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# Permutation box

In cryptography, a permutation box (or P-box) is a method of bit-shuffling used to permute or transpose bits across S-boxes inputs, retaining diffusion while transposing. [1]

## Block cipher

In cryptography, a block cipher is a deterministic algorithm operating on fixed-length groups of bits, called a block, with an unvarying transformation that is specified by a symmetric key.

## Boolean function

In mathematics and logic, a (finitary) Boolean function (or switching function) is a function of the form ƒ: Bk → B, where B.

## Ciphertext

In cryptography, ciphertext or cyphertext is the result of encryption performed on plaintext using an algorithm, called a cipher.

## Confusion and diffusion

In cryptography, confusion and diffusion are two properties of the operation of a secure cipher identified by Claude Shannon in his 1945 classified report A Mathematical Theory of Cryptography. These properties, when present, work to thwart the application of statistics and other methods of cryptanalysis.

## Cryptography

Cryptography or cryptology (from κρυπτός|translit.

## Methodology

Methodology is the systematic, theoretical analysis of the methods applied to a field of study.

## Nothing up my sleeve number

In cryptography, nothing-up-my-sleeve numbers are any numbers which, by their construction, are above suspicion of hidden properties.

## PDF

The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.

## Permutation

In mathematics, the notion of permutation relates to the act of arranging all the members of a set into some sequence or order, or if the set is already ordered, rearranging (reordering) its elements, a process called permuting.

## Plaintext

In cryptography, plaintext or cleartext is unencrypted information, as opposed to information encrypted for storage or transmission.

## S-box

In cryptography, an S-box (substitution-box) is a basic component of symmetric key algorithms which performs substitution.

## Substitution cipher

In cryptography, a substitution cipher is a method of encrypting by which units of plaintext are replaced with ciphertext, according to a fixed system; the "units" may be single letters (the most common), pairs of letters, triplets of letters, mixtures of the above, and so forth.

## Transposition cipher

In cryptography, a transposition cipher is a method of encryption by which the positions held by units of plaintext (which are commonly characters or groups of characters) are shifted according to a regular system, so that the ciphertext constitutes a permutation of the plaintext.

## References

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