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# B − L

In high energy physics, B − L (pronounced "bee minus ell") is the difference between the baryon number (B) and the lepton number (L). 

## Baryogenesis

In physical cosmology, baryogenesis is the hypothetical physical process that took place during the early universe that produced baryonic asymmetry, i.e. the imbalance of matter (baryons) and antimatter (antibaryons) in the observed universe.

## Baryon number

In particle physics, the baryon number is a strictly conserved additive quantum number of a system.

## Chiral anomaly

In physics, a chiral anomaly is the anomalous nonconservation of a chiral current.

## Circle group

In mathematics, the circle group, denoted by T, is the multiplicative group of all complex numbers with absolute value 1, that is, the unit circle in the complex plane or simply the unit complex numbers The circle group forms a subgroup of C&times;, the multiplicative group of all nonzero complex numbers.

## Conservation law

In physics, a conservation law states that a particular measurable property of an isolated physical system does not change as the system evolves over time.

## Gauge boson

In particle physics, a gauge boson is a force carrier, a bosonic particle that carries any of the fundamental interactions of nature, commonly called forces.

## Gauge theory

In physics, a gauge theory is a type of field theory in which the Lagrangian is invariant under certain Lie groups of local transformations.

## Global symmetry

In physics, a global symmetry is a symmetry that holds at all points in the spacetime under consideration, as opposed to a local symmetry which varies from point to point.

## Grand Unified Theory

A Grand Unified Theory (GUT) is a model in particle physics in which, at high energy, the three gauge interactions of the Standard Model which define the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, or forces, are merged into one single force.

## Gravitational anomaly

In theoretical physics, a gravitational anomaly is an example of a gauge anomaly: it is an effect of quantum mechanics–usually a one-loop diagram—that invalidates the general covariance of a theory of general relativity combined with some other fields.

## Leptogenesis (physics)

In physical cosmology, leptogenesis is the generic term for hypothetical physical processes that produced an asymmetry between leptons and antileptons in the very early universe, resulting in the present-day dominance of leptons over antileptons.

## Lepton number

In particle physics, lepton number (historically also called lepton charge) is a conserved quantum number representing the difference between the number of leptons and the number of antileptons in an elementary particle reaction.

## Leptoquark

Leptoquarks are hypothetical particles that carry information between quarks and leptons of a given generation that allow quarks and leptons to interact.

## Majoron

In particle physics, majorons (named after Ettore Majorana) are a hypothetical type of Goldstone boson that are theorized to mediate the neutrino mass violation of lepton number or ''B'' − ''L'' in certain high energy collisions such as Where two electrons collide to form two W bosons and the majoron J. The U(1)B–L symmetry is assumed to be global so that the majoron is not "eaten up" by the gauge boson and spontaneously broken.

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## Neutrino

A neutrino (denoted by the Greek letter ν) is a fermion (an elementary particle with half-integer spin) that interacts only via the weak subatomic force and gravity.

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## Particle physics

Particle physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation.

## Pion

In particle physics, a pion (or a pi meson, denoted with the Greek letter pi) is any of three subatomic particles:,, and.

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## Positron

The positron or antielectron is the antiparticle or the antimatter counterpart of the electron.

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## Proton

| magnetic_moment.

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## Proton decay

In particle physics, proton decay is a hypothetical form of radioactive decay in which the proton decays into lighter subatomic particles, such as a neutral pion and a positron.

## Quantum number

Quantum numbers describe values of conserved quantities in the dynamics of a quantum system.

## Seesaw mechanism

In the theory of grand unification of particle physics, and, in particular, in theories of neutrino masses and neutrino oscillation, the seesaw mechanism is a generic model used to understand the relative sizes of observed neutrino masses, of the order of eV, compared to those of quarks and charged leptons, which are millions of times heavier.

## Spontaneous symmetry breaking

Spontaneous symmetry breaking is a spontaneous process of symmetry breaking, by which a physical system in a symmetric state ends up in an asymmetric state.

## Weak hypercharge

In the Standard Model of electroweak interactions of particle physics, the weak hypercharge is a quantum number relating the electric charge and the third component of weak isospin.

## X (charge)

In particle physics, the X-charge (or simply X) is a conserved quantum number associated with the SO(10) grand unification theory.

## X and Y bosons

In particle physics, the X and Y bosons (sometimes collectively called "X bosons") are hypothetical elementary particles analogous to the W and Z bosons, but corresponding to a new type of force predicted by the Georgi–Glashow model, a grand unified theory.

B - L, B-L, B−L.

## References

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