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# Zeroth law of thermodynamics

The zeroth law of thermodynamics states that if two thermodynamic systems are each in thermal equilibrium with a third, then they are in thermal equilibrium with each other. 

## Arnold Sommerfeld

Arnold Johannes Wilhelm Sommerfeld, (5 December 1868 – 26 April 1951) was a German theoretical physicist who pioneered developments in atomic and quantum physics, and also educated and mentored a large number of students for the new era of theoretical physics.

## Binary relation

In mathematics, a binary relation on a set A is a set of ordered pairs of elements of A. In other words, it is a subset of the Cartesian product A2.

## Constantin Carathéodory

Constantin Carathéodory (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Καραθεοδωρή Konstantinos Karatheodori; 13 September 1873 – 2 February 1950) was a Greek mathematician who spent most of his professional career in Germany.

## Diathermal wall

In thermodynamics, a diathermal wall between two thermodynamic systems allows heat but not matter to pass across it.

## Dimension

In physics and mathematics, the dimension of a mathematical space (or object) is informally defined as the minimum number of coordinates needed to specify any point within it.

## Edward A. Guggenheim

Edward Armand Guggenheim FRS (11 August 1901 in Manchester – 9 August 1970) was an English physical chemist, noted for his contributions to thermodynamics.

## Equivalence relation

In mathematics, an equivalence relation is a binary relation that is reflexive, symmetric and transitive.

## Euclidean relation

In mathematics, Euclidean relations are a class of binary relations that formalizes "Axiom 1" in Euclid's Elements: "Magnitudes which are equal to the same are equal to each other.".

## James Clerk Maxwell

James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish scientist in the field of mathematical physics.

## James Serrin

James Burton Serrin (1 November 1926, Chicago, Illinois – 23 August 2012, Minneapolis, Minnesota) was an American mathematician, and a professor at University of Minnesota.

## Max Planck

Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, FRS (23 April 1858 &ndash; 4 October 1947) was a German theoretical physicist whose discovery of energy quanta won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918.

## Microstate (statistical mechanics)

In statistical mechanics, a microstate is a specific microscopic configuration of a thermodynamic system that the system may occupy with a certain probability in the course of its thermal fluctuations.

## Mole (unit)

The mole, symbol mol, is the SI unit of amount of substance.

## Ralph H. Fowler

Sir Ralph Howard Fowler OBE FRS (17 January 1889 – 28 July 1944) was a British physicist and astronomer.

## Real number

In mathematics, a real number is a value of a continuous quantity that can represent a distance along a line.

## Reflexive relation

In mathematics, a binary relation R over a set X is reflexive if every element of X is related to itself.

## Second law of thermodynamics

The second law of thermodynamics states that the total entropy of an isolated system can never decrease over time.

## Temperature measurement

Temperature measurement, also known as thermometry, describes the process of measuring a current local temperature for immediate or later evaluation.

## Thermal equilibrium

Two physical systems are in thermal equilibrium if there are no net flow of thermal energy between them when they are connected by a path permeable to heat.

## Thermodynamic system

A thermodynamic system is the material and radiative content of a macroscopic volume in space, that can be adequately described by thermodynamic state variables such as temperature, entropy, internal energy, and pressure.

## Thermodynamic temperature

Thermodynamic temperature is the absolute measure of temperature and is one of the principal parameters of thermodynamics.

## Thermometer

A thermometer is a device that measures temperature or a temperature gradient.

## Transitive relation

In mathematics, a binary relation over a set is transitive if whenever an element is related to an element and is related to an element then is also related to.

## References

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