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# Sensor fusion

Sensor fusion is combining of sensory data or data derived from disparate sources such that the resulting information has less uncertainty than would be possible when these sources were used individually. [1]

## A priori and a posteriori

The Latin phrases a priori ("from the earlier") and a posteriori ("from the latter") are philosophical terms of art popularized by Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason (first published in 1781, second edition in 1787), one of the most influential works in the history of philosophy.

## Accelerometer

An accelerometer is a device that measures proper acceleration.

## Bayesian network

A Bayesian network, Bayes network, belief network, Bayes(ian) model or probabilistic directed acyclic graphical model is a probabilistic graphical model (a type of statistical model) that represents a set of variables and their conditional dependencies via a directed acyclic graph (DAG).

## Brooks–Iyengar algorithm

The Brooks–Iyengar algorithm or Brooks–Iyengar hybrid algorithm is a distributed algorithm that improves both the precision and accuracy of the interval measurements taken by a distributed sensor network, even in the presence of faulty sensors.

## Central limit theorem

In probability theory, the central limit theorem (CLT) establishes that, in some situations, when independent random variables are added, their properly normalized sum tends toward a normal distribution (informally a "bell curve") even if the original variables themselves are not normally distributed.

## Convolutional neural network

In machine learning, a convolutional neural network (CNN, or ConvNet) is a class of deep, feed-forward artificial neural networks, most commonly applied to analyzing visual imagery.

## Cramer's rule

In linear algebra, Cramer's rule is an explicit formula for the solution of a system of linear equations with as many equations as unknowns, valid whenever the system has a unique solution.

## Data (computing)

Data (treated as singular, plural, or as a mass noun) is any sequence of one or more symbols given meaning by specific act(s) of interpretation.

## Data fusion

Data fusion is the process of integrating multiple data sources to produce more consistent, accurate, and useful information than that provided by any individual data source.

## Data mining

Data mining is the process of discovering patterns in large data sets involving methods at the intersection of machine learning, statistics, and database systems.

## Dempster–Shafer theory

The theory of belief functions, also referred to as evidence theory or Dempster–Shafer theory (DST), is a general framework for reasoning with uncertainty, with understood connections to other frameworks such as probability, possibility and imprecise probability theories.

## Extended Kalman filter

In estimation theory, the extended Kalman filter (EKF) is the nonlinear version of the Kalman filter which linearizes about an estimate of the current mean and covariance.

## Fisher's method

In statistics, Fisher's method, also known as Fisher's combined probability test, is a technique for data fusion or "meta-analysis" (analysis of analyses).

## Global Positioning System

The Global Positioning System (GPS), originally Navstar GPS, is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States Air Force.

## GPS/INS

GPS/INS is the use of GPS satellite signals to correct or calibrate a solution from an inertial navigation system (INS).

## Homogeneity and heterogeneity

Homogeneity and heterogeneity are concepts often used in the sciences and statistics relating to the uniformity in a substance or organism.

## Hyperspectral imaging

Hyperspectral imaging, like other spectral imaging, collects and processes information from across the electromagnetic spectrum.

## Image fusion

The image fusion process is defined as gathering all the important information from multiple images, and their inclusion into fewer images, usually a single one.

An inertial navigation system (INS) is a navigation aid that uses a computer, motion sensors (accelerometers), rotation sensors (gyroscopes), and occasionally magnetic sensors (magnetometers) to continuously calculate by dead reckoning the position, the orientation, and the velocity (direction and speed of movement) of a moving object without the need for external references.

## Information

Information is any entity or form that provides the answer to a question of some kind or resolves uncertainty.

## Information integration

Information integration (II) is the merging of information from heterogeneous sources with differing conceptual, contextual and typographical representations.

## Kalman filter

Kalman filtering, also known as linear quadratic estimation (LQE), is an algorithm that uses a series of measurements observed over time, containing statistical noise and other inaccuracies, and produces estimates of unknown variables that tend to be more accurate than those based on a single measurement alone, by estimating a joint probability distribution over the variables for each timeframe.

## List of sensors

This is a list of sensors sorted by sensor type.

## Magnetometer

A magnetometer is an instrument that measures magnetism—either the magnetization of a magnetic material like a ferromagnet, or the direction, strength, or relative change of a magnetic field at a particular location.

## Microelectromechanical systems

Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS, also written as micro-electro-mechanical, MicroElectroMechanical or microelectronic and microelectromechanical systems and the related micromechatronics) is the technology of microscopic devices, particularly those with moving parts.

## Multisensory integration

Multisensory integration, also known as multimodal integration, is the study of how information from the different sensory modalities, such as sight, sound, touch, smell, self-motion and taste, may be integrated by the nervous system.

## Phased array

In antenna theory, a phased array usually means an electronically scanned array; a computer-controlled array of antennas which creates a beam of radio waves which can be electronically steered to point in different directions, without moving the antennas.

## Professional video camera

A professional video camera (often called a television camera even though the use has spread beyond television) is a high-end device for creating electronic moving images (as opposed to a movie camera, that earlier recorded the images on film).

Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.

## Riccati equation

In mathematics, a Riccati equation in the narrowest sense is any first-order ordinary differential equation that is quadratic in the unknown function.

## Seismometer

A seismometer is an instrument that measures motion of the ground, caused by, for example, an earthquake, a volcanic eruption, or the use of explosives.

## Sensor

In the broadest definition, a sensor is a device, module, or subsystem whose purpose is to detect events or changes in its environment and send the information to other electronics, frequently a computer processor.

## Sensor grid

A sensor grid integrates wireless sensor networks with grid computing concepts to enable real-time sensor data collection and the sharing of computational and storage resources for sensor data processing and management.

## Soft sensor

Soft sensor or virtual sensor is a common name for software where several measurements are processed together.

## Sonar

Sonar (originally an acronym for SOund Navigation And Ranging) is a technique that uses sound propagation (usually underwater, as in submarine navigation) to navigate, communicate with or detect objects on or under the surface of the water, such as other vessels.

## Sonobuoy

A sonobuoy (a portmanteau of sonar and buoy) is a relatively small buoy (typically, in diameter and long) expendable sonar system that is dropped/ejected from aircraft or ships conducting anti-submarine warfare or underwater acoustic research.

## Square Kilometre Array

The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) is a large multi radio telescope project aimed to be built in Australia and South Africa.

## Stereoscopy

Stereoscopy (also called stereoscopics, or stereo imaging) is a technique for creating or enhancing the illusion of depth in an image by means of stereopsis for binocular vision.

## TransducerML

TransducerML (Transducer Markup Language) or TML is a retired Open Geospatial Consortium standard developed to describe any transducer (sensor or transmitter) in terms of a common model, including characterizing not only the data but XML formed metadata describing the system producing that data.

## Variance

In probability theory and statistics, variance is the expectation of the squared deviation of a random variable from its mean.

## Very-long-baseline interferometry

Very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) is a type of astronomical interferometry used in radio astronomy.

## References

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