italian Fascism (fascismo italiano), also known simply as Fascism, is the original fascist ideology as developed in Italy.

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Italian general election, 1919

General elections were held in Italy on 16 November 1919.

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Italian general election, 1921

General elections were held in Italy on 15 May 1921.

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Italian general election, 1924

General elections were held in Italy on 6 April 1924.

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Italian general election, 1934

General elections were held in Italy on 26 March 1934.

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Italian guerrilla war in Ethiopia

The Italian guerrilla war in Ethiopia was a conflict fought from the summer of 1941 to the autumn of 1943 by remnants of Italian troops in Ethiopia, in what had been the short-lived attempt to incorporate Ethiopia as part of Italian East Africa.

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Italian invasion of Albania

The Italian invasion of Albania (April 7–12, 1939) was a brief military campaign by the Kingdom of Italy against the Albanian Kingdom.

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Italian invasion of Egypt

The Italian invasion of Egypt (Operazione E) was an Italian offensive against British, Commonwealth and Free French forces during the Western Desert Campaign (1940–1943) of the Second World War.

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Italian invasion of France

The Italian invasion of France, also called the Battle of the Alps (10–25 June 1940), was the first major Italian engagement of World War II and the last major engagement of the Battle of France.

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Italian irredentism in Savoy

Italian irredentism in Savoy was the political movement among Savoyards promoting annexation to the Savoy dynasty's Kingdom of Italy.

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Italian military internees

"Italian military internees" (Italienische Militärinternierte, IMI) was the official name given by Germany to the Italian soldiers captured, rounded up and deported in the territories of Nazi Germany in Operation Achse in the days immediately following the World War II armistice between Italy and Allied armed forces (September 8, 1943).

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Italian occupation of Corsica

Italian-occupied Corsica refers to the military (and administrative) occupation by the Kingdom of Italy of the island of Corsica during World War II.

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Italian resistance movement

The Italian resistance movement (Resistenza italiana or just la Resistenza) is an umbrella term for resistance groups that opposed the occupying German forces and the Italian Fascist puppet regime of the Italian Social Republic during the later years of World War II.

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Italian Social Republic

The Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana,; RSI), informally known as the Republic of Salò (Repubblica di Salò), was a German puppet state with limited recognition that was created during the later part of World War II, existing from the beginning of German occupation of Italy in September 1943 until the surrender of German troops in Italy in May 1945.

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Italian submarine Console Generale Liuzzi

Console Generale Liuzzi was an Italian ''Liuzzi''-class ocean-going submarine of the Regia Marina, launched in 1939 and sunk in 1940 by Royal Navy destroyers.

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Italo Balbo

Italo Balbo (Ferrara, 6 June 1896 – Tobruk, 28 June 1940) was an Italian Blackshirt (Camicie Nere, or CCNN) leader who served as Italy's Marshal of the Air Force (Maresciallo dell'Aria), Governor-General of Libya, Commander-in-Chief of Italian North Africa (Africa Settentrionale Italiana, or ASI), and the "heir apparent" to Italian dictator Benito Mussolini.

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Italo Calvino

Italo Calvino (. RAI (circa 1970), retrieved 25 October 2012. 15 October 1923 – 19 September 1985) was an Italian journalist and writer of short stories and novels.

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Italy

Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Jack Jones (trade unionist)

James Larkin Jones (29 March 1913 – 21 April 2009), known as Jack Jones, was a British trade union leader and General Secretary of the Transport and General Workers' Union.

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Jacob Thorkelson

Jacob Thorkelson (September 24, 1876 – November 20, 1945) was an American politician from the state of Montana who served as the United States Congressman from Montana's 1st congressional district from January 3, 1939 to January 3, 1941.

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January 1924

The following events occurred in January 1924.

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January 1925

The following events occurred in January 1925.

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Jean Brodie

Jean Brodie is a fictional character in the Muriel Spark novel The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie (1961); and in the play and 1969 film of the same name—both by Jay Presson Allen—which were based on the novel, but radically depart from it in the interest of theatre and poetic licence.

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Jeunesses Patriotes

The Jeunesses Patriotes ("Young Patriots", JP) were a far-right league of France, recruited mostly from university students and financed by industrialists founded in 1924 by Pierre Taittinger.

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John A. Costello

John Aloysius Costello (20 June 1891 – 5 January 1976) was an Irish Fine Gael politician who served as Taoiseach from 1948 to 1951 and 1954 to 1957, Leader of the Opposition from 1951 to 1954 and 1957 to 1959 and Attorney General of Ireland from 1926 to 1932.

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Josip Vilfan

Josip Vilfan or Wilfan (30 August 1878 - 8 March 1955) was a Slovene lawyer, politician, and human rights activist from Trieste.

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Juan Antonio Ansaldo

Juan Antonio Ansaldo y Vejarano (24 June 1901 – 29 April 1958) was a Spanish aviator and monarchist activist and conspirator.

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Julius Caesar (play)

The Tragedy of Julius Caesar is a history play and tragedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written in 1599.

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June 1924

The following events occurred in June 1924.

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June 1941 uprising in eastern Herzegovina

In June 1941, Serbs in eastern Herzegovina rebelled against the authorities of the Independent State of Croatia (Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, NDH), an Axis puppet state established during World War II on the territory of the defeated and occupied Kingdom of Yugoslavia.

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Këmisha e zezë

Këmisha e zezë ('Blackshirts') was a weekly Albanian-Italian bilingual newspaper published from Vlorë during the Italian occupation of Albania.

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Kingdom of Italy

The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.

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Kingdom of Italy under Fascism (1922–1943)

Fascist Italy is the era of National Fascist Party government from 1922 to 1943 with Benito Mussolini as head of government.

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Konstantin Rodzaevsky

Konstantin Vladimirovich Rodzaevsky (Константи́н Влади́мирович Родзае́вский; 11 August 1907 – 30 August 1946) was the leader of the Russian Fascist Party, which he led in exile from Manchuria.

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L'Alba

L'Alba was an Italian-language fascist weekly newspaper published from Tunis, Tunisia.

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La Camisa Negra

"La Camisa Negra" ("The Black Shirt") is a Spanish rock song written by Juanes, inspired by Colombian singer-songwriter Octavio Mesa and recorded by Juanes for his third studio album Mi Sangre.

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Lady Alexandra Curzon

(top), Cynthia (middle), Alexandra (bottom) --> Lady Alexandra Naldera Metcalfe, CBE (née Curzon; 20 March/April 1904 – 7 August 1995) was the third daughter of George Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston and Viceroy of India, and Lord Curzon's first wife, the American mercantile heiress, Mary Victoria Curzon, Baroness Curzon of Kedleston (née Leiter).

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Land of Confusion

"Land of Confusion" is a song by the English rock band Genesis from their 1986 album Invisible Touch.

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Lando Ferretti

Lando Ferretti (2 May 1895 in Pontedera, Province of Pisa – 8 January 1977 in Rome) was an Italian journalist, politician and sports administrator.

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Let 'Em Eat Cake

Let 'Em Eat Cake is a Broadway musical with music by George Gershwin, lyrics by Ira Gershwin, and book by George S. Kaufman and Morrie Ryskind.

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Licio Gelli

Licio Gelli (April 21, 1919 – December 15, 2015) was an Italian financier, liaison officer between the Italian government and Nazi Germany, chiefly known for his role in the Banco Ambrosiano scandal.

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List of assassinated human rights activists

This is a list of murdered political dissidents and human rights activists.The list is chronological.

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List of black flags

This is a list of flags which are entirely or largely black.

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List of coups d'état and coup attempts

This is a chronological list of coups d'état and coup attempts, from ancient times to the present.

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List of defunct paramilitary organizations

No description.

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List of Girls und Panzer characters

The following is a list of characters from Girls und Panzer.

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List of Italian divisions in World War II

This is a list of the World War II divisions of the Royal Italian Army of the Kingdom of Italy.

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List of law enforcement agencies

A law enforcement agency (LEA) is any agency which enforces the law.

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List of military figures by nickname

This is a list of military figures by nickname.

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List of political slogans

The following is a list of notable 18th, 19th, 20th and 21st-century political slogans.

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Ludwig-Karl Ratschiller

Ludwig-Karl Ratschiller (Brixen/Bressanone, 22 June 1921 – Bozen/Bolzano, March, 2004) was an Italian anti-Nazi partisan in North-Eastern Italy during World War II.

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M1895 Colt–Browning machine gun

The Colt–Browning M1895, nicknamed "potato digger" because of its unusual operating mechanism, is an air-cooled, belt-fed, gas-operated machine gun that fires from a closed bolt with a cyclic rate of 450 rounds per minute.

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Macchi C.200

The Macchi C.200 Saetta (Italian: Thunderbolt), or MC.200, was a fighter aircraft developed and manufactured by Aeronautica Macchi in Italy.

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Manifesto of the Fascist Intellectuals

The Manifesto of Fascist Intellectuals (Manifesto degli Intellettuali del Fascismo), by the actualist philosopher Giovanni Gentile, formally establishes the political and ideologic foundations of Italian Fascism.

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March on Rome

The March on Rome (Marcia su Roma) was an organized mass demonstration in October 1922, which resulted in Benito Mussolini's National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, or PNF) acceding to power in the Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia).

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March on Rome (film)

March on Rome (La marcia su Roma) is a 1962 comedy film by Dino Risi with Vittorio Gassman and Ugo Tognazzi, aimed at describing the March on Rome of Benito Mussolini's blackshirts from the point of view of two newly recruited, naïve blackshirts.

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Marines

Marines, also known as a marine corps or naval infantry, are typically an infantry force that specializes in the support of naval and army operations at sea and on land, as well as the execution of their own operations.

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Málaga–Almería road massacre

The Málaga–Almería road massacre was an attack on the republican-dominated city of Málaga, Spain and its citizens on 8 February 1937 during the Spanish Civil War.

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Michele Bianchi

Michele Bianchi (22 July 1883 – 3 February 1930) was an Italian revolutionary syndicalist leader who took a position in the Unione Italiana del Lavoro (UIL) He was among the founding members of the Fascist movement.

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Milan

Milan (Milano; Milan) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,380,873 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.

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Military history of Italy during World War II

The participation of Italy in the Second World War was characterized by a complex framework of ideology, politics, and diplomacy, while its military actions were often heavily influenced by external factors.

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Military ranks of the Kingdom of Italy

The Military ranks of the Kingdom of Italy were the military insignia used by the Italian Armed Forces when Italy was the Kingdom of Italy.

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Milizia Coloniale

The Milizia Coloniale was an all-volunteer colonial milia composed of members of the Fascist Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale ("Volunteer Militia for National Security") or MVSN, commonly called the "Blackshirts".

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Mino Doro

Mino Doro (6 May 1903 – 12 May 2006) was an Italian actor who appeared in more than a hundred films between 1932 and 1970.

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Monty Goldman

Monty Goldman (born 1931) is an activist in the Communist Party of Britain and former Communist Party of Great Britain member who was expelled in the 1980s during that party's factional conflicts.

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Mosley (TV serial)

Mosley was a 1998 television serial (or mini-series) produced for Channel 4 based on British fascist Sir Oswald Mosley's life in the period between the two world wars.

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Mussolini: The Untold Story

Mussolini: The Untold Story is a television biographical miniseries drama that aired in November 1985.

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MVSN

MVSN may refer to.

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Nathaniel Lichfield

Nathaniel Lichfield (29 February 1916 – 27 February 2009) was a British urban and environmental planner who played a key role in the development of the 1960s new towns.

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National Fascist Party

The National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF) was an Italian political party, created by Benito Mussolini as the political expression of fascism (previously represented by groups known as Fasci).

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National Fascisti

The National Fascisti were a splinter group from the British Fascisti formed in 1924.

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National Republican Guard (Italy)

The Italian National Republican Guard (Guardia Nazionale Repubblicana, or GNR) was a gendarmerie force of the Italian Social Republic created by decree on December 8, 1943, replacing the Carabinieri and the National Security Volunteer Militia (MVSN).

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National Syndicalists (Portugal)

The National Syndicalist Movement (Portuguese: Movimento Nacional-Sindicalista) was a political movement that briefly flourished in Portugal in the 1930s.

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Nationalist faction (Spanish Civil War)

The Nationalist faction (Bando nacional) or Rebel faction (Bando sublevado) was a major faction in the Spanish Civil War of 1936 to 1939.

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Nicola Bellomo

Nicola Bellomo (Bari, Apulia, Italy, 2 February 1881 – Island of Nisida, Naples, Italy, 11 September 1945) was a general in the Italian Army during World War II.

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Norma Cossetto

Norma Cossetto (17 May 1920 – 4 or 5 October 1943) was an Istrian Italian student, killed by the Yugoslavian communists and thrown into a foiba.

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November 1924

The following events occurred in November 1924.

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October 1923

The following events occurred in October 1923.

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October 1929

The following events occurred in October 1929.

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Opera Nazionale Balilla

Opera Nazionale Balilla (ONB) was an Italian Fascist youth organization functioning between 1926 and 1937, when it was absorbed into the Gioventù Italiana del Littorio (GIL), a youth section of the National Fascist Party.

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Operation Achse

Operation Achse (Fall Achse, "Case Axis"), originally called Operation Alaric (Unternehmen Alarich), was the codename for the German plan to forcibly disarm the Italian armed forces after the armistice with the Allies in 1943.

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Operation Caravan

Operation Caravan was a subsidiary of Operation ''Agreement'' under which four simultaneous raids were carried out against important Axis Lines of Communication positions in September 1942.

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Operation Colossus

Operation Colossus was the codename given to the first airborne operation undertaken by the British military, which occurred on 10 February 1941 during World War II.

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Operation Crusader order of battle

This is the order of battle for the ground forces involved in Operation Crusader, a World War II battle between the British Commonwealth and the European Axis Powers of Germany and Italy in North Africa between 18 November – 30 December 1941.

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Operation Southeast Croatia

Operation Southeast Croatia (Unternehmen Südost Kroatien) was a large-scale German-led counter-insurgency operation conducted in the southeastern parts of the Independent State of Croatia (Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, NDH), (modern-day Bosnia and Herzegovina) during World War II.

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Order of Battle, East African Campaign (World War II)

The Order of Battle, East African Campaign shows the ground forces available to both sides in East Africa on the date that the Italians declared war on Britain and France, 10 June 1940.

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Organisation for the Maintenance of Supplies

The Organisation for the Maintenance of Supplies was a British right-wing movement, established in 1925 to provide volunteers in the event of a general strike.

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Oswald Mosley

Sir Oswald Ernald Mosley, 6th Baronet of Ancoats (16 November 1896 – 3 December 1980) was a British politician who rose to fame in the 1920s as a Member of Parliament and later in the 1930s became leader of the British Union of Fascists (BUF).

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Ouida Bergère

Ouida Bergère (born Eunie Branch; December 14, 1886 – November 29, 1974) was an American screenwriter and actress.

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Parma

Parma (Pärma) is a city in the northern Italian region of Emilia-Romagna famous for its prosciutto (ham), cheese, architecture, music and surrounding countryside.

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Patrick Hastings

Sir Patrick Gardiner Hastings (17 March 1880 – 26 February 1952) was a British barrister and politician noted for his long and highly successful career as a barrister and his short stint as Attorney General.

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Pavle Đurišić

Pavle Đurišić (Павле Ђуришић,; 9 July 1909 – April 1945) was a Montenegrin Serb regular officer of the Royal Yugoslav Army who became a Chetnik commander (vojvoda) and led a significant proportion of the Chetniks in Montenegro during World War II.

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Piero Pisenti

Piero Pisenti (March 20, 1887 – September 29, 1980) was an Italian Fascist journalist and politician.

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Political colour

Political colours are colours used to represent a political party, either officially or unofficially.

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Political uniform

A number of political movements have involved their members wearing uniforms, typically as a way of showing their identity in marches and demonstrations.

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Priamo Leonardi

Priamo Leonardi (October 2, 1888 – March 16, 1984) was an Italian admiral during World War II.

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Primo Levi

Primo Michele Levi (31 July 1919 – 11 April 1987) was an Italian Jewish chemist, writer, and Holocaust survivor.

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Private army

A private army (or private military) is a military or paramilitary force consisting of armed combatants who owe their allegiance to a private person, group, or organization, rather than a nation or state.

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Quadrumvirs

Quadrumvirs (quadrumviri) may refer to.

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Raúl Ferrero Rebagliati

Raúl Ferrero Rebagliati (born 20 September 1911 in Barranco, Lima - died 22 April 1977 in Lima) was a Peruvian politician who served as 105th Prime Minister of Peru for six months in 1967 and 1968, and was later Peru's Minister of Foreign Affairs.

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Ramiro Ledesma Ramos

Ramiro Ledesma Ramos (May 23, 1905, Alfaraz de Sayago, Zamora – October 29, 1936, Aravaca, Madrid) was a Spanish national syndicalist politician, essayist, and journalist.

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Redshirts (Italy)

Redshirts or Red coats is the name given to the volunteers who followed Giuseppe Garibaldi in southern Italy during his expedition of the Thousand to southern Italy, but sometimes extended to other campaigns of his.

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Renzo Morigi

Renzo Morigi (28 February 1895 – 13 April 1962) was an Italian pistol sports shooter who competed in the 1932 Summer Olympics.

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Revolutionary Union (Peru)

Revolutionary Union (in Spanish: Unión Revolucionaria) was a political party in Peru.

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Riccardo Fedel

Riccardo (Richard) Fedel (23 August 1906 – 12 June 1944) was an Italian anti-Fascist, Communist political fighter, and war-time partisan leader (codenamed Libero - Free) Born into an aristocratic family on his mother’s side, he became a lifelong anti-fascist from an early age.

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Richard III (1995 film)

Richard III is a 1995 British drama film adapted from William Shakespeare's play of the same name, starring Ian McKellen, Annette Bening, Jim Broadbent, Robert Downey Jr., Nigel Hawthorne, Kristin Scott Thomas, Maggie Smith, John Wood, and Dominic West.

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Ricinus

Ricinus communis, the castor bean or castor oil plant, is a species of perennial flowering plant in the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae.

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Rob Burton

Rob Burton is a Canadian businessman, journalist and politician.

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Roberto Farinacci

Roberto Farinacci (16 October 1892 – 28 April 1945) was a leading Italian Fascist politician, and important member of the National Fascist Party (PNF) before and during World War II, and one of its ardent anti-Semitic proponents; Christopher Hibbert describes him as "slavishly pro-German".

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Roderick Spode

Roderick Spode, 7th Earl of Sidcup, often known as Spode or Lord Sidcup, is a recurring fictional character in the Jeeves novels of English comic writer P. G. Wodehouse.

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Royal Italian Army

The Royal Italian Army (Italian: Regio Esercito Italiano) was the army of the Kingdom of Italy from the unification of Italy in 1861 to the birth of the Italian Republic in 1946.

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Royal Italian Army during World War II

This article is about the Italian Royal Army (Regio Esercito) which participated in World War II.

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Rudolph Valentino

Rodolfo Alfonso Raffaello Pierre Filibert Guglielmi di Valentina d'Antonguella (May 6, 1895 – August 23, 1926), professionally known as Rudolph Valentino, was an Italian actor in America who starred in several well-known silent films including The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, The Sheik, Blood and Sand, The Eagle, and The Son of the Sheik. He was an early pop icon, a sex symbol of the 1920s, who was known as the "Latin lover" or simply as "Valentino".

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Sacmi

SACMI (Società Anonima Cooperativa Meccanici Imola) is an international manufacturer of machines and complete plants for the ceramic tile, beverage, packaging, quality control process, and plastics industries.

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Salussola massacre

The Massacre of Salussola consists in the execution, preceded by torture, of 20 Italian Partisans, committed in retaliation by Italian Fascist soldiers on March 9, 1945 in the town of Salussola (Italy).

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Sandro Pertini

Alessandro "Sandro" Pertini, (25 September 1896 – 24 February 1990) was an Italian journalist and socialist politician, who served as the seventh President of the Italian Republic, from 1978 to 1985.

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Sassari Mechanized Brigade

The Sassari Mechanized Brigade is a mechanized infantry brigade of the Italian Army, based on the island of Sardinia.

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Scoop (novel)

Scoop is a 1938 novel by the English writer Evelyn Waugh.

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Second Battle of Tembien

The Second Battle of Tembien was a battle fought on the northern front of what was known as the Second Italo-Abyssinian War.

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Second Italo-Ethiopian War

The Second Italo-Ethiopian War, also referred to as the Second Italo-Abyssinian War, was a colonial war from 3 October 1935 until 1939, despite the Italian claim to have defeated Ethiopia by 5 May 1936, the date of the capture of Addis Ababa.

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Settling Accounts

The Settling Accounts tetralogy is an alternate history setting of World War II by Harry Turtledove in North America, presupposing that the Confederate States of America won the American Civil War.

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Severino Di Giovanni

Severino Di Giovanni (Chieti, Italy, 17 March 1901 – Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1 February 1931), was an Italian anarchist who immigrated to Argentina, where he became the best-known anarchist figure in that country for his campaign of violence in support of Sacco and Vanzetti and antifascism.

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Shirt

A shirt is a cloth garment for the upper body (from the neck to the waist).

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Side cap

A side cap is a foldable military cap with straight sides and a creased or hollow crown sloping to the back where it is parted.

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Slovene minority in Italy (1920–47)

The Slovene minority in Italy (1920–1947) was the indigenous Slovene population—approximately 327,000 out of a total population of 1.3Lipušček, U. (2012) Sacro egoismo: Slovenci v krempljih tajnega londonskega pakta 1915, Cankarjeva založba, Ljubljana.

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Socialist ideology of the Kuomintang

The former socialist ideology of the Kuomintang is a unique form of socialism and socialist thought developed in mainland China during the early Republic of China.

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Soldati-class destroyer

The Soldati class (also known as Camicia Nera class, meaning Blackshirt) were a group of destroyers built for the Italian Navy during World War II. The ships were named after military professions (Artigliere, for example, meaning "artilleryman"). There were two batches; twelve ships were built in 1938–39, and a second batch of seven ships were ordered in 1942, although only five were completed. Ten ships of the class were lost during the war. Three of the survivors were transferred to the French Navy and two to the Soviet Navy as war reparations, while two served in the Italian post-war navy, the Marina Militare.

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Squadrismo

Squadrismo consisted of Italian fascist squads, mostly from rural areas, who were led by the ''ras'' from 1918–1924.

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Starship Troopers (film)

Starship Troopers is a 1997 American satirical military science-fiction action film directed by Paul Verhoeven and written by Edward Neumeier.

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Stewards (paramilitary organization)

The Stewards also informally referred to as Blackshirts were the paramilitary wing of the British Union of Fascists (BUF).

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Sturmabteilung

The Sturmabteilung (SA), literally Storm Detachment, functioned as the original paramilitary wing of the Nazi Party (NSDAP).

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Tanks in the Spanish Army

Tanks in the Spanish Army have over 90 years of history, from the French Renault FTs first delivered in 1919 to the Leopard 2 and B1 Centauro models of the early 21st century.

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Temistocle Testa

Temistocle Testa (11 November 1897 – 17 July 1949) was an Italian Fascist activist and politician.

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The Camp Followers

The Camp Followers (Le soldatesse), is a 1965 Italian World War II film directed by Valerio Zurlini and starring Anna Karina.

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The Luzhin Defence

The Luzhin Defence is a 2000 film directed by Marleen Gorris, starring John Turturro and Emily Watson.

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The Old Guard (1934 film)

The Old Guard (Italian: Vecchia guardia) is a 1934 Italian drama film directed by Alessandro Blasetti and starring Gianfranco Giachetti, Mino Doro and Franco Brambilla.

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Timeline of Trieste

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Trieste in the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region of Italy.

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Toto Koopman

Catharina "Toto" Koopman (28 October 1908 – 27 August 1991) was an Dutch-Javanese model who worked in Paris prior to World War II.

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Tranquillo Zerbi

Tranquillo Zerbi was a leading Italian automotive engineer.

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Treaty of Peace with Italy, 1947

The Treaty of Peace with Italy (one of the Paris Peace Treaties) was signed on 10 February 1947 between Italy and the victorious powers of World War II, formally ending hostilities.

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Trieste

Trieste (Trst) is a city and a seaport in northeastern Italy.

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Trieste National Hall

Trieste National Hall (Narodni dom) or the Hotel Balkan in Trieste was a multimodal building that hosted the centre of the Slovene minority in the city, which included the Slovene theatre in Trieste, a hotel and numerous cultural associations.

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Tullio Tamburini

Tullio Tamburini (22 April 1892 – 1957) was an Italian soldier, adventurer and fascist official.

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Umanità Nova

Umanità Nova is an Italian anarchist newspaper founded in 1920.

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Uniforms and insignia of the Schutzstaffel

The uniforms and insignia of the Schutzstaffel were paramilitary ranks and uniforms used by the SS between 1925 and 1945 to differentiate that organization from the regular German armed forces, the German state, and the Nazi Party.

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Unione Sindacale Italiana

Unione Sindacale Italiana (USI; Italian Syndicalist Union or Italian Workers' Union) is an anarcho-syndicalist trade union.

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University Militias

In some Southern European and Latin American countries University Militias were military units for training college students.

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Uprising in Montenegro (1941)

The Uprising in Montenegro (Ustanak u Crnoj Gori), commonly known as the 13 July Uprising (Trinaestojulski ustanak) was an uprising against Italian occupation forces in Montenegro (Axis occupied Yugoslavia).

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USS Princess Matoika

USS Princess Matoika (ID-2290) was a transport ship for the United States Navy during World War I. Before the war, she was a that sailed as SS Kiautschou for the Hamburg America Line and as SS Princess Alice (sometimes spelled Prinzess Alice) for North German Lloyd.

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Valtellina

Valtellina or the Valtelline (occasionally spelled as two words in English: Val Telline; Vuclina, Valtelina); Veltlin, Valtellina, Valtulina, Vuclina, is a valley in the Lombardy region of northern Italy, bordering Switzerland.

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Verona trial

The Verona Trial (processo di Verona) was held in the Italian Social Republic (ISR) to punish - by five almost immediately executed death sentences and one 30-year imprisonment - the members of the Grand Council of Fascism who had committed the offence of voting for Benito Mussolini's removal from power in the Kingdom of Italy and had later been arrested by Mussolini's forces.

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Visoki Dečani

Visoki Dečani (Високи Дечани, Manastiri i Deçanit), or simply Dečani is a medieval Serbian Orthodox Christian monastery located near Dečani, Kosovo.

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Waiting for the Worms

"Waiting for the Worms" (working title "Follow the Worms") is a song from the 1979 Pink Floyd album The Wall.

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Western Desert Campaign

The Western Desert Campaign (Desert War), took place in the deserts of Egypt and Libya and was the main theatre in the North African Campaign during the Second World War.

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Whitechapel

Whitechapel is a district in the East End of London, England, in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets.

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Wilfrid Kent Hughes

Sir Wilfrid Selwyn "Bill" Kent Hughes (12 June 1895 – 31 July 1970) was an Australian army officer and politician who had a long career in both state and federal politics, most notably as a minister in the Menzies Government.

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William Edward David Allen

William Edward David Allen (6 January 1901 – 18 September 1973) was a British scholar, Foreign Service officer, politician and businessman, best known as a historian of the South Caucasus—notably Georgia.

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XXIII de Marzo Group

The XXIII de Marzo Group (Agrupación XXIII de Marzo) was one of the Blackshirt units sent to Spain during the Spanish Civil War to make up the "Corpo Truppe Volontarie" (Corps of Volunteer Troops), or CTV.

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Zerai Deres

Zerai Deres (Ge'ez ዘርኣይ ደረስ) (1914 – July 6, 1945) was an Eritrean translator and patriot.

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11th Carabinieri Mechanized Brigade

The 11th Carabinieri Mechanized Brigade (11° Brigata Meccanizzata Carabinieri) was the Carabinieri formation, established in 1963 and disestablished in 2001, dedicated to the performance of military duties, the support to Territorial Organization, the participation in civil protection operations and to ensure the emergency reserve for the General Command.

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12th Infantry Division Sassari

The 12th Infantry Division Sassari was an Infantry Division of the Italian Army during World War II.

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136th Armoured Division Centauro II

The 136th Armoured Division Centauro II was an Armoured Division of the Italian Army during World War II.

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136th Armoured Division Giovani Fascisti

The 136th Armoured Division Giovani Fascisti was an infantry division of the Italian Army during World War II.

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13th Infantry Division Re

The 13th Infantry Division Re ("King") was an Infantry Division of the Italian Army during World War II.

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14th Infantry Division Isonzo

The 14th Infantry Division Isonzo was an infantry division of the Italian Army during World War II.

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151st Infantry Division Perugia

The 151st Infantry Division Perugia was an infantry division of the Italian Army during World War II.

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158th Infantry Division Zara

The 158th Infantry Division Zara was a regular infantry division of the Italian Army during World War II.

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15th Infantry Division Bergamo

The 15th Infantry Division Bergamo was an infantry division of the Italian Army during World War II.

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1896 in Italy

See also: 1895 in Italy, other events of 1896, 1897 in Italy.

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18th Infantry Division Messina

The 18th Infantry Division Messina was an infantry division of the Italian Army during World War II.

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1919 in Italy

See also: 1918 in Italy, other events of 1919, 1920 in Italy.

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1920 in Italy

Events from the year 1920 in Italy.

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1920s

The 1920s was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1, 1920, and ended on December 31, 1929.

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1922 in Italy

Events from the year 1922 in Italy.

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19th Infantry Division Venezia

The 19th Infantry Division Venezia was a mountain infantry division of the Regio Esercito was raised in 1934 to serve in the Second Italo-Ethiopian War under the name Gavinana division.

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1st Blackshirt Division (23 March)

The Blackshirt Division 23 March (Italian:Divisione CC.NN. "23 Marzo") was an Italian MVSN Blackshirt (Fascist) militia unit formed for the Second Italo-Abyssinian War.

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1st CCNN Division "Dio lo Vuole"

The 1st División "Dio lo Vuole" ("God wills it"), was one of the three Italian Blackshirts Divisions sent to Spain during the Spanish Civil War to make up the "Corpo Truppe Volontarie" (Corps of Volunteer Troops), or CTV.

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1st Infantry Division (South Africa)

The 1st South African Infantry Division was an infantry division of the army of the Union of South Africa.

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1st Infantry Division Superga

1st Infantry Division Superga was a mountain infantry division of the Italian Army during World War II.

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20th Infantry Division Friuli

The Friuli is a division of the Italian Army since World War II.

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22nd Infantry Division Cacciatori delle Alpi

The 22nd Infantry Division Cacciatori delle Alpi was an infantry division of the Italian Army during World War II.

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23rd Infantry Division Ferrara

The 23rd Infantry Division Ferrara was a mountain infantry division of the Italian Army during World War II.

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24th Infantry Division Pinerolo

The 24th Infantry Division Pinerolo was an infantry division of the Italian Army during World War II.

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26th Infantry Division Assietta

The 26th Infantry Division Assietta was a mountain infantry Division (formed 6 August 1935) of the Italian Army during World War II.

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28th Infantry Division Aosta

After the end of World War I the ''Aosta'' Infantry Brigade moved to Sicily and was garrisoned in the city of Palermo.

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2nd Blackshirt Division (28 October)

The 2nd Blackshirt Division 28 Ottobre was an Italian Camicie Nere (Blackshirt) militia unit formed for the Second Italo-Abyssinian War.

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2nd CCNN Division "Fiamme Nere"

2nd CCNN Division "Fiamme Nere" ("Black Flames"), was one of the three Blackshirts Divisions sent to Spain during the Spanish Civil War to make up the "Corpo Truppe Volontarie" (Corps of Volunteer Troops), or CTV.

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3/40 Evzone Regiment

The 3/40 Evzone Regiment (3/40 Σύνταγμα Ευζώνων, abbrev.) or 40th Evzone Regiment (40° Σύνταγμα Ευζώνων, 40 ΣΕ) is a historic regiment of Evzones of the Hellenic Army, recruited in Epirus and headquartered in Arta.

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31st Infantry Division Calabria

The 31st Infantry Division Calabria was an infantry division of the Italian Army during World War II.

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32nd Infantry Division Marche

The 32nd Infantry Division Marche was a mountain infantry division of the Italian Army during World War II.

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33rd Infantry Division Acqui

The 33rd Infantry Division Acqui (33ª Divisione Acqui) was a mountain infantry Division of the Italian Army during World War II.

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37th Infantry Division Modena

The 37th Infantry Division Modena was a mountain Infantry Division of the Italian Army during World War II.

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38th Infantry Division Puglie

The 38th Infantry Division Puglie was a mountain infantry division of the Italian Army during World War II.

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3rd Blackshirt Division (21 April)

The 3rd CCNN Division (CCNN standing for Camicie Nere, Black Shirts; also known as 3rd CCNN Division XXI Aprile) was one of the seven Black Shirt militia Divisions that were organized and fought in the Second Italo-Abyssinian War.

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3rd CCNN Division "Penne Nere"

3rd CCNN Division Penne Nere, ("Black Feathers"), was one of the three Blackshirts Divisions (Camicie Nere, or CCNN) sent to Spain during the Spanish Civil War to make up the "Corpo Truppe Volontarie" (Corps of Volunteer Troops), or CTV.

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40th Infantry Division Cacciatori d'Africa

The 40th Infantry Division "Cacciatori d’Africa" (Hunters of Africa) was an infantry division of the Italian Army (Regio Esercito Italiano) during World War II.

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41st Infantry Division Firenze

The 41st Infantry Division Firenze was an infantry division of the Italian Army during World War II.

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44th Infantry Division Cremona

The 44th Infantry Division Cremona was an infantry division of the Italian Army during World War II.

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47th Infantry Division Bari

The 47th Infantry Division Bari was an infantry division of the Italian Army during World War II.

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48th Infantry Division Taro

The 48th Infantry Division Taro was an infantry division of the Italian Army during World War II.

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49th Infantry Division Parma

The 49th Infantry Division Parma was an infantry division of the Italian Army during World War II.

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4th Blackshirt Division (3 January)

The 4th CCNN Division "3 Gennaio" (CCNN standing for Camicie Nere, Blackshirts) was one of seven Black Shirt Divisions that were organized and fought in the Second Italo-Abyssinian War.

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50th Infantry Division Regina

The 50th Infantry Division Regina was an infantry division of the Italian Army during World War II.

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51st Infantry Division Siena

The 51st Infantry Division Siena (51a Divisione di Fanteria "Siena") was a regular infantry division of the Italian Army during World War II.

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53rd Infantry Division Arezzo

The 53rd Infantry Division Arezzo was a mountain infantry division of the Italian Army during World War II.

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54th Infantry Division Napoli

The 54th Infantry Division Napoli was a regular infantry division of the Italian Army during World War II.

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56th Infantry Division Casale

The 56th Infantry Division Casale was a regular Infantry Division of the Italian Army during World War II.

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57th Infantry Division Lombardia

The 57th Infantry Division Lombardia was a regular infantry division of the Italian Army during World War II.

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59th Infantry Division Cagliari

The 59th Infantry Division Cagliari was a mountain infantry division of the Italian Army during World War II.

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5th Blackshirt Division 1 Febbraio

The Italian 5th Blackshirt Division 1 Febbraio was an Italian CCNN Blackshirt militia unit formed for the Second Italo-Abyssinian War under the command of Gen.

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65th Infantry Division Granatieri di Savoia

The 65th Infantry Division "Grenadiers of Savoy" (Italian: Granatieri di Savoia) was an infantry division of the Italian Army (Regio Esercito Italiano) during World War II.

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6th Blackshirt Division (Tevere)

The Italian 6th Blackshirt Division "Tevere" (Tiber) was an Italian Blackshirt militia unit formed for the Second Italo-Abyssinian War by volunteers.

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6th Infantry Division Cuneo

The 6th Infantry Division Cuneo was an infantry division of the Italian Army during World War II.

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7th Blackshirt Division (Cirene)

The Italian 7th Blackshirt Division Cirene was an Italian CCNN Blackshirt militia unit formed for the Second Italo-Abyssinian War under the command of Lt.

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9th Infantry Division Pasubio

The 9th Infantry Division Pasubio was an auto-transportable binary-type (2-regiments) Infantry Division of the Italian Army during World War II.

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Redirects here:

105th Blackshirt Battalion, 585th Blackshirt Battalion, Black Shirts, Black shirt, Black shirts, Blackshirt, Blackshirt Legion, CCNN, Camicie nere, Italian Blackshirts, Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale, Squadristi, Squadristri.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blackshirts

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