103 relations: Anterior trigeminothalamic tract, Axon, Basal plate (neural tube), Brainstem, Bulbous corpuscle, Central nervous system, Cerebellum, Cerebral cortex, Chorda tympani, Cingulate cortex, Cluster headache, Cortex (anatomy), Cortical homunculus, Cranial nerves, Cranial neural crest, Cuneate nucleus, Decussation, Digastric muscle, Dorsal root of spinal nerve, Dorsal trigeminal tract, Dura mater, Embryo, Facial nerve, Foramen ovale (skull), Foramen rotundum, Ganglion, General somatic afferent fibers, Glossopharyngeal nerve, Golgi tendon organ, Gracile nucleus, Hagfish, Hair cell, Insular cortex, Interneuron, Intralaminar nuclei of thalamus, Jaw jerk reflex, Lamellar corpuscle, Lamprey, Lateral medullary syndrome, Lateral pterygoid muscle, Lidocaine, Lingual nerve, List of foramina of the human body, Local anesthetic, Mandibular nerve, Masseter muscle, Maxillary nerve, Medial dorsal nucleus, Medial lemniscus, Medial pterygoid muscle, ..., Meninges, Merkel nerve ending, Mesencephalic nucleus of trigeminal nerve, Midbrain, Muscle spindle, Muscles of mastication, Mylohyoid muscle, Nociception, Nociceptor, Nostril, Nucleus (neuroanatomy), Olfactory system, Onion, Ophthalmic nerve, Optic chiasm, Parietal lobe, Phylogenetics, Pons, Postcentral gyrus, Posterior column, Posterior grey column, Posterolateral tract, Principal sensory nucleus of trigeminal nerve, Proprioception, Reticular formation, Sigmund Freud, Somatotopic arrangement, Special senses, Special visceral efferent fibers, Spinal trigeminal nucleus, Spinothalamic tract, Stroke, Sulfur, Superior orbital fissure, Tactile corpuscle, Temporal muscle, Tensor tympani muscle, Tensor veli palatini muscle, Thalamus, Trigeminal cave, Trigeminal ganglion, Trigeminal lemniscus, Trigeminal nerve nuclei, Trigeminal neuralgia, Trigeminovascular system, Two-point discrimination, Vagus nerve, Ventral posterolateral nucleus, Ventral posteromedial nucleus, Vertebrate, Vestibular system, Wilder Penfield, YouTube. Expand index (53 more) »
The anterior trigeminothalamic tract (or ventral trigeminothalamic tract) is composed of second order neuronal axons.
An axon (from Greek ἄξων áxōn, axis) or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses known as action potentials, away from the nerve cell body.
In the developing nervous system, the basal plate is the region of the neural tube ventral to the sulcus limitans.
The brainstem (or brain stem) is the posterior part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord.
The Bulbous corpuscle or Ruffini ending or Ruffini corpuscle is a slowly adapting mechanoreceptor located in the cutaneous tissue.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
The cerebellum (Latin for "little brain") is a major feature of the hindbrain of all vertebrates.
The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.
The chorda tympani is a branch of the facial nerve that originates from the taste buds in the front of the tongue, runs through the middle ear, and carries taste messages to the brain.
The cingulate cortex is a part of the brain situated in the medial aspect of the cerebral cortex.
Cluster headache (CH) is a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent, severe headaches on one side of the head, typically around the eye.
In anatomy and zoology, the cortex (Latin for bark, rind, shell or husk) is the outermost (or superficial) layer of an organ.
A cortical homunculus is a distorted representation of the human body, based on a neurological "map" of the areas and proportions of the human brain dedicated to processing motor functions, or sensory functions, for different parts of the body.
Cranial nerves are the nerves that emerge directly from the brain (including the brainstem), in contrast to spinal nerves (which emerge from segments of the spinal cord).
The cranial neural crest is a form of neural crest.
One of the dorsal column nuclei, the cuneate nucleus is a wedge-shaped nucleus in the closed part of the medulla oblongata.
Decussation is used in biological contexts to describe a crossing (Latin: the roman numeral for ten, deca, is an uppercase 'X').
The digastric muscle (also digastricus) (named digastric as it has two 'bellies') is a small muscle located under the jaw.
The dorsal root of spinal nerve (or posterior root of spinal nerve) is one of two "roots" which emerge from the spinal cord.
The posterior trigeminothalamic tract (or dorsal trigeminothalamic tract) is composed of second order neuronal axons.
Dura mater, or dura, is a thick membrane made of dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds the brain and spinal cord.
An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism.
The facial nerve is the seventh cranial nerve, or simply cranial nerve VII.
At the base of the skull, the foramen ovale (Latin: oval window) is one of the larger of the several holes (the foramina) that transmit nerves through the skull.
The foramen rotundum is a circular hole in the sphenoid bone that connects the middle cranial fossa and the pterygopalatine fossa.
A ganglion is a nerve cell cluster or a group of nerve cell bodies located in the autonomic nervous system and sensory system.
The general somatic afferent fibers (GSA, or somatic sensory fibers) afferent fibers arise from cells in the spinal ganglia and are found in all the spinal nerves, except occasionally the first cervical, and conduct impulses of pain, touch and temperature from the surface of the body through the dorsal roots to the spinal cord and impulses of muscle sense, tendon sense and joint sense from the deeper structures.
The glossopharyngeal nerve, known as the ninth cranial nerve (CN IX), is a mixed nerve that carries afferent sensory and efferent motor information.
The Golgi tendon organ (GTO) (also called Golgi organ, tendon organ, neurotendinous organ or neurotendinous spindle) is a proprioceptive sensory receptor organ that senses changes in muscle tension.
Located in the medulla oblongata, the gracile nucleus is one of the dorsal column nuclei that participate in the sensation of fine touch and proprioception of the lower body (legs and trunk).
Hagfish, the class '''Myxini''' (also known as Hyperotreti), are eel-shaped, slime-producing marine fish (occasionally called slime eels).
Hair cells are the sensory receptors of both the auditory system and the vestibular system in the ears of all vertebrates.
In each hemisphere of the mammalian brain the insular cortex (also insula and insular lobe) is a portion of the cerebral cortex folded deep within the lateral sulcus (the fissure separating the temporal lobe from the parietal and frontal lobes).
An interneuron (also called internuncial neuron, relay neuron, association neuron, connector neuron, intermediate neuron or local circuit neuron) is a broad class of neurons found in the human body.
The intralaminar nuclei are collections of neurons in the thalamus that are generally divided in two groups as follows.
The jaw jerk reflex or the masseter reflex is a stretch reflex used to test the status of a patient's trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V) and to help distinguish an upper cervical cord compression from lesions that are above the foramen magnum.
Lamellar corpuscles, or Pacinian corpuscles, are one of the four major types of mechanoreceptor cell in glabrous (hairless) mammalian skin.
Lampreys (sometimes also called, inaccurately, lamprey eels) are an ancient lineage of jawless fish of the order Petromyzontiformes, placed in the superclass Cyclostomata.
Lateral medullary syndrome is a neurological disorder causing a range of symptoms due to ischemia in the lateral part of the medulla oblongata in the brainstem.
The lateral pterygoid or external pterygoid is a muscle of mastication with two heads.
Lidocaine, also known as xylocaine and lignocaine, is a medication used to numb tissue in a specific area.
The lingual nerve is a branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (CN V3), which supplies general sensory innervation (not the gustative one) to the anterior 2/3 of the tongue.
This page lists foramina that occur in the human body.
A local anesthetic (LA) is a medication that causes reversible absence of pain sensation, although other senses are often affected, as well.
The mandibular nerve (V3) is the largest of the three divisions of the trigeminal nerve, the fifth cranial nerve (CN V).
In human anatomy, the masseter is one of the muscles of mastication.
The maxillary nerve (CN V2) is one of the three branches or divisions of the trigeminal nerve, the fifth (V) cranial nerve.
The medial dorsal nucleus (or dorsomedial nucleus of thalamus) is a large nucleus in the thalamus.
The medial lemniscus, also known as Reil's band or Reil's ribbon, is a large ascending bundle of heavily myelinated axons that decussate in the brainstem, specifically in the medulla oblongata.
The medial pterygoid (or internal pterygoid muscle), is a thick, quadrilateral muscle of mastication.
The meninges (singular: meninx, from membrane, adjectival: meningeal) are the three membranes that envelop the brain and spinal cord.
Merkel nerve endings are mechanoreceptors, a type of sensory receptor, that are found in the basal epidermis and hair follicles.
The mesencephalic nucleus is involved with reflex proprioception of the periodontium and of the muscles of mastication in the jaw that functions to prevent biting down hard enough to lose a tooth.
The midbrain or mesencephalon (from Greek mesos 'middle', and enkephalos 'brain') is a portion of the central nervous system associated with vision, hearing, motor control, sleep/wake, arousal (alertness), and temperature regulation.
Muscle spindles are stretch receptors within the body of a muscle that primarily detect changes in the length of the muscle.
There are four classical muscles of mastication.
The mylohyoid muscle is a paired muscle running from the mandible to the hyoid bone, forming the floor of the oral cavity of the mouth.
Nociception (also nocioception or nociperception, from Latin nocere 'to harm or hurt') is the sensory nervous system's response to certain harmful or potentially harmful stimuli.
A nociceptor is a sensory neuron that responds to damaging or potentially damaging stimuli by sending “possible threat” signals to the spinal cord and the brain.
A nostril (or naris, plural nares) is one of the two channels of the nose, from the point where they bifurcate to the external opening.
In neuroanatomy, a nucleus (plural form: nuclei) is a cluster of neurons in the central nervous system, located deep within the cerebral hemispheres and brainstem.
The olfactory system, or sense of smell, is the part of the sensory system used for smelling (olfaction).
The onion (Allium cepa L., from Latin cepa "onion"), also known as the bulb onion or common onion, is a vegetable that is the most widely cultivated species of the genus Allium.
The ophthalmic nerve (first division of fifth cranial nerve, ophthalmic division of trigeminal nerve, first division of trigeminal nerve, CN V1, latin: nervus ophthalmicus) is the first branch of the trigeminal nerve.
The optic chiasm or optic chiasma (Greek χίασμα, "crossing", from the Greek χιάζω 'to mark with an X', after the Greek letter 'Χ', chi) is the part of the brain where the optic nerves partially cross.
The parietal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals. The parietal lobe is positioned above the temporal lobe and behind the frontal lobe and central sulcus. The parietal lobe integrates sensory information among various modalities, including spatial sense and navigation (proprioception), the main sensory receptive area for the sense of touch (mechanoreception) in the somatosensory cortex which is just posterior to the central sulcus in the postcentral gyrus, and the dorsal stream of the visual system. The major sensory inputs from the skin (touch, temperature, and pain receptors), relay through the thalamus to the parietal lobe. Several areas of the parietal lobe are important in language processing. The somatosensory cortex can be illustrated as a distorted figure – the homunculus (Latin: "little man"), in which the body parts are rendered according to how much of the somatosensory cortex is devoted to them.Schacter, D. L., Gilbert, D. L. & Wegner, D. M. (2009). Psychology. (2nd ed.). New York (NY): Worth Publishers. The superior parietal lobule and inferior parietal lobule are the primary areas of body or spacial awareness. A lesion commonly in the right superior or inferior parietal lobule leads to hemineglect. The name comes from the parietal bone, which is named from the Latin paries-, meaning "wall".
In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον – phylé, phylon.
The pons (Latin for "bridge") is part of the brainstem, and in humans and other bipeds lies inferior to the midbrain, superior to the medulla oblongata and anterior to the cerebellum.
The postcentral gyrus is a prominent gyrus in the lateral parietal lobe of the human brain.
The posterior columns (dorsal columns) are nerve tracts in the white matter of the spinal cord.
The posterior grey column (posterior cornu, dorsal horn, spinal dorsal horn posterior horn) of the spinal cord is one of the three grey columns of the spinal cord.
The posterolateral tract (fasciculus of Lissauer, Lissauer's tract, tract of Lissauer, dorsolateral fasciculus, dorsolateral tract, zone of Lissauer) is a small strand situated in relation to the tip of the posterior column close to the entrance of the posterior nerve roots.
The principal sensory nucleus (or chief sensory nucleus of V) is a group of second order neurons which have cell bodies in the caudal pons.
Proprioception, from Latin proprius, meaning "one's own", "individual", and capio, capere, to take or grasp, is the sense of the relative position of one's own parts of the body and strength of effort being employed in movement.
The reticular formation is a set of interconnected nuclei that are located throughout the brainstem.
Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.
Somatotopy is the point-for-point correspondence of an area of the body to a specific point on the central nervous system.
In medicine and anatomy, the special senses are the senses that have specialized organs devoted to them.
Special visceral efferent fibers (SVE) are the efferent nerve fibers that provide motor innervation to the muscles of the pharyngeal arches in humans, and the branchial arches in fish.
The spinal trigeminal nucleus is a nucleus in the medulla that receives information about deep/crude touch, pain, and temperature from the ipsilateral face.
The spinothalamic tract (also known as anterolateral system or the ventrolateral system) is a sensory pathway from the skin to the thalamus.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
The superior orbital fissure is a foramen in the skull, although strictly it is more of a cleft, lying between the lesser and greater wings of the sphenoid bone.
Tactile corpuscles (or Meissner's corpuscles; discovered by anatomist Georg Meissner (1829–1905) and Rudolf Wagner) are a type of mechanoreceptor.
The temporal muscle, also known as the temporalis, is one of the muscles of mastication.
The tensor tympani is a muscle within the ear, located in the bony canal above the osseous portion of the auditory tube.
The tensor veli palatini muscle (tensor palati or tensor muscle of the velum palatinum) is a broad, thin, ribbon-like muscle in the head that tenses the soft palate.
The thalamus (from Greek θάλαμος, "chamber") is the large mass of gray matter in the dorsal part of the diencephalon of the brain with several functions such as relaying of sensory signals, including motor signals, to the cerebral cortex, and the regulation of consciousness, sleep, and alertness.
The trigeminal cave (also known as Meckel's cave or cavum trigeminale) is a dura mater pouch containing cerebrospinal fluid.
The trigeminal ganglion (or Gasserian ganglion, or semilunar ganglion, or Gasser's ganglion) is a sensory ganglion of the trigeminal nerve (CN V) that occupies a cavity (Meckel's cave) in the dura mater, covering the trigeminal impression near the apex of the petrous part of the temporal bone.
The trigeminal lemniscus, also called the trigeminothalamic tract, is a part of the brain that conveys tactile, pain, and temperature impulses from the skin of the face, the mucous membranes of the nasal and oral cavities, and the eye, as well as proprioceptive information from the facial and masticatory muscles.
The sensory trigeminal nerve nuclei are the largest of the cranial nerve nuclei, and extend through the whole of the midbrain, pons and medulla, and into the high cervical spinal cord.
Trigeminal neuralgia (TN or TGN) is a chronic pain disorder that affects the trigeminal nerve.
The trigeminovascular system consists of neurons in the trigeminal nerve that innervate cerebral blood vessels.
Two-point discrimination (2PD) is the ability to discern that two nearby objects touching the skin are truly two distinct points, not one.
The vagus nerve, historically cited as the pneumogastric nerve, is the tenth cranial nerve or CN X, and interfaces with parasympathetic control of the heart, lungs, and digestive tract.
The ventral posterolateral nucleus (VPL) is a nucleus of the thalamus.
The ventral posteromedial nucleus (VPM) is a nucleus of the thalamus.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
The vestibular system, in most mammals, is the sensory system that provides the leading contribution to the sense of balance and spatial orientation for the purpose of coordinating movement with balance. Together with the cochlea, a part of the auditory system, it constitutes the labyrinth of the inner ear in most mammals.
Wilder Graves Penfield (January 26, 1891April 5, 1976) was an American-Canadian neurosurgeon.
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California.
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