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Addition (often signified by the plus symbol "+") is one of the four basic operations of arithmetic; the others are subtraction, multiplication and division. 

## Abacus

The abacus (plural abaci or abacuses), also called a counting frame, is a calculating tool that was in use in Europe, China and Russia, centuries before the adoption of the written Hindu–Arabic numeral system.

## Abelian group

In abstract algebra, an abelian group, also called a commutative group, is a group in which the result of applying the group operation to two group elements does not depend on the order in which they are written.

## Absolute value

In mathematics, the absolute value or modulus of a real number is the non-negative value of without regard to its sign.

## Abstract algebra

In algebra, which is a broad division of mathematics, abstract algebra (occasionally called modern algebra) is the study of algebraic structures.

An adding machine was a class of mechanical calculator, usually specialized for bookkeeping calculations.

In mathematics the additive identity of a set which is equipped with the operation of addition is an element which, when added to any element x in the set, yields x. One of the most familiar additive identities is the number 0 from elementary mathematics, but additive identities occur in other mathematical structures where addition is defined, such as in groups and rings.

In mathematics, the additive inverse of a number is the number that, when added to, yields zero.

## Affix

In linguistics, an affix is a morpheme that is attached to a word stem to form a new word or word form.

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## Africa

Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).

## Algebra

Algebra (from Arabic "al-jabr", literally meaning "reunion of broken parts") is one of the broad parts of mathematics, together with number theory, geometry and analysis.

## Algebraic structure

In mathematics, and more specifically in abstract algebra, an algebraic structure on a set A (called carrier set or underlying set) is a collection of finitary operations on A; the set A with this structure is also called an algebra.

## Analog computer

An analog computer or analogue computer is a form of computer that uses the continuously changeable aspects of physical phenomena such as electrical, mechanical, or hydraulic quantities to model the problem being solved.

## Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).

## Ancient Rome

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.

## Angle

In plane geometry, an angle is the figure formed by two rays, called the sides of the angle, sharing a common endpoint, called the vertex of the angle.

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## Arabic numerals

Arabic numerals, also called Hindu–Arabic numerals, are the ten digits: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, based on the Hindu–Arabic numeral system, the most common system for the symbolic representation of numbers in the world today.

## Arithmetic

Arithmetic (from the Greek ἀριθμός arithmos, "number") is a branch of mathematics that consists of the study of numbers, especially the properties of the traditional operations on them—addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.

## Arithmetic mean

In mathematics and statistics, the arithmetic mean (stress on third syllable of "arithmetic"), or simply the mean or average when the context is clear, is the sum of a collection of numbers divided by the number of numbers in the collection.

## Ascending chain condition

In mathematics, the ascending chain condition (ACC) and descending chain condition (DCC) are finiteness properties satisfied by some algebraic structures, most importantly ideals in certain commutative rings.

## ASCII

ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication.

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## Asia

Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.

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## Asian elephant

The Asian elephant, or Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus), is the only living species of the genus Elephas and is distributed in Southeast Asia, from India and Nepal in the west to Borneo in the south.

## Associative property

In mathematics, the associative property is a property of some binary operations.

## Axiom of choice

In mathematics, the axiom of choice, or AC, is an axiom of set theory equivalent to the statement that the Cartesian product of a collection of non-empty sets is non-empty.

## Axle

An axle is a central shaft for a rotating wheel or gear.

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## Bhāskara II

Bhāskara (also known as Bhāskarāchārya ("Bhāskara, the teacher"), and as Bhaskara II to avoid confusion with Bhāskara I) (1114–1185), was an Indian mathematician and astronomer.

## Binary number

In mathematics and digital electronics, a binary number is a number expressed in the base-2 numeral system or binary numeral system, which uses only two symbols: typically 0 (zero) and 1 (one).

## Binary operation

In mathematics, a binary operation on a set is a calculation that combines two elements of the set (called operands) to produce another element of the set.

## Blaise Pascal

Blaise Pascal (19 June 1623 – 19 August 1662) was a French mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer and Catholic theologian.

## Boethius

Anicius Manlius Severinus Boëthius, commonly called Boethius (also Boetius; 477–524 AD), was a Roman senator, consul, magister officiorum, and philosopher of the early 6th century.

## Boolean algebra

In mathematics and mathematical logic, Boolean algebra is the branch of algebra in which the values of the variables are the truth values true and false, usually denoted 1 and 0 respectively.

## Brahmagupta

Brahmagupta (born, died) was an Indian mathematician and astronomer.

## Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta

The Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta ("Correctly Established Doctrine of Brahma", abbreviated BSS) is the main work of Brahmagupta, written c. 628.

## C (programming language)

C (as in the letter ''c'') is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.

## C++

C++ ("see plus plus") is a general-purpose programming language.

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## Cardinal number

In mathematics, cardinal numbers, or cardinals for short, are a generalization of the natural numbers used to measure the cardinality (size) of sets.

## Carry (arithmetic)

In elementary arithmetic, a carry is a digit that is transferred from one column of digits to another column of more significant digits.

A carry-skip adder (also known as a carry-bypass adder) is an adder implementation that improves on the delay of a ripple-carry adder with little effort compared to other adders.

## Category theory

Category theory formalizes mathematical structure and its concepts in terms of a labeled directed graph called a category, whose nodes are called objects, and whose labelled directed edges are called arrows (or morphisms).

## Cauchy sequence

In mathematics, a Cauchy sequence, named after Augustin-Louis Cauchy, is a sequence whose elements become arbitrarily close to each other as the sequence progresses.

## Circle

A circle is a simple closed shape.

## Classical limit

The classical limit or correspondence limit is the ability of a physical theory to approximate or "recover" classical mechanics when considered over special values of its parameters.

## Classical mechanics

Classical mechanics describes the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, and astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars and galaxies.

## Common chimpanzee

The common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), also known as the robust chimpanzee, is a species of great ape.

## Commutative property

In mathematics, a binary operation is commutative if changing the order of the operands does not change the result.

## Complex number

A complex number is a number that can be expressed in the form, where and are real numbers, and is a solution of the equation.

## Compound (linguistics)

In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (less precisely, a word) that consists of more than one stem.

## Computer

A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.

## Computer memory

In computing, memory refers to the computer hardware integrated circuits that store information for immediate use in a computer; it is synonymous with the term "primary storage".

## Congruence (geometry)

In geometry, two figures or objects are congruent if they have the same shape and size, or if one has the same shape and size as the mirror image of the other.

## Continuum (set theory)

In the mathematical field of set theory, the continuum means the real numbers, or the corresponding (infinite) cardinal number, \mathfrak.

## Control flow

In computer science, control flow (or flow of control) is the order in which individual statements, instructions or function calls of an imperative program are executed or evaluated.

## Convolution

In mathematics (and, in particular, functional analysis) convolution is a mathematical operation on two functions (f and g) to produce a third function, that is typically viewed as a modified version of one of the original functions, giving the integral of the pointwise multiplication of the two functions as a function of the amount that one of the original functions is translated.

## Coordinate vector

In linear algebra, a coordinate vector is a representation of a vector as an ordered list of numbers that describes the vector in terms of a particular ordered basis.

## Coproduct

In category theory, the coproduct, or categorical sum, is a category-theoretic construction which includes as examples the disjoint union of sets and of topological spaces, the free product of groups, and the direct sum of modules and vector spaces.

## Cotton-top tamarin

The cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus) is a small New World monkey weighing less than.

## Counting

Counting is the action of finding the number of elements of a finite set of objects.

## CRC Press

The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books.

## Decimal

The decimal numeral system (also called base-ten positional numeral system, and occasionally called denary) is the standard system for denoting integer and non-integer numbers.

## Dedekind cut

In mathematics, Dedekind cuts, named after German mathematician Richard Dedekind, are а method of construction of the real numbers from the rational numbers.

## Differentiable manifold

In mathematics, a differentiable manifold (also differential manifold) is a type of manifold that is locally similar enough to a linear space to allow one to do calculus.

## Differential (mechanical device)

A differential is a gear train with three shafts that has the property that the rotational speed of one shaft is the average of the speeds of the others, or a fixed multiple of that average.

## Dimensional analysis

In engineering and science, dimensional analysis is the analysis of the relationships between different physical quantities by identifying their base quantities (such as length, mass, time, and electric charge) and units of measure (such as miles vs. kilometers, or pounds vs. kilograms) and tracking these dimensions as calculations or comparisons are performed.

## Direct sum

The direct sum is an operation from abstract algebra, a branch of mathematics.

## Disjoint union

In set theory, the disjoint union (or discriminated union) of a family of sets is a modified union operation that indexes the elements according to which set they originated in.

## Distributive property

In abstract algebra and formal logic, the distributive property of binary operations generalizes the distributive law from boolean algebra and elementary algebra.

## Division (mathematics)

Division is one of the four basic operations of arithmetic, the others being addition, subtraction, and multiplication.

## Eggplant

Eggplant (Solanum melongena) or aubergine is a species of nightshade grown for its edible fruit.

## Electronic circuit

An electronic circuit is composed of individual electronic components, such as resistors, transistors, capacitors, inductors and diodes, connected by conductive wires or traces through which electric current can flow.

## Empty set

In mathematics, and more specifically set theory, the empty set or null set is the unique set having no elements; its size or cardinality (count of elements in a set) is zero.

## Empty sum

In mathematics, an empty sum, or nullary sum, is a summation where the number of terms is zero.

## English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

## Equality (mathematics)

In mathematics, equality is a relationship between two quantities or, more generally two mathematical expressions, asserting that the quantities have the same value, or that the expressions represent the same mathematical object.

## Equals sign

The equals sign or equality sign is a mathematical symbol used to indicate equality.

## Euclidean vector

In mathematics, physics, and engineering, a Euclidean vector (sometimes called a geometric or spatial vector, or—as here—simply a vector) is a geometric object that has magnitude (or length) and direction.

## European Mathematical Society

The European Mathematical Society (EMS) is a European organization dedicated to the development of mathematics in Europe.

## Exclusive or

Exclusive or or exclusive disjunction is a logical operation that outputs true only when inputs differ (one is true, the other is false).

## Exponential function

In mathematics, an exponential function is a function of the form in which the argument occurs as an exponent.

## Exponentiation

Exponentiation is a mathematical operation, written as, involving two numbers, the base and the exponent.

## Expression (mathematics)

In mathematics, an expression or mathematical expression is a finite combination of symbols that is well-formed according to rules that depend on the context.

## Extended real number line

In mathematics, the affinely extended real number system is obtained from the real number system by adding two elements: and (read as positive infinity and negative infinity respectively).

## Fibonacci

Fibonacci (c. 1175 – c. 1250) was an Italian mathematician from the Republic of Pisa, considered to be "the most talented Western mathematician of the Middle Ages".

## Field of fractions

In abstract algebra, the field of fractions of an integral domain is the smallest field in which it can be embedded.

## Floating-point arithmetic

In computing, floating-point arithmetic is arithmetic using formulaic representation of real numbers as an approximation so as to support a trade-off between range and precision.

## Force

In physics, a force is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object.

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## Fraction (mathematics)

A fraction (from Latin fractus, "broken") represents a part of a whole or, more generally, any number of equal parts.

## Frontinus

Sextus Julius Frontinus (c. 40 – 103 AD) was a prominent Roman civil engineer, author, and politician of the late 1st century AD.

## Game theory

Game theory is "the study of mathematical models of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decision-makers".

## Geoffrey Chaucer

Geoffrey Chaucer (c. 1343 – 25 October 1400), known as the Father of English literature, is widely considered the greatest English poet of the Middle Ages.

## Geometry

Geometry (from the γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.

## Georg Cantor

Georg Ferdinand Ludwig Philipp Cantor (– January 6, 1918) was a German mathematician.

## Gerundive

In Latin grammar, a gerundive is a verb form that functions as a verbal adjective.

## Giovanni Poleni

Giovanni Poleni (b. Venice, around 1683; d. Padua, Nov., 1761) was a Marquess, physicist, mathematician and antiquarian.

## Glenda Lappan

Glenda T. Lappan (born 1939) is a professor emerita of mathematics at Michigan State University.

## Greatest and least elements

In mathematics, especially in order theory, the greatest element of a subset S of a partially ordered set (poset) is an element of S that is greater than every other element of S. The term least element is defined dually, that is, it is an element of S that is smaller than every other element of S. Formally, given a partially ordered set (P, ≤), an element g of a subset S of P is the greatest element of S if Hence, the greatest element of S is an upper bound of S that is contained within this subset.

## Grothendieck group

In mathematics, the Grothendieck group construction in abstract algebra constructs an abelian group from a commutative monoid M in the most universal way in the sense that any abelian group containing a homomorphic image of M will also contain a homomorphic image of the Grothendieck group of M. The Grothendieck group construction takes its name from the more general construction in category theory, introduced by Alexander Grothendieck in his fundamental work of the mid-1950s that resulted in the development of K-theory, which led to his proof of the Grothendieck–Riemann–Roch theorem.

## Ground (electricity)

In electrical engineering, ground or earth is the reference point in an electrical circuit from which voltages are measured, a common return path for electric current, or a direct physical connection to the earth.

## Habituation

Habituation is a form of learning in which an organism decreases or ceases its responses to a stimulus after repeated or prolonged presentations.

## Herbert Enderton

Herbert Bruce Enderton (April 15, 1936 – October 20, 2010) was a Professor Emeritus of Mathematics at UCLA and a former member of the faculties of Mathematics and of Logic and the Methodology of Science at the University of California, Berkeley.

## High-level programming language

In computer science, a high-level programming language is a programming language with strong abstraction from the details of the computer.

## Identity element

In mathematics, an identity element or neutral element is a special type of element of a set with respect to a binary operation on that set, which leaves other elements unchanged when combined with them.

## Infant

An infant (from the Latin word infans, meaning "unable to speak" or "speechless") is the more formal or specialised synonym for "baby", the very young offspring of a human.

## Infix notation

Infix notation is the notation commonly used in arithmetical and logical formulae and statements.

## Instruction set architecture

An instruction set architecture (ISA) is an abstract model of a computer.

## Integer

An integer (from the Latin ''integer'' meaning "whole")Integer&#x2009;'s first literal meaning in Latin is "untouched", from in ("not") plus tangere ("to touch").

## Integer overflow

In computer programming, an integer overflow occurs when an arithmetic operation attempts to create a numeric value that is outside of the range that can be represented with a given number of bits – either larger than the maximum or lower than the minimum representable value.

## Integral

In mathematics, an integral assigns numbers to functions in a way that can describe displacement, area, volume, and other concepts that arise by combining infinitesimal data.

## Intuition

Intuition is the ability to acquire knowledge without proof, evidence, or conscious reasoning, or without understanding how the knowledge was acquired.

## Inverse function

In mathematics, an inverse function (or anti-function) is a function that "reverses" another function: if the function applied to an input gives a result of, then applying its inverse function to gives the result, and vice versa.

## Iteration

Iteration is the act of repeating a process, to generate a (possibly unbounded) sequence of outcomes, with the aim of approaching a desired goal, target or result.

## John C. Baez

John Carlos Baez (born June 12, 1961) is an American mathematical physicist and a professor of mathematics at the University of California, Riverside (UCR) in Riverside, California.

## John Wiley & Sons

John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.

## Karen Wynn

Karen Wynn is a Canadian and American Professor of Psychology and Cognitive Science at Yale University.

## Latin

Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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## Lever

A lever is a simple machine consisting of a beam or rigid rod pivoted at a fixed hinge, or fulcrum.

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## Lie algebra

In mathematics, a Lie algebra (pronounced "Lee") is a vector space \mathfrak g together with a non-associative, alternating bilinear map \mathfrak g \times \mathfrak g \rightarrow \mathfrak g; (x, y) \mapsto, called the Lie bracket, satisfying the Jacobi identity.

## Lie group

In mathematics, a Lie group (pronounced "Lee") is a group that is also a differentiable manifold, with the property that the group operations are compatible with the smooth structure.

## Linear algebra

Linear algebra is the branch of mathematics concerning linear equations such as linear functions such as and their representations through matrices and vector spaces.

## Linear combination

In mathematics, a linear combination is an expression constructed from a set of terms by multiplying each term by a constant and adding the results (e.g. a linear combination of x and y would be any expression of the form ax + by, where a and b are constants).

In electronics, an adder is a combinatorial or sequential logic element which computes the n-bit sum of two numbers.

## List of Indian mathematicians

The chronology of Indian mathematicians spans from the Indus Valley Civilization and the Vedas to Modern India.

## Logarithm

In mathematics, the logarithm is the inverse function to exponentiation.

## Loss of significance

Loss of significance is an undesirable effect in calculations using finite-precision arithmetic such as floating-point arithmetic.

## Lowest common denominator

In mathematics, the lowest common denominator or least common denominator (abbreviated LCD) is the lowest common multiple of the denominators of a set of fractions.

## Mahāvīra (mathematician)

Mahāvīra (or Mahaviracharya, "Mahavira the Teacher") was a 9th-century Jain mathematician from Karnataka, India.

## Manifold

In mathematics, a manifold is a topological space that locally resembles Euclidean space near each point.

## Mathematical Association of America

The Mathematical Association of America (MAA) is a professional society that focuses on mathematics accessible at the undergraduate level.

## Mathematical induction

Mathematical induction is a mathematical proof technique.

## Mathematical table

Mathematical tables are lists of numbers showing the results of calculation with varying arguments.

## Mathematics education

In contemporary education, mathematics education is the practice of teaching and learning mathematics, along with the associated scholarly research.

Mathematics Made Difficult is a book by Carl E. Linderholm that uses advanced mathematical methods to prove results normally shown using elementary proofs.

## Matrix (mathematics)

In mathematics, a matrix (plural: matrices) is a rectangular array of numbers, symbols, or expressions, arranged in rows and columns.

## McGraw-Hill Education

McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.

## Memorization

Memorization is the process of committing something to memory.

In computing, a memory address is a reference to a specific memory location used at various levels by software and hardware.

## Method of complements

In mathematics and computing, the method of complements is a technique used to subtract one number from another using only addition of positive numbers.

## Mickey Mouse

Mickey Mouse is a funny animal cartoon character and the mascot of The Walt Disney Company.

## Microprocessor

A microprocessor is a computer processor that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit on a single integrated circuit (IC), or at most a few integrated circuits.

## Middle English

Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.

## Modular arithmetic

In mathematics, modular arithmetic is a system of arithmetic for integers, where numbers "wrap around" upon reaching a certain value—the modulus (plural moduli).

## Monoid

In abstract algebra, a branch of mathematics, a monoid is an algebraic structure with a single associative binary operation and an identity element.

## Motorola 68000 series

The Motorola 68000 series (also termed 680x0, m68000, m68k, or 68k) is a family of 32-bit CISC microprocessors.

## Multiplication

Multiplication (often denoted by the cross symbol "×", by a point "⋅", by juxtaposition, or, on computers, by an asterisk "∗") is one of the four elementary mathematical operations of arithmetic; with the others being addition, subtraction and division.

In mathematics education, there was a debate on the issue of whether the operation of multiplication should be taught as being a form of repeated addition.

## National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (also known as "NASEM" or "the National Academies") is the collective scientific national academy of the United States.

## Natural number

In mathematics, the natural numbers are those used for counting (as in "there are six coins on the table") and ordering (as in "this is the third largest city in the country").

## Negative number

In mathematics, a negative number is a real number that is less than zero.

## Newton's laws of motion

Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that, together, laid the foundation for classical mechanics.

## Noun

A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.

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## Nth root

In mathematics, an nth root of a number x, where n is usually assumed to be a positive integer, is a number r which, when raised to the power n yields x: where n is the degree of the root.

## Number bond

In mathematics education at primary school level, a number bond (sometimes alternatively called an addition fact) is a simple addition sum which has become so familiar that a child can recognise it and complete it almost instantly, with recall as automatic as that of an entry from a multiplication table in multiplication.

## Numerical analysis

Numerical analysis is the study of algorithms that use numerical approximation (as opposed to general symbolic manipulations) for the problems of mathematical analysis (as distinguished from discrete mathematics).

## Operation (mathematics)

In mathematics, an operation is a calculation from zero or more input values (called operands) to an output value.

## Operational amplifier

An operational amplifier (often op-amp or opamp) is a DC-coupled high-gain electronic voltage amplifier with a differential input and, usually, a single-ended output.

## Order of magnitude

An order of magnitude is an approximate measure of the number of digits that a number has in the commonly-used base-ten number system.

## Order of operations

In mathematics and computer programming, the order of operations (or operator precedence) is a collection of rules that reflect conventions about which procedures to perform first in order to evaluate a given mathematical expression.

## Ordinal number

In set theory, an ordinal number, or ordinal, is one generalization of the concept of a natural number that is used to describe a way to arrange a collection of objects in order, one after another.

## Parallel algorithm

In computer science, a parallel algorithm, as opposed to a traditional serial algorithm, is an algorithm which can be executed a piece at a time on many different processing devices, and then combined together again at the end to get the correct result.

## Parallelogram

In Euclidean geometry, a parallelogram is a simple (non-self-intersecting) quadrilateral with two pairs of parallel sides.

## Partially ordered set

In mathematics, especially order theory, a partially ordered set (also poset) formalizes and generalizes the intuitive concept of an ordering, sequencing, or arrangement of the elements of a set.

## Pascal's calculator

A Pascaline signed by Pascal in 1652 Top view and overview of the entire mechanism''Œuvres de Pascal'' in 5 volumes, ''La Haye'', 1779 Pascal's calculator (also known as the arithmetic machine or Pascaline) is a mechanical calculator invented by Blaise Pascal in the early 17th century.

## Piston

A piston is a component of reciprocating engines, reciprocating pumps, gas compressors and pneumatic cylinders, among other similar mechanisms.

## Planck constant

The Planck constant (denoted, also called Planck's constant) is a physical constant that is the quantum of action, central in quantum mechanics.

## Plus and minus signs

The plus and minus signs (+ and −) are mathematical symbols used to represent the notions of positive and negative as well as the operations of addition and subtraction.

## Pressure

Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.

## Primary education

Primary education and elementary education is typically the first stage of formal education, coming after preschool and before secondary education (The first two grades of primary school, Grades 1 and 2, are also part of early childhood education).

## Primate

A primate is a mammal of the order Primates (Latin: "prime, first rank").

## Primitive recursive function

In computability theory, primitive recursive functions are a class of functions that are defined using primitive recursion and composition as central operations and are a strict subset of the total µ-recursive functions (µ-recursive functions are also called partial recursive).

## Probability distribution

In probability theory and statistics, a probability distribution is a mathematical function that provides the probabilities of occurrence of different possible outcomes in an experiment.

## Proto-Indo-European root

The roots of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) are basic parts of words that carry a lexical meaning, so-called morphemes.

## Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.

## Quantum state

In quantum physics, quantum state refers to the state of an isolated quantum system.

## Quantum superposition

Quantum superposition is a fundamental principle of quantum mechanics.

## Random variable

In probability and statistics, a random variable, random quantity, aleatory variable, or stochastic variable is a variable whose possible values are outcomes of a random phenomenon.

## Rational number

In mathematics, a rational number is any number that can be expressed as the quotient or fraction of two integers, a numerator and a non-zero denominator.

## Real number

In mathematics, a real number is a value of a continuous quantity that can represent a distance along a line.

## Recursion

Recursion occurs when a thing is defined in terms of itself or of its type.

## Renaissance

The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.

## Resistor

A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element.

## Rhesus macaque

The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is one of the best-known species of Old World monkeys.

## Richard Dedekind

Julius Wilhelm Richard Dedekind (6 October 1831 – 12 February 1916) was a German mathematician who made important contributions to abstract algebra (particularly ring theory), axiomatic foundation for the natural numbers, algebraic number theory and the definition of the real numbers.

## Ring (mathematics)

In mathematics, a ring is one of the fundamental algebraic structures used in abstract algebra.

## Rote learning

Rote learning is a memorization technique based on repetition.

## Round-off error

A round-off error, also called rounding error, is the difference between the calculated approximation of a number and its exact mathematical value due to rounding.

## Scientific notation

Scientific notation (also referred to as scientific form or standard index form, or standard form in the UK) is a way of expressing numbers that are too big or too small to be conveniently written in decimal form.

## Series (mathematics)

In mathematics, a series is, roughly speaking, a description of the operation of adding infinitely many quantities, one after the other, to a given starting quantity.

## Set theory

Set theory is a branch of mathematical logic that studies sets, which informally are collections of objects.

## Set theory (music)

Musical set theory provides concepts for categorizing musical objects and describing their relationships.

## Sign (mathematics)

In mathematics, the concept of sign originates from the property of every non-zero real number of being positive or negative.

## Slide rule

The slide rule, also known colloquially in the United States as a slipstick, is a mechanical analog computer.

## Software bug

A software bug is an error, flaw, failure or fault in a computer program or system that causes it to produce an incorrect or unexpected result, or to behave in unintended ways.

## Strategy (game theory)

In game theory, a player's strategy is any of the options he or she can choose in a setting where the outcome depends not only on his own actions but on the action of others.

## Subtraction

Subtraction is an arithmetic operation that represents the operation of removing objects from a collection.

## Successor function

In mathematics, the successor function or successor operation is a primitive recursive function S such that S(n).

## Sumer

SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".

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## Summation

In mathematics, summation (capital Greek sigma symbol: ∑) is the addition of a sequence of numbers; the result is their sum or total.

## Table tennis

Table tennis, also known as ping-pong, is a sport in which two or four players hit a lightweight ball back and forth across a table using small bats.

## Taylor series

In mathematics, a Taylor series is a representation of a function as an infinite sum of terms that are calculated from the values of the function's derivatives at a single point.

## Toddler

A toddler is a child 12 to 36 months old.

## Torus

In geometry, a torus (plural tori) is a surface of revolution generated by revolving a circle in three-dimensional space about an axis coplanar with the circle.

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## Transfinite number

Transfinite numbers are numbers that are "infinite" in the sense that they are larger than all finite numbers, yet not necessarily absolutely infinite.

## Triangle

A triangle is a polygon with three edges and three vertices.

## Tropical geometry

Tropical geometry is a relatively new area in mathematics, which might loosely be described as a piece-wise linear or skeletonized version of algebraic geometry.

## Unary operation

In mathematics, a unary operation is an operation with only one operand, i.e. a single input.

## Unicode

Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.

## Union (set theory)

In set theory, the union (denoted by ∪) of a collection of sets is the set of all elements in the collection.

## Unit of measurement

A unit of measurement is a definite magnitude of a quantity, defined and adopted by convention or by law, that is used as a standard for measurement of the same kind of quantity.

## Vector space

A vector space (also called a linear space) is a collection of objects called vectors, which may be added together and multiplied ("scaled") by numbers, called scalars.

## Verb

A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand).

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## Vitruvius

Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (c. 80–70 BC – after c. 15 BC), commonly known as Vitruvius, was a Roman author, architect, civil engineer and military engineer during the 1st century BC, known for his multi-volume work entitled De architectura.

## Voltage

Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension (formally denoted or, but more often simply as V or U, for instance in the context of Ohm's or Kirchhoff's circuit laws) is the difference in electric potential between two points.

## Wedge sum

In topology, the wedge sum is a "one-point union" of a family of topological spaces.

## Word problem (mathematics education)

In science education, a word problem is a mathematical exercise where significant background information on the problem is presented as text rather than in mathematical notation.

## X86

x86 is a family of backward-compatible instruction set architectures based on the Intel 8086 CPU and its Intel 8088 variant.

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## Year 2000 problem

The Year 2000 problem, also known as the Y2K problem, the Millennium bug, the Y2K bug, or Y2K, is a class of computer bugs related to the formatting and storage of calendar data for dates beginning in the year 2000.

## 0

0 (zero) is both a number and the numerical digit used to represent that number in numerals.

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## 1

1 (one, also called unit, unity, and (multiplicative) identity) is a number, numeral, and glyph.

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## References

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