55 relations: Addition, Alfred Tarski, Andrzej Mostowski, Axiom, Axiom of adjunction, Axiom schema, Binary operation, Cardinality, Complete theory, Computable function, Concatenation, Converse (logic), Domain of a function, Empty set, Equality (mathematics), Existential quantification, Extensionality, First-order logic, Gödel numbering, Gödel's incompleteness theorems, General set theory, Gentzen's consistency proof, George Boolos, Infinite set, Injective function, Interpretation (logic), John Lucas (philosopher), John P. Burgess, List of first-order theories, Mathematical induction, Mathematics, Multiplication, Natural number, Non-standard model of arithmetic, Operation (mathematics), Peano axioms, Polish notation, Raphael M. Robinson, Raymond Smullyan, Recursive definition, Richard Jeffrey, Second-order arithmetic, Set (mathematics), Set theory, Set-theoretic definition of natural numbers, Springer Science+Business Media, Successor function, Tennenbaum's theorem, Total order, Unary operation, ..., Universal quantification, Variable (mathematics), Wolfgang Rautenberg, Zermelo set theory, 0 (number). Expand index (5 more) » « Shrink index
Addition (often signified by the plus symbol "+") is one of the four elementary, mathematical operations of arithmetic, with the others being subtraction, multiplication and division.
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Alfred Tarski (January 14, 1901 – October 26, 1983) was a Polish logician, mathematician and philosopher.
Andrzej Mostowski (1 November 1913 – 22 August 1975) was a Polish mathematician.
An axiom or postulate is a premise or starting point of reasoning.
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In mathematical set theory, the axiom of adjunction states that for any two sets x, y there is a set w.
In mathematical logic, an axiom schema (plural: axiom schemata) generalizes the notion of axiom.
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In mathematics, a binary operation on a set is a calculation that combines two elements of the set (called operands) to produce another element of the set (more formally, an operation whose arity is two, and whose two domains and one codomain are (subsets of) the same set).
In mathematics, the cardinality of a set is a measure of the "number of elements of the set".
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In mathematical logic, a theory is complete if it is a maximal consistent set of sentences, i.e., if it is consistent, and none of its proper extensions is consistent.
Computable functions are the basic objects of study in computability theory.
In formal language theory and computer programming, string concatenation is the operation of joining character strings end-to-end.
In logic, the converse of a categorical or implicational statement is the result of reversing its two parts.
In mathematics, and more specifically in naive set theory, the domain of definition (or simply the domain) of a function is the set of "input" or argument values for which the function is defined.
In mathematics, and more specifically set theory, the empty set is the unique set having no elements; its size or cardinality (count of elements in a set) is zero.
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In mathematics, equality is a relationship between two quantities or, more generally two mathematical expressions, asserting that the quantities have the same value or that the expressions represent the same mathematical object.
In predicate logic, an existential quantification is a type of quantifier, a logical constant which is interpreted as "there exists", "there is at least one", or "for some".
In logic, extensionality, or extensional equality, refers to principles that judge objects to be equal if they have the same external properties.
First-order logic is a formal system used in mathematics, philosophy, linguistics, and computer science.
In mathematical logic, a Gödel numbering is a function that assigns to each symbol and well-formed formula of some formal language a unique natural number, called its Gödel number.
Gödel's incompleteness theorems are two theorems of mathematical logic that establish inherent limitations of all but the most trivial axiomatic systems capable of doing arithmetic.
General set theory (GST) is George Boolos's (1998) name for a fragment of the axiomatic set theory Z. GST is sufficient for all mathematics not requiring infinite sets, and is the weakest known set theory whose theorems include the Peano axioms.
Gentzen's consistency proof is a result of proof theory in mathematical logic.
George Stephen Boolos (September 4, 1940 – May 27, 1996) was an American philosopher and a mathematical logician who taught at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
In set theory, an infinite set is a set that is not a finite set.
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In mathematics, an injective function or injection or one-to-one function is a function that preserves distinctness: it never maps distinct elements of its domain to the same element of its codomain.
An interpretation is an assignment of meaning to the symbols of a formal language.
John Randolph Lucas FBA (born 18 June 1929) is a British philosopher.
John Patton Burgess (born 5 June 1948) is a John N. Woodhull Professor of Philosophy at Princeton University.
In mathematical logic, a first-order theory is given by a set of axioms in some language.
Mathematical induction is a method of mathematical proof typically used to establish a given statement for all natural numbers.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, “knowledge, study, learning”) is the study of topics such as quantity (numbers), structure, space, and change.
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Multiplication (often denoted by the cross symbol "×", by a point "·" or by the absence of symbol) is one of the four elementary, mathematical operations of arithmetic; with the others being addition, subtraction and division.
In mathematics, the natural numbers (sometimes called the whole numbers): "whole number An integer, though sometimes it is taken to mean only non-negative integers, or just the positive integers." give definitions of "whole number" under several headwords: INTEGER … Syn. whole number.
In mathematical logic, a non-standard model of arithmetic is a model of (first-order) Peano arithmetic that contains non-standard numbers.
The general operation as explained on this page should not be confused with the more specific operators on vector spaces.
In mathematical logic, the Peano axioms, also known as the Dedekind–Peano axioms or the Peano postulates, are a set of axioms for the natural numbers presented by the 19th century Italian mathematician Giuseppe Peano.
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Polish notation, also known as Polish prefix notation or simply prefix notation, is a form of notation for logic, arithmetic, and algebra.
Raphael Mitchel Robinson (November 2, 1911 – January 27, 1995) was an American mathematician.
Raymond Merrill Smullyan (born May 25, 1919) is an American mathematician, concert pianist, logician, Taoist philosopher, and magician.
A recursive definition (or inductive definition) in mathematical logic and computer science is used to define the elements in a set in terms of other elements in the set (Aczel 1978:740ff).
Richard C. Jeffrey (August 5, 1926 – November 9, 2002) was an American philosopher, logician, and probability theorist.
In mathematical logic, second-order arithmetic is a collection of axiomatic systems that formalize the natural numbers and their subsets.
In mathematics, a set is a collection of distinct objects, considered as an object in its own right.
Set theory is the branch of mathematical logic that studies sets, which informally are collections of objects.
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Several ways have been proposed to define the natural numbers using set theory.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
In mathematics, the successor function or successor operation is a primitive recursive function S such that S(n).
Tennenbaum's theorem, named for Stanley Tennenbaum who presented the theorem in 1959, is a result in mathematical logic that states that no countable nonstandard model of Peano arithmetic (PA) can be recursive.
In mathematics, a linear order, total order, simple order, or (non-strict) ordering is a binary relation (here denoted by infix ≤) on some set X which is transitive, antisymmetric, and total.
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In mathematics, a unary operation is an operation with only one operand, i.e. a single input.
In predicate logic, a universal quantification is a type of quantifier, a logical constant which is interpreted as "given any" or "for all".
In elementary mathematics, a variable is an alphabetic character representing a number, called the value of the variable, which is either arbitrary or not fully specified or unknown.
Wolfgang Rautenberg (1936 − September 4, 2011) was a German mathematician and logician whose areas of research were model theory, non-classical logic, modal logic, temporal logic and self reference.
Zermelo set theory, as set out in an important paper in 1908 by Ernst Zermelo, is the ancestor of modern set theory.
0 (zero; BrE: or AmE) is both a number and the numerical digit used to represent that number in numerals.
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