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Index Hindi

Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language. [1]

161 relations: Abugida, Amir Khusrow, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Anti-Hindi agitations of Tamil Nadu, Apabhraṃśa, Arabic, Asia, Assam, Awadhi language, Bengali Language Movement (Manbhum), Bhakti, Bharatendu Harishchandra, Bhojpuri language, Bihar, Bihari Lal, Braj, Braj Bhasha, British Raj, Calque, Caribbean Hindustani, Central Hindi Directorate, Central Zone (Hindi), Chandigarh, Chandrakanta (novel), Chhattisgarh, Chhayavaad, Columbia University, Compensatory lengthening, Constituent Assembly of India, Constitution of India, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu, Dayananda Saraswati, Delhi, Devaki Nandan Khatri, Devanagari, Devanagari Braille, English language, Ethnologue, Fiji, Fiji Hindi, Film, George Abraham Grierson, Germany, Government of India, Guyana, Haflong Hindi, Haryana, Hazari Prasad Dwivedi, High Court of Gujarat, ..., Himachal Pradesh, Hindi Belt, Hindi Divas, Hindi Wikipedia, Hindustani language, Hindustani people, Hunterian transliteration, India, India Today, Indian people, Indian Signing System, Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Iranian languages, Indo-Pakistani wars and conflicts, Indus River, International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration, International Phonetic Alphabet, International Phonetic Association, ISO 15919, ITRANS, Jaishankar Prasad, Jharkhand, Kabir, Kaka Kalelkar, Karma, Keshava, Khariboli dialect, Languages of India, Languages with official status in India, Lingua franca, Linguistic Survey of India, Linguistics, List of English words of Hindi or Urdu origin, List of Hindi channels in Europe, List of Hindi television channels broadcast in Europe, List of languages by number of native speakers, List of languages by number of native speakers in India, List of Sanskrit and Persian roots in Hindi, Loanword, Madhesi people, Madhya Pradesh, Mahadevi Varma, Mahavir Prasad Dwivedi, Maithili language, Maithili Sharan Gupt, Mandarin Chinese, Mauritius, Mizoram, Mughal Empire, Music, Mutual intelligibility, Nationalencyklopedin, Neologism, Nepal, New Zealand, Newspaper, Non-resident Indian and person of Indian origin, North India, Northeast India, Official language, Onomatopoeia, Pakistan, Persian alphabet, Persian language, Phono-semantic matching, Portuguese language, Prakrit, Premchand, Press Trust of India, Prestige (sociolinguistics), Rajasthan, Raskhan, Register (sociolinguistics), Sanskrit, Sanskritisation, Schwa deletion in Indo-Aryan languages, Second language, Seth Govind Das, Shauraseni language, Singapore, South Africa, South India, Spanish language, Standard language, Sumitranandan Pant, Suriname, Suryakant Tripathi 'Nirala', Tadbhava, Tatsama, Teach Yourself, The Hindu, The Indian Express, The Times Group, The Times of India, Trinidad and Tobago, Uganda, Union territory, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Urdu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Variety (linguistics), Vedic Sanskrit, Vocabulary, West Bengal, Wiktionary, World Hindi Secretariat, 2013 Constitution of Fiji. Expand index (111 more) »


An abugida (from Ge'ez: አቡጊዳ ’abugida), or alphasyllabary, is a segmental writing system in which consonant–vowel sequences are written as a unit: each unit is based on a consonant letter, and vowel notation is secondary.

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Amir Khusrow

Ab'ul Hasan Yamīn ud-Dīn Khusrau (1253 – 1325) (ابوالحسن یمین الدین خسرو, ابوالحسن یمین‌الدین خسرو), better known as Amīr Khusrow Dehlavī, was a Sufi musician, poet and scholar from the Indian subcontinent.

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Andaman and Nicobar Islands

The Andaman and Nicobar Islands, one of the seven union territories of India, are a group of islands at the juncture of the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea.

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Anti-Hindi agitations of Tamil Nadu

The Anti-Hindi imposition agitations of Tamil Nadu were a series of agitations that happened in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu (formerly Madras State and part of Madras Presidency) during both pre- and post-Independence periods.

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Apabhranśa (अपभ्रंश,, Prakrit) is a term used by vyākaraṇin (grammarians) since Patañjali to refer to the dialects prevalent in the Ganges (east and west) before the rise of the modern languages.

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Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.

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Assam is a state in Northeast India, situated south of the eastern Himalayas along the Brahmaputra and Barak River valleys.

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Awadhi language

Awadhi (Devanagari: अवधी) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken primarily in the Awadh region of Uttar Pradesh and Terai belt of Nepal.

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Bengali Language Movement (Manbhum)

The Bengali Language Movement in Manbhum was a movement in Manbhum district, present day Purulia district of West Bengal state, during the late 1940s to mid-1950s, to fight for Bengali language and to protest against the forcible imposition of Hindi language to the Bengali speaking people.

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Bhakti (भक्ति) literally means "attachment, participation, fondness for, homage, faith, love, devotion, worship, purity".

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Bharatendu Harishchandra

Bhartendu Harishchandra (9 September 18506 January 1885) is known as the father of modern Hindi literature as well as Hindi theatre.

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Bhojpuri language

Bhojpuri is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in the Northern-Eastern part of India and the Terai region of Nepal.

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Bihar is an Indian state considered to be a part of Eastern as well as Northern India.

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Bihari Lal

Bihari Lal Chaube or Bihārī (1595–1663) National Museum, New Delhi, 1966.

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Braj, also known as Brij or Brijbhoomi, is a region in Uttar Pradesh of India, around Mathura-Vrindavan.

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Braj Bhasha

Braj Bhāshā is a Western Hindi language.

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British Raj

The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.

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In linguistics, a calque or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word or root-for-root translation.

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Caribbean Hindustani

Caribbean Hindustani is an Indo-Aryan language spoken as a lingua franca by Indo-Caribbeans and the Indo-Caribbean diaspora.

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Central Hindi Directorate

The Central Hindi Directorate (केन्द्रीय हिन्दी निदेशालय), New Delhi is the department, under the Ministry of Human Resource Development (India), responsible for promotion of Standard Hindi.

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Central Zone (Hindi)

The Central Zone or Madhya languages are the central varieties of the Hindi Belt, spoken across northern India, of the Indo-Aryan languages.

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Chandigarh is a city and a union territory in India that serves as the capital of the two neighbouring states of Haryana and Punjab.

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Chandrakanta (novel)

Chandrakanta is a popular epic fantasy Hindi novel by Devaki Nandan Khatri.

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Chhattisgarh (translation: Thirty-Six Forts) is one of the 29 states of India, located in the centre-east of the country.

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Chhayavaad (छायावाद) (approximated in English as "Romanticism", literally "Shaded") refers to the era of Neo-romanticism in Hindi literature, particularly Hindi poetry, 1922–1938, and was marked by an upsurge of romantic and humanist content.

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Columbia University

Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.

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Compensatory lengthening

Compensatory lengthening in phonology and historical linguistics is the lengthening of a vowel sound that happens upon the loss of a following consonant, usually in the syllable coda, or of a vowel in an adjacent syllable.

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Constituent Assembly of India

An idea for a Constituent Assembly of India was proposed in 1934 by M. N. Roy, a pioneer of the Communist movement in India and an advocate of radical democracy.

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Constitution of India

The Constitution of India is the supreme law of India.

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Dadra and Nagar Haveli

Dadra and Nagar Haveli (DNH in initials) is a union territory in Western India.

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Daman and Diu

Daman and Diu is a union territory in Western India.

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Dayananda Saraswati

Dayanand Saraswati (12 February 1824 – 30 October 1883) was an Indian religious leader and founder of the Arya Samaj, a Hindu reform movement of the Vedic dharma.

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Delhi (Dilli), officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), is a city and a union territory of India.

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Devaki Nandan Khatri

Devaki Nandan Khatri (June 18, 1861 – 1913) was an Indian writer, who belonged to the first generation of popular novelists in the modern Hindi language.

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Devanagari (देवनागरी,, a compound of "''deva''" देव and "''nāgarī''" नागरी; Hindi pronunciation), also called Nagari (Nāgarī, नागरी),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group,, page 83 is an abugida (alphasyllabary) used in India and Nepal.

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Devanagari Braille

Similar braille conventions are used for three languages of India and Nepal that in print are written in Devanagari script: Hindi, Marathi, and Nepali.

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world.

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Fiji (Viti; Fiji Hindi: फ़िजी), officially the Republic of Fiji (Matanitu Tugalala o Viti; Fiji Hindi: फ़िजी गणराज्य), is an island country in Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean about northeast of New Zealand's North Island.

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Fiji Hindi

Fiji Hindi (फ़िजी हिंदी) or Fijian Hindi, known locally as "Hindustani", is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by most Fijian citizens of Indian descent, though a small number speak other languages at home.

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A film, also called a movie, motion picture, moving pícture, theatrical film, or photoplay, is a series of still images that, when shown on a screen, create the illusion of moving images.

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George Abraham Grierson

Sir George Abraham Grierson (7 January 1851 – 9 March 1941) was an Irish administrator and linguist in British India.

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Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Government of India

The Government of India (IAST), often abbreviated as GoI, is the union government created by the constitution of India as the legislative, executive and judicial authority of the union of 29 states and seven union territories of a constitutionally democratic republic.

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Guyana (pronounced or), officially the Co-operative Republic of Guyana, is a sovereign state on the northern mainland of South America.

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Haflong Hindi

Haflong Hindi (हफ़लौंग हिन्दी) is the lingua franca of Dima Hasao district of Assam state of India.

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Haryana, carved out of the former state of East Punjab on 1November 1966 on linguistic basis, is one of the 29 states in India.

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Hazari Prasad Dwivedi

Hazari Prasad Dwivedi (19 August 190719 May 1979) was a Hindi novelist, literary historian, essayist, critic and scholar.

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High Court of Gujarat

The Gujarat High Court is the High Court of the state of Gujarat.

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Himachal Pradesh

Himachal Pradesh (literally "snow-laden province") is a Indian state located in North India.

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Hindi Belt

The Hindi Belt or Hindi Desh, sometimes referred to as the Hindi-Urdu Region, is a linguistic region in north-central India where Hindi (including its dialects) and Urdu are widely spoken.

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Hindi Divas

Hindi Divas is an annual day celebrated on 14 September in India.

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Hindi Wikipedia

The Hindi Wikipedia is the Hindi edition of Wikipedia.

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Hindustani language

Hindustani (हिन्दुस्तानी, ہندوستانی, ||lit.

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Hindustani people

Hindustani people, or Hindavi people, are a panethnicity primarily living in the Hindi belt region of India, which is located in the Indus-Gangetic Plain of North India, between the Himalayas and the Vindhyas, identified as such on one or more of genealogical, linguistic, or cultural grounds.

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Hunterian transliteration

The Hunterian transliteration system is the "national system of romanization in India" and the one officially adopted by the Government of India.

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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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India Today

India Today is an Indian English-language fortnightly news magazine and news television channel.

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Indian people

No description.

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Indian Signing System

The Indian Signing System or Indian Sign System (ISS) is a convention for manually coded language used in India.

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Indo-Aryan languages

The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages are the dominant language family of the Indian subcontinent.

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Indo-Iranian languages

The Indo-Iranian languages or Indo-Iranic languages, or Aryan languages, constitute the largest and easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Indo-Pakistani wars and conflicts

Since the partition of British India in 1947 and creation of modern states of India and Pakistan, the two South Asian countries have been involved in four wars, including one undeclared war, and many border skirmishes and military stand-offs.

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Indus River

The Indus River (also called the Sindhū) is one of the longest rivers in Asia.

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International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration

The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (I.A.S.T.) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanization of Indic scripts as employed by Sanskrit and related Indic languages.

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International Phonetic Alphabet

The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.

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International Phonetic Association

The International Phonetic Association (IPA; in French, Association phonétique internationale, API) is an organization that promotes the scientific study of phonetics and the various practical applications of that science.

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ISO 15919

ISO 15919 "Transliteration of Devanagari and related Indic scripts into Latin characters" is one of a series of international standards for romanization.

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The "Indian languages TRANSliteration" (ITRANS) is an ASCII transliteration scheme for Indic scripts, particularly for Devanagari script.

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Jaishankar Prasad

Jaishankar Prasad (30 January 1890 15 November 1937) was a famed figure in modern Hindi literature as well as Hindi theatre.

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Jharkhand (lit. "Bushland" or The land of forest) is a state in eastern India, carved out of the southern part of Bihar on 15 November 2000.

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Kabir (कबीर, IAST: Kabīr) was a 15th-century Indian mystic poet and saint, whose writings influenced Hinduism's Bhakti movement and his verses are found in Sikhism's scripture Guru Granth Sahib.

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Kaka Kalelkar

Dattatreya Balkrushna Kalelkar (1 December 1885 – 21 August 1981), popularly known as Kaka Kalelkar, was an Indian independence activist, social reformer and journalist.

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Karma (karma,; italic) means action, work or deed; it also refers to the spiritual principle of cause and effect where intent and actions of an individual (cause) influence the future of that individual (effect).

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Keshava (Sanskrit: केशव) is a name of Vishnu from the Hindu tradition.

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Khariboli dialect

Khariboli, also known as Khari Boli or simply Khari, Dehlavi, Kauravi, and Vernacular Hindustani, is the prestige dialect of Hindustani, of which Standard Hindi and Standard Urdu are standard registers and literary styles, which are the principal official languages of India and Pakistan respectively.

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Languages of India

Languages spoken in India belong to several language families, the major ones being the Indo-Aryan languages spoken by 76.5% of Indians and the Dravidian languages spoken by 20.5% of Indians.

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Languages with official status in India

The Constitution of India designates the official language of the Government of India as Hindi written in the Devanagari script, as well as English.

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Lingua franca

A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.

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Linguistic Survey of India

The Linguistic Survey of India, often referred to as the LSI, is a comprehensive survey of the languages of British India, describing 364 languages and dialects.

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Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.

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List of English words of Hindi or Urdu origin

This is a list of English-language words of Hindi and Urdu origin, two distinguished registers of the Hindustani language.

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List of Hindi channels in Europe

This is a list of Hindi channels in Europe.

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List of Hindi television channels broadcast in Europe

This is a list of Hindi channels broadcast in Europe.

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List of languages by number of native speakers

This article ranks human languages by their number of native speakers.

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List of languages by number of native speakers in India

India is home to several hundred languages.

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List of Sanskrit and Persian roots in Hindi

The following is an alphabetical (according to Hindi's alphabet) list of Sanskrit and Persian roots, stems, prefixes, and suffixes commonly used in Hindi.

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A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.

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Madhesi people

The term Madhesi people (मधेशी) is ambiguous.

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Madhya Pradesh

Madhya Pradesh (MP;; meaning Central Province) is a state in central India.

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Mahadevi Varma

Mahadevi Verma (26 March 1907-11 September 1987) was a Hindi poet, freedom fighter and educationist from India.

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Mahavir Prasad Dwivedi

Mahavir Prasad Dwivedi (15 May 1864 – 29 December 1938) was an Indian Hindi writer and editor.

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Maithili language

Maithili (Maithilī) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in the Bihar and Jharkhand states of India and is one of the 22 recognised Indian languages.

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Maithili Sharan Gupt

Maithili Sharan Gupt (3 August 1886 – 12 December 1964) was one of the most important modern Hindi poets.

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Mandarin Chinese

Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China.

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Mauritius (or; Maurice), officially the Republic of Mauritius (République de Maurice), is an island nation in the Indian Ocean about off the southeast coast of the African continent.

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Mizoram is a state in Northeast India, with Aizawl as its capital city.

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Mughal Empire

The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.

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Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time.

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Mutual intelligibility

In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.

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Nationalencyklopedin, abbreviated NE, is a comprehensive contemporary Swedish-language encyclopedia, initiated by a favourable loan from the Government of Sweden of 17 million Swedish kronor in 1980, which was repaid by December 1990.

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A neologism (from Greek νέο- néo-, "new" and λόγος lógos, "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not yet been fully accepted into mainstream language.

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Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.

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New Zealand

New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.

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A newspaper is a periodical publication containing written information about current events.

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Non-resident Indian and person of Indian origin

No description.

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North India

North India is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India.

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Northeast India

Northeast India (officially North Eastern Region, NER) is the easternmost region of India representing both a geographic and political administrative division of the country.

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Official language

An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.

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An onomatopoeia (from the Greek ὀνοματοποιία; ὄνομα for "name" and ποιέω for "I make", adjectival form: "onomatopoeic" or "onomatopoetic") is a word that phonetically imitates, resembles or suggests the sound that it describes.

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Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.

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Persian alphabet

The Persian alphabet (الفبای فارسی), or Perso-Arabic alphabet, is a writing system used for the Persian language.

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Persian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Phono-semantic matching

Phono-semantic matching (PSM) is the incorporation of a word into one language from another, often creating a neologism), where the word's non-native quality is hidden by replacing it with phonetically and semantically similar words or roots from the adopting language. Thus, the approximate sound and meaning of the original expression in the source language are preserved, though the new expression (the PSM) in the target language may sound native. Phono-semantic matching is distinct from calquing, which includes (semantic) translation but does not include phonetic matching (i.e. retaining the approximate sound of the borrowed word through matching it with a similar-sounding pre-existent word or morpheme in the target language). At the same time, phono-semantic matching is also distinct from homophonic translation, which retains the sound of a word but not the meaning.

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Portuguese language

Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.

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The Prakrits (प्राकृत; pāuda; pāua) are any of several Middle Indo-Aryan languages formerly spoken in India.

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Munshi Premchand (31 July 1880 – 8 October 1936) (real name Dhanpat Rai), was an Indian writer famous for his modern Hindi-Urdu literature.

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Press Trust of India

Press Trust of India (PTI) is the largest news agency in India.

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Prestige (sociolinguistics)

Prestige is the level of regard normally accorded a specific language or dialect within a speech community, relative to other languages or dialects.

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Rajasthan (literally, "Land of Kings") is India's largest state by area (or 10.4% of India's total area).

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Raskhan (born 1548 A.D.) was a poet who was a devotee of Krishna,of Muslim Pathan origins.

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Register (sociolinguistics)

In linguistics, a register is a variety of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting.

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Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.

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Sanskritisation (Indian English) or Sanskritization (American English, Oxford spelling) is a particular form of social change found in India.

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Schwa deletion in Indo-Aryan languages

Schwa deletion, or schwa syncope, is a phenomenon that sometimes occurs in Hindi, Urdu, Bengali, Kashmiri, Punjabi, Gujarati, Maithili and several other Indo-Aryan languages with schwas that are implicit in their written scripts.

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Second language

A person's second language or L2, is a language that is not the native language of the speaker, but that is used in the locale of that person.

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Seth Govind Das

Seth Govind Das (16 October 1896 – 18 June 1974) was an Indian independence activist and a distinguished parliamentarian.

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Shauraseni language

A Dramatic Prakrit, Shauraseni was the chief language used in drama in northern medieval India.

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Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.

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South Africa

South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.

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South India

South India is the area encompassing the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana as well as the union territories of Lakshadweep, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Puducherry, occupying 19% of India's area.

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Spanish language

Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.

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Standard language

A standard language or standard variety may be defined either as a language variety used by a population for public purposes or as a variety that has undergone standardization.

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Sumitranandan Pant

Sumitranandan Pant (20 May 1900 – 28 December 1977) was an Indian poet.

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Suriname (also spelled Surinam), officially known as the Republic of Suriname (Republiek Suriname), is a sovereign state on the northeastern Atlantic coast of South America.

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Suryakant Tripathi 'Nirala'

Suryakant Tripathi 'Nirala' (21 February 189915 October 1961) was one of the most famous figures of modern Hindi literature.

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(lit. "arising from that") is the Sanskrit word for one of three etymological classes defined by native grammarians of Middle Indo-Aryan languages, alongside tatsama and deśi words.

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Tatsama (Sanskrit;, lit. 'same as that') are Sanskrit loanwords in modern Indo-Aryan languages like Bengali, Marathi, Oriya, Hindi, Gujarati, and Sinhala and in Dravidian languages like Malayalam, Kannada, Telugu, and Tamil.

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Teach Yourself

Teach Yourself is currently an imprint of Hodder Education, formerly by the English Universities Press, that specializes in self-instruction books.

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The Hindu

The Hindu is an Indian daily newspaper, headquartered at Chennai.

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The Indian Express

The Indian Express is an English-language Indian daily newspaper.

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The Times Group

The Times Group is India’s largest media conglomerate, according to Financial Times as of March 2015.

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The Times of India

The Times of India (TOI) is an Indian English-language daily newspaper owned by The Times Group.

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Trinidad and Tobago

Trinidad and Tobago, officially the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, is a twin island sovereign state that is the southernmost nation of the West Indies in the Caribbean.

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Uganda, officially the Republic of Uganda (Jamhuri ya Uganda), is a landlocked country in East Africa.

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Union territory

A union territory is a type of administrative division in the Republic of India.

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United Arab Emirates

The United Arab Emirates (UAE; دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates (الإمارات), is a federal absolute monarchy sovereign state in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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Universal Declaration of Human Rights

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a historic document that was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly at its third session on 10 December 1948 as Resolution 217 at the Palais de Chaillot in Paris, France.

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Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.

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Uttar Pradesh

Uttar Pradesh (IAST: Uttar Pradeś) is a state in northern India.

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Uttarakhand, officially the State of Uttarakhand (Uttarākhaṇḍ Rājya), formerly known as Uttaranchal, is a state in the northern part of India.

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Variety (linguistics)

In sociolinguistics a variety, also called a lect, is a specific form of a language or language cluster.

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Vedic Sanskrit

Vedic Sanskrit is an Indo-European language, more specifically one branch of the Indo-Iranian group.

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A vocabulary is a set of familiar words within a person's language.

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West Bengal

West Bengal (Paśchimbāṅga) is an Indian state, located in Eastern India on the Bay of Bengal.

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Wiktionary is a multilingual, web-based project to create a free content dictionary of all words in all languages.

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World Hindi Secretariat

The World Hindi Secretariat (WHS), (विश्व हिन्दी सचिवालय), is the name of an international organisation representing countries and regions where Hindi is the first ("mother") or customary language, where a significant proportion of the population consists of Hindi speakers or where there is a notable affiliation with North Indian culture.

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2013 Constitution of Fiji

Fiji's fourth constitution was signed into law by President Ratu Epeli Nailatikau on September 6, 2013, coming into effect immediately.

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Bihari Hindi, Bihari hindi, High Hindi, Hindee, Hindhi, Hindi (language), Hindi Language, Hindi langauge, Hindi language, Hindi proper, Hindi-language, Hindi:, Hindī, ISO 639:hi, ISO 639:hin, Literary Hindi, Manak Hindi, Manak hindi, Manaka hindi, Modern Hindi, Modern Standard Hindi, Nagari Hindi, Proper hindi, Rashtrabhasha, Shuddha Hindi, Standard Hindi, मानक हिन्दी, हिंदी, हिन्दी.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hindi

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