274 relations: A. P. J. Abdul Kalam, Ablative case, Accusative case, Adichanallur, Adjective, Adverb, Affix, Agastya, Agglutination, Allophone, Alveolar consonant, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andhra Pradesh, Approximant consonant, Arabic alphabet, Archaeological Survey of India, Article (grammar), Arwi, Aspirated consonant, Australia, Back vowel, Bangalore, Batticaloa Tamil dialect, Bhadriraju Krishnamurti, Bharati Braille, Brahmi script, Brahmic scripts, Burgher people, Cambridge University Press, Canada, Caste, Central consonant, Central Province, Sri Lanka, Central Tamil dialect, Central vowel, Chindian, Chittoor district, Classical language, Clitic, Close vowel, Clusivity, Coimbatore, Colloquialism, Colombo, Consonant, Constitution of South Africa, Copula (linguistics), Coronal consonant, Dative case, Deity, ..., Demonstrative, Dental consonant, Dental, alveolar and postalveolar lateral approximants, Dictionary, Diglossia, Diphthong, Dougla, Dravidian languages, Dravidian Linguistics Association, Dravidian parties, Dutch language, Eastern Province, Sri Lanka, Edison, New Jersey, Elision, Epigraphy, Ethnologue, Evidentiality, Fiji, Flap consonant, France, Fricative consonant, Front vowel, Ganesha, Genitive case, Glottal stop, Godavari River, Government of India, Grammatical aspect, Grammatical case, Grammatical mood, Grammatical number, Grammatical particle, Grammatical person, Grammatical tense, Grantha script, Guyana, Harvard Oriental Series, Haryana, Head-directionality parameter, Hebbar Iyengar, Hero stone, Honorific, Ideophone, Implosive consonant, India, Indian Signing System, Indian subcontinent, Indians in the New York City metropolitan region, Indo-Aryan languages, Inflection, Instrumental case, Irula language, Iyengar Tamil, Jaffna, Jaffna Tamil dialect, Johann Phillip Fabricius, John Guy (historian), Kamil Zvelebil, Kannada, Kanyakumari district, Karachi, Karnataka, Kartikeya, Kerala, Kolar district, Kolezhuthu, Kolkata, Koneswaram temple, Kongu Tamil, Kumari tamil, KwaZulu-Natal, Labial consonant, Languages with official status in India, Lateral consonant, Latin script, Lexeme, Linguistic purism, List of English words of Dravidian origin, List of languages by first written accounts, List of languages by number of native speakers, List of loanwords in Sri Lankan Tamil, List of territorial entities where Tamil is an official language, Locative case, M. P. Sivagnanam, Madras Bashai, Madurai, Madurai Tamil, Maharashtra, Mahatma Gandhi, Malay language, Malayalam, Malaysia, Mandya, Manuscript, Maraimalai Adigal, Marathi language, Mauritius, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Medium of instruction, Memory of the World Programme, Metalanguage, Mid vowel, Middle Tamil language, Millennium, Mleccha, Morpheme, Morphological derivation, Munda languages, Myanmar, Mysore, Nannūl, Nasal consonant, Negombo Tamil dialect, Nellore district, Neolithic, Neologism, New Jersey, New York City, Nominative case, Northern Province, Sri Lanka, Noun, Noun class, Null-subject language, Oblique case, Official language, Old Tamil language, Open vowel, Overseas France, Pakistan, Palakkad, Palatal consonant, Pallava script, Pandyan dynasty, Parithimar Kalaignar, Parliament of Canada, Parliament of India, Philippines, Phoneme, Portuguese language, Pragmatics, Prefix, Preposition and postposition, President of India, Proto-Dravidian language, Proto-language, Pudhumaipithan, Puducherry, Punjab, India, Punjabi language, Réunion, Retroflex approximant, Retroflex consonant, Rhotic consonant, Sangam literature, Sankethi dialect, Sanskrit, Sanskritisation, Second language, Shiva, Singapore, Sinhalese language, Sociative case, Socioeconomic status, Sociolect, Sociolinguistics, South India, Sri Lanka, Sri Lankan Moors, Sri Lankan Tamil dialects, Sri Lankan Tamil diaspora, States and union territories of India, Stop consonant, Subject–object–verb, Subramania Bharati, Suffix, Suriname, Tamil Americans, Tamil Braille, Tamil diaspora, Tamil keyboard, Tamil languages, Tamil Lexicon dictionary, Tamil literature, Tamil loanwords in other languages, Tamil Nadu, Tamil phonology, Tamil population by cities, Tamil population by nation, Tamil Sangams, Tamil script, Tamil South Africans, Tamil Thai, Tamil-Brahmi, Tamil–Kannada languages, Tamils, Tamils in Pakistan, Tanittamil Iyakkam, Telangana, Telugu language, Thanjavur, Theta role, Thiruppugazh, Tirunelveli, Tirunelveli Tamil, Tittle, Tolkāppiyam, Toronto, Trincomalee, Trinidad and Tobago, Tsunami, Unicode, Union territory, University of Madras, Urdu, Vaishnavism, Vatteluttu alphabet, Velar consonant, Vietnam, Virama, Visarga, Voice (phonetics), Vowel, Vowel length, Yerukala language. Expand index (224 more) » « Shrink index
Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam (15 October 1931 – 27 July 2015) was an Indian scientist who served as the 11th President of India from 2002 to 2007. He was born and raised in Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu and studied physics and aerospace engineering. He spent the next four decades as a scientist and science administrator, mainly at the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and was intimately involved in India's civilian space programme and military missile development efforts. He thus came to be known as the Missile Man of India for his work on the development of ballistic missile and launch vehicle technology. He also played a pivotal organisational, technical, and political role in India's Pokhran-II nuclear tests in 1998, the first since the original nuclear test by India in 1974. Kalam was elected as the 11th President of India in 2002 with the support of both the ruling Bharatiya Janata Party and the then-opposition Indian National Congress. Widely referred to as the "People's President," he returned to his civilian life of education, writing and public service after a single term. He was a recipient of several prestigious awards, including the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian honour. While delivering a lecture at the Indian Institute of Management Shillong, Kalam collapsed and died from an apparent cardiac arrest on 27 July 2015, aged 83. Thousands including national-level dignitaries attended the funeral ceremony held in his hometown of Rameshwaram, where he was buried with full state honours.
The ablative case (sometimes abbreviated) is a grammatical case for nouns, pronouns and adjectives in the grammar of various languages; it is sometimes used to express motion away from something, among other uses.
The accusative case (abbreviated) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb.
Adichanallur is an archaeological site In Thoothukudi district in Tamil Nadu, India.
In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.
An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, adjective, another adverb, determiner, noun phrase, clause, or sentence.
In linguistics, an affix is a morpheme that is attached to a word stem to form a new word or word form.
Agastya was a revered Vedic sage of Hinduism.
Agglutination is a linguistic process pertaining to derivational morphology in which complex words are formed by stringing together morphemes without changing them in spelling or phonetics.
In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
The Andaman and Nicobar Islands, one of the seven union territories of India, are a group of islands at the juncture of the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea.
Andhra Pradesh is one of the 29 states of India.
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
The Arabic alphabet (الأَبْجَدِيَّة العَرَبِيَّة, or الحُرُوف العَرَبِيَّة) or Arabic abjad is the Arabic script as it is codified for writing Arabic.
The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) is a Government of India (Ministry of Culture) organisation responsible for archaeological research and the conservation and preservation of cultural monuments in the country.
An article (with the linguistic glossing abbreviation) is a word that is used with a noun (as a standalone word or a prefix or suffix) to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope.
Arwi (لسان الأروي or; lit. "the Arwi tongue"; அரபு-தமிழ் or) is a written register of the Tamil language that uses an Arabic alphabet.
In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.
Bangalore, officially known as Bengaluru, is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka.
Batticaloa Tamil dialect is one of the Sri Lankan Tamil dialects, which uses in Eastern provinces Batti - Ampara districts of Sri Lanka.
Bhadriraju Krishnamurti (19 June 1928 – 11 August 2012) was an Indian Dravidianist and linguist.
Bharati braille, or Bharatiya Braille (Hindi: भारती ब्रेल "Indian braille"), is a largely unified braille script for writing the languages of India.
Brahmi (IAST) is the modern name given to one of the oldest writing systems used in Ancient India and present South and Central Asia from the 1st millennium BCE.
The Brahmic scripts are a family of abugida or alphabet writing systems.
Burgher people, also known simply as Burghers, are a small Eurasian ethnic group in Sri Lanka descended from Portuguese, Dutch, British and other European men who settled in Sri Lanka and developed relationships with native Sri Lankan women.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Caste is a form of social stratification characterized by endogamy, hereditary transmission of a lifestyle which often includes an occupation, status in a hierarchy, customary social interaction, and exclusion.
A central consonant, also known as a median consonant, is a consonant sound that is produced when air flows across the center of the mouth over the tongue.
The Central Province (මධ්යම පළාත Madhyama Palata, மத்திய மாகாணம் Madhiya Maakaanam) is one of the nine provinces of Sri Lanka, the first level administrative division of the country.
The Central Tamil dialect is a dialect of Tamil spoken in the districts of Thanjavur, Tiruvarur, Nagapattinam and Tiruchirapalli in central Tamil Nadu, India and to some extent, in the neighbouring Cuddalore and Pudukkottai districts.
A central vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
Chindian is an informal term used to refer to a person of mixed Chinese and Indian ancestry; i.e. from any of the host of ethnic groups native to modern China and India.
Chittoor district, is a district in Rayalaseema region of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.
A classical language is a language with a literature that is classical.
A clitic (from Greek κλιτικός klitikos, "inflexional") is a morpheme in morphology and syntax that has syntactic characteristics of a word, but depends phonologically on another word or phrase.
A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
In linguistics, clusivity is a grammatical distinction between inclusive and exclusive first-person pronouns and verbal morphology, also called inclusive "we" and exclusive "we".
Coimbatore (Tamil: கோயம்புத்தூர்), also known as Kovai, is a major city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Everyday language, everyday speech, common parlance, informal language, colloquial language, general parlance, or vernacular (but this has other meanings too), is the most used variety of a language, which is usually employed in conversation or other communication in informal situations.
Colombo (translit,; translit) is the commercial capital and largest city of Sri Lanka.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
The Constitution of South Africa is the supreme law of the Republic of South Africa.
In linguistics, a copula (plural: copulas or copulae; abbreviated) is a word used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate (a subject complement), such as the word is in the sentence "The sky is blue." The word copula derives from the Latin noun for a "link" or "tie" that connects two different things.
Coronal consonants are consonants articulated with the flexible front part of the tongue.
The dative case (abbreviated, or sometimes when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case used in some languages to indicate, among other uses, the noun to which something is given, as in "Maria Jacobī potum dedit", Latin for "Maria gave Jacob a drink".
A deity is a supernatural being considered divine or sacred.
Demonstratives (abbreviated) are words, such as this and that, used to indicate which entities are being referred to and to distinguish those entities from others.
A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.
The alveolar lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
A dictionary, sometimes known as a wordbook, is a collection of words in one or more specific languages, often arranged alphabetically (or by radical and stroke for ideographic languages), which may include information on definitions, usage, etymologies, pronunciations, translation, etc.
In linguistics, diglossia is a situation in which two dialects or languages are used by a single language community.
A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.
Dougla (or Dugla) is a word used by people especially in Trinidad and Tobago, Suriname and Guyana to describe people who are of mixed Indian/South Asian and African descent more or less.
The Dravidian languages are a language family spoken mainly in southern India and parts of eastern and central India, as well as in Sri Lanka with small pockets in southwestern Pakistan, southern Afghanistan, Nepal, Bangladesh and Bhutan, and overseas in other countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore.
The Dravidian Linguistics Association is a learned society of scholars of Dravidian languages, based in Thiruvananthapuram.
Dravidian parties (திராவிடக்கட்சிகள்) include an array of regional political parties in the state of Tamil Nadu, India, which trace their origins and ideologies either directly or indirectly to the Dravidian movement of Periyar E. V. Ramasamy.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
The Eastern Province (கிழக்கு மாகாணம் Kil̮akku Mākāṇam; නැගෙනහිර පළාත Næ̆gĕnahira Paḷāta) is one of the nine provinces of Sri Lanka, the first level administrative division of the country.
Edison is a township in Middlesex County, New Jersey, United States, in the New York City metropolitan area.
In linguistics, an elision or deletion is the omission of one or more sounds (such as a vowel, a consonant, or a whole syllable) in a word or phrase.
Epigraphy (ἐπιγραφή, "inscription") is the study of inscriptions or epigraphs as writing; it is the science of identifying graphemes, clarifying their meanings, classifying their uses according to dates and cultural contexts, and drawing conclusions about the writing and the writers.
Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world.
In linguistics, evidentiality is, broadly, the indication of the nature of evidence for a given statement; that is, whether evidence exists for the statement and if so what kind.
Fiji (Viti; Fiji Hindi: फ़िजी), officially the Republic of Fiji (Matanitu Tugalala o Viti; Fiji Hindi: फ़िजी गणराज्य), is an island country in Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean about northeast of New Zealand's North Island.
In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.
Ganesha (गणेश), also known as Ganapati, Vinayaka, Pillaiyar and Binayak, is one of the best-known and most worshipped deities in the Hindu pantheon.
In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.
The glottal stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more precisely, the glottis.
The Godavari is India's second longest river after the Ganga.
The Government of India (IAST), often abbreviated as GoI, is the union government created by the constitution of India as the legislative, executive and judicial authority of the union of 29 states and seven union territories of a constitutionally democratic republic.
Aspect is a grammatical category that expresses how an action, event, or state, denoted by a verb, extends over time.
Case is a special grammatical category of a noun, pronoun, adjective, participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a phrase, clause or sentence.
In linguistics, grammatical mood (also mode) is a grammatical feature of verbs, used for signaling modality.
In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").
In grammar the term particle (abbreviated) has a traditional meaning, as a part of speech that cannot be inflected, and a modern meaning, as a function word associated with another word or phrase to impart meaning.
Grammatical person, in linguistics, is the grammatical distinction between deictic references to participant(s) in an event; typically the distinction is between the speaker (first person), the addressee (second person), and others (third person).
In grammar, tense is a category that expresses time reference with reference to the moment of speaking.
The Grantha script (Kiranta eḻuttu; ഗ്രന്ഥലിപി; grantha lipi) is an Indian script that was widely used between the sixth century and the 20th centuries by Tamil and Malayalam speakers in South India, particularly in Tamil Nadu and Kerala, to write Sanskrit and the classical language Manipravalam, and is still in restricted use in traditional Vedic schools (Sanskrit veda pāṭhaśālā).
Guyana (pronounced or), officially the Co-operative Republic of Guyana, is a sovereign state on the northern mainland of South America.
The Harvard Oriental Series is a book series founded in 1891 by Charles Rockwell Lanman and Henry Clarke Warren.
Haryana, carved out of the former state of East Punjab on 1November 1966 on linguistic basis, is one of the 29 states in India.
In linguistics, the head directionality is a proposed parameter that classifies languages according to whether they are head-initial (the head of a phrase precedes its complements) or head-final (the head follows its complements).
Hebbar Iyengars constitute a part of the Iyengar sub-caste of the Karnataka Brahmins.
A hero stone (Viragallu in Kannada, Naṭukal in Tamil) is a memorial commemorating the honorable death of a hero in battle.
An honorific is a title that conveys esteem or respect for position or rank when used in addressing or referring to a person.
Ideophones are words that evoke an idea in sound, often a vivid impression of certain sensations or sensory perceptions, e.g. sound (onomatopoeia), movement, color, shape, or action.
Implosive consonants are a group of stop consonants (and possibly also some affricates) with a mixed glottalic ingressive and pulmonic egressive airstream mechanism.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indian Signing System or Indian Sign System (ISS) is a convention for manually coded language used in India.
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
Indians in the New York City metropolitan region constitute one of the largest and fastest growing ethnicities in the New York City metropolitan area of the United States.
The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages are the dominant language family of the Indian subcontinent.
In grammar, inflection or inflexion – sometimes called accidence – is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.
The instrumental case (abbreviated or) is a grammatical case used to indicate that a noun is the instrument or means by or with which the subject achieves or accomplishes an action.
Irula is a Dravidian language spoken by the Irulas who inhabit the area of the Nilgiri mountains, in the states of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka, India.
Iyengar Tamil is a dialect of the Tamil language spoken mostly in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and the adjoining areas in South India.
Jaffna is the capital city of the Northern Province of Sri Lanka.
The Jaffna Tamil dialect is a Tamil dialect that is native to the Jaffna Peninsula and it is also the primary dialect used in the entire North of Sri Lanka.
Johann Philipp Fabricius (22 January 1711 – 23 January 1791) was a German Christian missionary and a Tamil scholar in the later part of his life.
John Alexander Guy (born 16 January 1949) is a British historian and biographer.
Kamil Václav Zvelebil (September 17, 1927 – January 17, 2009) was a distinguished Czech scholar in Indian literature and linguistics, notably Tamil, Sanskrit, Dravidian linguistics and literature and philology.
Kannada (ಕನ್ನಡ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Kannada people in India, mainly in the state of Karnataka, and by significant linguistic minorities in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Kerala, Goa and abroad.
Kanyakumari district is the southernmost district in Tamil Nadu state and mainland India.
Karachi (کراچی; ALA-LC:,; ڪراچي) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Sindh.
Karnataka also known Kannada Nadu is a state in the south western region of India.
Kartikeya (IAST), also known as Murugan, Skanda, Kumara, and Subrahmanya, is the Hindu god of war.
Kerala is a state in South India on the Malabar Coast.
Kolar district) is a district in the state of Karnataka, India. Kolar is the district headquarters. Located in southern Karnataka, it is the state's easternmost district. The district is surrounded by the Bangalore Rural district on the west, Chikballapur district on the north, the Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh on the east and the Krishnagiri and Vellore districts of Tamil Nadu on the south. On 10 September 2007, it was bifurcated to form the new district of Chikballapur. Due to the discovery of the Kolar Gold Fields, the district has become known as the "Golden Land" of India.
Kolezhuthu (கோலெழுத்து, കോലെഴുത്ത്) is one of the oldest writing systems in South India.
Kolkata (also known as Calcutta, the official name until 2001) is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal.
Koneswaram temple (திருக்கோணேச்சரம் Tirukkōṇēccaram, also known as Dakshinakailasha (தென்கயிலை, Těņkayilai, litt. Southern Kailasa) is a classical-medieval Hindu temple dedicated to Lord Shiva in Trincomalee, Eastern Sri Lanka. The temple is situated atop Konesar Malai, a promontory that overlooks the Indian Ocean, the nearby eastern coast (the Trincomalee District), as well as Trincomalee Harbour or Gokarna Bay. Konesvaram is revered as one the Pancha Ishwarams, of Sri Lanka for long time. Being a major place for Hindu pilgrimage, it was labelled "Rome of the Gentiles/Pagans of the Orient" in some records. Konesvaram holds a significant role in the religious and cultural history of Sri Lanka, as it was likely built during the reign of the early Cholas and the Five Dravidians of the Early Pandyan Kingdom. Pallava, Chola, Pandyan and Jaffna designs here reflect a continuous Tamil Saivite influence in the Vannimai region beginning during the classical period. The river Mahavali is believed to be risen at Sivanolipatha Malai, footer_align.
Kongu Tamil or Coimbatore Tamil (as common people call it) is the dialect of Tamil language that is spoken in Kongu Nadu, which is the western region of Tamil Nadu.
Kumari Tamil is a unique way of speaking Tamil pertaining to people of Kanniyakumari district.
KwaZulu-Natal (also referred to as KZN and known as "the garden province") is a province of South Africa that was created in 1994 when the Zulu bantustan of KwaZulu ("Place of the Zulu" in Zulu) and Natal Province were merged.
Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.
The Constitution of India designates the official language of the Government of India as Hindi written in the Devanagari script, as well as English.
A lateral is an l-like consonant in which the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but it is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
A lexeme is a unit of lexical meaning that exists regardless of the number of inflectional endings it may have or the number of words it may contain.
Linguistic purism or linguistic protectionism is the practice of defining or recognizing one variety of a language as being purer or of intrinsically higher quality than other varieties.
This is a list of English words that are borrowed directly or ultimately from Dravidian languages.
This is a list of languages arranged by the approximate dates of the oldest existing texts recording a complete sentence in the language.
This article ranks human languages by their number of native speakers.
Loan words in Sri Lankan Tamil came about mostly due contact between colonial powers and the native population.
The following is a list of sovereign states and territories where Tamil is an official language or language of government.
Locative (abbreviated) is a grammatical case which indicates a location.
Madras Bashai (Madras slang) is a pidgin language or a dialect of Tamil language heavily influenced by Indian English, Telugu, Urdu and Hindi language spoken in the city of Chennai (previously known as Madras) in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu; it is not mutually intelligible with any of those except for Tamil, to a certain extent.
Madurai is one of the major cities in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Madurai Tamil is the dialect spoken in the city of Madurai and over a vast geographical area of South Tamil Nadu, the area once ruled by the Pandiya Kings.
Maharashtra (abbr. MH) is a state in the western region of India and is India's second-most populous state and third-largest state by area.
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was an Indian activist who was the leader of the Indian independence movement against British rule.
Malay (Bahasa Melayu بهاس ملايو) is a major language of the Austronesian family spoken in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore.
Malayalam is a Dravidian language spoken across the Indian state of Kerala by the Malayali people and it is one of 22 scheduled languages of India.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
Mandya is a city in the Indian state of Karnataka.
A manuscript (abbreviated MS for singular and MSS for plural) was, traditionally, any document written by hand -- or, once practical typewriters became available, typewritten -- as opposed to being mechanically printed or reproduced in some indirect or automated way.
Maraimalai Adigal (15 July 1876 – 15 September 1950) was a Tamil orator and writer who fervently followed Saivam.
Marathi (मराठी Marāṭhī) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken predominantly by the Marathi people of Maharashtra, India.
Mauritius (or; Maurice), officially the Republic of Mauritius (République de Maurice), is an island nation in the Indian Ocean about off the southeast coast of the African continent.
The Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History (German: Max-Planck-Institut für Menschheitsgeschichte) performs basic research into archaeogenetics and linguistic cultural evolution.
A medium of instruction (plural: usually mediums of instruction, but the archaic media of instruction is still used by some) is a language used in teaching.
UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme is an international initiative launched to safeguard the documentary heritage of humanity against collective amnesia, neglect, the ravages of time and climatic conditions, and willful and deliberate destruction.
Broadly, any metalanguage is language or symbols used when language itself is being discussed or examined.
A mid vowel (or a true-mid vowel) is any in a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages.
The evolution of Old Tamil into Middle Tamil, which is generally taken to have been completed by the 8th century, was characterised by a number of phonological and grammatical changes.
A millennium (plural millennia or, rarely, millenniums) is a period equal to 1000 years, also called kiloyears.
Mleccha (from Vedic Sanskrit, meaning "non-Vedic", "barbarian"), also spelled Mlechchha or Maleccha, is a name, which referred to people of foreign extraction in ancient India.
A morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language.
Morphological derivation, in linguistics, is the process of forming a new word from an existing word, often by adding a prefix or suffix, such as For example, happiness and unhappy derive from the root word happy.
The Munda languages are a language family spoken by about nine million people in central and eastern India and Bangladesh.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
Mysore, officially Mysuru, is the third most populous city in the state of Karnataka, India.
Nannūl (நன்னூல்) is a work on Tamil grammar written by Pavananthi Munivar around 13th century AD.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
Negombo Tamil dialect or Negombo Fishermen’s Tamil is a Sri Lankan Tamil language dialect used by the fishers of Negombo, Sri Lanka.
Nellore district (officially: Sri Potti Sriramulu Nellore district), located in Coastal Andhra region is one of the 13 districts of Andhra Pradesh.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
A neologism (from Greek νέο- néo-, "new" and λόγος lógos, "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not yet been fully accepted into mainstream language.
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the Northeastern United States.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
The nominative case (abbreviated), subjective case, straight case or upright case is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments.
The Northern Province (வட மாகாணம் Vaṭa Mākāṇam; උතුරු පළාත Uturu Paḷāta) is one of the nine provinces of Sri Lanka, the first level administrative division of the country.
A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.
In linguistics, a noun class is a particular category of nouns.
In linguistic typology, a null-subject language is a language whose grammar permits an independent clause to lack an explicit subject; such a clause is then said to have a null subject.
In grammar, an oblique (abbreviated; from casus obliquus) or objective case (abbr.) is a nominal case that is used when a noun phrase is the object of either a verb or a preposition.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
Old Tamil is the period of the Tamil language spanning the 3rd century BC to the 8th century AD.
An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.
Overseas France (France d'outre-mer) consists of all the French-administerd territories outside the European continent.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Palakkad, also known as Palghat, is a city and municipality in the state of Kerala in southern India, spread over an area of 26.60 km2 and is the administrative headquarters of the Palakkad District.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
The Pallava script, a Brahmic script, was developed under the Pallava dynasty of Southern India around the 6th century AD.
The Pandyan dynasty was an ancient Tamil dynasty, one of the three Tamil dynasties, the other two being the Chola and the Chera.
Parithimar Kalaignar (born V. G. Suryanarayana Sastri at Vilacheri near Thirupparankundram on July 6, 1870 – November 2, 1903), a Professor of Tamil at the Madras Christian College, was the first person to campaign for the recognition of Tamil as a classical language.
The Parliament of Canada (Parlement du Canada) is the federal legislature of Canada, seated at Parliament Hill in Ottawa, the national capital.
The Parliament of India is the supreme legislative body of the Republic of India.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Pragmatics is a subfield of linguistics and semiotics that studies the ways in which context contributes to meaning.
A prefix is an affix which is placed before the stem of a word.
Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a class of words used to express spatial or temporal relations (in, under, towards, before) or mark various semantic roles (of, for).
The President of the Republic of India is the head of state of India and the commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces.
Proto-Dravidian is the linguistic reconstruction of the common ancestor of the Dravidian languages.
A proto-language, in the tree model of historical linguistics, is a language, usually hypothetical or reconstructed, and usually unattested, from which a number of attested known languages are believed to have descended by evolution, forming a language family.
Pudhumaipithan, also spelt as Pudumaipithan or Puthumaippiththan (புதுமைப்பித்தன்.), is the pseudonym of C. Viruthachalam (25 April 1906 – 5 May 1948), one of the most influential and revolutionary writers of Tamil fiction.
Puducherry (literally New Town in Tamil), formerly known as Pondicherry, is a union territory of India.
Punjab is a state in northern India.
Punjabi (Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ; Shahmukhi: پنجابی) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by over 100 million native speakers worldwide, ranking as the 10th most widely spoken language (2015) in the world.
Réunion (La Réunion,; previously Île Bourbon) is an island and region of France in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar and southwest of Mauritius.
The retroflex approximant is a type of consonant used in some languages.
A retroflex consonant is a coronal consonant where the tongue has a flat, concave, or even curled shape, and is articulated between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate.
In phonetics, rhotic consonants, or "R-like" sounds, are liquid consonants that are traditionally represented orthographically by symbols derived from the Greek letter rho, including r in the Latin script and p in the Cyrillic script.
The Sangam literature (Tamil: சங்க இலக்கியம், Sanga ilakkiyam) is the ancient Tamil literature of the period in the history of ancient southern India (known as the Thamizhagam or the Tamilagam) spanning from c. 300 BCE to 300 CE.
Sankethi is a South Dravidian language that is closely related to the Tamil.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Sanskritisation (Indian English) or Sanskritization (American English, Oxford spelling) is a particular form of social change found in India.
A person's second language or L2, is a language that is not the native language of the speaker, but that is used in the locale of that person.
Shiva (Sanskrit: शिव, IAST: Śiva, lit. the auspicious one) is one of the principal deities of Hinduism.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
Sinhalese, known natively as Sinhala (සිංහල; siṁhala), is the native language of the Sinhalese people, who make up the largest ethnic group in Sri Lanka, numbering about 16 million.
The sociative case in the Hungarian language can express the person in whose company (cf. Latin socius) the action is carried out, or to any belongings of people which take part in the action (together with their owners).
Socioeconomic status (SES) is an economic and sociological combined total measure of a person's work experience and of an individual's or family's economic and social position in relation to others, based on income, education, and occupation.
In sociolinguistics, a sociolect or social dialect is a variety of language (a register) used by a socioeconomic class, a profession, an age group or other social group.
Sociolinguistics is the descriptive study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context, on the way language is used, and society's effect on language.
South India is the area encompassing the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana as well as the union territories of Lakshadweep, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Puducherry, occupying 19% of India's area.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
Sri Lankan Moors (translit; translit formerly Ceylon Moors; colloquially referred to as Muslims or Moors) are an ethnic minority group in Sri Lanka, comprising 9.3% of the country's total population.
The Sri Lankan Tamil dialects or Ceylon Tamil dialects form a group of Tamil dialects used in the modern country of Sri Lanka by Sri Lankan Tamil people that is distinct from the dialects of modern Tamil spoken in Tamil Nadu and Kerala states of India.
The Sri Lankan Tamil diaspora refers to the global diaspora of Sri Lankan Tamil origin.
India is a federal union comprising 29 states and 7 union territories, for a total of 36 entities.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
In linguistic typology, a subject–object–verb (SOV) language is one in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence always or usually appear in that order.
Chinnaswami Subramania Bharati, also known as Bharathiyar (11 December 1882 – 11 September 1921) was a Tamil writer, poet, journalist, Indian independence activist and a social reformer from Tamil Nadu.
In linguistics, a suffix (sometimes termed postfix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word.
Suriname (also spelled Surinam), officially known as the Republic of Suriname (Republiek Suriname), is a sovereign state on the northeastern Atlantic coast of South America.
Tamil Americans (தமிழ் அமெரிக்கர்கள்) are Americans who are of Tamil ethnic origin, mostly from India and Sri Lanka and other diasporic centers such as Canada and the United Kingdom.
Tamil Braille is the smallest of the Bharati braille alphabets.
The Tamil diaspora refers to descendants of the Tamil immigrants who emigrated from their native lands to other parts of the world.
Tamil Keyboard is the keyboard layout used in Computers or any mobile devices to input Tamil language scripts.
The Tamil languages are the group of Dravidian languages most closely related to Tamil.
Tamil Lexicon (Tamil: தமிழ்ப் பேரகராதி Tamiḻ Pērakarāti) is a twelve-volume dictionary of the Tamil language.
Tamil literature (தமிழ் இலக்கியம்) refers to the literature in the Tamil language.
Tamil is an old language and due to its contact with the other languages from historical times, there are many loanwords from Tamil that are found in the other languages.
Tamil Nadu (• tamiḻ nāḍu ? literally 'The Land of Tamils' or 'Tamil Country') is one of the 29 states of India.
Tamil phonology (தமிழ்) is characterised by the presence of retroflex consonants and multiple rhotic consonants.
This is a list of Tamil population per city.
This is a list of Tamil population per nation.
The Tamil Sangams or Cankams were assemblies of Tamil scholars and poets that, according to traditional Tamil accounts, occurred in the remote past.
The Tamil script (தமிழ் அரிச்சுவடி) is an abugida script that is used by Tamils and Tamil speakers in India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Singapore and elsewhere to write the Tamil language, as well as to write the liturgical language Sanskrit, using consonants and diacritics not represented in the Tamil alphabet.
Tamil South Africans are South Africans of Tamil and mixed African black descent.
ThamizhthThaai, (Tamiḻ Tāy, Thamizh Thaai) denotes the deified personification of the Tamil language as a mother.
Tamil-Brahmi, or Tamili, is a variant of the Brahmi script used to write the Tamil language.
Tamil–Kannada is an inner branch (Zvelebil 1990:56) of the Southern Dravidian I (SDr I) subfamily of the Dravidian languages that include Tamil, Kannada and Malayalam.
The Tamil people, also known as Tamilar, Tamilans, or simply Tamils, are a Dravidian ethnic group who speak Tamil as their mother tongue and trace their ancestry to the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, the Indian Union territory of Puducherry, or the Northern, Eastern Province and Puttalam District of Sri Lanka.
There is a small community of Tamils in Pakistan.
Thani Tamil Iyakkam (தனித் தமிழ் இயக்கம்) (Pure or Independent Tamil Movement) is a linguistic-purity movement in Tamil literature which attempts to avoid loanwords from Sanskrit.
Telangana is a state in the south of India.
Telugu (తెలుగు) is a South-central Dravidian language native to India.
Thanjavur, formerly Tanjore,Pletcher 2010, p. 195 is a city in the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
In generative grammar, a theta role or θ-role is the formal device for representing syntactic argument structure—the number and type of noun phrases—required syntactically by a particular verb.
Thiruppugazh (Tamil: திருப்புகழ்,, IPA/Tamil:, meaning "Holy Praise" or "Divine Glory") is a 15th-century anthology of Tamil religious songs dedicated to Lord Murugan, the son of Lord Shivan, written by the poet-saint Arunagirinaadhar (Tamil: அருணகிரிநாதர்). The anthology is considered one of the central works of medieval Tamil literature, both for its poetical and musical qualities, and for its religious, moral and philosophical content.
Tirunelveli, also known as Nellai and historically (during British rule) as Tinnevelly, is a major city in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Nellai Tamil, also known as Tirunelveli Tamil, is one of the dialects of Tamil which is spoken in the districts of Tirunelveli and Thoothukudi as well as over the vast area of south Tamil Nadu which was once ruled by the Pandiya Kings.
A tittle or superscript dot is a small distinguishing mark, such as a diacritic or the dot on a lowercase i or j. The tittle is an integral part of the glyph of i and j, but diacritic dots can appear over other letters in various languages.
The Tholkāppiyam (தொல்காப்பியம், literally Paleo-literature) is a work on the grammar of the Tamil language and the earliest extant work of Tamil literature and linguistics.
Toronto is the capital city of the province of Ontario and the largest city in Canada by population, with 2,731,571 residents in 2016.
Trincomalee (திருகோணமலை Tirukōṇamalai; ත්රිකුණාමළය Trikuṇāmalaya) also known as Gokanna, is the administrative headquarters of the Trincomalee District and major resort port city of Eastern Province, Sri Lanka.
Trinidad and Tobago, officially the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, is a twin island sovereign state that is the southernmost nation of the West Indies in the Caribbean.
A tsunami (from 津波, "harbour wave"; English pronunciation) or tidal wave, also known as a seismic sea wave, is a series of waves in a water body caused by the displacement of a large volume of water, generally in an ocean or a large lake.
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
A union territory is a type of administrative division in the Republic of India.
University of Madras is a public state university in Chennai (formerly Madras), Tamil Nadu, India.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
Vaishnavism (Vaishnava dharma) is one of the major traditions within Hinduism along with Shaivism, Shaktism, and Smartism.
The Vaṭṭeḻuttu alphabet, also spelled Vattezhutthu (literally "rounded script", வட்டெழுத்து,,; വട്ടെഴുത്ത്) is an abugida writing system originating from the ancient Tamil people of South India.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Virama (्) is a generic term for the diacritic in many Brahmic scripts, ்including Devanagari and Eastern Nagari script, used to suppress the inherent vowel that otherwise occurs with every consonant letter.
Visarga (IAST) (विसर्गः) meaning "sending forth, discharge".
Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.
Yerukula is a Dravidian language mainly spoken by the Yerukala tribe.
Archaic Tamil, Classical Tamil, ISO 639:ptq, ISO 639:ta, ISO 639:tam, Lingua tamil, Modern Tamil, Pattapu language, Standard Tamil, Tamil (language), Tamil Language, Tamil Mozhi, Tamil lanuage, Tamil-language, Tamli language, Thamir language, Thamizh language, The history of Tamil, தமிழ, தமிழ்.