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Index Species

In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition. [1]

193 relations: African Invertebrates, Alfred Russel Wallace, Allele, Alloenzyme, Allopatric speciation, Amanita muscaria, Anagenesis, Antigenic shift, Apomixis, Archaea, Aristotelianism, Aristotle, Aristotle's biology, Asexual reproduction, Available name, Bacteria, Barcode, Barcode of Life Data System, Barred owl, Bateson–Dobzhansky–Muller model, Binomial nomenclature, Biodiversity, Biological life cycle, Biology, Bird, Boa (genus), Boa constrictor, Botanical name, Botanical nomenclature, Bovidae, Carl Linnaeus, Carrion crow, Cat, Charles Darwin, Chromosome, Chronospecies, Cladistics, Class (biology), Climate change, Cline (biology), Common chiffchaff, Comparative anatomy, Compilospecies, Conservation, Convergent evolution, Cougar, Crane (bird), Cretaceous, Crow, Crustacean, ..., Cytochrome c oxidase, DNA, DNA–DNA hybridization, Drosophila, Eagle, Early modern period, Echinoderm, Ecological niche, Ecology, Ecosystem, Encyclopedia of Life, Endangered species, Endling, Ensatina, Enzyme, Ernst Mayr, Eukaryote, European herring gull, Evolution, Evolutionarily significant unit, External validity, Extinction, Extinction event, Family (biology), Felidae, Fertility, Fish, Fitness landscape, Fossil, Functional extinction, Fungus, Gene flow, Gene pool, Genetic drift, Genetic recombination, Genetics, Genus, George Gaylord Simpson, Global biodiversity, Great chain of being, Great skua, Greenish warbler, Gunther's banded tree frog, Heliconius, Herring gull, Hierarchy, Himalayas, Homo sapiens, Hooded crow, Horizontal gene transfer, Hybrid (biology), Hylomorphism, Hypsiboas, Integrated Taxonomic Information System, International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, Italic type, Jaguar, James Mallet, Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, John Ray, Kalevi Kull, Karyotype, KEGG, Larus, Leopard, Lesser black-backed gull, Linnaean taxonomy, Microbiology, Mitochondrial DNA, Morphology (biology), Multicellular organism, Mutagen, Mutation, Mutation–selection balance, National Center for Biotechnology Information, Natural selection, Neutral theory of molecular evolution, Nomenclature codes, Northern spotted owl, Offspring, On the Origin of Species, Opposite (semantics), Organism, Paleontology, Parthenogenesis, Permian, Peter Sneath, Phenetics, Phenotype, Phenotypic plasticity, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, Polyploid, Pomarine jaeger, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Prokaryote, Property (philosophy), Pseudoextinction, Quasispecies model, Reassortment, Renaissance, Reproduction, Reproductive isolation, Ring species, Robert R. Sokal, Rubus fruticosus, Science (journal), Scientific American, Sensu, Sexual reproduction, Sparrow, Speciation, Species complex, Species problem, Specific name (zoology), Spotted owl, Sympatry, Systematics, Taraxacum officinale, Taxonomic rank, Taxonomy (biology), The American Naturalist, The Metaphysical Club: A Story of Ideas in America, The Structure of Evolutionary Theory, Three-domain system, Transmutation of species, Trends (journals), Triassic, Troschel's tree frog, Type (biology), Unicellular organism, UniProt, University of California Press, Validly published name, Viral quasispecies, Virus, Volcano, Wikimedia Foundation, Willi Hennig, Willow warbler, Yale University Press, 16S ribosomal RNA. Expand index (143 more) »

African Invertebrates

African Invertebrates is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal that covers the taxonomy, systematics, biogeography, ecology, conservation, and palaeontology of Afrotropical invertebrates, whether terrestrial, freshwater, or marine.

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Alfred Russel Wallace

Alfred Russel Wallace (8 January 18237 November 1913) was an English naturalist, explorer, geographer, anthropologist, and biologist.

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An allele is a variant form of a given gene.

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Alloenzymes (or also called allozymes) are variant forms of an enzyme which differs structurally but not functionally from other allozymes coded for by different alleles at the same locus.

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Allopatric speciation

Allopatric speciation (from the ancient Greek allos, meaning "other", and patris, meaning "fatherland"), also referred to as geographic speciation, vicariant speciation, or its earlier name, the dumbbell model, is a mode of speciation that occurs when biological populations of the same species become isolated from each other to an extent that prevents or interferes with genetic interchange.

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Amanita muscaria

Amanita muscaria, commonly known as the fly agaric or fly amanita, is a basidiomycete mushroom, one of many in the genus Amanita.

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Anagenesis is an evolutionary pattern defined by a gradual change that occurs in a species without the need for splitting.

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Antigenic shift

Antigenic shift is the process by which two or more different strains of a virus, or strains of two or more different viruses, combine to form a new subtype having a mixture of the surface antigens of the two or more original strains.

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In botany, apomixis was defined by Hans Winkler as replacement of the normal sexual reproduction by asexual reproduction, without fertilization.

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Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.

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Aristotelianism is a tradition of philosophy that takes its defining inspiration from the work of Aristotle.

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Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.

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Aristotle's biology

Aristotle's biology is the theory of biology, grounded in systematic observation and collection of data, mainly zoological, embodied in Aristotle's books on the science.

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Asexual reproduction

Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it does not involve the fusion of gametes, and almost never changes the number of chromosomes.

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Available name

In zoology, an available name is a scientific name for a taxon of animals that has been published conforming to all the mandatory provisions of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature for the establishment of a zoological name.

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Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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A barcode (also bar code) is an optical, machine-readable, representation of data; the data usually describes something about the object that carries the barcode.

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Barcode of Life Data System

The Barcode of Life Data System (commonly known as BOLD or BOLDSystems) is a sequence database specifically devoted to DNA barcoding.

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Barred owl

The barred owl (Strix varia), also known as northern barred owl or hoot owl, is a true owl native to eastern North America.

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Bateson–Dobzhansky–Muller model

The Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller Model, also known as Dobzhansky-Muller Model, is a model of the evolution of genetic incompatibility, important in understanding the evolution of reproductive isolation during speciation and the role of natural selection in bringing it about.

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Binomial nomenclature

Binomial nomenclature ("two-term naming system") also called nomenclature ("two-name naming system") or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages.

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Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.

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Biological life cycle

In biology, a biological life cycle (or just life cycle when the biological context is clear) is a series of changes in form that an organism undergoes, returning to the starting state.

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Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.

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Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.

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Boa (genus)

Boa is a genus of non-venomous boas found in Mexico, Central and South America.

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Boa constrictor

The boa constrictor (Boa constrictor), also called the red-tailed boa or the common boa, is a species of large, heavy-bodied snake that is frequently kept and bred in captivity.

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Botanical name

A botanical name is a formal scientific name conforming to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) and, if it concerns a plant cultigen, the additional cultivar or Group epithets must conform to the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP).

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Botanical nomenclature

Botanical nomenclature is the formal, scientific naming of plants.

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The Bovidae are the biological family of cloven-hoofed, ruminant mammals that includes bison, African buffalo, water buffalo, antelopes, wildebeest, impala, gazelles, sheep, goats, muskoxen, and domestic cattle.

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Carl Linnaeus

Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.

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Carrion crow

The carrion crow (Corvus corone) is a passerine bird of the family Corvidae and the genus Corvus which is native to western Europe and eastern Asia.

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The domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus or Felis catus) is a small, typically furry, carnivorous mammal.

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Charles Darwin

Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.

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A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.

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A chronospecies is a species derived from a sequential development pattern which involves continual and uniform changes from an extinct ancestral form on an evolutionary scale.

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Cladistics (from Greek κλάδος, cládos, i.e., "branch") is an approach to biological classification in which organisms are categorized in groups ("clades") based on the most recent common ancestor.

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Class (biology)

In biological classification, class (classis) is a taxonomic rank, as well as a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank.

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Climate change

Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).

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Cline (biology)

In biology, a cline (from the Greek “klinein”, meaning “to lean”) is a measurable gradient in a single character (or biological trait) of a species across its geographical range.

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Common chiffchaff

The common chiffchaff (Phylloscopus collybita), or simply the chiffchaff, is a common and widespread leaf warbler which breeds in open woodlands throughout northern and temperate Europe and Asia.

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Comparative anatomy

Comparative anatomy is the study of similarities and differences in the anatomy of different species.

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A compilospecies is a genetically aggressive species that incorporates the heredities of a closely related species by hybridisation, and may even completely subsume that species, rendering it extinct.

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Conservation the preservation or efficient use of resources (in an efficient or ethical manner), or the conservation of various quantities under physical laws.

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Convergent evolution

Convergent evolution is the independent evolution of similar features in species of different lineages.

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The cougar (Puma concolor), also commonly known as the mountain lion, puma, panther, or catamount, is a large felid of the subfamily Felinae native to the Americas.

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Crane (bird)

Cranes are a family, Gruidae, of large, long-legged and long-necked birds in the group Gruiformes.

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The Cretaceous is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic Period million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period mya.

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A Crow is a bird of the genus Corvus, or more broadly is a synonym for all of Corvus.

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Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, and barnacles.

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Cytochrome c oxidase

The enzyme cytochrome c oxidase or Complex IV, is a large transmembrane protein complex found in bacteria, archaea, and in eukaryotes in their mitochondria.

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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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DNA–DNA hybridization

DNA–DNA hybridization generally refers to a molecular biology technique that measures the degree of genetic similarity between pools of DNA sequences.

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Drosophila is a genus of flies, belonging to the family Drosophilidae, whose members are often called "small fruit flies" or (less frequently) pomace flies, vinegar flies, or wine flies, a reference to the characteristic of many species to linger around overripe or rotting fruit.

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Eagle is the common name for many large birds of prey of the family Accipitridae.

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Early modern period

The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era.

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Echinoderm is the common name given to any member of the phylum Echinodermata (from Ancient Greek, ἐχῖνος, echinos – "hedgehog" and δέρμα, derma – "skin") of marine animals.

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Ecological niche

In ecology, a niche (CanE, or) is the fit of a species living under specific environmental conditions.

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Ecology (from οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of") is the branch of biology which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment.

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An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.

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Encyclopedia of Life

The Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) is a free, online collaborative encyclopedia intended to document all of the 1.9 million living species known to science.

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Endangered species

An endangered species is a species which has been categorized as very likely to become extinct.

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An endling is the last known individual of a species or subspecies.

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Ensatina eschscholtzii (commonly known by its genus name, Ensatina) is a complex of plethodontid (lungless) salamanders found in coniferous forests, oak woodland and chaparral San Diego Field Station, United States Geological Survey Viewed: April 24, 2005, Last updated: March 05, 2003 from British Columbia, through Washington, Oregon, across California (where all seven subspecies variations are located), all the way down to Baja California in Mexico.

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Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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Ernst Mayr

Ernst Walter Mayr (5 July 1904 – 3 February 2005) was one of the 20th century's leading evolutionary biologists.

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Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).

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European herring gull

The European herring gull (Larus argentatus) is a large gull (up to long).

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Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.

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Evolutionarily significant unit

An evolutionarily significant unit (ESU) is a population of organisms that is considered distinct for purposes of conservation.

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External validity

External validity is the validity of generalized (causal) inferences in scientific research, usually based on experiments as experimental validity.

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In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.

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Extinction event

An extinction event (also known as a mass extinction or biotic crisis) is a widespread and rapid decrease in the biodiversity on Earth.

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Family (biology)

In biological classification, family (familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks; it is classified between order and genus.

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The biological family Felidae is a lineage of carnivorans colloquially referred to as cats.

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Fertility is the natural capability to produce offspring.

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Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.

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Fitness landscape

In evolutionary biology, fitness landscapes or adaptive landscapes (types of evolutionary landscapes) are used to visualize the relationship between genotypes and reproductive success.

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A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.

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Functional extinction

Functional extinction is the extinction of a species or other taxon such that.

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A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.

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Gene flow

In population genetics, gene flow (also known as gene migration or allele flow) is the transfer of genetic variation from one population to another.

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Gene pool

The gene pool is the set of all genes, or genetic information, in any population, usually of a particular species.

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Genetic drift

Genetic drift (also known as allelic drift or the Sewall Wright effect) is the change in the frequency of an existing gene variant (allele) in a population due to random sampling of organisms.

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Genetic recombination

Genetic recombination (aka genetic reshuffling) is the production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent.

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Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.

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A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.

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George Gaylord Simpson

George Gaylord Simpson (June 16, 1902 – October 6, 1984) was a US paleontologist.

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Global biodiversity

Global biodiversity is the measure of biodiversity on planet Earth and is defined as the total variability of life forms.

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Great chain of being

The Great Chain of Being is a strict hierarchical structure of all matter and life, thought in medieval Christianity to have been decreed by God.

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Great skua

The great skua (Stercorarius skua) is a large seabird in the skua family Stercorariidae.

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Greenish warbler

The greenish warbler (Phylloscopus trochiloides) is a widespread leaf warbler with a breeding range in northeastern Europe and temperate to subtropical continental Asia.

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Gunther's banded tree frog

Gunther's banded tree frog (Hypsiboas fasciatus) is a species of frog in the family Hylidae.

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Heliconius comprises a colorful and widespread genus of brush-footed butterflies commonly known as the longwings or heliconians.

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Herring gull

Herring gull is a common name for several birds in the genus Larus and may refer to.

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A hierarchy (from the Greek hierarchia, "rule of a high priest", from hierarkhes, "leader of sacred rites") is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "above", "below", or "at the same level as" one another A hierarchy can link entities either directly or indirectly, and either vertically or diagonally.

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The Himalayas, or Himalaya, form a mountain range in Asia separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau.

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Homo sapiens

Homo sapiens is the systematic name used in taxonomy (also known as binomial nomenclature) for the only extant human species.

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Hooded crow

The hooded crow (Corvus cornix) (also called hoodie) is a Eurasian bird species in the ''Corvus'' genus.

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Horizontal gene transfer

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) or lateral gene transfer (LGT) is the movement of genetic material between unicellular and/or multicellular organisms other than by the ("vertical") transmission of DNA from parent to offspring.

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Hybrid (biology)

In biology, a hybrid, or crossbreed, is the result of combining the qualities of two organisms of different breeds, varieties, species or genera through sexual reproduction.

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Hylomorphism (or hylemorphism) is a philosophical theory developed by Aristotle, which conceives being (ousia) as a compound of matter and form.

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Hypsiboas is a genus of frogs in the family Hylidae.

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Integrated Taxonomic Information System

The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) is an American partnership of federal agencies designed to provide consistent and reliable information on the taxonomy of biological species.

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International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants

The International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) is the set of rules and recommendations dealing with the formal botanical names that are given to plants, fungi and a few other groups of organisms, all those "traditionally treated as algae, fungi, or plants".

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International Code of Zoological Nomenclature

The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is a widely accepted convention in zoology that rules the formal scientific naming of organisms treated as animals.

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International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature

The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is an organization dedicated to "achieving stability and sense in the scientific naming of animals".

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Italic type

In typography, italic type is a cursive font based on a stylized form of calligraphic handwriting.

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The jaguar (Panthera onca) is a wild cat species and the only extant member of the genus Panthera native to the Americas.

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James Mallet

James Mallet (born 15 March 1955 in London) is an evolutionary zoologist specialising in entomology.

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Jean-Baptiste Lamarck

Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck (1 August 1744 – 18 December 1829), often known simply as Lamarck, was a French naturalist.

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John Ray

John Ray FRS (29 November 1627 – 17 January 1705) was an English naturalist widely regarded as one of the earliest of the English parson-naturalists.

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Kalevi Kull

Kalevi Kull (born on 12 August 1952, Tartu) is a biosemiotics professor at the University of Tartu, Estonia.

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A karyotype is the number and appearance of chromosomes in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell.

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KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) is a collection of databases dealing with genomes, biological pathways, diseases, drugs, and chemical substances.

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Larus is a large genus of gulls with worldwide distribution (although by far the greatest species diversity is in the Northern Hemisphere).

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The leopard (Panthera pardus) is one of the five species in the genus Panthera, a member of the Felidae.

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Lesser black-backed gull

The lesser black-backed gull (Larus fuscus) is a large gull that breeds on the Atlantic coasts of Europe.

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Linnaean taxonomy

Linnaean taxonomy can mean either of two related concepts.

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Microbiology (from Greek μῑκρος, mīkros, "small"; βίος, bios, "life"; and -λογία, -logia) is the study of microorganisms, those being unicellular (single cell), multicellular (cell colony), or acellular (lacking cells).

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Mitochondrial DNA

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

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Morphology (biology)

Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.

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Multicellular organism

Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms.

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In genetics, a mutagen is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic material, usually DNA, of an organism and thus increases the frequency of mutations above the natural background level.

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In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.

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Mutation–selection balance

Mutation–selection balance is an equilibrium in the number of deleterious alleles in a population that occurs when the rate at which deleterious alleles are created by mutation equals the rate at which deleterious alleles are eliminated by selection.

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National Center for Biotechnology Information

The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is part of the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), a branch of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

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Natural selection

Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.

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Neutral theory of molecular evolution

The neutral theory of molecular evolution holds that at the molecular level most evolutionary changes and most of the variation within and between species is not caused by natural selection but by genetic drift of mutant alleles that are neutral.

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Nomenclature codes

Nomenclature codes or codes of nomenclature are the various rulebooks that govern biological taxonomic nomenclature, each in their own broad field of organisms.

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Northern spotted owl

The northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) is one of three spotted owl subspecies.

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In biology, offspring are the young born of living organisms, produced either by a single organism or, in the case of sexual reproduction, two organisms.

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On the Origin of Species

On the Origin of Species (or more completely, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life),The book's full original title was On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life.

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Opposite (semantics)

In lexical semantics, opposites are words lying in an inherently incompatible binary relationship, like the opposite pairs big: small, long: short, and precede: follow.

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In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.

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Paleontology or palaeontology is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present).

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Parthenogenesis (from the Greek label + label) is a natural form of asexual reproduction in which growth and development of embryos occur without fertilization.

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The Permian is a geologic period and system which spans 47 million years from the end of the Carboniferous Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Triassic period 251.902 Mya.

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Peter Sneath

Peter Henry Andrews Sneath FRS, MD (17 November 1923 – September 9, 2011) was a microbiologist who co-founded the field of numerical taxonomy, together with Robert R. Sokal.

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In biology, phenetics (phainein - to appear), also known as taximetrics, is an attempt to classify organisms based on overall similarity, usually in morphology or other observable traits, regardless of their phylogeny or evolutionary relation.

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A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).

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Phenotypic plasticity

Phenotypic plasticity refers to some of the changes in an organism's behavior, morphology and physiology in response to a unique environment.

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Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Royal Society.

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Polyploid cells and organisms are those containing more than two paired (homologous) sets of chromosomes.

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Pomarine jaeger

The pomarine jaeger (Stercorarius pomarinus), pomarine skua, or pomatorhine skua, is a seabird in the skua family Stercorariidae.

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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.

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A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.

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Property (philosophy)

In philosophy, mathematics, and logic, a property is a characteristic of an object; a red object is said to have the property of redness.

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Pseudoextinction (or phyletic extinction) of a species occurs when all members of the species are extinct, but members of a daughter species remain alive.

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Quasispecies model

The quasispecies model is a description of the process of the Darwinian evolution of certain self-replicating entities within the framework of physical chemistry.

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Reassortment is the mixing of the genetic material of a species into new combinations in different individuals.

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The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.

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Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parents".

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Reproductive isolation

The mechanisms of reproductive isolation are a collection of evolutionary mechanisms, behaviors and physiological processes critical for speciation.

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Ring species

In biology, a ring species is a connected series of neighbouring populations, each of which can interbreed with closely sited related populations, but for which there exist at least two "end" populations in the series, which are too distantly related to interbreed, though there is a potential gene flow between each "linked" population.

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Robert R. Sokal

Robert Reuven Sokal (January 13, 1926 in Vienna, Austria – April 9, 2012 in Stony Brook, New York) was an Austrian-American biostatistician and entomologist.

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Rubus fruticosus

Rubus fruticosus L. is the ambiguous name of a European blackberry species in the genus Rubus in the rose family.

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Science (journal)

Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.

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Scientific American

Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.

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Sensu is a Latin word meaning "in the sense of".

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Sexual reproduction

Sexual reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm.

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Sparrows are a family of small passerine birds.

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Speciation is the evolutionary process by which populations evolve to become distinct species.

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Species complex

In biology, a species complex is a group of closely related species that are very similar in appearance to the point that the boundaries between them are often unclear.

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Species problem

The species problem is the set of questions that arises when biologists attempt to define what a species is.

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Specific name (zoology)

In zoological nomenclature, the specific name (also specific epithet or species epithet) is the second part (the second name) within the scientific name of a species (a binomen).

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Spotted owl

The spotted owl (Strix occidentalis) is a species of true owl.

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In biology, two species or populations are considered sympatric when they exist in the same geographic area and thus frequently encounter one another.

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Biological systematics is the study of the diversification of living forms, both past and present, and the relationships among living things through time.

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Taraxacum officinale

Taraxacum officinale, the common dandelion (often simply called "dandelion"), is a flowering herbaceous perennial plant of the family Asteraceae (Compositae).

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Taxonomic rank

In biological classification, taxonomic rank is the relative level of a group of organisms (a taxon) in a taxonomic hierarchy.

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Taxonomy (biology)

Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.

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The American Naturalist

The American Naturalist is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1867.

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The Metaphysical Club: A Story of Ideas in America

The Metaphysical Club: A Story of Ideas in America is a Pulitzer Prize-winning 2001 book by Louis Menand, an American writer and legal scholar, which won the 2002 Pulitzer Prize for History.

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The Structure of Evolutionary Theory

The Structure of Evolutionary Theory (2002) is Harvard paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould's technical book on macroevolution and the historical development of evolutionary theory.

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Three-domain system

The three-domain system is a biological classification introduced by Carl Woese et al. in 1977 that divides cellular life forms into archaea, bacteria, and eukaryote domains.

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Transmutation of species

Transmutation of species and transformism are 19th-century evolutionary ideas for the altering of one species into another that preceded Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection.

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Trends (journals)

Trends is a series of scientific journals owned by Elsevier that publish review articles in a range of areas of biology.

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The Triassic is a geologic period and system which spans 50.6 million years from the end of the Permian Period 251.9 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Jurassic Period Mya.

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Troschel's tree frog

Troschel's treefrog, blue-flanked treefrog or the convict treefrog, Hypsiboas calcaratus or Boana calcarata, is a species of frog in the family Hylidae.

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Type (biology)

In biology, a type is a particular specimen (or in some cases a group of specimens) of an organism to which the scientific name of that organism is formally attached.

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Unicellular organism

A unicellular organism, also known as a single-celled organism, is an organism that consists of only one cell, unlike a multicellular organism that consists of more than one cell.

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UniProt is a freely accessible database of protein sequence and functional information, many entries being derived from genome sequencing projects.

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University of California Press

University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.

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Validly published name

In botanical nomenclature, a validly published name is a name that meets the requirements in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants for valid publication.

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Viral quasispecies

A viral quasispecies is a group of viruses related by a similar mutation or mutations, competing within a highly mutagenic environment.

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A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.

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A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.

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Wikimedia Foundation

The Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. (WMF, or simply Wikimedia) is an American non-profit and charitable organization headquartered in San Francisco, California.

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Willi Hennig

Emil Hans Willi Hennig (April 20, 1913 – November 5, 1976) was a German biologist who is considered the founder of phylogenetic systematics, also known as cladistics.

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Willow warbler

The willow warbler (Phylloscopus trochilus) is a very common and widespread leaf warbler which breeds throughout northern and temperate Europe and Asia, from Ireland east to the Anadyr River basin in eastern Siberia.

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Yale University Press

Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.

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16S ribosomal RNA

16S ribosomal RNA (or 16S rRNA) is the component of the 30S small subunit of a prokaryotic ribosome that binds to the Shine-Dalgarno sequence.

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Animal species, Barcode species, Biological species, Biospecies, Cladistic species, Cohesion species, Ecological species, Evolutionary species, Genetic similarity species, Genetic species, Isolation species, Mayr species, Morphological species, Morphospecies, Nominal species, Organism mnemonic, Phenetic species, Phylogenetic species, Phylogenetic species concept, Recognition species, Reproductive species, Speceis, Species (biological), Species (biology), Species (taxonomy), Species and speciation, Species delimitation, Species pluralis, Spp., Theory of species, Typological species, Undiscovered species, Vavilovian species.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Species

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