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List of human cell types derived from the germ layers

Index List of human cell types derived from the germ layers

This is a list of cells in humans derived from the germ layers, which includes the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. [1]

104 relations: Adipocyte, Alpha cell, Angioblast, Astrocyte, Beta cell, Cardiac muscle cell, Cell (biology), Cementoblast, Centroacinar cell, CFU-GEMM, Cholecystocyte, Cholecystokinin, Chondroblast, Chondrocyte, Chromaffin cell, Club cell, Corneal keratocyte, Corticotropic cell, Delta cell, Ectoderm, Egg cell, Endoderm, Endothelial colony forming cell, Endothelial progenitor cell, Endothelial stem cell, Endothelium, Enterochromaffin-like cell, Enterocyte, Enteroendocrine cell, Ependyma, Epsilon cell, Extraglomerular mesangial cell, Fibroblast, Fibrocyte, Follicular cell, Foveolar cell, G cell, Gastric chief cell, Gastric inhibitory polypeptide, Germ cell, Germ layer, Glomus cell, Goblet cell, Gonadotropic cell, Granulosa cell, Hepatic stellate cell, Hepatocyte, Human, Interstitial cell, Interstitial cell of Cajal, ..., Intraglomerular mesangial cell, Juxtaglomerular cell, Keratinocyte, Kupffer cell, Lactotropic cell, Leydig cell, Lipoblast, Lymphoblast, Lymphocyte, Macula densa, Melanocyte, Merkel cell, Mesangial cell, Mesoangioblast, Mesoderm, Microfold cell, Mural cell, Myeloid tissue, Myocyte, Myosatellite cell, Neuroglia, Neuron, Nevus cell, Odontoblast, Oligodendrocyte, Osteoblast, Osteocyte, Oxyphil cell (parathyroid), Pancreatic stellate cell, Paneth cell, Parafollicular cell, Parathyroid chief cell, Parathyroid gland, Parietal cell, Peg cell, Pericyte, Pinealocyte, Podocyte, PP cell, Proximal tubule, Pulmonary alveolus, S cell, Satellite glial cell, Schwann cell, Sertoli cell, Somatotropic cell, Spermatozoon, Stromal cell, Telocyte, Tendon cell, Thyrotropic cell, Trichocyte (human), Tuft cell, Urothelium. Expand index (54 more) »

Adipocyte

Adipocytes, also known as lipocytes and fat cells, are the cells that primarily compose adipose tissue, specialized in storing energy as fat.

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Alpha cell

Alpha cells (more commonly alpha-cells or α-cells) are endocrine cells in the pancreatic islets of the pancreas.

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Angioblast

Angioblast (or vasoformative cell) is the embryonic tissue from which blood vessels arise.

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Astrocyte

Astrocytes (Astro from Greek astron.

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Beta cell

Beta cells (β cells) are a type of cell found in the pancreatic islets of the pancreas.

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Cardiac muscle cell

Cardiac muscle cells or cardiomyocytes (also known as myocardiocytes or cardiac myocytes) are the muscle cells (myocytes) that make up the cardiac muscle (heart muscle).

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Cell (biology)

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

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Cementoblast

A cementoblast is a biological cell that forms from the follicular cells around the root of a tooth, and whose biological function is cementogenesis, which is the formation of cementum (hard tissue that covers the tooth root).

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Centroacinar cell

Centroacinar cells are spindle-shaped cells in the exocrine pancreas.

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CFU-GEMM

CFU-GEMM is a colony forming unit that generates myeloid cells.

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Cholecystocyte

A cholecystocyte is an epithelial cell found in the gallbladder.

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Cholecystokinin

Cholecystokinin (CCK or CCK-PZ; from Greek chole, "bile"; cysto, "sac"; kinin, "move"; hence, move the bile-sac (gallbladder)) is a peptide hormone of the gastrointestinal system responsible for stimulating the digestion of fat and protein.

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Chondroblast

Chondroblasts, or perichondrial cells, is the name given to mesenchymal progenitor cells in situ which, from endochondral ossification, will form chondrocytes in the growing cartilage matrix.

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Chondrocyte

Chondrocytes (from Greek χόνδρος, chondros.

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Chromaffin cell

Chromaffin cells, also pheochromocytes, are neuroendocrine cells found mostly in the medulla of the adrenal glands in mammals.

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Club cell

Club cells, also known as bronchiolar exocrine cells, and originally known as Clara cells, are dome-shaped cells with short microvilli, found in the small airways (bronchioles) of the lungs.

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Corneal keratocyte

Corneal keratocytes (corneal fibroblasts) are specialized fibroblasts residing in the stroma.

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Corticotropic cell

Corticotropes (or corticotrophs) are basophilic cells in the anterior pituitary that produce melanocyte-stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and lipotropin.

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Delta cell

Delta cells (δ-cells or D cells) are somatostatin-producing cells.

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Ectoderm

Ectoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo.

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Egg cell

The egg cell, or ovum (plural ova), is the female reproductive cell (gamete) in oogamous organisms.

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Endoderm

Endoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo.

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Endothelial colony forming cell

Endothelial colony forming cells (or ECFCs) are adult endothelial progenitor cells capable of differentiating to regenerate endothelial cell populations.

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Endothelial progenitor cell

Endothelial progenitor cell (or EPC) is a term that has been applied to multiple different cell types that play roles in the regeneration of the endothelial lining of blood vessels.

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Endothelial stem cell

Endothelial stem cells (ESCs) are one of three types of stem cells found in bone marrow.

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Endothelium

Endothelium refers to cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall.

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Enterochromaffin-like cell

Enterochromaffin-like cells or ECL cells are a type of neuroendocrine cell found in the gastric glands of the gastric mucosa beneath the epithelium, in particular in the vicinity of parietal cells, that aid in the production of gastric acid via the release of histamine.

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Enterocyte

Enterocytes, or intestinal absorptive cells, are simple columnar epithelial cells found in the small intestine.

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Enteroendocrine cell

Enteroendocrine cells are specialized cells of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas with endocrine function.

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Ependyma

Ependyma is the thin neuroepithelial lining of the ventricular system of the brain and the central canal of the spinal cord, made up of ependymal cells.

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Epsilon cell

Epsilon cells (ε-cells) are endocrine cells found in the Islets of Langerhans and produce the hormone ghrelin.

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Extraglomerular mesangial cell

Extraglomerular mesangial cells (also known as Lacis cells, Polkissen cells, or Goormaghtigh cells) are light-staining pericytes in the kidney found outside the glomerulus, near the vascular pole.

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Fibroblast

A fibroblast is a type of biological cell that synthesizes the extracellular matrix and collagen, the structural framework (stroma) for animal tissues, and plays a critical role in wound healing.

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Fibrocyte

A fibrocyte is an inactive mesenchymal cell, that is, a cell showing minimal cytoplasm, limited amounts of rough endoplasmic reticulum and lacks biochemical evidence of protein synthesis.

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Follicular cell

Follicular cells (also called thyroid epithelial cells or thyrocytes) are cells in the thyroid gland that are responsible for the production and secretion of thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3).

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Foveolar cell

Foveolar cells or surface mucous cells are mucus-producing cells which cover the inside of the stomach, protecting it from the corrosive nature of gastric acid.

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G cell

In anatomy, the G cell (or γ-cell) is a type of cell in the stomach and duodenum that secretes gastrin.

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Gastric chief cell

A gastric chief cell (or peptic cell, or gastric zymogenic cell) is a type of cell in the stomach that releases pepsinogen and gastric lipase and is the cell responsible for secretion of chymosin in ruminants.

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Gastric inhibitory polypeptide

Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) or gastroinhibitory peptide, also known as the glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, is an inhibiting hormone of the secretin family of hormones.

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Germ cell

A germ cell is any biological cell that gives rise to the gametes of an organism that reproduces sexually.

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Germ layer

A germ layer is a primary layer of cells that form during embryogenesis.

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Glomus cell

A glomus cell (type I) is a peripheral chemoreceptor, mainly located in the carotid bodies and aortic bodies, that helps the body regulate breathing.

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Goblet cell

Goblet cells are simple columnar epithelial cells that secrete gel-forming mucins, like mucin MUC5AC.

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Gonadotropic cell

Gonadotropic cells are endocrine cells in the anterior pituitary that produce the gonadotropins, such as the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).

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Granulosa cell

A granulosa cell or follicular cell is a somatic cell of the sex cord that is closely associated with the developing female gamete (called an oocyte or egg) in the ovary of mammals.

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Hepatic stellate cell

Hepatic stellate cells (here HSC), also known as perisinusoidal cells or Ito cells (earlier lipocytes or fat-storing cells), are pericytes found in the perisinusoidal space of the liver, also known as the space of Disse (a small area between the sinusoids and hepatocytes).

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Hepatocyte

A hepatocyte is a cell of the main parenchymal tissue of the liver.

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Human

Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.

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Interstitial cell

Interstitial cell refers to any cell that lies between other cells.

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Interstitial cell of Cajal

The interstitial cell of Cajal (ICC) is a type of interstitial cell found in the gastrointestinal tract.

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Intraglomerular mesangial cell

Intraglomerular mesangial cells are specialized pericytes located among the glomerular capillaries within a renal corpuscle of a kidney.

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Juxtaglomerular cell

The juxtaglomerular cells (JG cells, or granular cells) are cells in the kidney that synthesize, store, and secrete the enzyme renin.

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Keratinocyte

A keratinocyte is the predominant cell type in the epidermis, the outermost layer of the skin, constituting 90% of the cells found there.

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Kupffer cell

Kupffer cells, also known as stellate macrophages and Kupffer-Browicz cells, are specialized macrophages located in the liver, lining the walls of the sinusoids.

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Lactotropic cell

A lactotropic cell (also known as prolactin cell, epsilon acidophil, lactotrope, lactotroph, mammatroph, mammotroph) is a cell in the anterior pituitary which produces prolactin in response to hormonal signals including dopamine which is inhibitory and thyrotropin-releasing hormone which is stimulatory.

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Leydig cell

Leydig cells, also known as interstitial cells of Leydig, are found adjacent to the seminiferous tubules in the testicle.

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Lipoblast

A lipoblast is a precursor cell for an adipocyte.

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Lymphoblast

A lymphoblast is a modified naive lymphocyte that also looks completely different.

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Lymphocyte

A lymphocyte is one of the subtypes of white blood cell in a vertebrate's immune system.

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Macula densa

In the kidney, the macula densa is an area of closely packed specialized cells lining the wall of the distal tubule, at the point where the thick ascending limb meets the distal convoluted tubule.

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Melanocyte

Melanocytes are melanin-producing neural crest-derived cells located in the bottom layer (the stratum basale) of the skin's epidermis, the middle layer of the eye (the uvea), the inner ear, vaginal epithelium, meninges, bones, and heart.

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Merkel cell

Merkel cells, also known as Merkel-Ranvier cells or tactile epithelial cells, are oval-shaped mechanoreceptors essential for light touch sensation and found in the skin of vertebrates.

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Mesangial cell

Mesangial cells are specialised cells in the kidney that make up the mesangium of the glomerulus.

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Mesoangioblast

A mesoangioblast is a mesenchymal-like cell, associated with the walls of the large vessels.

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Mesoderm

In all bilaterian animals, the mesoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo.

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Microfold cell

Microfold cells (or M cells) are found in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) of the Peyer's patches in the small intestine, and in the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) of other parts of the gastrointestinal tract.

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Mural cell

The term mural cell refers generally to vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) and pericytes, both of which reside in close contact with endothelial cells along the blood vessels and are important for vascular development and stability.

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Myeloid tissue

Myeloid tissue, in the bone marrow sense of the word myeloid (myelo- + -oid), is tissue of bone marrow, of bone marrow cell lineage, or resembling bone marrow, and myelogenous tissue (myelo- + -genous) is any tissue of, or arising from, bone marrow; in these senses the terms are usually used synonymously, as for example with chronic myeloid/myelogenous leukemia.

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Myocyte

A myocyte (also known as a muscle cell) is the type of cell found in muscle tissue.

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Myosatellite cell

Myosatellite cells or satellite cells are small multipotent cells with virtually no cytoplasm found in mature muscle.

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Neuroglia

Neuroglia, also called glial cells or simply glia, are non-neuronal cells in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system.

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Neuron

A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.

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Nevus cell

Nevus cells are a variant of melanocytes.

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Odontoblast

In vertebrates, an odontoblast is a cell of neural crest origin that is part of the outer surface of the dental pulp, and whose biological function is dentinogenesis, which is the formation of dentin, the substance beneath the tooth enamel on the crown and the cementum on the root.

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Oligodendrocyte

Oligodendrocytes, or oligodendroglia,.

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Osteoblast

Osteoblasts (from the Greek combining forms for "bone", ὀστέο-, osteo- and βλαστάνω, blastanō "germinate") are cells with a single nucleus that synthesize bone.

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Osteocyte

An osteocyte, a star-shaped type of bone cell, is the most commonly found cell in mature bone tissue, and can live as long as the organism itself.

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Oxyphil cell (parathyroid)

In the parathyroid gland, the parathyroid oxyphil cell is larger and lighter staining than the parathyroid chief cell.

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Pancreatic stellate cell

Pancreatic stellate cells (PaSCs) are classified as myofibroblast-like cells that are located in exocrine regions of the pancreas.

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Paneth cell

Paneth cells are one of the principal cell types of the epithelium of the small intestine, along with goblet cells, enterocytes, and enteroendocrine cells.

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Parafollicular cell

Parafollicular cells (also called C cells) are neuroendocrine cells in the thyroid which primary function is to secrete calcitonin.

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Parathyroid chief cell

Parathyroid chief cells (also called parathyroid principal cells or simply parathyroid cells) are one of the two cell types of the parathyroid glands, along with oxyphil cells.

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Parathyroid gland

Parathyroid glands are small endocrine glands in the neck of humans and other tetrapods that produce parathyroid hormone.

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Parietal cell

Parietal cells (also known as oxyntic or delomorphous cells), are the epithelial cells that secrete hydrochloric acid (HCl) and intrinsic factor.

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Peg cell

A peg cell is a non-ciliated epithelial cell within the uterine tube (oviduct or Fallopian tube).

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Pericyte

Pericytes are contractile cells that wrap around the endothelial cells that line the capillaries and venules throughout the body.

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Pinealocyte

Pinealocytes are the main cells contained in the pineal gland, located behind the third ventricle and between the two hemispheres of the brain.

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Podocyte

Podocytes are cells in the Bowman's capsule in the kidneys that wrap around capillaries of the glomerulus.

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PP cell

Pancreatic polypeptide cells(PP cells), or formerly as gamma cells, are cells which produce pancreatic polypeptides in the pancreatic islets (Islets of Langerhans) of the pancreas.

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Proximal tubule

The proximal tubule is the portion of the duct system of the nephron of the kidney which leads from Bowman's capsule to the loop of Henle.

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Pulmonary alveolus

A pulmonary alveolus (plural: alveoli, from Latin alveolus, "little cavity") is a hollow cavity found in the lung parenchyma, and is the basic unit of ventilation.

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S cell

S cells are cells which release secretin, found in the jejunum and duodenum.

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Satellite glial cell

Satellite glial cells are glial cells that cover the surface of nerve cell bodies in sensory, sympathetic, and parasympathetic ganglia.

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Schwann cell

Schwann cells (named after physiologist Theodor Schwann) or neurolemmocytes are the principal glia of the peripheral nervous system (PNS).

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Sertoli cell

A Sertoli cell (a kind of sustentacular cell) is a "nurse" cell of the testicles that is part of a seminiferous tubule and helps in the process of spermatogenesis, the production of sperm.

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Somatotropic cell

Somatotropes (from the Greek sōmat meaning "body" and tropikós meaning "of or pertaining to a turn or change") are cells in the anterior pituitary that produce growth hormone.

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Spermatozoon

A spermatozoon (pronounced, alternate spelling spermatozoön; plural spermatozoa; from σπέρμα "seed" and ζῷον "living being") is a motile sperm cell, or moving form of the haploid cell that is the male gamete.

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Stromal cell

Stromal cells are connective tissue cells of any organ, for example in the uterine mucosa (endometrium), prostate, bone marrow, lymph node and the ovary.

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Telocyte

Telocytes are a novel defined type of interstitial (stromal) cells, in the field of Stem cells, with very long (tens to hundreds of micrometres) and very thin prolongations (mostly below the resolving power of light microscopy).

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Tendon cell

Tendon cells, or tenocytes, are elongated fibroblast type cells.

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Thyrotropic cell

Thyrotropes (also called thyrotrophs) are endocrine cells in the anterior pituitary which produce thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in response to thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH).

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Trichocyte (human)

In mammals, trichocytes are the specialized epithelial cells from which the highly mechanically resilient tissues hair and nails are formed.

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Tuft cell

Tuft cells, sometimes referred to as brush cells, are chemosensory cells in the epithelial lining of the intestines and respiratory tract.

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Urothelium

Urothelium (or uroepithelium) is an example of transitional epithelium.

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List of human cell types derived primarily from ectoderm, List of human cell types derived primarily from endoderm, List of human cell types derived primarily from mesoderm.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_human_cell_types_derived_from_the_germ_layers

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