83 relations: Additively indecomposable ordinal, Aleph number, Axiom of choice, Axiom of dependent choice, Axiom of regularity, Axiom of union, Bijection, Birkhäuser, Burali-Forti paradox, Cardinal number, Cardinality, Church–Kleene ordinal, Class (set theory), Club set, Cofinal (mathematics), Cofinality, Cofiniteness, Computable function, Counting, David Hilbert, Derived set (mathematics), Discrete space, Disjoint sets, Epsilon numbers (mathematics), Equivalence class, Equivalence relation, Finite set, First uncountable ordinal, Formal system, Georg Cantor, GNU General Public License, Harvard University Press, Historia Mathematica, Idempotence, If and only if, Immanuel Kant, Infimum and supremum, Infinite set, Isolated point, Isomorphism, John von Neumann, Limit ordinal, Limit point, Mathematical induction, Mathematische Annalen, Maxima and minima, Natural number, New Foundations, Nimber, Non-well-founded set theory, ..., Order isomorphism, Order topology, Order type, Ordinal arithmetic, Oxford University Press, Partially ordered set, Peano axioms, Perfect set property, Principia Mathematica, Proof by contradiction, Sequence, Set (mathematics), Set theory, Springer Science+Business Media, Subset, Successor ordinal, Topological space, Total order, Transfinite induction, Transitive relation, Transitive set, Trichotomy (mathematics), Trigonometric series, Type theory, Uncountable set, Up to, Upper set, Urelement, Von Neumann cardinal assignment, Well-founded relation, Well-order, Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory, 0. Expand index (33 more) » « Shrink index
In set theory, a branch of mathematics, an additively indecomposable ordinal α is any ordinal number that is not 0 such that for any \beta,\gamma, we have \beta+\gamma Additively indecomposable ordinals are also called gamma numbers.
In mathematics, and in particular set theory, the aleph numbers are a sequence of numbers used to represent the cardinality (or size) of infinite sets that can be well-ordered.
In mathematics, the axiom of choice, or AC, is an axiom of set theory equivalent to the statement that the Cartesian product of a collection of non-empty sets is non-empty.
In mathematics, the axiom of dependent choice, denoted by \mathsf, is a weak form of the axiom of choice (\mathsf) that is still sufficient to develop most of real analysis.
In mathematics, the axiom of regularity (also known as the axiom of foundation) is an axiom of Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory that states that every non-empty set A contains an element that is disjoint from A. In first-order logic, the axiom reads: The axiom implies that no set is an element of itself, and that there is no infinite sequence (an) such that ai+1 is an element of ai for all i. With the axiom of dependent choice (which is a weakened form of the axiom of choice), this result can be reversed: if there are no such infinite sequences, then the axiom of regularity is true.
In axiomatic set theory, the axiom of union is one of the axioms of Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory.
In mathematics, a bijection, bijective function, or one-to-one correspondence is a function between the elements of two sets, where each element of one set is paired with exactly one element of the other set, and each element of the other set is paired with exactly one element of the first set.
Birkhäuser is a former Swiss publisher founded in 1879 by Emil Birkhäuser.
In set theory, a field of mathematics, the Burali-Forti paradox demonstrates that constructing "the set of all ordinal numbers" leads to a contradiction and therefore shows an antinomy in a system that allows its construction.
In mathematics, cardinal numbers, or cardinals for short, are a generalization of the natural numbers used to measure the cardinality (size) of sets.
In mathematics, the cardinality of a set is a measure of the "number of elements of the set".
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
In mathematics, the Church–Kleene ordinal, \omega^_1, named after Alonzo Church and S. C. Kleene, is a large countable ordinal.
In set theory and its applications throughout mathematics, a class is a collection of sets (or sometimes other mathematical objects) that can be unambiguously defined by a property that all its members share.
In mathematics, particularly in mathematical logic and set theory, a club set is a subset of a limit ordinal which is closed under the order topology, and is unbounded (see below) relative to the limit ordinal.
In mathematics, let A be a set and let ≤ be a binary relation on A. Then a subset B of A is said to be cofinal if it satisfies the following condition: This definition is most commonly applied when A is a partially ordered set or directed set under the relation ≤. Cofinal subsets are very important in the theory of directed sets and nets, where “cofinal subnet” is the appropriate generalization of “subsequence”.
In mathematics, especially in order theory, the cofinality cf(A) of a partially ordered set A is the least of the cardinalities of the cofinal subsets of A. This definition of cofinality relies on the axiom of choice, as it uses the fact that every non-empty set of cardinal numbers has a least member.
In mathematics, a cofinite subset of a set X is a subset A whose complement in X is a finite set.
Computable functions are the basic objects of study in computability theory.
Counting is the action of finding the number of elements of a finite set of objects.
David Hilbert (23 January 1862 – 14 February 1943) was a German mathematician.
In mathematics, more specifically in point-set topology, the derived set of a subset S of a topological space is the set of all limit points of S. It is usually denoted by S'.
In topology, a discrete space is a particularly simple example of a topological space or similar structure, one in which the points form a discontinuous sequence, meaning they are isolated from each other in a certain sense.
In mathematics, two sets are said to be disjoint sets if they have no element in common.
In mathematics, the epsilon numbers are a collection of transfinite numbers whose defining property is that they are fixed points of an exponential map.
In mathematics, when the elements of some set S have a notion of equivalence (formalized as an equivalence relation) defined on them, then one may naturally split the set S into equivalence classes.
In mathematics, an equivalence relation is a binary relation that is reflexive, symmetric and transitive.
In mathematics, a finite set is a set that has a finite number of elements.
In mathematics, the first uncountable ordinal, traditionally denoted by ω1 or sometimes by Ω, is the smallest ordinal number that, considered as a set, is uncountable.
A formal system is the name of a logic system usually defined in the mathematical way.
Georg Ferdinand Ludwig Philipp Cantor (– January 6, 1918) was a German mathematician.
The GNU General Public License (GNU GPL or GPL) is a widely used free software license, which guarantees end users the freedom to run, study, share and modify the software.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
Historia Mathematica: International Journal of History of Mathematics is an academic journal on the history of mathematics published by Elsevier.
Idempotence is the property of certain operations in mathematics and computer science that they can be applied multiple times without changing the result beyond the initial application.
In logic and related fields such as mathematics and philosophy, if and only if (shortened iff) is a biconditional logical connective between statements.
Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.
In mathematics, the infimum (abbreviated inf; plural infima) of a subset S of a partially ordered set T is the greatest element in T that is less than or equal to all elements of S, if such an element exists.
In set theory, an infinite set is a set that is not a finite set.
In mathematics, a point x is called an isolated point of a subset S (in a topological space X) if x is an element of S but there exists a neighborhood of x which does not contain any other points of S. This is equivalent to saying that the singleton is an open set in the topological space S (considered as a subspace of X).
In mathematics, an isomorphism (from the Ancient Greek: ἴσος isos "equal", and μορφή morphe "form" or "shape") is a homomorphism or morphism (i.e. a mathematical mapping) that can be reversed by an inverse morphism.
John von Neumann (Neumann János Lajos,; December 28, 1903 – February 8, 1957) was a Hungarian-American mathematician, physicist, computer scientist, and polymath.
In set theory, a limit ordinal is an ordinal number that is neither zero nor a successor ordinal.
In mathematics, a limit point (or cluster point or accumulation point) of a set S in a topological space X is a point x that can be "approximated" by points of S in the sense that every neighbourhood of x with respect to the topology on X also contains a point of S other than x itself.
Mathematical induction is a mathematical proof technique.
Mathematische Annalen (abbreviated as Math. Ann. or, formerly, Math. Annal.) is a German mathematical research journal founded in 1868 by Alfred Clebsch and Carl Neumann.
In mathematical analysis, the maxima and minima (the respective plurals of maximum and minimum) of a function, known collectively as extrema (the plural of extremum), are the largest and smallest value of the function, either within a given range (the local or relative extrema) or on the entire domain of a function (the global or absolute extrema).
In mathematics, the natural numbers are those used for counting (as in "there are six coins on the table") and ordering (as in "this is the third largest city in the country").
In mathematical logic, New Foundations (NF) is an axiomatic set theory, conceived by Willard Van Orman Quine as a simplification of the theory of types of Principia Mathematica.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
In mathematics, the nimbers, also called Grundy numbers, are introduced in combinatorial game theory, where they are defined as the values of heaps in the game Nim.
Non-well-founded set theories are variants of axiomatic set theory that allow sets to contain themselves and otherwise violate the rule of well-foundedness.
In the mathematical field of order theory an order isomorphism is a special kind of monotone function that constitutes a suitable notion of isomorphism for partially ordered sets (posets).
In mathematics, an order topology is a certain topology that can be defined on any totally ordered set.
In mathematics, especially in set theory, two ordered sets X,Y are said to have the same order type just when they are order isomorphic, that is, when there exists a bijection (each element matches exactly one in the other set) f: X → Y such that both f and its inverse are strictly increasing (order preserving i.e. the matching elements are also in the correct order).
In the mathematical field of set theory, ordinal arithmetic describes the three usual operations on ordinal numbers: addition, multiplication, and exponentiation.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
In mathematics, especially order theory, a partially ordered set (also poset) formalizes and generalizes the intuitive concept of an ordering, sequencing, or arrangement of the elements of a set.
In mathematical logic, the Peano axioms, also known as the Dedekind–Peano axioms or the Peano postulates, are axioms for the natural numbers presented by the 19th century Italian mathematician Giuseppe Peano.
In descriptive set theory, a subset of a Polish space has the perfect set property if it is either countable or has a nonempty perfect subset (Kechris 1995, p. 150).
The Principia Mathematica (often abbreviated PM) is a three-volume work on the foundations of mathematics written by Alfred North Whitehead and Bertrand Russell and published in 1910, 1912, and 1913.
In logic, proof by contradiction is a form of proof, and more specifically a form of indirect proof, that establishes the truth or validity of a proposition.
In mathematics, a sequence is an enumerated collection of objects in which repetitions are allowed.
In mathematics, a set is a collection of distinct objects, considered as an object in its own right.
Set theory is a branch of mathematical logic that studies sets, which informally are collections of objects.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
In mathematics, a set A is a subset of a set B, or equivalently B is a superset of A, if A is "contained" inside B, that is, all elements of A are also elements of B. A and B may coincide.
In set theory, the successor of an ordinal number α is the smallest ordinal number greater than α.
In topology and related branches of mathematics, a topological space may be defined as a set of points, along with a set of neighbourhoods for each point, satisfying a set of axioms relating points and neighbourhoods.
In mathematics, a linear order, total order, simple order, or (non-strict) ordering is a binary relation on some set X, which is antisymmetric, transitive, and a connex relation.
Transfinite induction is an extension of mathematical induction to well-ordered sets, for example to sets of ordinal numbers or cardinal numbers.
In mathematics, a binary relation over a set is transitive if whenever an element is related to an element and is related to an element then is also related to.
In set theory, a set A is called transitive if either of the following equivalent conditions hold.
In mathematics, the law of trichotomy states that every real number is either positive, negative, or zero.
A trigonometric series is a series of the form: It is called a Fourier series if the terms A_ and B_ have the form: where f is an integrable function.
In mathematics, logic, and computer science, a type theory is any of a class of formal systems, some of which can serve as alternatives to set theory as a foundation for all mathematics.
In mathematics, an uncountable set (or uncountably infinite set) is an infinite set that contains too many elements to be countable.
In mathematics, the phrase up to appears in discussions about the elements of a set (say S), and the conditions under which subsets of those elements may be considered equivalent.
In mathematics, an upper set (also called an upward closed set or just an upset) of a partially ordered set (X,≤) is a subset U with the property that, if x is in U and x≤y, then y is in U. The dual notion is lower set (alternatively, down set, decreasing set, initial segment, semi-ideal; the set is downward closed), which is a subset L with the property that, if x is in L and y≤x, then y is in L. The terms order ideal or ideal are sometimes used as synonyms for lower set.
In set theory, a branch of mathematics, an urelement or ur-element (from the German prefix ur-, 'primordial') is an object (concrete or abstract) that is not a set, but that may be an element of a set.
The von Neumann cardinal assignment is a cardinal assignment which uses ordinal numbers.
In mathematics, a binary relation, R, is called well-founded (or wellfounded) on a class X if every non-empty subset S ⊆ X has a minimal element with respect to R, that is an element m not related by sRm (for instance, "s is not smaller than m") for any s ∈ S. In other words, a relation is well founded if Some authors include an extra condition that R is set-like, i.e., that the elements less than any given element form a set.
In mathematics, a well-order (or well-ordering or well-order relation) on a set S is a total order on S with the property that every non-empty subset of S has a least element in this ordering.
In mathematics, Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory, named after mathematicians Ernst Zermelo and Abraham Fraenkel, is an axiomatic system that was proposed in the early twentieth century in order to formulate a theory of sets free of paradoxes such as Russell's paradox.
0 (zero) is both a number and the numerical digit used to represent that number in numerals.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
Countable ordinal, Countable ordinals, Finite ordinal number, First infinite ordinal, First infinite ordinal number, First number class, Least infinite ordinal, Number class, O (ordinal number), Omega (ordinal), Omega (set theory), Ordinal (mathematics), Ordinal Number, Ordinal number (finite), Ordinal number (mathematics), Ordinal number (set theory), Ordinal numbers, Ordinal numerals, Ordinal/Tempjunk, Second number class, Transfinite ordinal number, Transfinite ordinal numbers, Transfinite sequence, Von Neumann definition of ordinals, Von Neumann encoding, Von Neumann ordinal, Ω (ordinal number), Ω+1.