361 relations: Abundance of the chemical elements, Acaricide, Acid rain, Acne, Aerobic organism, Alberta, Alchemical symbol, Alchemy, Alcohol, Allicin, Allotropy, Alpha process, Alunite, Amino acid, Amorphous solid, Anaerobic organism, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Anglo-Norman language, Animal, Antoine Lavoisier, Apple scab, Archaea, Argon, Athabasca oil sands, Atomic number, Azide, Bacteria, Baryte, Beggiatoa, Benzene, Bible, Bible translations into English, Binder (material), Biochemistry, Biogeochemical cycle, Biomolecular structure, Biotin, Bisulfide, Bleach, Blister agent, Book of Genesis, Booker T. Washington, Calcium hydroxide, Calcium sulfate, Carbon, Carbon dioxide, Carbon disulfide, Carbon monosulfide, Carbon monoxide, ..., Carbonate minerals, Carusu, Catalysis, Catenation, Cell (biology), Cellophane, Cephalosporin, Charcoal, Chelation, Chemical element, Chemical weapons in World War I, Chemosynthesis, Chlorine, Chlorosulfuric acid, Cinnabar, Classical antiquity, Claus process, Coal, Coenzyme A, Coenzyme M, Cofactor (biochemistry), Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights, Comproportionation, Contact process, Cosmic ray spallation, Crystal, Crystal detector, Crystal radio, Cutaneous condition, Cyanide, Cysteine, Cystine, Cytochrome, Cytochrome c oxidase, Damnation, Dermatitis, Dermatophytosis, Desiccant, Detergent, Dibenzothiophene, Dielectric gas, Dimethyl sulfoxide, Dimethylsulfoniopropionate, Diphenyl disulfide, Disulfide, Disulfur dichloride, Disulfuric acid, Dithionate, Dithionite, DNA, Dye, Ebers Papyrus, Education in Chemistry, Egypt, Elasticity (physics), Electron acceptor, Electron donor, Environment (biophysical), Enzyme, Ether, Europe, Evaporite, Exfoliation (cosmetology), Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies, Ferredoxin, Fertilizer, Fire and brimstone, Flatulence, Flue gas, Fluorine, Food additive, Forest, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, Fossil fuel, Frasch process, Fruit, Fugacity, Fumigation, Fungicide, Furniture, Galena, Geochemical cycle, Glutathione, Gold, Grapefruit mercaptan, Greece, Green sulfur bacteria, Gulf of Mexico, Gunpowder, Gypsum, Half-life, Hanzhong, Helix, Hell, Hellenization, High-performance liquid chromatography, Higher sulfur oxides, History of India, Homocysteine, Hot spring, Human eye, Hydrodesulfurization, Hydrogen, Hydrogen cyanide, Hydrogen peroxide, Hydrogen sulfide, Hydrology, Hydrophobe, Hydrothermal vent, Industrial Revolution, Inlay, Insecticide, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Io (moon), Iridium, Iron–sulfur cluster, Iron–sulfur protein, Isis (journal), Isoprene, Isotope, Δ34S, Jupiter, Keratin, Keratolytic, Lapis lazuli, Laxative, Leblanc process, Lime sulfur, Lipoic acid, Lithotroph, Lotion, Louisiana, Lower sulfur oxides, Lung, Magnesium, Magnesium sulfate, Mange, Marseille, Match, Medication, Metal, Metastability, Meteorite, Methane, Methanogenesis, Methionine, Mildew, Milos, Mineral (nutrient), Miscibility, Mite, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Native element minerals, Natural abundance, Natural gas, Natural History (Pliny), Natural rubber, Nitrogen fixation, Nitrogenase, Noble gas, Nonmetal, Nutrient, Octasulfur, Odorizer, Odyssey, Oleum, Organic farming, Organic synthesis, Organosulfur compounds, Oxidation state, Oxyacid, Oxygen, Paper, Parasitism, Penicillin, Pennsylvania Dutch, Peptide, Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid, Periodic Videos, Peroxydisulfuric acid, Peroxymonosulfuric acid, Petroleum, PH, Phosphorus sulfide, Photographic fixer, Photography, Photosynthesis, Plant, Plant nutrition, Platinum, Pliny the Elder, Point group, Polyelectrolyte, Polymer, Polymorphism (materials science), Polysulfane, Polysulfide, Polythiazyl, Polythionic acid, Popular Science, Portland cement, Potassium, Potassium metabisulfite, Potassium nitrate, Power station, Propionibacterium acnes, Protein, Protonation, Psoriasis, Purple sulfur bacteria, Pyrite, Radioactive decay, Rasa shastra, Rayon, Rectifier, Redox, Respiration (physiology), Riftia pachyptila, Ring of Fire, Rocky Mountains, Root, Rosacea, Royal Society of Chemistry, Salt dome, Sanskrit, Scabies, Seborrhoeic dermatitis, Selman Waksman, Semiconductor, Sergei Winogradsky, Sermon, Sicily, Silicon-burning process, Smelting, Sodium dithionate, Sodium dithionite, Sodium dodecyl sulfate, Sodium thiosulfate, Sodium–sulfur battery, Soil, Song dynasty, Sphalerite, Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, Stibnite, Stratospheric sulfur aerosols, Sulfate, Sulfate minerals, Sulfate-reducing microorganisms, Sulfide, Sulfide minerals, Sulfite, Sulfite oxidase, Sulfolane, Sulfonamide (medicine), Sulfone, Sulfonic acid, Sulfonium, Sulfoxide, Sulfur assimilation, Sulfur concrete, Sulfur cycle, Sulfur dichloride, Sulfur dioxide, Sulfur dioxygenase, Sulfur hexafluoride, Sulfur inlay, Sulfur mustard, Sulfur tetrafluoride, Sulfur trioxide, Sulfuric acid, Sulfurous acid, Sulfuryl chloride, Surfactant, Syngas, Taoism, Tariff, Tarnish, Taurine, Tellurium, Terpene, Tetrasulfur tetranitride, Tetrathionate, Texas, Thiamine, Thio-, Thiocyanate, Thiocyanogen, Thioether, Thiol, Thionyl chloride, Thioredoxin, Thiosulfate, Tick, Tissue (biology), Toluene, Tonne, Torah, Toxicity, Traditional Chinese medicine, Transformer, Trisulfur, Troilite, Ultra-low-sulfur diesel, Valence (chemistry), Viscosity, Volcanism, Volcano, Vulcanization, Weathering, Winemaking, X-ray crystallography. 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The abundance of the chemical elements is a measure of the occurrence of the chemical elements relative to all other elements in a given environment.
Acaricides are pesticides that kill members of the arachnid subclass Acari, which includes ticks and mites.
Acid rain is a rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic, meaning that it has elevated levels of hydrogen ions (low pH).
Acne, also known as acne vulgaris, is a long-term skin disease that occurs when hair follicles are clogged with dead skin cells and oil from the skin.
An aerobic organism or aerobe is an organism that can survive and grow in an oxygenated environment.
Alberta is a western province of Canada.
Alchemical symbols, originally devised as part of alchemy, were used to denote some elements and some compounds until the 18th century.
Alchemy is a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practiced throughout Europe, Africa, Brazil and Asia.
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
Allotropy or allotropism is the property of some chemical elements to exist in two or more different forms, in the same physical state, known as allotropes of these elements.
The alpha process, also known as the alpha ladder, is one of two classes of nuclear fusion reactions by which stars convert helium into heavier elements, the other being the triple-alpha process.
Alunite is a hydrated aluminium potassium sulfate mineral, formula KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
In condensed matter physics and materials science, an amorphous (from the Greek a, without, morphé, shape, form) or non-crystalline solid is a solid that lacks the long-range order that is characteristic of a crystal.
An anaerobic organism or anaerobe is any organism that does not require oxygen for growth.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
Anglo-Norman, also known as Anglo-Norman French, is a variety of the Norman language that was used in England and, to a lesser extent, elsewhere in the British Isles during the Anglo-Norman period.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (also Antoine Lavoisier after the French Revolution;; 26 August 17438 May 1794) CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique) was a French nobleman and chemist who was central to the 18th-century chemical revolution and who had a large influence on both the history of chemistry and the history of biology.
Apple scab is a disease of Malus trees, such as apple trees, caused by the ascomycete fungus Venturia inaequalis.
Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.
Argon is a chemical element with symbol Ar and atomic number 18.
The Athabasca oil sands (or tar sands) are large deposits of bitumen or extremely heavy crude oil, located in northeastern Alberta, Canada – roughly centred on the boomtown of Fort McMurray.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
Azide is the anion with the formula N. It is the conjugate base of hydrazoic acid (HN3).
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Baryte or barite (BaSO4) is a mineral consisting of barium sulfate.
Beggiatoa is a genus of bacteria in the order Thiotrichales.
Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
Partial Bible translations into languages of the English people can be traced back to the late 7th century, including translations into Old and Middle English.
A binder or binding agent is any material or substance that holds or draws other materials together to form a cohesive whole mechanically, chemically, by adhesion or cohesion.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
In geography and Earth science, a biogeochemical cycle or substance turnover or cycling of substances is a pathway by which a chemical substance moves through biotic (biosphere) and abiotic (lithosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere) compartments of Earth.
Biomolecular structure is the intricate folded, three-dimensional shape that is formed by a molecule of protein, DNA, or RNA, and that is important to its function.
Biotin is a water-soluble B vitamin, also called vitamin B7 and formerly known as vitamin H or coenzyme R. Biotin is composed of a ureido ring fused with a tetrahydrothiophene ring.
Bisulfide (systematically named sulfanide and hydrogen(sulfide)(1−)) is an inorganic anion with the chemical formula HS− (also written as SH−).
Bleach is the generic name for any chemical product which is used industrially and domestically to whiten clothes, lighten hair color and remove stains.
A blister agent, or vesicant, is a chemical compound that causes severe skin, eye and mucosal pain and irritation.
The Book of Genesis (from the Latin Vulgate, in turn borrowed or transliterated from Greek "", meaning "Origin"; בְּרֵאשִׁית, "Bərēšīṯ", "In beginning") is the first book of the Hebrew Bible (the Tanakh) and the Old Testament.
Booker Taliaferro Washington (– November 14, 1915) was an American educator, author, orator, and advisor to presidents of the United States.
Calcium hydroxide (traditionally called slaked lime) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ca(OH)2.
Calcium sulfate (or calcium sulphate) is the inorganic compound with the formula CaSO4 and related hydrates.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon disulfide is a colorless volatile liquid with the formula CS2.
Carbon monosulfide is a chemical compound with the formula CS.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
Carbonate minerals are those minerals containing the carbonate ion, CO32−.
Carusu (plural carusi) is the Sicilian word for "boy" and is derived from the Latin carus which means "dear", Associazione Amici della miniera (Access date: August 28, 2013) In the mid-1800s through the early 1900s in Sicily, carusu was used to denote a "mine-boy", a labourer in a sulfur, salt or potash mine who worked next to a picuneri or pick-man, and carried raw ore from deep in the mine to the surface.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
In chemistry, catenation is the bonding of atoms of the same element into a series, called a chain.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
Cellophane is a thin, transparent sheet made of regenerated cellulose.
The cephalosporins (sg.) are a class of β-lactam antibiotics originally derived from the fungus Acremonium, which was previously known as "Cephalosporium".
Charcoal is the lightweight black carbon and ash residue hydrocarbon produced by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances.
Chelation is a type of bonding of ions and molecules to metal ions.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
The use of toxic chemicals as weapons dates back thousands of years, but the first large scale use of chemical weapons was during World War I. They were primarily used to demoralize, injure, and kill entrenched defenders, against whom the indiscriminate and generally very slow-moving or static nature of gas clouds would be most effective.
In biochemistry, chemosynthesis is the biological conversion of one or more carbon-containing molecules (usually carbon dioxide or methane) and nutrients into organic matter using the oxidation of inorganic compounds (e.g., hydrogen gas, hydrogen sulfide) or methane as a source of energy, rather than sunlight, as in photosynthesis.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
Chlorosulfuric acid (IUPAC name: sulfurochloridic acid) is the inorganic compound with the formula HSO3Cl.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Cinnabar and cinnabarite, likely deriving from the κιννάβαρι (kinnabari), refer to the common bright scarlet to brick-red form of mercury(II) sulfide (HgS) that is the most common source ore for refining elemental mercury, and is the historic source for the brilliant red or scarlet pigment termed vermilion and associated red mercury pigments.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
The Claus process is the most significant gas desulfurizing process, recovering elemental sulfur from gaseous hydrogen sulfide.
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
Coenzyme A (CoA,SCoA,CoASH) is a coenzyme, notable for its role in the synthesis and oxidation of fatty acids, and the oxidation of pyruvate in the citric acid cycle.
Coenzyme M is a coenzyme required for methyl-transfer reactions in the metabolism of methanogens.
A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme's activity.
The Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights (CIAAW) is an international scientific committee of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) under its Division of Inorganic Chemistry.
Comproportionation or synproportionation is a chemical reaction where two reactants, each containing the same element but with a different oxidation number, form a product in which the elements involved reach the same oxidation number.
The contact process is the current method of producing sulfuric acid in the high concentrations needed for industrial processes.
Cosmic ray spallation is a naturally occurring nuclear reaction causing nucleosynthesis.
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.
A crystal detector is an obsolete electronic component in some early 20th century radio receivers that used a piece of crystalline mineral as a detector (demodulator) to rectify the alternating current radio signal to extract the audio modulation which produced the sound in the earphones.
A crystal radio receiver, also called a crystal set, is a simple radio receiver, popular in the early days of radio.
A cutaneous condition is any medical condition that affects the integumentary system—the organ system that encloses the body and includes skin, hair, nails, and related muscle and glands.
A cyanide is a chemical compound that contains the group C≡N.
Cysteine (symbol Cys or C) is a semi-essential proteinogenic amino acid with the formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2SH.
Cystine is the oxidized dimer form of the amino acid cysteine and has the formula (SCH2CH(NH2)CO2H)2.
Cytochromes are heme-containing proteins.
The enzyme cytochrome c oxidase or Complex IV, is a large transmembrane protein complex found in bacteria, archaea, and in eukaryotes in their mitochondria.
Damnation (from Latin damnatio) is the concept of divine punishment and torment in an afterlife for actions that were committed on Earth.
Dermatitis, also known as eczema, is a group of diseases that results in inflammation of the skin.
Dermatophytosis, also known as ringworm, is a fungal infection of the skin.
A desiccant is a hygroscopic substance that induces or sustains a state of dryness (desiccation) in its vicinity; it is the opposite of a humectant.
A detergent is a surfactant or a mixture of surfactants with cleaning properties in dilute solutions.
Dibenzothiophene (DBT) is the organosulfur compound consisting of two benzene rings fused to a central thiophene ring.
A dielectric gas, or insulating gas, is a dielectric material in gaseous state.
Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is an organosulfur compound with the formula (CH3)2SO.
Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), is an organosulfur compound with the formula (CH3)2S+CH2CH2COO−.
Diphenyl disulfide is the chemical compound with the formula (C6H5S)2.
In chemistry, a disulfide refers to a functional group with the structure R−S−S−R′.
Disulfur dichloride is the chemical compound of sulfur and chlorine with the formula S2Cl2.
Disulfuric acid (alternative spelling disulphuric acid) or pyrosulfuric acid (alternative spelling pyrosulphuric acid), also named oleum, is an oxyacid of sulfur.
The dithionate (or metabisulfate) anion,, is a sulfur oxoanion derived from dithionic acid, H2S2O6.
The dithionite anion (2−), is an oxoanion of sulfur.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
A dye is a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied.
The Ebers Papyrus, also known as Papyrus Ebers, is an Egyptian medical papyrus of herbal knowledge dating to circa 1550 BC.
Education in Chemistry is a magazine covering all areas of chemistry education, concentrating on the teaching of chemistry in secondary schools and universities.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
In physics, elasticity (from Greek ἐλαστός "ductible") is the ability of a body to resist a distorting influence and to return to its original size and shape when that influence or force is removed.
An electron acceptor is a chemical entity that accepts electrons transferred to it from another compound.
An electron donor is a chemical entity that donates electrons to another compound.
A biophysical environment is a biotic and abiotic surrounding of an organism or population, and consequently includes the factors that have an influence in their survival, development, and evolution.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Ethers are a class of organic compounds that contain an ether group—an oxygen atom connected to two alkyl or aryl groups.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Evaporite is the term for a water-soluble mineral sediment that results from concentration and crystallization by evaporation from an aqueous solution.
Exfoliation involves the removal of the oldest dead skin cells on the skin's outermost surface.
Ferdinand II (Ferdinando Carlo; Ferdinannu Carlu; 12 January 1810 – 22 May 1859) was King of the Two Sicilies from 1830 until his early death in 1859.
Ferredoxins (from Latin ferrum: iron + redox, often abbreviated "fd") are iron-sulfur proteins that mediate electron transfer in a range of metabolic reactions.
A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.
Fire and brimstone (or, alternatively, brimstone and fire) is an idiomatic expression of referring to God's wrath in the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) and the New Testament.
Flatulence is defined in the medical literature as "flatus expelled through the anus" or the "quality or state of being flatulent", which is defined in turn as "marked by or affected with gases generated in the intestine or stomach; likely to cause digestive flatulence".
Flue gas is the gas exiting to the atmosphere via a flue, which is a pipe or channel for conveying exhaust gases from a fireplace, oven, furnace, boiler or steam generator.
Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9.
Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or enhance its taste, appearance, or other qualities.
A forest is a large area dominated by trees.
Fort Lauderdale (frequently abbreviated as Ft. Lauderdale) is a city in the U.S. state of Florida, north of Miami.
A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.
The Frasch process is a method to extract sulfur from underground deposits.
In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering.
In chemical thermodynamics, the fugacity of a real gas is an effective partial pressure which replaces the mechanical partial pressure in an accurate computation of the chemical equilibrium constant.
Fumigation is a method of pest control that completely fills an area with gaseous pesticides—or fumigants—to suffocate or poison the pests within.
Fungicides are biocidal chemical compounds or biological organisms used to kill parasitic fungi or their spores.
Furniture refers to movable objects intended to support various human activities such as seating (e.g., chairs, stools, and sofas), eating (tables), and sleeping (e.g., beds).
Galena, also called lead glance, is the natural mineral form of lead(II) sulfide.
In Earth science, a geochemical cycle is the pathway that chemical elements take in the surface and crust of the Earth.
Glutathione (GSH) is an important antioxidant in plants, animals, fungi, and some bacteria and archaea.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
The green sulfur bacteria (Chlorobiaceae) are a family of obligately anaerobic photoautotrophic bacteria.
The Gulf of Mexico (Golfo de México) is an ocean basin and a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean, largely surrounded by the North American continent.
Gunpowder, also known as black powder to distinguish it from modern smokeless powder, is the earliest known chemical explosive.
Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
Hanzhong (lit. "middle of the Han River") is a prefecture-level city in southwest Shaanxi province.
A helix, plural helixes or helices, is a type of smooth space curve, i.e. a curve in three-dimensional space.
Hell, in many religious and folkloric traditions, is a place of torment and punishment in the afterlife.
Hellenization or Hellenisation is the historical spread of ancient Greek culture, religion and, to a lesser extent, language, over foreign peoples conquered by Greeks or brought into their sphere of influence, particularly during the Hellenistic period following the campaigns of Alexander the Great in the fourth century BC.
High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC; formerly referred to as high-pressure liquid chromatography), is a technique in analytical chemistry used to separate, identify, and quantify each component in a mixture.
Higher sulfur oxides are a group of chemical compounds with the formula SO3+x where x lies between 0 and 1.
The history of India includes the prehistoric settlements and societies in the Indian subcontinent; the advancement of civilisation from the Indus Valley Civilisation to the eventual blending of the Indo-Aryan culture to form the Vedic Civilisation; the rise of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism;Sanderson, Alexis (2009), "The Śaiva Age: The Rise and Dominance of Śaivism during the Early Medieval Period." In: Genesis and Development of Tantrism, edited by Shingo Einoo, Tokyo: Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo, 2009.
Homocysteine is a non-proteinogenic α-amino acid.
A hot spring is a spring produced by the emergence of geothermally heated groundwater that rises from the Earth's crust.
The human eye is an organ which reacts to light and pressure.
Hydrodesulfurization (HDS) is a catalytic chemical process widely used to remove sulfur (S) from natural gas and from refined petroleum products, such as gasoline or petrol, jet fuel, kerosene, diesel fuel, and fuel oils.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hydrogen cyanide (HCN), sometimes called prussic acid, is a chemical compound with the chemical formula HCN.
Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical compound with the formula.
Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.
Hydrology is the scientific study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the water cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability.
In chemistry, hydrophobicity is the physical property of a molecule (known as a hydrophobe) that is seemingly repelled from a mass of water.
A hydrothermal vent is a fissure in a planet's surface from which geothermally heated water issues.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
Inlay covers a range of techniques in sculpture and the decorative arts for inserting pieces of contrasting, often coloured materials into depressions in a base object to form ornament or pictures that normally are flush with the matrix.
Insecticides are substances used to kill insects.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.
Io (Jupiter I) is the innermost of the four Galilean moons of the planet Jupiter.
Iridium is a chemical element with symbol Ir and atomic number 77.
Iron–sulfur clusters are molecular ensembles of iron and sulfide.
Iron–sulfur proteins are proteins characterized by the presence of iron–sulfur clusters containing sulfide-linked di-, tri-, and tetrairon centers in variable oxidation states.
Isis is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by the University of Chicago Press.
Isoprene, or 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene, is a common organic compound with the formula CH2.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
The δ34S (pronounced delta 34 S) value is a standardized method for reporting measurements of the ratio of two stable isotopes of sulfur, 34S:32S, in a sample against the equivalent ratio in a known reference standard.
Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.
Keratin is one of a family of fibrous structural proteins.
Keratolytic therapy is treatment to remove warts, calluses and other lesions in which the epidermis produces excess skin.
Lapis lazuli, or lapis for short, is a deep blue metamorphic rock used as a semi-precious stone that has been prized since antiquity for its intense color.
Laxatives, purgatives, or aperients are substances that loosen stools and increase bowel movements.
The Leblanc process was an early industrial process for the production of soda ash (sodium carbonate) used throughout the 19th century, named after its inventor, Nicolas Leblanc.
In horticulture, lime sulfur (British spelling lime sulphur) is a mixture of calcium polysulfides formed by reacting calcium hydroxide with sulfur, used in pest control.
Lipoic acid (LA), also known as α-lipoic acid and alpha lipoic acid (ALA) and thioctic acid is an organosulfur compound derived from caprylic acid (octanoic acid).
Lithotrophs are a diverse group of organisms using inorganic substrate (usually of mineral origin) to obtain reducing equivalents for use in biosynthesis (e.g., carbon dioxide fixation) or energy conservation (i.e., ATP production) via aerobic or anaerobic respiration.
A lotion is a low-viscosity topical preparation intended for application to unbroken skin.
Louisiana is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.
The lower sulfur oxides are a group of inorganic compounds with the formula SmOn, where m Some well characterized examples include sulfur monoxide (SO), its dimer S2O2, and a series of cyclic sulfur oxides, SnOx (x.
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Magnesium sulfate is an inorganic salt with the formula MgSO4(H2O)x where 0≤x≤7.
Mange is a type of skin disease caused by parasitic mites.
Marseille (Provençal: Marselha), is the second-largest city of France and the largest city of the Provence historical region.
A match is a tool for starting a fire.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
In physics, metastability is a stable state of a dynamical system other than the system's state of least energy.
A meteorite is a solid piece of debris from an object, such as a comet, asteroid, or meteoroid, that originates in outer space and survives its passage through the atmosphere to reach the surface of a planet or moon.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
Methanogenesis or biomethanation is the formation of methane by microbes known as methanogens.
Methionine (symbol Met or M) is an essential amino acid in humans.
Mildew is a form of fungus.
Milos or Melos (Modern Greek: Μήλος; Μῆλος Melos) is a volcanic Greek island in the Aegean Sea, just north of the Sea of Crete.
In the context of nutrition, a mineral is a chemical element required as an essential nutrient by organisms to perform functions necessary for life.
Miscibility is the property of substances to mix in all proportions (that is, to fully dissolve in each other at any concentration), forming a homogeneous solution.
Mites are small arthropods belonging to the class Arachnida and the subclass Acari (also known as Acarina).
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is one of the oldest physical science laboratories in the United States.
Native element minerals are those elements that occur in nature in uncombined form with a distinct mineral structure.
In physics, natural abundance (NA) refers to the abundance of isotopes of a chemical element as naturally found on a planet.
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
The Natural History (Naturalis Historia) is a book about the whole of the natural world in Latin by Pliny the Elder, a Roman author and naval commander who died in 79 AD.
Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, as initially produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds, plus water.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Nitrogen fixation is a process by which nitrogen in the Earth's atmosphere is converted into ammonia (NH3) or other molecules available to living organisms.
Nitrogenases are enzymes that are produced by certain bacteria, such as cyanobacteria (blue-green algae).
The noble gases (historically also the inert gases) make up a group of chemical elements with similar properties; under standard conditions, they are all odorless, colorless, monatomic gases with very low chemical reactivity.
Apart from hydrogen, nonmetals are located in the p-block. Helium, as an s-block element, would normally be placed next to hydrogen and above beryllium. However, since it is a noble gas, it is instead placed above neon (in the p-block). In chemistry, a nonmetal (or non-metal) is a chemical element that mostly lacks metallic attributes.
A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.
Octasulfur is an inorganic chemical with the chemical formula.
An odorizer is a device that adds an odorant to a gas.
The Odyssey (Ὀδύσσεια Odýsseia, in Classical Attic) is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer.
Oleum (Latin oleum, meaning oil), or fuming sulfuric acid, is a solution of various compositions of sulfur trioxide in sulfuric acid, or sometimes more specifically to disulfuric acid (also known as pyrosulfuric acid).
Organic farming is an alternative agricultural system which originated early in the 20th century in reaction to rapidly changing farming practices.
Organic synthesis is a special branch of chemical synthesis and is concerned with the intentional construction of organic compounds.
Organosulfur compounds are organic compounds that contain sulfur.
The oxidation state, sometimes referred to as oxidation number, describes degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.
An oxyacid, or oxoacid, is an acid that contains oxygen.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Paper is a thin material produced by pressing together moist fibres of cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets.
In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.
Penicillin (PCN or pen) is a group of antibiotics which include penicillin G (intravenous use), penicillin V (use by mouth), procaine penicillin, and benzathine penicillin (intramuscular use).
The Pennsylvania Dutch (Pennsilfaanisch Deitsch) are a cultural group formed by early German-speaking immigrants to Pennsylvania and their descendants.
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (conjugate base perfluorooctanesulfonate) (PFOS) is an anthropogenic fluorosurfactant and global pollutant.
The Periodic Table of Videos (usually shortened to Periodic Videos) is a series of videos about chemical elements and the periodic table.
Peroxydisulfuric acid is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula H2S2O8.
Peroxymonosulfuric acid, (H2SO5), also known as persulfuric acid, peroxysulfuric acid, or Caro's acid, is a liquid at room temperature.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
Phosphorus sulfides comprise a family of inorganic compounds containing only phosphorus and sulfur.
Photographic fixer is a mix of chemicals used in the final step in the photographic processing of film or paper.
Photography is the science, art, application and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
Plant nutrition is the study of the chemical elements and compounds necessary for plant growth, plant metabolism and their external supply.
Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
In geometry, a point group is a group of geometric symmetries (isometries) that keep at least one point fixed.
Polyelectrolytes are polymers whose repeating units bear an electrolyte group.
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
In materials science, polymorphism is the ability of a solid material to exist in more than one form or crystal structure.
A polysulfane is a chemical compound of formula H2Sx, where x > 1, although sometimes disulfane, H2S2 is excluded.
Polysulfides are a class of chemical compounds containing chains of sulfur atoms.
Polythiazyl (polymeric sulfur nitride), (SN)x, is an electrically conductive, gold- or bronze-colored polymer with metallic luster.
Polythionic acid is an oxoacid which has a straight chain of sulfur atoms and has the chemical formula H2SnO6 (n > 2).
Popular Science (also known as PopSci) is an American quarterly magazine carrying popular science content, which refers to articles for the general reader on science and technology subjects.
Portland cement is the most common type of cement in general use around the world as a basic ingredient of concrete, mortar, stucco, and non-specialty grout.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Potassium metabisulfite, K2S2O5, also known as potassium pyrosulfite, is a white crystalline powder with a pungent sulfur odour.
Potassium nitrate is a chemical compound with the chemical formula KNO3.
A power station, also referred to as a power plant or powerhouse and sometimes generating station or generating plant, is an industrial facility for the generation of electric power.
Cutibacterium (Propionibacterium) acnes is the relatively slow-growing, typically aerotolerant anaerobic, Gram-positive bacterium (rod) linked to the skin condition of acne; it can also cause chronic blepharitis and endophthalmitis, the latter particularly following intraocular surgery.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
In chemistry, protonation is the addition of a proton (H+) to an atom, molecule, or ion, forming the conjugate acid.
Psoriasis is a long-lasting autoimmune disease characterized by patches of abnormal skin.
The purple sulfur bacteria (PSB) are part of a group of Proteobacteria capable of photosynthesis, collectively referred to as purple bacteria.
The mineral pyrite, or iron pyrite, also known as fool's gold, is an iron sulfide with the chemical formula FeS2 (iron(II) disulfide).
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
In Ayurvedic medicine, the traditional medical lore of Hinduism, rasa shastra is a process by which various metals, Minerals and other substances, including mercury, are purified and combined with herbs in an attempt to treat illnesses.
Rayon is a manufactured fiber made from regenerated cellulose fiber.
A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current (AC), which periodically reverses direction, to direct current (DC), which flows in only one direction.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
In physiology, respiration is defined as the movement of oxygen from the outside environment to the cells within tissues, and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction.
Riftia pachyptila, commonly known as giant tube worms, are marine invertebrates in the phylum Annelida (formerly grouped in phylum Pogonophora and Vestimentifera) related to tube worms commonly found in the intertidal and pelagic zones.
The Ring of Fire is a major area in the basin of the Pacific Ocean where many earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur.
The Rocky Mountains, also known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range in western North America.
In vascular plants, the root is the organ of a plant that typically lies below the surface of the soil.
Rosacea is a long-term skin condition that typically affects the face.
The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) is a learned society (professional association) in the United Kingdom with the goal of "advancing the chemical sciences".
A salt dome is a type of structural dome formed when a thick bed of evaporite minerals (mainly salt, or halite) found at depth intrudes vertically into surrounding rock strata, forming a diapir.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Scabies, also known as the seven-year itch, is a contagious skin infestation by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei.
Seborrhoeic dermatitis, also known as seborrhoea, is a long-term skin disorder.
Selman Abraham Waksman (July 22, 1888 – August 16, 1973) was a Ukrainian-born, Jewish-American inventor, biochemist and microbiologist whose research into organic substances—largely into organisms that live in soil—and their decomposition promoted the discovery of streptomycin and several other antibiotics.
A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.
Sergei Nikolaievich Winogradsky (or Vinogradskiy; Сергій Миколайович Виноградський; 1 September 1856 – 25 February 1953) was a Russian microbiologist, ecologist and soil scientist who pioneered the cycle-of-life concept.
A sermon is an oration, lecture, or talk by a member of a religious institution or clergy.
Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.
In astrophysics, silicon burning is a very brief sequence of nuclear fusion reactions that occur in massive stars with a minimum of about 8-11 solar masses.
Smelting is a process of applying heat to ore in order to melt out a base metal.
Sodium dithionate Na2S2O6 is an important compound for inorganic chemistry.
Sodium dithionite (also known as sodium hydrosulfite) is a white crystalline powder with a weak sulfurous odor.
Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), synonymously sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), or sodium laurilsulfate, is a synthetic organic compound with the formula CH3(CH2)11SO4 Na.
Sodium thiosulfate (sodium thiosulphate) is a chemical and medication.
A sodium–sulfur battery is a type of molten-salt battery constructed from liquid sodium (Na) and sulfur (S).
Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.
The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.
Sphalerite ((Zn, Fe)S) is a mineral that is the chief ore of zinc.
Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to be established to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data.
Stibnite, sometimes called antimonite, is a sulfide mineral with the formula Sb2S3.
Stratospheric sulfur aerosols are sulfur-rich particles which exist in the stratosphere region of the Earth's atmosphere.
The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.
The sulfate minerals are a class of minerals that include the sulfate ion (SO42−) within their structure.
Sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) or sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP) are a group composed of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and sulfate-reducing archaea (SRA), both of which can perform anaerobic respiration utilizing sulfate (SO42–) as terminal electron acceptor, reducing it to hydrogen sulfide (H2S).
Sulfide (systematically named sulfanediide, and sulfide(2−)) (British English sulphide) is an inorganic anion of sulfur with the chemical formula S2− or a compound containing one or more S2− ions.
The sulfide minerals are a class of minerals containing sulfide (S2−) as the major anion.
Sulfites or sulphites are compounds that contain the sulfite ion (or the sulfate(IV) ion, from its correct systematic name),.
Sulfite oxidase is an enzyme in the mitochondria of all eukaryotes.
Sulfolane (also tetramethylene sulfone, systematic name: 2,3,4,5-tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide) is an organosulfur compound, formally a cyclic sulfone, with the formula (CH2)4SO2.
Sulfonamide (also called sulphonamide, sulfa drugs or sulpha drugs) is the basis of several groups of drugs.
A sulfone is a chemical compound containing a sulfonyl functional group attached to two carbon atoms.
A sulfonic acid (or sulphonic acid) refers to a member of the class of organosulfur compounds with the general formula R−S(.
A sulfonium ion, also known as sulphonium ion or sulfanium ion, is a positively charged ion (a "cation") featuring three organic substituents attached to sulfur.
A sulfoxide is a chemical compound containing a sulfinyl (SO) functional group attached to two carbon atoms.
Sulfur is an essential element for growth and physiological functioning of plants.
Sulfur concrete is a composite construction material, composed mainly of sulfur and aggregate (generally a coarse aggregate made of gravel or crushed rocks and a fine aggregate such as sand).
The sulfur cycle is the collection of processes by which sulfur moves to and from rock, waterways and living systems.
Sulfur dichloride is the chemical compound with the formula SCl2.
Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula.
Sulfur dioxygenase (sulfur oxygenase, sulfur:oxygen oxidoreductase) is an enzyme with systematic name S-sulfanylglutathione:oxygen oxidoreductase.
Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is an inorganic, colorless, odorless, non-flammable, extremely potent greenhouse gas, and an excellent electrical insulator.
Sulfur inlay is a rarely used technique for decorative surface inlay in wooden cabinetmaking.
Sulfur mustard, commonly known as mustard gas, is the prototypical substance of the sulfur-based family of cytotoxic and vesicant chemical warfare agents known as the sulfur mustards which have the ability to form large blisters on exposed skin and in the lungs.
Sulfur tetrafluoride is the chemical compound with the formula SF4.
Sulfur trioxide (alternative spelling sulphur trioxide) is the chemical compound with the formula SO3.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
Sulfurous acid (also sulphurous acid) is the chemical compound with the formula H2SO3.
Sulfuryl chloride is an inorganic compound with the formula SO2Cl2.
Surfactants are compounds that lower the surface tension (or interfacial tension) between two liquids, between a gas and a liquid, or between a liquid and a solid.
Syngas, or synthesis gas, is a fuel gas mixture consisting primarily of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and very often some carbon dioxide.
Taoism, also known as Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as ''Dao'').
A tariff is a tax on imports or exports between sovereign states.
Tarnish is a thin layer of corrosion that forms over copper, brass, silver, aluminum, magnesium, neodymium and other similar metals as their outermost layer undergoes a chemical reaction.
Tellurium is a chemical element with symbol Te and atomic number 52.
Terpenes are a large and diverse class of organic compounds, produced by a variety of plants, particularly conifers, and by some insects.
Tetrasulfur tetranitride is an inorganic compound with the formula S4N4.
The tetrathionate anion,, is a sulfur oxoanion derived from the compound tetrathionic acid, H2S4O6.
Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population.
Thiamine, also known as thiamin or vitamin B1, is a vitamin found in food, and manufactured as a dietary supplement and medication.
The prefix thio-, when applied to a chemical, such as an ion, means that an oxygen atom in the compound has been replaced by a sulfur atom.
Thiocyanate (also known as rhodanide) is the anion −. It is the conjugate base of thiocyanic acid.
Thiocyanogen, (SCN)2, is a pseudohalogen derived from the pseudohalide thiocyanate, −. This hexatomic compound exhibits C2 point group symmetry and has the connectivity NCS-SCN.
A thioether is a functional group in organosulfur chemistry with the connectivity C–S–C as shown on right.
Thiol is an organosulfur compound that contains a carbon-bonded sulfhydryl (R–SH) group (where R represents an alkyl or other organic substituent).
Thionyl chloride is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula SOCl2.
Thioredoxin is a class of small redox proteins known to be present in all organisms.
Thiosulfate (IUPAC-recommended spelling; sometimes thiosulphate in British English) is an oxyanion of sulfur.
Ticks are small arachnids, part of the order Parasitiformes.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
Toluene, also known as toluol, is an aromatic hydrocarbon.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
Torah (תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings.
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a style of traditional medicine built on a foundation of more than 2,500 years of Chinese medical practice that includes various forms of herbal medicine, acupuncture, massage (tui na), exercise (qigong), and dietary therapy, but recently also influenced by modern Western medicine.
A transformer is a static electrical device that transfers electrical energy between two or more circuits through electromagnetic induction.
The molecule or trisulfur or sulfur trimer or thiozone or triatomic sulfur is an allotrope of sulfur.
Troilite is a rare iron sulfide mineral with the simple formula of FeS.
Ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) is diesel fuel with substantially lowered sulfur content.
In chemistry, the valence or valency of an element is a measure of its combining power with other atoms when it forms chemical compounds or molecules.
The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.
Volcanism is the phenomenon of eruption of molten rock (magma) onto the surface of the Earth or a solid-surface planet or moon, where lava, pyroclastics and volcanic gases erupt through a break in the surface called a vent.
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
Vulcanization or vulcanisation is a chemical process for converting natural rubber or related polymers into more durable materials by heating them with sulfur or other equivalent curatives or accelerators.
Weathering is the breaking down of rocks, soil, and minerals as well as wood and artificial materials through contact with the Earth's atmosphere, water, and biological organisms.
Winemaking or vinification is the production of wine, starting with the selection of the fruit, its fermentation into alcohol, and the bottling of the finished liquid.
X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
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