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# Volume fraction

In chemistry, the volume fraction &phi;i is defined as the volume of a constituent Vi divided by the volume of all constituents of the mixture V prior to mixing: Being dimensionless, its unit is 1; it is expressed as a number, e.g., 0.18. [1]

## Alcohol by volume

Alcohol by volume (abbreviated as ABV, abv, or alc/vol) is a standard measure of how much alcohol (ethanol) is contained in a given volume of an alcoholic beverage (expressed as a volume percent).

## Alcohol proof

Alcohol proof is a measure of the content of ethanol (alcohol) in an alcoholic beverage.

## Apparent molar property

An apparent molar property of a solution component in a mixture or solution is a quantity defined with the purpose of isolating the contribution of each component to the non-ideality of the mixture.

## Breathalyzer

A breathalyzer or breathalyser (a portmanteau of breath and analyzer/analyser) is a device for estimating blood alcohol content (BAC) from a breath sample.

## Chemistry

Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.

## Concentration

In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture.

## Dimensionless quantity

In dimensional analysis, a dimensionless quantity is a quantity to which no physical dimension is assigned.

## Excess molar quantity

Excess molar quantities are properties of mixtures which characterize the nonideal behaviour of real mixtures.

## Fluid

In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress.

## Fraction (mathematics)

A fraction (from Latin fractus, "broken") represents a part of a whole or, more generally, any number of equal parts.

## Gas

Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).

## Ideal gas

An ideal gas is a theoretical gas composed of many randomly moving point particles whose only interactions are perfectly elastic collisions.

## Ideal solution

In chemistry, an ideal solution or ideal mixture is a solution with thermodynamic properties analogous to those of a mixture of ideal gases.

## Liquid

A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure.

## Mass fraction (chemistry)

In chemistry, the mass fraction w_i is the ratio of one substance with mass m_i to the mass of the total mixture m_\text, defined as The symbol Y_i is also used to denote mass fraction.

## Miscibility

Miscibility is the property of substances to mix in all proportions (that is, to fully dissolve in each other at any concentration), forming a homogeneous solution.

## Mole (unit)

The mole, symbol mol, is the SI unit of amount of substance.

## Mole fraction

In chemistry, the mole fraction or molar fraction (xi) is defined as the amount of a constituent (expressed in moles), ni, divided by the total amount of all constituents in a mixture (also expressed in moles), ntot: The sum of all the mole fractions is equal to 1: The same concept expressed with a denominator of 100 is the mole percent or molar percentage or molar proportion (mol%).

## Partial molar property

A partial molar property is a thermodynamic quantity which indicates how an extensive property of a solution or mixture varies with changes in the molar composition of the mixture at constant temperature and pressure.

## Percentage

In mathematics, a percentage is a number or ratio expressed as a fraction of 100.

## Solution

In chemistry, a solution is a special type of homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances.

## Volume

Volume is the quantity of three-dimensional space enclosed by a closed surface, for example, the space that a substance (solid, liquid, gas, or plasma) or shape occupies or contains.

## Website

A website is a collection of related web pages, including multimedia content, typically identified with a common domain name, and published on at least one web server.

## References

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