33 relations: Agar plate, Agglutination (biology), Antibody, Antigen, Antiserum, Bacteria, Biovar, Cell (biology), Cholera, Enterotoxin, Genus, Hemagglutination, HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-DP, HLA-DQ, HLA-DR, Human leukocyte antigen, Immune system, Kauffman–White classification, Major histocompatibility complex, Microorganism, Polymerase chain reaction, Rebecca Lancefield, Salmonella, Salmonella bongori, Salmonella enterica, Species, Transplant rejection, Vibrio cholerae, Virus, White blood cell.
An agar plate is a Petri dish that contains a solid growth medium, typically agar plus nutrients, used to culture small organisms such as microorganisms.
Agglutination is the clumping of particles.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
In immunology, an antigen is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response (to produce an antibody) in the host organism.
Antiserum (plural: antisera) is human or nonhuman blood serum containing polyclonal antibodies and is used to pass on passive immunity to many diseases.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
A biovar is a variant prokaryotic strain that differs physiologically and/or biochemically from other strains in a particular species.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
An enterotoxin is a protein exotoxin released by a microorganism that targets the intestines.
A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.
Hemagglutination, or haemagglutination, is a specific form of agglutination that involves red blood cells (RBCs).
HLA-A is a group of human leukocyte antigens (HLA) that are coded for by the HLA-A locus, which is located at human chromosome 6p21.3.
HLA-B (major histocompatibility complex, class I, B) is a human gene that provides instructions for making a protein that plays a critical role in the immune system.
HLA-C belongs to the MHC (human.
HLA-DP is a protein/peptide-antigen receptor and graft-versus-host disease antigen that is composed of 2 subunits, DPα and DPβ.
HLA-DQ (DQ) is a cell surface receptor protein found on antigen presenting cells.
HLA-DR is an MHC class II cell surface receptor encoded by the human leukocyte antigen complex on chromosome 6 region 6p21.31.
The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system or complex is a gene complex encoding the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins in humans.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
The Kauffmann–White classification or Kauffman and White classification scheme is a system that classifies the genus Salmonella into serotypes, based on surface antigens.
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a set of cell surface proteins essential for the acquired immune system to recognize foreign molecules in vertebrates, which in turn determines histocompatibility.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique used in molecular biology to amplify a single copy or a few copies of a segment of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence.
Rebecca Craighill Lancefield (January 5, 1895 – March 3, 1981) was a prominent American microbiologist.
Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped (bacillus) Gram-negative bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae.
Salmonella bongori is a pathogenic bacterium belonging to the genus Salmonella, and was earlier known as Salmonella subspecies V or S. enterica subsp. bongori or S. choleraesuis subsp.
Salmonella enterica (formerly Salmonella choleraesuis) is a rod-shaped, flagellate, facultative anaerobic, gram-negative bacterium and a species of the genus Salmonella.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
Transplant rejection occurs when transplanted tissue is rejected by the recipient's immune system, which destroys the transplanted tissue.
Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative, comma-shaped bacterium.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.