249 relations: Abugida, Accusative case, Adhyathmaramayanam, Adhyatma Ramayana, Adjective, Advaita Vedanta, Alappuzha, Alveolar consonant, Alveolar stop, Anglicanism, Anusvara, Approximant consonant, Appu Nedungadi, Arabi Malayalam, Arabic, Arthashastra, Aspirated consonant, Avagraha, Back vowel, Bangalore, Basel Mission, Beary language, Bergen County, New Jersey, Bhagavad Gita, Bhakti, Bible translations into Malayalam, Bilabial consonant, Brahma, Brahman, Brahmi script, Brahmic scripts, Brahmin, British Raj, C. V. Raman Pillai, Census in Canada, Central vowel, Chanakya, Chennai, Chera dynasty, Cheraman Perumal, Chinese language, Christian, Christian mission, Church Mission Society, Close vowel, Clusivity, Cochin Jews, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Coimbatore district, Culture of Bengal, ..., Dakshina Kannada, Danda, Dative case, Declension, Delhi, Dental consonant, Dental, alveolar and postalveolar nasals, Devanagari, Dharma Raja, Dialect, Doha, Dravidian languages, Dubai, Dutch language, Elision, English language, Epenthesis, Ernakulam, Ezhava, Fiji, Free Software Foundation, Fricative consonant, Front vowel, Genitive case, Glottal consonant, Glyph, GNU General Public License, Government of Kerala, Grammar, Grammatical case, Grantha script, Greek language, Hari, Hebrew language, Henrique Henriques, Hermann Gundert, Hindi, Hyderabad, Idukki district, India, Indo-Aryan languages, Indulekha (novel), Instrumental case, International Phonetic Alphabet, Intonation (linguistics), Irayimman Thampi, ISO 15919, Jeseri, Judaeo-Spanish, Judeo-Malayalam, K. M. Panikkar, Kannur, Kanyakumari district, Karma, Karnataka, Kasaragod, Kathakali, Kālidāsa, Kerala, Kerala Sahitya Akademi, Kerala Varma Valiya Koil Thampuran, Kochi, Kolezhuthu, Kollam, Kottayam, Krishna, Kumaran Asan, Kundalatha, Lakshadweep, Lakshmi, Laminal consonant, Languages of India, Languages with official status in India, Lateral consonant, Latin, Latin alphabet, Lingua franca, Lingua Malabar Tamul, List of loanwords in Malayalam, List of maharajas of Travancore, Liturgy, Locative case, Madrasa, Mahabharata, Maharashtra, Mahé, Puducherry, Mahl people, Malayalam Braille, Malayalam calendar, Malayalam languages, Malayalam literature, Malayalam poetry, Malayalam script, Malayali, Malayanma, Malaysia, Manipravalam, Mappila dialect, Mid vowel, Middle East, Middle Tamil language, Minicoy, Mumbai, Music of Kerala, Muslim, Nair, Nambudiri, Narasimha, Nasal consonant, National Library at Kolkata romanisation, Niranam poets, Nominative case, North Malabar, Noun, Official language, OmniScriptum, Open vowel, Oyyarathu Chandu Menon, Palakkad, Palatal consonant, Pali, Paremmakkal Thoma Kathanar, Pathanamthitta, Persian Gulf, Phonology, Portuguese language, Possessive determiner, Prajapati, Prakrit, Prose, Puducherry, Pune, Raga, Ramacharitam, Ramayana, Rasa (aesthetics), Retroflex consonant, Rhotic consonant, Richard Stallman, Robert Caldwell, Rockland County, New York, Saint Thomas Christians, Sandesha Kavya, Sandhi, Sanskrit, Shakuntala (play), Shesha, Sita, Social novel, Sociative case, Sooranad Kunjan Pillai, Sri Lankan Tamil dialects, States and union territories of India, Stop consonant, Stuttgart, Subject–object–verb, Suriyani Malayalam, Sutra, Swathi Thirunal Rama Varma, Syriac alphabet, Syriac language, Syriac Orthodox Church, Tadbhava, Tamil language, Tamil Nadu, Tamil-Brahmi, Tamil–Kannada languages, Tatsama, Telugu language, Text editor, Thalassery, The Hindu, The Nilgiris District, Thiruvananthapuram, Thrissur, Thunchaththu Ezhuthachan, Tigalari script, Tirur, Toronto, Travancore, Typeface, Ulloor S. Parameswara Iyer, Unnuneeli Sandesam, Untouchability, Urdu, Vallathol Narayana Menon, Varthamanappusthakam, Vatteluttu alphabet, Vedanta, Velar consonant, Vengayil Kunhiraman Nayanar, Venu Govindaraju, Virama, Visarga, Vishnu, Vocative case, Vowel length, Western literature, Word stem. Expand index (199 more) » « Shrink index
An abugida (from Ge'ez: አቡጊዳ ’abugida), or alphasyllabary, is a segmental writing system in which consonant–vowel sequences are written as a unit: each unit is based on a consonant letter, and vowel notation is secondary.
The accusative case (abbreviated) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb.
Adhyathmaramayanam Kilippattu is the Malayalam version of the Sanskrit Ramayana.
Adhyatma Ramayana (Devanāgarī: अध्यात्म रामायण, literally "Spiritual Ramayana") is a medieval Sanskrit text extolling the spiritualism in the story of Ramayana.
In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.
Advaita Vedanta (अद्वैत वेदान्त, IAST:, literally, "not-two"), originally known as Puruṣavāda, is a school of Hindu philosophy and religious practice, and one of the classic Indian paths to spiritual realization.
Alappuzha, also known as Alleppey, is the administrative headquarters of Alappuzha District of Kerala state of southern India.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
In phonetics and phonology, an alveolar stop is a type of consonantal sound, made with the tongue in contact with the alveolar ridge located just behind the teeth (hence alveolar), held tightly enough to block the passage of air (hence a stop consonant).
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation.
Anusvara (Sanskrit: अनुस्वारः) is the diacritic used to mark a type of nasal sound used in a number of Indic scripts.
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
Appu Nedungadi was the author of Kundalatha, which was published in 1887, making it as the first novel published in Malayalam language, spoken in Kerala state, South India.
Arabi Malayalam (Malayalam: അറബി മലയാളം, Arabi Malayalam: عَرَبِ مَلَیَاۻَمٛ) is a writing system - a variant form of the Arabic script with special orthographic features - for writing Malayalam.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The Arthashastra is an ancient Indian treatise on statecraft, economic policy and military strategy, written in Sanskrit.
In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.
Avagraha (Symbol: ऽ) symbol used to indicate prodelision of an अ in many Indian languages as shown below.
A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.
Bangalore, officially known as Bengaluru, is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka.
The Basel Mission is a Christian missionary society active from 1815 to 2001, when it transferred the operative work to Mission 21, the successor organization of Kooperation Evangelischer Kirchen und Missione (KEM) founded in 2001.
Beary or Byari (ಬ್ಯಾರಿ ಬಾಸೆ Byāri Bāsě) is an Indian language spoken by the Muslim communities mainly of Karnataka (Dakshina Kannada and Udupi districts) and some parts of North Kerala (Byaris).
Bergen County is the most populous county in the U.S. state of New Jersey.
The Bhagavad Gita (भगवद्गीता, in IAST,, lit. "The Song of God"), often referred to as the Gita, is a 700 verse Hindu scripture in Sanskrit that is part of the Hindu epic Mahabharata (chapters 23–40 of the 6th book of Mahabharata).
Bhakti (भक्ति) literally means "attachment, participation, fondness for, homage, faith, love, devotion, worship, purity".
Translation of the Bible into Malayalam began in 1806, and has influenced development of the modern language.
In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips.
Brahma (Sanskrit: ब्रह्मा, IAST: Brahmā) is a creator god in Hinduism.
In Hinduism, Brahman connotes the highest Universal Principle, the Ultimate Reality in the universe.P. T. Raju (2006), Idealistic Thought of India, Routledge,, page 426 and Conclusion chapter part XII In major schools of Hindu philosophy, it is the material, efficient, formal and final cause of all that exists.For dualism school of Hinduism, see: Francis X. Clooney (2010), Hindu God, Christian God: How Reason Helps Break Down the Boundaries between Religions, Oxford University Press,, pages 51–58, 111–115;For monist school of Hinduism, see: B. Martinez-Bedard (2006), Types of Causes in Aristotle and Sankara, Thesis – Department of Religious Studies (Advisors: Kathryn McClymond and Sandra Dwyer), Georgia State University, pages 18–35 It is the pervasive, genderless, infinite, eternal truth and bliss which does not change, yet is the cause of all changes. Brahman as a metaphysical concept is the single binding unity behind diversity in all that exists in the universe. Brahman is a Vedic Sanskrit word, and it is conceptualized in Hinduism, states Paul Deussen, as the "creative principle which lies realized in the whole world". Brahman is a key concept found in the Vedas, and it is extensively discussed in the early Upanishads.Stephen Philips (1998), Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Brahman to Derrida (Editor; Edward Craig), Routledge,, pages 1–4 The Vedas conceptualize Brahman as the Cosmic Principle. In the Upanishads, it has been variously described as Sat-cit-ānanda (truth-consciousness-bliss) and as the unchanging, permanent, highest reality. Brahman is discussed in Hindu texts with the concept of Atman (Soul, Self), personal, impersonal or Para Brahman, or in various combinations of these qualities depending on the philosophical school. In dualistic schools of Hinduism such as the theistic Dvaita Vedanta, Brahman is different from Atman (soul) in each being.Michael Myers (2000), Brahman: A Comparative Theology, Routledge,, pages 124–127 In non-dual schools such as the Advaita Vedanta, Brahman is identical to the Atman, is everywhere and inside each living being, and there is connected spiritual oneness in all existence.Arvind Sharma (2007), Advaita Vedānta: An Introduction, Motilal Banarsidass,, pages 19–40, 53–58, 79–86.
Brahmi (IAST) is the modern name given to one of the oldest writing systems used in Ancient India and present South and Central Asia from the 1st millennium BCE.
The Brahmic scripts are a family of abugida or alphabet writing systems.
Brahmin (Sanskrit: ब्राह्मण) is a varna (class) in Hinduism specialising as priests, teachers (acharya) and protectors of sacred learning across generations.
The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.
Channankara Velayudhan Pillai Raman Pillai (C.V.Raman Pillai) (Malayalam:സി. വി. രാമൻപിള്ള) (19 May 1858 – 21 March 1922) was one of the great Indian novelists and playwrights and pioneering playwright and journalist in Malayalam.
A national census in Canada is conducted every five years by Statistics Canada.
A central vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
Chanakya (IAST:,; fl. c. 4th century BCE) was an Indian teacher, philosopher, economist, jurist and royal advisor.
Chennai (formerly known as Madras or) is the capital of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
The Cheras were the ruling dynasty of the present-day state of Kerala and to a lesser extent, parts of Tamil Nadu in South India.
Cheraman Perumal (literally "the Great One of the Chera People", Ashoka Prakrit: Ketalaputo, Sanskrit: Kerala Putra) is the royal title used by the Cheras of Karuvur (2nd century BC – 3rd century AD), India.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
A Christian mission is an organized effort to spread Christianity.
The Church Mission Society (CMS), formerly in Britain and currently in Australia and New Zealand known as the Church Missionary Society, is a mission society working with the Anglican Communion and Protestant Christians around the world.
A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
In linguistics, clusivity is a grammatical distinction between inclusive and exclusive first-person pronouns and verbal morphology, also called inclusive "we" and exclusive "we".
Cochin Jews, also called Malabar Jews, are the oldest group of Jews in India, with possible roots claimed to date to the time of King Solomon.
Cochin University of Science and Technology (CUSAT) is a government-owned autonomous science and technology university in Kochi, Kerala, India.
Coimbatore District is a district in the Kongu Nadu region of the state of Tamil Nadu.
The culture of Bengal encompasses the Bengal region in South Asia, including Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal, Tripura and Assam (Barak Valley), where the Bengali language is the official and primary language.
Dakshina Kannada is a district in the state of Karnataka in India.
In Indic scripts, the danda (Sanskrit: दण्ड "stick") is a punctuation character.
The dative case (abbreviated, or sometimes when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case used in some languages to indicate, among other uses, the noun to which something is given, as in "Maria Jacobī potum dedit", Latin for "Maria gave Jacob a drink".
In linguistics, declension is the changing of the form of a word to express it with a non-standard meaning, by way of some inflection, that is by marking the word with some change in pronunciation or by other information.
Delhi (Dilli), officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), is a city and a union territory of India.
A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.
The alveolar nasal is a type of consonantal sound used in numerous spoken languages.
Devanagari (देवनागरी,, a compound of "''deva''" देव and "''nāgarī''" नागरी; Hindi pronunciation), also called Nagari (Nāgarī, नागरी),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group,, page 83 is an abugida (alphasyllabary) used in India and Nepal.
Dharma Raja Karthika Thirunal Rama Varma (ധർമ്മരാജാ കാർത്തിക തിരുനാൾ രാമവർമ്മ, 1724–17 Feb 1798) was the Maharajah of Travancore from 1758 until his death in 1798.
The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.
Doha (الدوحة, or ad-Dōḥa) is the capital and most populous city of the State of Qatar.
The Dravidian languages are a language family spoken mainly in southern India and parts of eastern and central India, as well as in Sri Lanka with small pockets in southwestern Pakistan, southern Afghanistan, Nepal, Bangladesh and Bhutan, and overseas in other countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore.
Dubai (دبي) is the largest and most populous city in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
In linguistics, an elision or deletion is the omission of one or more sounds (such as a vowel, a consonant, or a whole syllable) in a word or phrase.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
In phonology, epenthesis (Greek) means the addition of one or more sounds to a word, especially to the interior of a word (at the beginning prothesis and at the end paragoge are commonly used).
Ernakulam refers to the eastern, mainland portion of the city of Kochi in central Kerala, India.
The Ezhavas are a community with origins in the region of India presently known as Kerala.
Fiji (Viti; Fiji Hindi: फ़िजी), officially the Republic of Fiji (Matanitu Tugalala o Viti; Fiji Hindi: फ़िजी गणराज्य), is an island country in Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean about northeast of New Zealand's North Island.
The Free Software Foundation (FSF) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization founded by Richard Stallman on 4 October 1985 to support the free software movement, which promotes the universal freedom to study, distribute, create, and modify computer software, with the organization's preference for software being distributed under copyleft ("share alike") terms, such as with its own GNU General Public License.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.
In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
In typography, a glyph is an elemental symbol within an agreed set of symbols, intended to represent a readable character for the purposes of writing.
The GNU General Public License (GNU GPL or GPL) is a widely used free software license, which guarantees end users the freedom to run, study, share and modify the software.
The Government of Kerala headquartered at Thiruvananthapuram is a democratically elected body that governs the Indian State of Kerala.
In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.
Case is a special grammatical category of a noun, pronoun, adjective, participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a phrase, clause or sentence.
The Grantha script (Kiranta eḻuttu; ഗ്രന്ഥലിപി; grantha lipi) is an Indian script that was widely used between the sixth century and the 20th centuries by Tamil and Malayalam speakers in South India, particularly in Tamil Nadu and Kerala, to write Sanskrit and the classical language Manipravalam, and is still in restricted use in traditional Vedic schools (Sanskrit veda pāṭhaśālā).
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Hari or Har (Sanskrit: हरि, Gurmukhi: ਹਰਿ, IAST: Harī) is a name for the supreme absolute in the Sikh Guru Granth Sahib and Hindu Vedas.
Henrique Henriques (also known as Anrique Anriquez) (1520–1600) was a Portuguese Jesuit priest and missionary who spent most of his life in missionary activities in South India.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
Hyderabad is the capital of the Indian state of Telangana and de jure capital of Andhra Pradesh.
Idukki is one of the 14 districts of Kerala state, India, created on 26January 1972.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages are the dominant language family of the Indian subcontinent.
Indulekha is a Malayalam novel written by O. Chandu Menon.
The instrumental case (abbreviated or) is a grammatical case used to indicate that a noun is the instrument or means by or with which the subject achieves or accomplishes an action.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
In linguistics, intonation is variation in spoken pitch when used, not for distinguishing words (a concept known as tone), but, rather, for a range of other functions such as indicating the attitudes and emotions of the speaker, signalling the difference between statements and questions, and between different types of questions, focusing attention on important elements of the spoken message and also helping to regulate conversational interaction.
Ravi Varman Thampi, better known as Irayimman Thampi (1782–1856), was a Carnatic musician as well as a music composer from Travancore, India.
ISO 15919 "Transliteration of Devanagari and related Indic scripts into Latin characters" is one of a series of international standards for romanization.
Jeseri (also known as Jesri or Dweep Bhasha) is a dialect of Malayalam, spoken in the Union Territory of Lakshadweep in India.
Judaeo-Spanish or Judeo-Spanish (judeo-español, Hebrew script: גֿודֿיאו-איספאנייול, Cyrillic: Ђудео-Еспањол), commonly referred to as Ladino, is a Romance language derived from Old Spanish.
Judeo-Malayalam is the traditional language of the Cochin Jews (also called Malabar Jews), from Kerala, in southern India, spoken today by a few dozens of people in Israel and by probably fewer than 25 in India.
Sardar Kavalam Madhava Panikkar (3 June 1895 – 10 December 1963) was an Indian statesman and diplomat also famed as a Professor, newspaper editor, historian and novelist.
Kannur, also known by its anglicised name Cannanore, is a city and a Municipal Corporation in Kannur district, state of Kerala, India.
Kanyakumari district is the southernmost district in Tamil Nadu state and mainland India.
Karma (karma,; italic) means action, work or deed; it also refers to the spiritual principle of cause and effect where intent and actions of an individual (cause) influence the future of that individual (effect).
Karnataka also known Kannada Nadu is a state in the south western region of India.
Kasaragod is a municipal town and the district headquarters of Kasaragod district of Kerala state in India.
Kathakali (കഥകളി) is one of the major forms of classical Indian dance.
Kālidāsa was a Classical Sanskrit writer, widely regarded as the greatest poet and dramatist in the Sanskrit language of India.
Kerala is a state in South India on the Malabar Coast.
Kerala Sahitya Akademi or Academy for Malayalam literature is an autonomous body established to promote Malayalam language and literature.
Kerala Varma Valiya Koil Thampuran (കേരളവർമ്മ വലിയ കോയിത്തമ്പുരാൻ; 19 February 1845 – 22 September 1914) also spelt Kerala Varma Valiya Koilthampuran and known as Kerala Varma, was a Malayalam-language poet and translator who had an equal facility in writing in English and Sanskrit from the Indian state of Kerala.
Kochi, also known as Cochin, is a major port city on the south-west coast of India bordering the Laccadive Sea.
Kolezhuthu (கோலெழுத்து, കോലെഴുത്ത്) is one of the oldest writing systems in South India.
Kollam or Quilon (Coulão), formerly Desinganadu, is an old seaport and city on the Laccadive Sea coast of the Indian state of Kerala.
Kottayam is a municipal town in the Indian state of Kerala.
Krishna (Kṛṣṇa) is a major deity in Hinduism.
Kundalatha (or Kundalata, കുന്ദലത) is a novel by Appu Nedungadi, published in 1887.
Lakshadweep (Lakshadīb), formerly known as the Laccadive, Minicoy, and Aminidivi Islands, is a group of islands in the Laccadive Sea, off the southwestern coast of India.
Lakshmi (Sanskrit: लक्ष्मी, IAST: lakṣmī) or Laxmi, is the Hindu goddess of wealth, fortune and prosperity.
A laminal consonant is a phone produced by obstructing the air passage with the blade of the tongue, the flat top front surface just behind the tip of the tongue on the top.
Languages spoken in India belong to several language families, the major ones being the Indo-Aryan languages spoken by 76.5% of Indians and the Dravidian languages spoken by 20.5% of Indians.
The Constitution of India designates the official language of the Government of India as Hindi written in the Devanagari script, as well as English.
A lateral is an l-like consonant in which the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but it is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
Malabar Thamozhi, known to Portuguese as Malabar Tamul and as Malabar language to British was a writing scheme adopted to print books in the spoken language of early indigenous Malabar Christians.
Loan words in Malayalam, excluding the huge number of words from Sanskrit and Tamil, originated mostly due to the centuries long interactions between the native population of Kerala and the trading (predominantly, spice trading) powers of the world.
Maharaja of Travancore was the principal title of the ruler of the Kingdom of Travancore in India.
Liturgy is the customary public worship performed by a religious group, according to its beliefs, customs and traditions.
Locative (abbreviated) is a grammatical case which indicates a location.
Madrasa (مدرسة,, pl. مدارس) is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious (of any religion), and whether a school, college, or university.
The Mahābhārata (महाभारतम्) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Rāmāyaṇa.
Maharashtra (abbr. MH) is a state in the western region of India and is India's second-most populous state and third-largest state by area.
Mahé, natively known as Mayyazhi, is a small town at the mouth of the Mahé River and is surrounded on all sides by the State of Kerala.
Mahl people refers to the ethnic Maldivians of India (i.e. People of Minicoy and migrant communities from Minicoy).
Malayalam Braille is one of the Bharati braille alphabets, and it largely conforms to the letter values of the other Bharati alphabets.
Malayalam calendar or Kollam Era, also known as Kollavarsham, is a solar and sidereal Hindu calendar used in Kerala, India.
The Malayalam languages are the group of Dravidian languages most closely related to Malayalam.
Malayalam literature (മലയാള സാഹിത്യം) comprises those literary texts written in Malayalam, a South-Dravidian language spoken in the Indian state of Kerala.
There are two types of meters used in Malayala poetry, the classical Sanskrit based and Tamil based ones.
Malayalam script (/ Malayalam: മലയാളലിപി) is a Brahmic script used commonly to write the Malayalam language, which is the principal language of Kerala, India, spoken by 35 million people in the world.
The Malayali people or Keralite people (also spelt Malayalee, Malayalam script: മലയാളി and കേരളീയൻ) are an Indian ethnic group originating from the present-day state of Kerala, located in South India.
Malayanma script was a writing system used in Thiruvananthapuram.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
Manipravalam മണിപ്രവാളം (Macaronic) was a literary style used in medieval liturgical texts in South India, which used an admixture of Proto Tamil-Malayalam language and Sanskrit.
The Malayalam language spoken mostly by Mappila Muslim community of Kerala state, India is called Mappila dialect of Malayalam or simply Mappila Malayalam (Malayalam script: മാപ്പിള മലയാളം).
A mid vowel (or a true-mid vowel) is any in a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
The evolution of Old Tamil into Middle Tamil, which is generally taken to have been completed by the 8th century, was characterised by a number of phonological and grammatical changes.
Minicoy, locally known as Maliku (Dhivehi: މަލިކު; മലിക്കു) is an island in Lakshadweep, India.
Mumbai (also known as Bombay, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra.
The music of Kerala has a long and rich history.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
The Nair, also known as Nayar, are a group of Indian castes, described by anthropologist Kathleen Gough as "not a unitary group but a named category of castes".
The Nambudiri, also transliterated Nambūdiri, Namboodiri, Namboothiri, and Nampūtiri, are a Malayali Brahmin caste, native to Kerala.
Narasimha (Sanskrit: नरसिंह IAST: Narasiṃha, lit. man-lion) is an avatar of the Hindu god Vishnu, one who incarnates in the form of part lion and part man to destroy an evil, end religious persecution and calamity on Earth, thereby restoring Dharma.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
The National Library at Kolkata romanisation transliterationSee p 24-26 for table comparing Indic languages, and p 33-34 for Devanagari alphabet listing.
The Niranam poets, also known as the Kannassan poets, were three poets from the same family, Madhava Panikkar, Sankara Panikkar, and Rama Panikkar who hailed from Niranam, a small village in southern Kerala, India, near the town of Thiruvalla.Their work(s) mainly consisted of translation and adaptation of Sanskrit epics and Puranic works and were aimed for devotional purposes.
The nominative case (abbreviated), subjective case, straight case or upright case is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments.
North Malabar refers to the historic and geographic area of southwest India covering the state of Kerala's present day Kasaragod and Kannur Districts, the Mananthavady taluk of Wayanad District, the taluks of Koyilandy and Vatakara in the Kozhikode District of Kerala and the entire Mahé Sub-Division of the Union Territory of Puducherry.
A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
Omniscriptum Publishing Group, formerly known as VDM Verlag Dr.
An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.
Rao Bahadur Oyyarathu Chandu Menon (also known as O. Chandu Menon) (1847–1899) was a Malayalam language novelist from Kerala state, India.
Palakkad, also known as Palghat, is a city and municipality in the state of Kerala in southern India, spread over an area of 26.60 km2 and is the administrative headquarters of the Palakkad District.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
Pali, or Magadhan, is a Middle Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian subcontinent.
Paremmakkal Thoma Kathanar (1736–1799) is the author of Varthamanappusthakam (1790), the first ever travelogue in an Indian language.
Pathanamthitta is a town and a municipality situated in the Central Travancore region in the state of Kerala, south India, spread over an area of 23.50 km2.
The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Possessive determiners constitute a sub-class of determiners which modify a noun by attributing possession (or other sense of belonging) to someone or something.
Prajapati (IAST:, "lord of creation and protector") is a Vedic deity of Hinduism.
The Prakrits (प्राकृत; pāuda; pāua) are any of several Middle Indo-Aryan languages formerly spoken in India.
Prose is a form of language that exhibits a natural flow of speech and grammatical structure rather than a rhythmic structure as in traditional poetry, where the common unit of verse is based on meter or rhyme.
Puducherry (literally New Town in Tamil), formerly known as Pondicherry, is a union territory of India.
Pune, formerly spelled Poona (1857–1978), is the second largest city in the Indian state of Maharashtra, after Mumbai.
A raga or raaga (IAST: rāga; also raag or ragam; literally "coloring, tingeing, dyeing") is a melodic framework for improvisation akin to a melodic mode in Indian classical music.
The Ramacharitam is a Sanskrit epic poem written in Arya metre by Sandhyakar Nandi during Pala Empire, between approximately 1050 and 1150 CE.
Ramayana (रामायणम्) is an ancient Indian epic poem which narrates the struggle of the divine prince Rama to rescue his wife Sita from the demon king Ravana.
A rasa (रस, രാസ്യം.) literally means "juice, essence or taste".
A retroflex consonant is a coronal consonant where the tongue has a flat, concave, or even curled shape, and is articulated between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate.
In phonetics, rhotic consonants, or "R-like" sounds, are liquid consonants that are traditionally represented orthographically by symbols derived from the Greek letter rho, including r in the Latin script and p in the Cyrillic script.
Richard Matthew Stallman (born March 16, 1953), often known by his initials, rms—is an American free software movement activist and programmer.
Bishop Robert Caldwell (7 May 1814 – 28 August 1891) was a missionary and linguist, who academically established the Dravidian family of languages.He served as Assistant Bishop of Tirunelveli from 1877.
Rockland County is the southernmost county on the west side of the Hudson River in the U.S. state of New York, part of the New York–Newark–Jersey City, NY–NJ–PA Metropolitan Statistical Area.
The Saint Thomas Christians, also called Syrian Christians of India, Nasrani or Malankara Nasrani or Nasrani Mappila, Nasraya and in more ancient times Essani (Essene) are an ethnoreligious community of Malayali Syriac Christians from Kerala, India, who trace their origins to the evangelistic activity of Thomas the Apostle in the 1st century.
Sanskrit Kavya literature has a long history of its development.
SandhiThe pronunciation of the word "sandhi" is rather diverse among English speakers.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Shakuntala, also known as The Recognition of Shakuntala, The Sign of Shakuntala, and many other variants (Devanagari: अभिज्ञानशाकुन्तलम् – Abhijñānashākuntala), is a Sanskrit play by the ancient Indian poet Kālidāsa, dramatizing the story of Shakuntala told in the epic Mahabharata.
In Hinduism, Shesha (Sanskrit), also known as Sheshanaga or Adishesha, is the nagaraja or king of all nāgas and one of the primal beings of creation.
Sita (pronounced, Sanskrit: सीता, IAST: Sītā) or Seeta, is the consort of Lord Rama (incarnation of Vishnu) and an avatar of Sri Lakshmi, the Hindu goddess that denotes good sign, good fortune, prosperity, success, and happiness.
The social novel, also known as the social problem (or social protest) novel, is a "work of fiction in which a prevailing social problem, such as gender, race, or class prejudice, is dramatized through its effect on the characters of a novel".
The sociative case in the Hungarian language can express the person in whose company (cf. Latin socius) the action is carried out, or to any belongings of people which take part in the action (together with their owners).
Sooranad P. N. Kunjan Pillai was a historian, researcher, lexicographer, poet, essayist, literary critic, orator, socio-cultural leader, grammarian, educationist, and scholar of the Malayalam language.
The Sri Lankan Tamil dialects or Ceylon Tamil dialects form a group of Tamil dialects used in the modern country of Sri Lanka by Sri Lankan Tamil people that is distinct from the dialects of modern Tamil spoken in Tamil Nadu and Kerala states of India.
India is a federal union comprising 29 states and 7 union territories, for a total of 36 entities.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
Stuttgart (Swabian: italics,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of the German state of Baden-Württemberg.
In linguistic typology, a subject–object–verb (SOV) language is one in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence always or usually appear in that order.
Suriyani Malayalam (സുറിയാനി മലയാളം, ܣܘܼܝܲܢܝܼ ܡܲܠܲܝܵܠܲܡ), also known as Karshoni or Syriac Malayalam, is a dialect of Malayalam written in a variant form of Syriac script which was popular among the Saint Thomas Christians (also known as Syrian Christians or Nasranis) of Kerala in India.
A sutra (Sanskrit: IAST: sūtra; Pali: sutta) is a religious discourse (teaching) in text form originating from the spiritual traditions of India, particularly Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism.
(സ്വാതി തിരുനാള് രാമവർമ്മ) (16 April 1813 – 26 December 1846) was the Maharaja of the Kingdom of Travancore, British India.
The Syriac alphabet is a writing system primarily used to write the Syriac language since the 1st century AD.
Syriac (ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ), also known as Syriac Aramaic or Classical Syriac, is a dialect of Middle Aramaic.
The Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch (ʿĪṯo Suryoyṯo Trišaṯ Šubḥo; الكنيسة السريانية الأرثوذكسية), or Syriac Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East, is an Oriental Orthodox Church with autocephalous patriarchate established in Antioch in 518, tracing its founding to St. Peter and St. Paul in the 1st century, according to its tradition.
(lit. "arising from that") is the Sanskrit word for one of three etymological classes defined by native grammarians of Middle Indo-Aryan languages, alongside tatsama and deśi words.
Tamil (தமிழ்) is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Burghers, Douglas, and Chindians.
Tamil Nadu (• tamiḻ nāḍu ? literally 'The Land of Tamils' or 'Tamil Country') is one of the 29 states of India.
Tamil-Brahmi, or Tamili, is a variant of the Brahmi script used to write the Tamil language.
Tamil–Kannada is an inner branch (Zvelebil 1990:56) of the Southern Dravidian I (SDr I) subfamily of the Dravidian languages that include Tamil, Kannada and Malayalam.
Tatsama (Sanskrit;, lit. 'same as that') are Sanskrit loanwords in modern Indo-Aryan languages like Bengali, Marathi, Oriya, Hindi, Gujarati, and Sinhala and in Dravidian languages like Malayalam, Kannada, Telugu, and Tamil.
Telugu (తెలుగు) is a South-central Dravidian language native to India.
A text editor is a type of computer program that edits plain text.
Thalassery formerly Tellicherry is a commercial city on the Malabar Coast in Kannur district, in the state of Kerala, India, bordered by the districts of Mahé (Pondicherry), Kozhikode, Wayanad, Kasaragod and Kodagu (Karnataka).
The Hindu is an Indian daily newspaper, headquartered at Chennai.
The Nilgiris District is in the southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Thiruvananthapuram, also known as Trivandrum, is the capital and the largest city of the Indian state of Kerala.
Thrissur (originally Thiru Siva Peroor and previously known by its anglicised form as Trichur), is the fourth largest city, the third largest urban agglomeration in Kerala (Pop. 1,854,783) and the 20th largest in India.
Thunchaththu Ramanujan Ezhuthachan (തുഞ്ചത്ത് രാമാനുജൻ എഴുത്തച്ഛൻ) was a Malayalam devotional poet and linguist from around the 16th century.
Tigalari or Tulu (Tigaḷāri lipi, Tuḷu lipi) The script is also referred to as Arya Ezhuttu, Grantha Malayalam, Tulu Grantha, Tulu-Malayalam, and Western Grantha.
Tirur is a Town and municipality in Malappuram district in the Indian state of Kerala spread over an area of.
Toronto is the capital city of the province of Ontario and the largest city in Canada by population, with 2,731,571 residents in 2016.
The Kingdom of Travancore was an Indian kingdom from 1729 until 1949.
In typography, a typeface (also known as font family) is a set of one or more fonts each composed of glyphs that share common design features.
Ulloor S. Parameswara Iyer (18 June 1877 – 15 June 1949) (commonly known as Ulloor) was a Malayalam poet and historian.
Unnuneeli Sandesam is among the oldest literary works in Malayalam language.
Untouchability is the practice of ostracising a group by segregating them from the mainstream by social custom or legal mandate.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
Vallathol Narayana Menon (16 October 1878 – 13 March 1958) was a poet in the Malayalam language, which is spoken in the south Indian state of Kerala.
Varthamanappusthakam is a Malayalam travelogue written by Paremmakkal Thoma Kathanar which is regarded as the first travelogue in any Indian language.
The Vaṭṭeḻuttu alphabet, also spelled Vattezhutthu (literally "rounded script", வட்டெழுத்து,,; വട്ടെഴുത്ത്) is an abugida writing system originating from the ancient Tamil people of South India.
Vedanta (Sanskrit: वेदान्त, IAST) or Uttara Mīmāṃsā is one of the six orthodox (''āstika'') schools of Hindu philosophy.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
Vengayil Kunhiraman Nayanar (1861 – 14 November 1914) was a Malayali essayist and short story writer, and a prominent landlord of Malabar.
Venu Govindaraju (born June 17, 1964) is an Indian-American computer scientist and educator whose primary contributions have been to the fields of machine learning and pattern recognition as applied to the domains of Document Image Analysis and Biometrics.
Virama (्) is a generic term for the diacritic in many Brahmic scripts, ்including Devanagari and Eastern Nagari script, used to suppress the inherent vowel that otherwise occurs with every consonant letter.
Visarga (IAST) (विसर्गः) meaning "sending forth, discharge".
Vishnu (Sanskrit: विष्णु, IAST) is one of the principal deities of Hinduism, and the Supreme Being in its Vaishnavism tradition.
The vocative case (abbreviated) is the case used for a noun that identifies a person (animal, object etc.) being addressed or occasionally the determiners of that noun.
In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.
Western literature, also known as European literature, is the literature written in the context of Western culture in the languages of Europe, including the ones belonging to the Indo-European language family as well as several geographically or historically related languages such as Basque and Hungarian.
In linguistics, a stem is a part of a word.
Classical Malayalam, Dialects of Malayalam, ISO 639:mal, ISO 639:ml, Malayalam (language), Malayalam Language, Malayalam language, Malayalam-language, Malayalem, Malayam, Malayālam, Malayāḷam, Malayāḷaṁ, Malyalam, Malāyalam, Mayalam, മലയാളം.