E numbers are codes for substances that are permitted to be used as food additives for use within the European Union and EFTA.
Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or enhance its taste, appearance, or other qualities.
Food coloring, or color additive, is any dye, pigment or substance that imparts color when it is added to food or drink.
The Merck Index is an encyclopedia of chemicals, drugs and biologicals with over 10,000 monographs on single substances or groups of related compounds.
A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption.
The rose hip, also called rose haw and rose hep, is the accessory fruit of the rose plant.
Xanthophylls (originally phylloxanthins) are yellow pigments that occur widely in nature and form one of two major divisions of the carotenoid group; the other division is formed by the carotenes.