52 relations: Alpha-Endorphin, Amylin, APUD cell, Autonomic nervous system, Carcinoid, Cell (biology), Chemoreceptor, Cholecystokinin, Chromaffin cell, Duodenum, Endocrine system, Enteric nervous system, Enterochromaffin cell, Enterochromaffin-like cell, Enteroglucagon, G cell, Gamma-Endorphin, Gastric glands, Gastric inhibitory polypeptide, Gastrin, Gastrin-releasing peptide, Gastrointestinal hormone, Gastrointestinal tract, Ghrelin, Glucagon, Glucagon-like peptide-1, Glucagon-like peptide-2, Histamine, Ileum, Incretin, Insulin, Jejunum, Large intestine, List of human cell types derived from the germ layers, Motilin, Nervous system, Neuroendocrine cell, Neuroendocrine tumor, Neurotensin, Oxyntomodulin, Pancreas, Pancreatic islets, Pancreatic polypeptide, Paracrine signalling, Parasympathetic nervous system, Peptide YY, Secretin, Serotonin, Somatostatin, Substance P, ..., The Lancet, Vasoactive intestinal peptide. Expand index (2 more) » « Shrink index
α-Endorphin is an endogenous opioid peptide with a length of 16 amino acids, and the amino acid sequence: Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Met-Thr-Ser-Glu-Lys-Ser-Gln-Thr-Pro-Leu-Val-Thr.
Amylin, or islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), is a 37-residue peptide hormone.
digestive hormones secreted by APUD cells APUD cells constitute a group of apparently unrelated endocrine cells, which were named by the scientist A.G.E. Pearse, who developed the APUD concept in the early 1960s.
The autonomic nervous system (ANS), formerly the vegetative nervous system, is a division of the peripheral nervous system that supplies smooth muscle and glands, and thus influences the function of internal organs.
Carcinoid (also carcinoid tumor) is a slow-growing type of neuroendocrine tumor originating in the cells of the neuroendocrine system.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
A chemoreceptor, also known as chemosensor, is a specialized sensory receptor cell which transduces (responds to) a chemical substance (endogenous or induced) and generates a biological signal.
Cholecystokinin (CCK or CCK-PZ; from Greek chole, "bile"; cysto, "sac"; kinin, "move"; hence, move the bile-sac (gallbladder)) is a peptide hormone of the gastrointestinal system responsible for stimulating the digestion of fat and protein.
Chromaffin cells, also pheochromocytes, are neuroendocrine cells found mostly in the medulla of the adrenal glands in mammals.
The duodenum is the first section of the small intestine in most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds.
The endocrine system is a chemical messenger system consisting of hormones, the group of glands of an organism that carry those hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs, and the feedback loops of homeostasis that the hormones drive.
The enteric nervous system (ENS) or intrinsic nervous system is one of the main divisions of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and consists of a mesh-like system of neurons that governs the function of the gastrointestinal tract.
Enterochromaffin (EC) cells (also known as Kulchitsky cells), discovered by Nikolai Kulchitsky of Karazin Kharkiv National University.
Enterochromaffin-like cells or ECL cells are a type of neuroendocrine cell found in the gastric glands of the gastric mucosa beneath the epithelium, in particular in the vicinity of parietal cells, that aid in the production of gastric acid via the release of histamine.
Enteroglucagon is a peptide hormone derived from preproglucagon.
In anatomy, the G cell (or γ-cell) is a type of cell in the stomach and duodenum that secretes gastrin.
γ-Endorphin is an opioid peptide that is characterized by the presence of 17 amino acids.
The gastric glands are located in different regions of the stomach.
Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) or gastroinhibitory peptide, also known as the glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, is an inhibiting hormone of the secretin family of hormones.
Gastrin is a peptide hormone that stimulates secretion of gastric acid (HCl) by the parietal cells of the stomach and aids in gastric motility.
Gastrin-releasing peptide, also known as GRP, is a neuropeptide, a regulatory molecule that has been implicated in a number of physiological and pathophysiological processes.
The gastrointestinal hormones (or gut hormones) constitute a group of hormones secreted by enteroendocrine cells in the stomach, pancreas, and small intestine that control various functions of the digestive organs.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
Ghrelin (pronounced), the "hunger hormone", also known as lenomorelin (INN), is a peptide hormone produced by ghrelinergic cells in the gastrointestinal tract which functions as a neuropeptide in the central nervous system.
Glucagon is a peptide hormone, produced by alpha cells of the pancreas.
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a 30 amino acid long peptide hormone deriving from the tissue-specific posttranslational processing of the proglucagon peptide.
Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a 33 amino acid peptide with the sequence HADGSFSDEMNTILDNLAARDFINWLIQTKITD (see Proteinogenic amino acid) in humans.
Histamine is an organic nitrogenous compound involved in local immune responses, as well as regulating physiological function in the gut and acting as a neurotransmitter for the brain, spinal cord, and uterus.
The ileum is the final section of the small intestine in most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds.
Incretins are a group of metabolic hormones that stimulate a decrease in blood glucose levels.
Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.
The jejunum is the second part of the small intestine in humans and most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds.
The large intestine, also known as the large bowel or colon, is the last part of the gastrointestinal tract and of the digestive system in vertebrates.
This is a list of cells in humans derived from the germ layers, which includes the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm.
Motilin is a 22-amino acid polypeptide hormone in the motilin family that, in humans, is encoded by the MLN gene.
The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
Neuroendocrine cells are cells that receive neuronal input (neurotransmitters released by nerve cells or neurosecretory cells) and, as a consequence of this input, release message molecules (hormones) to the blood.
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are neoplasms that arise from cells of the endocrine (hormonal) and nervous systems.
Neurotensin is a 13 amino acid neuropeptide that is implicated in the regulation of luteinizing hormone and prolactin release and has significant interaction with the dopaminergic system.
Oxyntomodulin is a naturally occurring 37-amino acid peptide hormone found in the colon, produced by the oxyntic (fundic) cells of the oxyntic (fundic) mucosa.
The pancreas is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates.
The pancreatic islets or islets of Langerhans are the regions of the pancreas that contain its endocrine (hormone-producing) cells, discovered in 1869 by German pathological anatomist Paul Langerhans.
Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) is a polypeptide secreted by PP cells in the endocrine pancreas predominantly in the head of the pancreas.
Paracrine signaling is a form of cell-to-cell communication in which a cell produces a signal to induce changes in nearby cells, altering the behavior of those cells.
The parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) is one of the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system (a division of the peripheral nervous system (PNS)), the other being the sympathetic nervous system.
Peptide YY (PYY) also known as peptide tyrosine tyrosine is a peptide that in humans is encoded by the PYY gene.
Secretin is a hormone that regulates water homeostasis throughout the body and influences the environment of the duodenum by regulating secretions in the stomach, pancreas, and liver.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
Somatostatin, also known as growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH) or by several other names, is a peptide hormone that regulates the endocrine system and affects neurotransmission and cell proliferation via interaction with G protein-coupled somatostatin receptors and inhibition of the release of numerous secondary hormones.
Substance P (SP) is an undecapeptide (a peptide composed of a chain of 11 amino acid residues) member of the tachykinin neuropeptide family. It is a neuropeptide, acting as a neurotransmitter and as a neuromodulator. Substance P and its closely related neurokinin A (NKA) are produced from a polyprotein precursor after differential splicing of the preprotachykinin A gene. The deduced amino acid sequence of substance P is as follows.
The Lancet is a weekly peer-reviewed general medical journal.
Vasoactive intestinal peptide, also known as vasoactive intestinal polypeptide or VIP, is a peptide hormone that is vasoactive in the intestine.