133 relations: Andhra Pradesh, Babruvahana, Baburaj, Bachelor of Commerce, Bale Pandiya (1962 film), Bangaarada Manushya, Bangalore, Bangarada Hoovu, Belli Moda, Bhakta Kumbara, Bhale Ramudu, Bhanumathi Ramakrishna, Bhishma (1962 film), Bhootayyana Maga Ayyu, Bhupinder Singh (musician), Bobbili Yuddham, Carnatic music, Chaduvukunna Ammayilu, Chelleli Kapuram, Chennai, Chi. Udayashankar, Daari Tappida Maga, Daksha yajna, Dakshina Bharat Hindi Prachar Sabha, Deedar (1951 film), Devara Duddu, Doctor Chakravarty, Doorada Betta, East Godavari district, Emani Sankara Sastry, Emme Thammanna, Eradu Kanasu, G. Devarajan, G. K. Venkatesh, Gandhada Gudi, Geeta Dutt, Gemini Ganesan, Ghazal, Government of Karnataka, Gudi Gantalu, Hampi, Hindi, Iddaru Mitrulu (1961 film), Indian classical music, J. Mahendran, Jamuna Rani, Jayabheri, Jeevan Jyoti (1976 film), Jikki, K. J. Yesudas, ..., Kadhalikka Neramillai, Kakinada, Kalaimamani, Kalyan Kumar, Kannada, Kannada cinema, Kannada University, Kannadasan, Kappu Bilupu, Karnataka, Konkani language, Kula Gotralu, L. R. Eswari, Lakshman Sruthi, Lata Mangeshkar, Lava Kusa, List of governors of Karnataka, M. G. Ramachandran, M. S. Viswanathan, Malayalam, Mannadhi Mannan, Mayor Muthanna, Mekedatu, Mohammed Rafi, Naagarahaavu, Nandu (film), Naushad, Neil Armstrong, P. Susheela, Paar Magaley Paar, Paasam, Paava Mannippu, Pangaaligal, Pasamalar, Playback singer, Ponni Thirunaal, Prema Pasam, Premada Kanike, Preminchi Choodu, President of the United States, Purappadu (1990 film), Puthandu, R. K. Narayan, R. Nagendra Rao, Rajkumar (actor), Rajyotsava Prashasti, Rakta Sambandham, Richard Nixon, S. Janaki, S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, Sakshi (film), Sampoorna Ramayanam (1971 film), Sanaadi Appanna, Seetharama Kalyanam, Server Sundaram, Shamshad Begum, Sipayi Ramu, Sita Kalyanam (1976 film), Sivaji Ganesan, Sri Krishna Pandaveeyam, Sri Simhachala Kshetra Mahima, Srinath, Swarna Bhoomi, Swarna Gowri, T. G. Lingappa, T. K. Ramamoorthy, Tamil cinema, Tamil language, Tamil Nadu, Tamil Nadu State Film Honorary Award, Telugu cinema, Telugu language, Thendral Veesum, Thirunainar Kurichi Madhavan Nair, Tulu language, Udaykumar, Vani Jairam, Veena, Veerathirumagan, Vijayanagarada Veeraputhra, Vishnuvardhan (actor), Vishu, 7G Rainbow Colony. Expand index (83 more) » « Shrink index
Andhra Pradesh is one of the 29 states of India.
Babruvahana (also known as Babhruvahana or Babhnu Vahana) is a character in Veda Vyasa's epic, the Mahabharata.
Mohammad Sabir Baburaj (.എസ്.), also known as M. S. Baburaj, was a Malayalam music composer.
A Bachelor of Commerce (baccalaureates commercii, abbreviated B.Com. or B.Comm.) is an undergraduate degree in commerce (or business) and related subjects, usually awarded in Canada, Australia, India, Ireland, New Zealand, Pakistan, South Africa and other Commonwealth countries; however, the degree is no longer offered in the United Kingdom.
Bale Pandiya is a 1962 Tamil language comedy film directed by B. R. Panthulu.
Bangaarada Manushya (ಬಂಗಾರದ ಮನುಷ್ಯ, Golden Man) is a 1972 Indian Kannada language film based on T. K. Rama Rao's novel.
Bangalore, officially known as Bengaluru, is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka.
Bangarada Hoovu (ಬಂಗಾರದ ಹೂವು, Golden Flower) is a 1967 Indian Kannada language film directed, written and produced by B. A. Arasu Kumar.
Belli Moda is a 1967 Kannada-language film directed by Puttanna Kanagal.
Bhakta Kumbara (ಭಕ್ತ ಕುಂಬಾರ) is a 1974 Indian Kannada film directed by Hunsur Krishnamurthy.
Bhale Ramudu (భలే రాముడు) is a 1956 Telugu drama film, produced by V. L. Narasu on Narasu Studios banner and directed by Vedantam Raghavaiah.
Bhanumathi Ramakrishna (7 September 1925 – 24 December 2005) was a multilingual Indian film actress, director, music director, singer, producer, book writer and songwriter.
Bhishma is a 1962 Telugu mythological film, based on the life of Bhishma from the epic Mahabharata, produced and directed by B. A. Subba Rao under B. A. S. Productions banner.
Bhootayyana Maga Ayyu (Bhootayya's Son Ayyu) is 1974 Indian Kannada language film directed by Siddalingaiah, based on the story by same name from the short stories collection Vayyari by Gorur Ramaswamy Iyengar, and starring Vishnuvardhan, Lokesh and M. P. Shankar in lead roles.
Bhupinder Singh (born 6 February 1940) is an Indian musician, chiefly a ghazal singer and also a Bollywood playback singer.
Bobbili Yuddham (English: Battle of Bobbili) is a 1964 Telugu historical film, based on the Battle of Bobbili, produced and directed by C. Seetaram.
Carnatic music, Karnāṭaka saṃgīta or Karnāṭaka saṅgītam is a system of music commonly associated with southern India, including the modern Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu, as well as Sri Lanka.
Chaduvukunna Ammayilu (English: Educated Girls) is a 1963 Indian Telugu drama film, produced by D. Madhusudhana Rao on Annapurna Pictures banner and directed by Adurthi Subba Rao.
Chelleli Kapuram is 1971 Telugu film directed by Kasinadhuni Viswanath.
Chennai (formerly known as Madras or) is the capital of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Chitnahalli Udayashankar (18 February 1934 – 3 July 1993) was born in Chitnahalli, now called Chandrashekharapura, in Gubbi taluk, Tumkur district, Karnataka.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Daari Tappida Maga (ದಾರಿ ತಪ್ಪಿದ ಮಗ) is a 1975 Indian Kannada film produced and directed by Peketi Sivaram.
In Hindu mythology, Daksha-Yajna(m) (Daksha-Yagna(m)) or Daksha-Yaga is an important event, which is narrated in various Hindu scriptures.
Dakshina Bharat Hindi Prachar Sabha is an organisation whose main goal is to improve Hindi literacy among the non-Hindi speaking people of South India.
Deedar (दीदार, "glance") is a 1951 Bollywood Hindi language film directed by Nitin Bose, starring Ashok Kumar, Dilip Kumar, Nargis and Nimmi.
Devara Duddu (Kannada: ದೇವರ ದುಡ್ಡು) is a 1977 Indian Kannada film, directed by K. S. L. Swamy and produced by N Rani.
Doctor Chakravarthy is 1964 Telugu drama film produced by D. Madhusudhana Rao on Annapurna Pictures banner and directed by Adurthi Subba Rao.
Doorada Betta (English: Faraway mountain) is a 1973 Kannada film directed by Siddalingaiah.
East Godavari district or Toorpu Godavari jilla is a district in Coastal Andhra region of Andhra Pradesh, India.
Emani Sankara Sastry (23 September 1922 – 1987), was a renowned Veena player of Carnatic music.
Emme Thammanna (ಎಮ್ಮೆ ತಮ್ಮಣ್ಣ) is a 1966 Indian Kannada language film produced and directed by B. R. Panthulu.
Eradu Kanasu is a 1974 Indian Kannada-language romantic drama film directed by the duo Dorai and S. K. Bhagavan, and is based on the novel of the same name by Vani.
Paravoor Govindan Devarajan, popularly known as G. Devarajan or Devarajan master, was a Malayalam music composer.
Gurajada Krishnadas Venkatesh (GKV) (21 September 1927 – 13 November 1993) was a prominent composer of film music in Kannada cinema during the 1960s, 1970s and until the late-1980s.
Gandhada Gudi (Temple of Sandalwood) is a 1973 Indian Kannada-language film directed by Vijay and produced by M. P. Shankar.
Geeta Dutt (born Geeta Ghosh Roy Chowdhuri; 23 November 1930 – 20 July 1972) was a prominent Indian playback singer and a famous bengali-hindi classical artist, born in Faridpur before the Partition of India.
Ramasamy Ganesan (17 November 1925 – 22 March 2005), better known by his stage name Gemini Ganesan, was an Indian film actor who worked mainly in Tamil cinema.
The ghazal (غزَل, غزل, غزل), a type of amatory poem or ode, originating in Arabic poetry.
The Government of Karnataka is a democratically elected body with the governor as the constitutional head.
Gudi Gantalu (English: Temple Bells) is a 1964 Telugu, drama film, produced by Sunderlal Nehata, Doondy on Raja Lakshmi Productions banner and directed by V. Madhusudhan Rao.
Hampi, also referred to as the Group of Monuments at Hampi, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site located in east-central Karnataka, India.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
Iddaru Mitrulu (English: Two Friends) is a 1961 Telugu drama film, produced by D. Madhusudhana Rao under Annapurna Pictures and directed by Adurthi Subba Rao.
Indian classical music is a genre of South Asian music.
Jayabheri (Telugu: జయభేరి) is a 1959 Telugu devotional & biographical film based on life of Karnataka poet Kaasinath, produced by Vasireddy Narayana Rao on Sarada Productions banner and directed by P. Pullaiah.
Jeevan Jyoti is a 1976 Bollywood drama film directed by Murugam Kumaran.
Pillavalu Gajapathi Krishnaveni, more famously known as Jikki, was a popular playback singer from Andhra Pradesh.
Kattassery Joseph Yesudas (born 10 January 1940) is an Indian musician and film playback singer.
Kadhalikka Neramillai is a 1964 Indian Tamil-language romantic comedy film produced and directed by C. V. Sridhar, who also conceived and co-wrote its script with Chitralaya Gopu.
Kakinada (formerly called Cocanada) is one of the largest cities and the district headquarters of East Godavari district in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.
The Kalaimamani is an award in Tamil Nadu state, India.
Kalyan Kumar (28 July 1928 – 1 August 1999), born as Chokkanna, was an Indian film actor, and an occasional film director and producer, who worked primarily in Kannada and Tamil cinema.
Kannada (ಕನ್ನಡ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Kannada people in India, mainly in the state of Karnataka, and by significant linguistic minorities in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Kerala, Goa and abroad.
Kannada cinema, also known as Chandanavana, Link referring rechristening of sandalwod as chandanavana at world kannada summit is the Indian film industry based in the state of Karnataka where motion pictures are produced in the Kannada language.
Kannada University, also called as Hampi Kannada University or Hampi University, Kannada University, Hampi is a research oriented Public University in Hampi, Karnataka, founded in 1991 by the Government of Karnataka through Kannada University Act, 1991, with the aim to develop the Kannada language and to promote the literature, traditions, culture, and folklore of Karnataka.
Kappu Bilupu (ಕಪ್ಪು ಬಿಳುಪು, which means Black and White) is a 1969 Indian Kannada language film directed by Puttanna Kanagal.
Karnataka also known Kannada Nadu is a state in the south western region of India.
Konkani is an Indo-Aryan language belonging to the Indo-European family of languages and is spoken along the South western coast of India.
Kula Gotralu (Telugu: కులగోత్రాలు; English: Caste & Clans) is a 1962 Telugu, drama film, produced by A. V. Subba Rao on Prasad Art Pictures banner and directed by K. Pratyagatma.
Lourde-Mary Rajeswari Eswari (L. R. Eswari) is a veteran playback singer of the Tamil cinema, Telugu cinema, Malayalam cinema and Kannada cinema industries.
Lakshman Sruthi - The Musical Consortium was founded by V. Raman & V. Lakshmanan in the year 2003.
Lata Mangeshkar (born 28 September 1929) is an Indian playback singer and occasional music composer.
Lava Kusa (also spelled as Lava Kusha) is a 1963 Indian bilingual Hindu mythological film directed by C. S. Rao and his father C. Pullaiah.
This is a list of the Governors of Mysore and the subsequent Karnataka State since the reformation of Mysore Kingdom into Mysore State in 1956.
Marudur Gopalan Ramachandran (17 January 1917 – 24 December 1987), popularly known as M.G.R., was an Indian actor, filmmaker and politician who served as the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu for ten years between 1977 and 1987.
Manayangath Subramanian Viswanathan (24 June 1928 – 14 July 2015), also known as M.S.V., was an Indian music director, composer, and singer.
Malayalam is a Dravidian language spoken across the Indian state of Kerala by the Malayali people and it is one of 22 scheduled languages of India.
Mannadhi Mannan ("King of Kings") is a 1960 Indian Tamil-language swashbuckler film directed and produced by M. Natesan.
Mayor Muthanna (ಮೇಯರ್ ಮುತ್ತಣ್ಣ) is a 1969 Indian Kannada-language film directed by Siddalingaiah.
Mekedatu (Kannada: ಮೇಕೆದಾಟು) is a location along Kaveri in Kanakapura Taluk of Ramanagara District.
Mohammed Rafi (24 December 1924 - 31 July 1980) was an Indian playback singer and one of the most popular and successful singers of the Hindi film industry.
Naagarahaavu (italic) is a 1973 Indian Kannada language film directed by Puttanna Kanagal, based on T. R. Subba Rao's three novels Nagarahavu, Ondu Gandu Eradu Hennu and Sarpa Mathsara, and starring Vishnuvardhan, K. S. Ashwath, Aarathi and Shubha in lead roles.
Nandu (English: Crab) is a 1981 Tamil feature film written and directed by J. Mahendran.
Naushad Ali (26 December 1919 – 5 May 2006) was an Indian music director for Hindi films.
Neil Alden Armstrong (August 5, 1930 – August 25, 2012) was an American astronaut and aeronautical engineer who was the first person to walk on the Moon.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Pulapaka Susheela (born November 13, 1935), commonly known as P. Susheela, is an Indian playback singer associated with the South Indian cinema for over six decades.
Paar Magaley Paar (English: See Daughter, See) is a 1963 Tamil language directed by A. Bhimsingh.
Paasam is a Tamil language film directed by T. R. Ramanna.
Paava Mannippu (italic) is a 1961 Indian Tamil-language drama film directed and edited by A. Bhimsingh, who co-produced it under his banner Buddha Pictures, with AVM Productions.
Pangaaligal (Partners) is a 1961 Indian, Tamil language film directed by G. Ramakrishna.
Pasamalar is a 1961 Indian Tamil-language drama film directed by A. Bhimsingh.
A playback singer is a singer whose singing is pre-recorded for use in movies.
Ponni Thirunaal is a 1960 Indian Tamil language film produced and directed by A. K. Velan.
Prema Pasam is a 1956 Tamil-language drama film, produced by V. L. Narasu on Narasu Studios banner and directed by Vedantam Raghavaiah.
Premada Kanike (ಪ್ರೇಮದ ಕಾಣಿಕೆ) is a 1976 Indian Kannada thriller film directed by V. Somashekhar and produced by Jayadevi.
Preminchi Choodu (English: Love and See; Telugu: ప్రేమించి చూడు) is a 1965 Telugu comedy film, produced by V. Venkateswarlu on Padmasri Pictures banner and directed by P. Pullaiah.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
Purappadu (പുറപ്പാട്.) is a 1990 Indian Malayalam language film, directed by Jeassy.
Tamil Puthandu (Tamil: தமிழ்புத்தாண்டு), also known as Puthuvarusham or Tamil New Year, is the first day of year on the Tamil calendar.
Rattihalli Nagendra Rao (23 June 1896 – 9 February 1977) was an Indian theatre actor, film actor and director in South Indian cinema.
Singanalluru Puttaswamayya Muthuraju (24 April 1929 – 12 April 2006), known mononymously by his stage name Rajkumar, was an Indian actor and singer in the Kannada cinema.
The Rajyotsava Prashasti or Rajyotsava Awards, the second highest civilian honor of the Karnataka state of India are conferred annually by the Karnataka Government on the occasion of the establishment of the state on 1 November celebrated as the Kannada Rajyotsava.
Rakta Sambandham (English: Blood Relation) is a 1962 Telugu, drama film, produced by Sunderlal Nehata, Doondy on Raja Lakshmi Productions banner and directed by V. Madhusudhan Rao.
Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was an American politician who served as the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 until 1974, when he resigned from office, the only U.S. president to do so.
Sistla Janaki (born 23 April 1938), popularly known as S. Janaki, is an Indian playback singer and occasional music-composer from Andhra Pradesh.
Sripathi Panditaradhyula Balasubrahmanyam (born 4 June 1946) mostly referred to as S.P.B. or Balu is an Indian playback singer, music director and film producer who works predominantly in Telugu, Tamil and Kannada cinema.
For the Telugu newspaper of the same name, see Saakshi (newspaper) Saakshi (సాక్షి) is a 1967 Telugu film.
Sampoorna Ramayanam (The Complete Ramayana) is a 1971 Telugu-language Hindu mythological film directed by Bapu.
Sanaadi Appanna (ಸನಾದಿ ಅಪ್ಪಣ್ಣ) is a 1977 Indian Kannada film directed by Vijay, based on a novel of the same name by Krishnamoorthy Puranik, and starring Rajkumar and Jaya Prada in lead roles.
Seeta Rama Kalyanam (English: The Marriage of Seeta & Rama) is a 1961 Telugu mythological film, produced by N. Trivikrama Rao on National Art Theaters banner and directed by N. T. Rama Rao.
Server Sundaram is a 1964 Indian Tamil-language comedy-drama film directed by Krishnan–Panju and produced by A. V. Meiyappan.
Shamshad Begum (Śamśād Bēgam; 14 April 1919 – 23 April 2013)India Post, South Asia Bureau, August 1998 was an Indian singer who was one of the first playback singers in the Hindi film industry.
Sipayi Ramu (ಸಿಪಾಯಿ ರಾಮು) is 1972 Indian Kannada language film directed by Y. R. Swamy, based on the novel Barale Innu Yamune? by Nuggehalli Pankaja, and starring Rajkumar, Leelavathi, Aarathi in lead roles.
Seeta Kalyanam (known in Hindi as Sita Swayamvar) (known in Malayalam as Seetha Swayamvaram) is a 1976 Telugu epic, mythological, drama film directed by Bapu, and scripted by Mullapudi Venkata Ramana.
Villupuram Chinnaiah Ganesan, known by his stage name Sivaji Ganesan, (1 October 1928 – 21 July 2001) was an Indian actor, producer and composer.
Sri Krishna Pandaveeyam (The friendship/union of Lord Krishna and the Pandavas) is a 1966 Telugu Mythological film, produced by N. Trivikrama Rao on NAT & Ramakrishna Cine Studios banner and directed by N. T. Rama Rao.
Sri Simhachala Kshetra Mahima is a 1965 Telugu film written and directed by B. V. Prasad on his debut.
Narayana Swamy (ನಾರಾಯಣ ಸ್ವಾಮಿ; born 28 December 1943), known by his stage name Srinath, is an Indian actor film producer who works predominantly in Kannada cinema.
Swarna Bhoomi is a Bollywood film.
Swarna Gowri (Kannada: ಸ್ವರ್ಣಗೌರಿ) is a 1962 Indian Kannada film, directed by Y. R. Swamy and produced by D R Naidu.
Thiruchirappalli Govindarajulu Lingappa (Tamil: டி. ஜி. லிங்கப்பா; 22 August 1927 – 5 February 2000) was a noted music director who had scored music for Tamil, Kannada and Telugu movies.
Tiruchirapalli Krishnaswamy Ramamoorthy (திருச்சிராப்பள்ளி கிருஷ்ணசுவாமி இராமமூர்த்தி; 15 May 1922 – 17 April 2013), known as T. K. Ramamoorthy (டி.), was a South Indian Tamil music composer and violinist.
Tamil cinema is Indian motion pictures produced in the Tamil language.
Tamil (தமிழ்) is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Burghers, Douglas, and Chindians.
Tamil Nadu (• tamiḻ nāḍu ? literally 'The Land of Tamils' or 'Tamil Country') is one of the 29 states of India.
The Tamil Nadu State Film Award for Honorary Award given by the Tamil Nadu State Government as part of its annual Tamil Nadu State Film Awards for Tamil cinema personalities who contributed in developing the Tamil cinema.
Telugu cinema, also known by its sobriquet Tollywood, is the segment of Indian cinema dedicated to the production of motion pictures in the Telugu language, based in Film Nagar, a neighborhood of Hyderabad, Telangana.
Telugu (తెలుగు) is a South-central Dravidian language native to India.
Thendral Veesum (English: Breezy air is blowing) is a 1962 Indian Tamil language film produced and directed by B. S. Ranga.
Thirunainar Kurichi Madhavan Nair was an Indian poet novelist and lyricist.
Tulu (Tulu: ತುಳು ಭಾಷೆ Tulu bāse) is a Dravidian language spoken by around 2.5 million native speakers mainly in the south west part of the Indian state of Karnataka and in the Kasaragod district of Kerala which is collectively known as Tulu Nadu.
Udaykumar (5 March 1933 – 26 December 1985) was an Indian film actor and producer in Kannada cinema, who is renowned for his quality films.
Vani Jairam (born as Kalaivani on 30 November 1945), also credited as Vani Jayaram, also fondly called as Meera of modern India, is an Indian singer.
The veena (வீணை, वीणा, IAST: vīṇā), comprises a family of chordophone instruments of the Indian subcontinent.
Veerathirumagan is 1962 Tamil-language Ruritanian romance film produced by AVM Productions, and directed by A. C. Tirulokchandar.
Vijayanagarada Veeraputhra (Kannada: ವಿಜಯನಗರದ ವೀರಪುತ್ರ) is a 1961 Indian Kannada film directed and produced by R. Nagendra Rao.
Vishnuvardhan (born Sampath Kumar 18 September 1950 – 30 December 2009), was an Indian film actor known for his works predominantly in Kannada cinema.
Vishu (വിഷു, "Bisu" in Tulu Language),"Bisu sankramana" in Arebhashe dialect is the astronomical new year festival celebrated in the Indian state of Kerala, Tulunadu region and Kodagu in Karnataka and their diaspora communities.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
7G Rainbow Colony is a 2004 Indian bilingual romantic drama film written and directed by Selvaraghavan, starring Ravi Krishna, who debuted in this film, and Sonia Agarwal in lead roles, with music scored by Yuvan Shankar Raja and cinematography handled by Arvind Krishna.